Questions related to Trade
Prevent Fraud, Enable Transparency and Increase Trade speed;
All of these can be done using Blockchain Technology. So, should we change and if yes, how likely will the industry adapt the new technologies?
I am currently seeking further information on the current state of international trade in Sri Lanka for my assignment.
1. What is the nature of international trade performance in Sri Lanka since 1980?
2. How will this trade performance have a short-term and long-term impact on the economy?
3. What are your alternative solutions to this economic crisis?
Current and future trends in liner shipping operations in terms of capacity, trade and port facilities.
I have taken out mobile Banking transactions of past 5 years of 4 banks and similar data is this the right way to go about it
Sometimes the total labor force of a country has a positive correlation with total trade value (Export+ Import). However, some countries' total labor force negatively affects total trade value. Suppose a country has a negative relationship with total trade value. What is the reason behind this? How can that country's total labor force impact that country's foreign trade?
Please let me know if you have any ideas!
The concept of the free-market economy is based on an assumption that no single person or country can influence market prices of goods. But as we may all agree, "dominant" countries in the international trade fix prices of goods to their advantage. For example, the international oil market price is determined by a very few powerful players. Developing countries are "small" players in most traded goods (particularly raw materials) and have to accept prices fixed by dominant countries. What can Africa do to avoid the challenges that bedevil the world economic system resulting in socio-econmic inequality and stratifications between the global North and the South?
Taking into account - among other things - that the number of trade interventions is on a rise (according to Global Trade Alert data), it is worth studying contemporary protectionism in international trade in goods.
In many studies explaining trade, trade barriers are not considered as an explanatory variable. What if all barriers were estimated and an indicator / approximator of protectionism would be created? This would be valuable as it would complete the models explaining trade.
However, are there any protectionist indices (that also allow to compare the trade policies of different countries)?
I'm writing a research paper but somehow stuck on choosing the most suited methodology and literature review. Anyone who is an expert can give and share their valuable suggestions and recommendations.
I have just started research for my dissertation as an Electronic Engineer and want to look into the use of an automated market maker for Peer to Peer electricity trading.
An automated market maker is a method of settling trades whereby a buyer and seller make trades out of a centralised liquidity pool. This method allows for traders to make trades whenever they want to and also without having to be matched to a corresponding buyer. You can read more here https://medium.com/balancer-protocol/what-is-an-automated-market-maker-amm-588954fc5ff7.
One of the drawbacks of such a system is that buyers and sellers are not matched and therefore it is harder to ensure that the electricity sold and electricity bought are exactly equal (as is required in a power system)? Do you think that this drawback will render an automated market maker impractical?
I have trade volume daily data for 12 years of 500 companies. I wanna divide these companies into high, medium and low volume portfolio using trade volume data. Can someone help me in this regard
Hi All, I am have been assigned a project on Trade and optimisation using machine learning. As this domain is new to me so I dont have enough material to study and start working on.
Request the larger audience to please share the source from where I can read and get a practical experience of the topic.
Except for some early protectionist behaviour by some countries and the consumer panic buying in the early days of the pandemic, global food supply chains have demonstrated remarkable resilience during this whole time. Currently, there are no global food shortages. In fact, the prices did fall slightly at one point. During the 2007-08 economic crisis, however, food prices were severely disrupted. Please share your thoughts on how this occurred and whether global food supply chains have become more sophisticated. Also, what are the implications for "local foods" in the pandemic?
How is the notion of "cultural distance" perceived/defined/employed/researched/tackled in current business/management/trade/etc. studies?
Political economy is a social science that studies production ,trade and their relationship with the law and government through it policies and regulations.
I’m new here and I have a question about some market data I wish I could find somewhere.
The data I’m looking for is the price at which every individual share of a stock or unit of a crypto was traded last time.
Also an aggregated indicator that calculates the “sum of (each share * last individual traded price)” would be ok.
I would need this indicator to evaluate discrepancies in value of a stock or crypto. Indeed market cap, float and volume can be misleading indicators according to which shares they refers.
