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Toxicology - Science topic

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As we all know Forensic Medicine and Toxicology started with knowing the Cause of Death from pathological autopsy to Complete autopsy with a recent focus on many emerging trends like Virtuopsy and further in Toxicology , based on these or futher on any others which can be the most advantageous for research in this field professionally
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Effects of poisons in very small dose can be studied though its showing very less or mild symptoms, like in chronic poisoning by pesticides, insecticides, plastics, effects of food preservatives n liked so many other. @
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The relevance of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain axis to Alzheimer’s and neurodegenerative diseases needs extensive analysis. The various articles indicate that there are various questions with relevance to microbiota-gut-brain axis that are relevant to the pathology, pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegnerative diseases.Several mechanistic studies are required to determine the underlying mechanisms for effective and safe probiotic treatment for AD and probiotic benefits remain to determined. The relevance of gut dysbiosis may induce inflammatory responses that may be the cause of the induction of the pathogenesis of AD and relevance of diet (unhealthy diets), probiotics and gut microbiota should be carefully assessed. The meta-analysis studies indicate that probiotics reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhances cognition in AD and MCI individuals. The effects of different types of probiotics on amyloid formation and deposition needs to be evaluated and probiotic mixture therapy may be unsafe. The safety of probiotic therapy for AD patients require investigation with relevance to neuron reprogramming and programmed cell death in AD. The risk of unsafe microbiota and probiotic use may lead to the inactivation of the anti-aging gene Sirtuin 1 and the generation of uncontrolled short chain fatty acid release that promote amyloid beta plaque formation.
The concerns with relevance to the induction of dyslipidemia and the role of safety of diet-microbiota-brain axis should be carefully assessed with relevance to the cholesterol-AD connections. The prebiotic, symbiotic and probiotic formulations should be carefully assessed for bacterial composition and living microorganisms such as gram negative and positive. The release of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram negative bacteria needs to be controlled and the content of gram negative bacteria carefully assessed in these prebiotic, symbiotic and probiotic formulations. Unhealthy diets contain end products such as LPS and diets should be carefully assessed for LPS contents since LPS has been associated with the inactivation of Sirtuin 1. The gut microbiota based therapy is in progress and the relevance to the treatment of brain diseases such as AD is limited. The benefits, limitations and safety of gut microbiota and probiotics on Alzheimer’s disease needs to be placed under systematic review with relevance to dietary regulation and postbiotic supplementation that have the implications for amyloidosis and neurodegeneration. The role of probiotic therapies to create a health gut environment by balancing bacterial populations may require the activation of the anti-aging gene Sirtuin 1 to reverse the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. The literature indicates that yogurt is a prime source for probiotics and provide a healthy balance of live bacteria to provide health benefits to individuals in various countries of the world. However a recent article indicates that within 12 hours yoghurt can grow gram negative bacteria. The gram negative bacteria in yoghurt depending on daily or weekly intake can generate high levels of plasma LPS with relevance to prebiotic, synbiotic and probiotic quality products and ill health. Yoghurt products may need to be assessed for gram negative bacteria populations and LPS to determine the quality control of these products for international communities.
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RELEVANT REFERENCES:
A. Marzban A, Rahmanian V, Marzban A, Ramezani Siakhulak F. The Role of Probiotics in Improving Alzheimer's Disease. JNFS. 2022; 7 (2) :136-138.
B. de Rijke TJ, Doting MHE, van Hemert S, De Deyn PP, van Munster BC, Harmsen HJM, Sommer IEC. A Systematic Review on the Effects of Different Types of Probiotics in Animal Alzheimer's Disease Studies. Front Psychiatry. 2022 Apr 27;13:879491.
C. Guo L, Xu J, Du Y, Wu W, Nie W, Zhang D, Luo Y, Lu H, Lei M, Xiao S, Liu J. Effects of gut microbiota and probiotics on Alzheimer's disease. Transl Neurosci. 2021 Dec 27;12(1):573-580.
D. Ji HF, Shen L. Probiotics as potential therapeutic options for Alzheimer's disease. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Oct;105(20):7721-7730.
E. D’Argenio V, Sarnataro D (2021) Probiotics, prebiotics and their role in Alzheimer’s disease. Neural Regen Res 16(9):1768-1769.
F. Bonfili L, Cuccioloni M, Gong C, Cecarini V, Spina M, Zheng Y, Angeletti M, Eleuteri AM. Gut microbiota modulation in Alzheimer's disease: Focus on lipid metabolism. Clin Nutr. 2022 Mar;41(3):698-708.
G. Naomi, R.; Embong, H.; Othman, F.; Ghazi, H.F.; Maruthey, N.; Bahari, H. Probiotics for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2022, 14, 20.
H. Arora K, Green M, Prakash S. The Microbiome and Alzheimer's Disease: Potential and Limitations of Prebiotic, Synbiotic, and Probiotic Formulations. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020 Dec 14;8:537847. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.537847.
I. Peterson CT. Dysfunction of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Neurodegenerative Disease: The Promise of Therapeutic Modulation With Prebiotics, Medicinal Herbs, Probiotics, and Synbiotics. J Evid Based Integr Med. 2020 Jan-Dec;25:2515690X20957225.
J. Kincaid HJ, Nagpal R, Yadav H. Diet-Microbiota-Brain Axis in Alzheimer's Disease. Ann Nutr Metab. 2021;77 Suppl 2:21-27. doi: 10.1159/000515700.