Let’s say a crypto (any shitcoin) is generated from nothing and have a total of 100.000 units, now each unit is priced 1$ so the market cap is 100.000$. In detail 50% of them was never traded (0$ tot), 30% was traded long time ago last time at 0.50$ (15.000$ tot) and the rest 20% is actively traded nowadays at 1$ (20.000$ tot). Therefore the real “acquired value over time” (AVOT) it is 0$+15.000$+20.000$=35.000$, and on average all the money put into this asset can support an average price of each unit of 0,35$ (against 1$ of the current price).
The way AVOT changes is disconnected from any other classic indicator (market cap, volume, float, SMA, EMA, etc) because changes according to which individual units are moved.
Continuing the example let’s say that today 20% of the units are traded at market price (1$). This won’t change the market cap, float or average volume compared to the previous example. In case this 20% are the units bought at 1$ the AVOT won’t change and remain 35.000$. If instead the traded ones are from the pool of the 50% untouched units then it will become +20.000$+55.000$, and on average all the money put into this asset could support an average price of each unit of 0,55$ that is way closer to the actual price and therefore more reliable and solid.
Second scenario: let’s say that 40% of the units are traded during a selloff at market price of 0.5$. In case the units sold are half the ones bought at 1$ and half the ones bought at 0$ the market cap will become 50.000$ and the AVOT 30.000*0$+20.000*0,5$+30.000*0.5$+20.000*0.5$=35.000$. In the case instead the units sold are entirely the ones bought at 0$ the AVOT will be 10.000*0$+40.000*0,5$+30.000*0.5$+20.000*1$=55.000$, that’s even higher than the market cap that stays at 55.000$.
Overall having the AVOT price would give me an idea on the fragility of the stock/crypto, telling me if the price I’m paying is close or far from the amount of money that globally and all time long people put in that asset.
Hello to Everyone, I want to research FDI's Impact on foreign trade. To examine this, I would like to use Bangladesh FDI and Foreign trade data. For this research which model can, I choose? For that model, which variable can I choose? I need your suggestion. If you have any idea about it, please share it with me. If you know someone who researched that topic, please share that!
#FDI #International_trade #foreign_trade #trade
My Variables are not strongly correlated and some variables are dummy variables.
In most cases, we deal with active Ports at the level of Maritime Trade and a continuous resume of their activities. But there may be Ports that were previously active but have been disabled for various reasons. My question is about your information and experiences in these cases and how to Revitalizing them?
Agrarian economy, surpuls managemnt is becoming a serious problem. Even if defficit, country need to import goods, But vertual water trade indirectly unfavaour those countries whose water resource are poor. therefore, vertual water trade should seriouely debated and carfully import and export the goods and services.
The world after World War II was based on the concept of multilateralism in various political and economic fields. Embodiment in the growing role of international organizations.
On the economic level, the establishment of the World Trade Organization sealed the triangle of international organizations that dominate the world economy (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank).
However, with the increase in protectionist tendencies, trade tensions, and the tendency towards concluding bilateral and regional agreements, fears have emerged that multilateralism will enter a crisis that threatens its survival.
What do you think of that?
What is the changing logistics of the distribution of products or services in connection with the development of Internet trade, online payments and settlements, and the provision of information services via the Internet?
Current consumption and production patterns are increasingly founded in global value chains (GVC). Typically, GVCs are structured in several tiers distributed across countries and including a wide set of activities (design, production, distribution, etc). Given the current situation of industrial development and energy transition, comprehensive assessments are required to understand how supply chains work and where they are located. In this sense, which are the most appropriate indicators for mapping supply chains? According to the high availability of trade data (e.g., from Comtrade database), could the trade performance indicators (e.g., relative trade balance or Balassa index) be suitable for identification of net exporters or importers of commodities within the supply chain under evaluation?
I would appreciate if anyone could shed light on these questions.
Suppose I want to determine the effect of World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on a country’s level of international trade. WTO membership is my independent variable, and level of international trade is my dependent variable. To test this, I simply look at trade as a percentage of GDP for all WTO members and all non-WTO members. As expected, I find that WTO members tend to trade more as a proportion of GDP.
I am researching about the role of FDI on trade balance in the Western Balkan countries. Can you help me with related research and finding data?
Economic taxes or what trade uses are financial policy tools that countries use to influence an economic activity on it, which leads to knowing their role in directing economic activities in those countries, Ireland, Sweden, help in this in order to finish my PhD project
I am working on my thesis that is about decision difficulty, and I have 3 independent variables, that are all dimensions of decision difficulty ( preference uncertainty, emotional trade off difficulty and task complexity. I would perform an experiment and for this reason I am searching for measurement of these dimensions. Is there anybody know how I can measure the trade off difficulty on a likert scale? I conducted extensive research but I have yet to find something.
My research question: how do different sources of decision difficulty interact and affect a consumers willignes to use a recommendation agent moderated by time pressure?
My experiment will be a 2 ( decision difficulty high vs low ) X 2 ( time pressure high vs low ) between design.
I would appreciate if someone can help me
I am trying to build a gravity model with the Global Value Chains indicator (backward and forward participation) as dependent variables. However, I wonder which are the diagnostic tests I should implement to correctly specify the model and to decide the estimator. I know that the literature recommends using the Pseudo Poisson Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator in case of trade because of the larges amount of zeros and log-variables issues. However, Global Value Chains indicators do not contain a considerable amount of zeros values and they are expressed in percentages (hence, I will not take the log). The literature does not provide many clues and I hope you will help with this dilemma.
Any suggestion is warmly appreciated Best regards
I'm conducting some research on mispricing of penny stock options. I have historical transactions for a period of time of both the stock and the option(s), and I want to see if and when the mispricing happens. And possibly also find some kind of correlation with other events.
I´ve mostly used Stata earlier on, but as the stock options and the underlying stock is not always traded in the same second, I would have to change the timeline in to 1- minute intervals or so.
Is there some kind of software or model that is more suitable for this kind of analysis? Possibly one that supports arbitrage or mispricing analysis without having the transactions to happen the exactly same second.
Thanks in advance!
Hello, I'm writing a paper on a displacement effect of Sub-Saharan Africa's（SSA）exports on Russian exports on the common market. According to the most papers devoted to the displacement effect, it's possible that the variable of interest(SSA exports) may not be exogenous and it is therefore important to recognize its potential endogeneity. The most common instruments are GDP and the distance between the country and the common market.
So my question is maybe anyone has come across papers that has methodology for construction an instrumental variable (distance and GDP) not for one country (in most papers it's China) but for the group of countries, in particular SSA, in a gravity trade model?
There is a ton of articles and videos about the gravity model of trade, but they either give you the basic theory or provide a result and analysis without panel data. Is there any step-by-step tutorial on the gravity model of trade with a simple explanation and all the numbers?
I am calculating Gravity Equation. For the OLS everything goes normal but when taking a country id and time fixed effects then Distance goes wrong. Can anyone explain this how to make it negatively affect trade volume?
I have attached the screenshot of my equation and results.
Dear Sir/ Madam,
I am doing a research using gravity model of trade about the influences of ACFTA (ASEAN China Free Trade Area) on Vietnam’s export to ACFTA’ members. My probem with the estimation results is that most of my coefficiencts’ significance of explanatory variable are at 10% level of confidence, this is a major setback for me as I believe that a number of explanatory variables (such as GDP, GDP per Capita, ...) should have higher level significance.
Please allow me to represent the database, the regression model, the estimation methods and the stata command that I have used so far. I would really be grateful if you can point out where I have done wrong and where I can correct my mistakes.
1. First is the database (attached in this forum below in excel and dta. File). The database consists of 16 countries (Vietnam as the main exporter and the rest 15 countries are Vietnam’s export destinations), 15 pairs across 19 years (2000 – 2018), 285 observations in total. The data will be transform to longidunital panel data in Stata.
2. Secondly, its the gravity model regression and estimation methods
The gravity model regression I choose to analyse the relations between trade (dependent variables) and other explanatory variables as follow:
xtreg ln_trade ln_gdp_exp ln_gdp_imp ln_gdppc_exp ln_gdppc_imp ln_distw contig fta_vjfta fta_vkfta fta_vanzfta fta_vifta fta_acfta, re
The ln stands for natural logarithm from the trade, gdp, gdppc (gdp per capita), distance. The rest are dummy variables with the value of 0 or 1.
I did run both Fixed effect model and Random effect model, the results of Hausman test suggest Random effect model being better. Please see my estimation results of random effect model in the attached jpeg file 📷
As you can see, the problem is that major explanatory variables has significance at 10% level, which is highly prone to mistake and rejected with 5% level of confidences. Furthermore, the ln_distance has positive relations with dependent variable (it should have been negative sign in my knowledge).
I would be really grateful if you can tell me where I have made mistakes, it is the database or the estimation methods that are wrong, or something else.
Thank you for your precious assistance, I wish the best for all.
Digital marketplaces are now significantly contributing to trade from/to a country (and this pace is accelerated due to forced digital transformation brought by COVID19). Trade openness allows socio-economic development of a country, if this is the case than digital marketplaces can be regarded as impact startups that influence the socio-economic fabric of a country, but can we actually estimate the impact of digital marketplaces on the trade openness of a country?
Hello community! I have a quick question.
-Dummy variable takes value of 1 if developed, takes value of 0 if developing
-Dummy variable takes value of 1 for post-crisis (2009-2015), takes value of 0 for pre-crisis (2005-2008)
My question is:
Can I use the interaction between them, developed*post, and interact with my explanatory variables?
Dependent variable: GDPgrowth
Independent Variables: Infrastructure, Capital Formation, Labor Force, Trade
Can I do the following?:
GDPgrowth= Infrastructure + Capital Formation + Labor Force + Trade + Infrastructure*developedpost + Capital Formation*developedpost + Labor Force*developedpost + Trade*developedpost
What I want to achieve is for example:
Is the impact of infrastructure on GDP growth significant in developed countries after the crisis, in comparison with developing countries before crisis.
(This is a panel data).
Thank you very very much!
I can't find this anywhere..
I was looking for modern trade theories as a basis of international trade in 21st century. Starting from Absolute, comparative advantage, Inter, intra industry, gravity models, demand-based or product cycle theory; What ultimate factors/theory one must consider while looking for trade potential among countries in 21st century? Is Revealed comparative advantage still can give substantial information for potential trade specifically for Afriacn-Asian trade?
Dear Researchers! Have a splendid day ahead
I am looking for suggestions for new explanatory variables for the gravity model of trade except for traditional variables such as, (GDP, Per Capita, Distance, Exchange rates, Tariff, dummies, etc)
Let's open the window to ideas, will wait for your reply
I design the MBBR plant for wastewater treatment. I calculated the volume of Tank and Media. Suppose 60 percent media volume is equal to 3 m3 of a typical MBBR tank with a 4-5 hours retention period. In the market, FAB media trades as kilograms.
How many kilograms of 3 m3 (k3 model suppose) FAb media?
I am currently working on a project where I am testing a Pairs Trading Strategy based on Cointegration. In this strategy I have 460 possible stock pairs to choose from every day over a time frame of 3 years. I am using daily Cointegration test and get trade signals based off of that to open or close a trade. According to this strategy I am holding my trades open until either the take profit condition (revert to mean of spread) or stop loss condition (spread exceeding [mean + 3* standard deviation]) holds. This means that some trades might be open a couple of days, others might be open for weeks or even months.
My question is now: How can i calculate the returns of my overall strategy?
I know how to calculate the returns per trade but when aggregating returns over a certain time period or over all traded pairs I have problems.
Let's say I am trying to calculate returns over 1 year. I could take the average of all the trade returns or calculate sum(profits per trade of each pair)/sum(invested or committed capital per trade), both of these would only give me some average return values.
Most of my single trades are profitable but in the end I am trying to show how profitable my whole trading strategy is, so I would like to compare it to some benchmark, but right now I don't really know how to do that.
One idea I had, was to possibly estimate the average daily return of my trading strategy by:
- Estimating daily return per trade: (return of trade)/(number of days that trade was open)
- Taking the average of all the daily returns per trade
Then finally I would compare it to the average daily return of an index over the same time frame.
Does this make any sense or what would be a more appropriate approach?
BREXISM finally is over and they got a trade deal with europe now, but exism left the UK poorer according to the news
Brexit is finally done. It will leave the UK poorer
TRUMPISM set a war of tariffs with other countries making US citizens poorer, including the supporters of exism, as they have to pay more to continue consuming those goods...
But being poorer both is Brexconomics and Trumpconomics as a result of exism means being a winner as exism is the goal, no matter the cost, loyalty is to the exism is the rule, not to the country....
Which leads to the question, Are there only winners in the world of exism? What do you think?
What econometric tools would be appropriate to measure the impact of changes in the Fiscal and Monetary policy on trade diversification of a country?
Global supply and demand chain of finance and capital got severely disrupted due to the widespread attack of novel corona virus. can we consider that the global economy is heading towards a 'liquidity trap' situation? During this lockdown situation of almost all the countries of the world, would the global services and finance trade will fill the vacuum of world merchandise trade?
Hello every one. At the moment, I am conducting a research (PhD Theses) about trade openness and economic growth in Libya. My question is that, should I use nominal or real trade openness index. The index which I am planning to use is trade share. Therefor, I am a bit confused of using this index.
Hi colleague researchers!
I've been preparing research on Digital twin and machine learning adoption at retail/wholesale companies. But it appears that ML is applicable in a limited number of operations, in reality. Such as demand forecasting in category management. In your experience what is the situation in the industry?
Geography of my data source is Central Asia and Former Soviet Union countries.
I am also open for joint research in this field.
US-China relations soured during the Trump Presidency, harming their trade relations and those of the world. Will the Biden Presidency restore normalcy and promote bilateral and global trade?
COVID-19 exposed many divisions among countries and prevented the formation of a united front to combat this pandemic. Even the very closely networked blocs such as ASEAN and EU failed to coordinate their efforts to combat COVID-19 because of national interest. Undermining the world organizations such as WHO, ICOJ, and the United nation various agencies are not painting a very good picture of what to come in the future. Can globalization survive?
Trump's withdrawal from TPP (Trans Pacific Partnership) opened avenues for RCEP. Now, new US president Biden has a different outlook regarding international trade and role of USA in international economic engagements. How will this change in USA's international economic outlook impact China led RCEP?
Who is a "central body" for renewable energy source certification and process implementation? Are REC, iREC, GO securities or there is another legal scheme?
Is it possible to trade them outside the country ?
Dear respectful community researchers,
I am interested to find out the impact of Institution, Geography, and Trade on Economic Development of a single country.
I do know that for several countries' analysis, researchers mostly used the Hausmann and Taylor (1981) model to find the impact. Unfortunately, I have no idea if any model exists to be suitable to execute on a single country.
I am very much looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you so much indeed
Informal integration emerges on the crossroad of global production chains and international trade system's paths and goes in line with countries' cooperation establishing the most favorable conditions for cross-border trade flows between neighbouring partners. From the other side, new reference points have appeared in the national economies – the roving internationalized production cores which increasingly challenge future specialization and commodity circulation in mutual trade. New internationalized production cores are maturing in the depth of national economies and hence – within regional multilateral agreements –become integrated into global value chains capturing trans-border and supra-national internationalization levels. The states within the economic and political world space, establishing regional integration associations, thus form the necessary and obligatory conditions for the modern reproduction process. So the last is shaping by the integrated continuity of successive stages of the final product creating within the internationalized reproduction process.
The question remains: is this GPNs what lies behind formal integration presented by FTAs and CUs?
The majority of customers who are used to purchasing arts in many countries are tourists. Regarding Covid-19 pandemic, what was the impact on the trade of wooden arts in your home country ?
Thanks in advance for your contribution and best wishes.
Teaching realistically in an EFL setting would force us to rely on leaners' explicit knowledge and in turn explicit instruction. On the other hand, long hours of teaching explicitly may not lead to a construct as second or third language proficiency. What is your suggestion or experience in this regard?
In the field of international business the trend has been a move towards globalisation and integration. However research has shown that lately most government policies have been of a protectionist nature. How do you view the field of IB and trade develop in the near future? Further globalisation or a move in the opposite direction?
Also how will firms in your view adapt to the new reality? If there is a change? I co-authored an article ( Case study) dealing with potential managerial implications with regards to a changing business environment, the article can be found here:
Best wishes Henrik
I have become very confused about how I can generate the time series REER [Real Effective Exchange Rate ] data from NER. I am conducting research on,
"How Does The Exchange Rate Affect on The Trade Balance of Bangladesh: An Empirical Analysis"
I have taken the data of Nominal exchange rate of 1999-2018 period. Now I need to convert that into REER to run some analysis, Such as regression analysis following the model of Singh (2002) and Rose (1991).
InBoT = β + β InREER + β InY + β InY * +ε
Then I have a plan to check the co-integration between REER and Balance of Trade in the case of Bangladesh.
But, I got stuck in the first phase. Someone help me, I am not getting the time series REER data anywhere, Not even getting a proper way how I can generate it for myself.
1. When a high correlation between saving and investment, explain how the presence of trade costs can lead to observed patterns of international capital flows?
2. When the disproportionate allocation of portfolio investments to domestic assets relative to a portfolio that minimizes risk., explain how the presence of trade costs can lead to observed patterns of international capital flows?
3. When absence of consumption smoothing, explain how the presence of trade costs can lead to observed patterns of international capital flows?
Most developing economies terms of trade are in negative, meaning to say they import more than what they export. The question is? between import substitution strategy and export promotion strategy. which strategy is more appropriate to developing economies and why?
I am trying to see if there's a connection between globalization and health outcome. Going through the KOFGI data set, there are different categories or forms of globalization which includes : social globalization, financial globalization, trade globalization and more. Also , there's dejure which is the policy that preceded the actual globalization event and defacto which is the actual globalization event. I would appreciate if anyone could suggest a good journal or journals that discussed empirical analysis of the globalization-health outcome nexus.
Around 90% of world trade in terms of volume is transported by sea, which is why port cities can be considered the gateway to globalisation. Ports are ideally equipped to develop pathways to a circular economy since they offer the space, organisation and infrastructure needed.
What are the necessary steps to facilitate the transition to the circular economy.?
In order to run a battery of logistic regressions I need to quantify in some way the carry trades activities. My idea is to compute the difference among the rates of the countries that will join the regression and the US rates, because much of these countries adopted a peg with the US dollar, letting plausible the eventual carry trades as interest rates start to widen.
Despite the simplicity of this approach I'm not able to find any solution. The time series of IMF are too short for what concerns the countries of interest, and I can't afford expensive data provider such as Global Financial Data etc. Furthermore, even the BIS Central Banks target interest rates time series seems to be completely useless, as the dataset includes heterogenous rates which are clearly uncomparable because of their different maturities (tell me if I'm wrong).
In order to overcome these difficulties I'have thought to compute the differences between target countries deposit rates and US lending rates, data are provided by WDI. Can this approach be applicable? Am I wrong for what concerns BIS database?
(Note: ResearchGate questions does not have any comments feature. I am unable to directly respond to individual answers below because there is no commenting feature available. Please do not ask me to respond, there is no way for me to do so.)
With an app-based marketplace platform, like Uber Eats- there are three user types:
- Vendors who sell their products (e.g. restaurants, stores)
- Customers who place orders. (e.g. b2c, b2b)
- Service providers who deliver products or support the platform (e.g. photographers)
The platform then takes a percentage commission on all of the the transactions between the different users. For example, the platform takes 20% on the customer's order, and they take a 10% commission on the service providers' wages (e.g. delivery charges).
I am interested to learn about alternative business models for marketplace platforms that provide these kinds of services. And I'm interested to learn about case studies around the world where different models have been tested and are used.
As an example, a government could set up such a platform as a utility and invite local vendors and customers to use the platform. The government would try to recoup only their base costs, instead of running the business as a for-profit business.
Can you share references to research into fair trade platforms, or related topics?
Certainly, the commercial environment has been affected due to Covid 19, in which those who think that the effects are positive have contributed to the development of the commercial environment, and on the other hand, there are those who believe that trade has been negatively affected.
Hello, I’m doing work on Thirlwall’s law and I need to check Marshall-Lerner, it is assumption of the model. There are many methods and I’m confused which one is better to use.
I tried one: using OLS I regressed trade balance on country’s GDP, world’s GDP and real exchange rate and looked at sign of coefficient of real exchange rate, which should be positive if condition is met, according to some article.
But I got negative sign which is not statistically different from zero. So condition is met or not? Or should I use another approach?