K. Alessio Vittorio Colombo Rebecca Katie Sadler Gemma Llovera Vikramjeet Singh Stefan Roth Steffanie Heindl Laura Sebastian Monasor Aswin Verhoeven Finn Peters Samira Parhizkar Frits Kamp Mercedes Gomez de Aguero Andrew J MacPherson Edith Winkler Jochen Herms Corinne Benakis Martin Dichgans Harald Steiner Martin Giera Christian Haass Sabina Tahirovic Arthur Liesz. (2021) Microbiota-derived short chain fatty acids modulate microglia and promote Aβ plaque deposition. eLife 10:e59826.
L. Anti-Aging Genes Improve Appetite Regulation and Reverse Cell Senescence and Apoptosis in Global Populations. Advances in Aging Research, 2016, 5, 9-26
M. Appetite Regulation and the Peripheral Sink Amyloid beta Clearance Pathway in Diabetes and Alzheimer’s Disease. Top 10 Commentaries in Alzheimer’s Disease (e-book). 2019;2:1-11. www.avidscience.com
N. Single Gene Inactivation with Implications to Diabetes and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. J Clin Epigenet. Vol. 3 No. 3:24.
O. Sirtuin 1, a Diagnostic Protein Marker and its Relevance to Chronic Disease and Therapeutic Drug Interventions”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 6.4 (2018): 209-215.
P. Nutritional diets accelerate amyloid beta metabolism and prevent the induction of chronic diseases and Alzheimer’s disease. Photon ebooks. 2015.
Q. Wassenaar TM, Zimmermann K. Lipopolysaccharides in Food, Food Supplements, and Probiotics: Should We be Worried? Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp). 2018 Aug 21;8(3):63-69.
R. The Future of Genomic Medicine Involves the Maintenance of Sirtuin 1 in Global Populations. Int J Mol Biol . 2017. 2(1): 00013.
S. Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides and Neuron Toxicity in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Neurology Research and Surgery. 2018; 1(1): 1-3.
T. C.J. Hervert, N.H. Martin, K.J. Boor, M. Wiedmann. Survival and detection of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-negative bacteria in Greek yogurt, Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 100, Issue 2, 2017, Pages 950-960.
U. Fisberg M, Machado R. History of yogurt and current patterns of consumption. Nutr Rev. 2015 Aug;73 Suppl 1:4-7.
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Gerobiotics: probiotics targeting fundamental aging processes
Gerobiotics: probiotics targeting fundamental aging processes (nih.gov)
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After histopathology, for how many years the formalin preserved wet tissues (biological specimen) has to be stored in archival and. Method of disposal of those tissues? Kindly help in this regard . Thank you in advance
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Hi Monika,
If your specimens are medico-legal related, it should depend on your institutional law regarding the specimen ownership and disposal. Concerning specimen integrity, prolonged formalin storage will harden the tissues and cause formalin pigments (artifacts). Should you need the wet specimens in the future, I would advise changing the formalin solution once in a while.
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Considering the biomedical applications of NPs, please suggest the most suitable metal (either oxidised) form for synthesis of NPs without toxicological issues.
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All metal NPs are more or less toxic. Try silica nanoparticles (SNPs). Highly biocompatible, less toxic.
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Trying to understand better current status of Dried matrix methods (DMM).
[updated with some resources/publications] - May 2 2022
Except from M10 BIOANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION (DRAFT Guidance)
When DMM is used for clinical or nonclinical studies in addition to typical liquid approaches (e.g., liquid plasma samples) in the same studies, these two methods should be cross validated as described (Refer to Section 6.2). For nonclinical TK studies, refer to Section 4.1 of ICH S3A Q&A. Feedback from the appropriate regulatory authorities is encouraged in early drug development.
M10 BIOANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION (DRAFT Guidance)
S3A Guidance: Note for Guidance on Toxicokinetics: The Assessment of Systemic Exposure in Toxicity Studies: Focus on Microsampling Questions and Answers Guidance for Industry
References published after draft guidance.
Interesting company/products [no relationship with company or product]
" Neoteryx delivers smarter, simpler remote specimen collection with VAMS technology. " https://www.neoteryx.com/
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  1. I had a paper accepted in the journal Interdisciplinary Toxicology in April 2021. And until now I did not get the proof. Is this Journal still publishing? The last issue in the website was in 2019?
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Online subscriptions through the local university here indicate 2019 was the last available issue. The Interdisciplinary Toxicology website has not been updated since 2015. http://www.intertox.sav.sk/editor.html I did find some editor contact info whom you can ask:
Editor-In-Chief Michal Dubovický, PhD. Institute of Experimental Pharmacology Slovak Acadeny of Sciences Dúbravská cesta 9 SK-841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia tel.: +421-2-59410664/ fax: +421-2-54775928 e-mail: intertox@setox.eu
Director of Editorial Office Mojmír Mach, PhD. Slovak Toxicology Society SETOX Dúbravská cesta 9 SK-841 04 Bratislava, Slovakia e-mail: intertox_journal@setox.eu
There are also several names of Field Editors that we can look up. The parent organization SETOX is still operating https://www.setox.eu/contact
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We have captured some small fishes from pond but they could not survive even for a day in jar (Open from top). So here we are searching from some practical approach for collecting them and ensuring their survival too.
Thank You
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Very instructive.
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Hi, I have data from a toxicology study where I see a hormesis trend in the data and I want to make sure my hormesis model is appropriate. My model is driven by one value in the highest treatment concentration but I think the value is likely real. To test for outliers, I used a rosnerTest() from the EnvStats package on the principal component values. The outlier is ID# 20-3 in the attached data. I tried to look at Cook's distance but it does not work with my hormesis model output. I am using a 5 parameter Brain-Cousens hormesis model with the drc() package in R. Does anyone know if outliers need to be removed in this type of model and if there are other assumptions that need to be met? If assumptions must be met, how do you test for those in R with this type of model?
My code for the model with the attached data is:
library(drc)
hm.m2 <- drm(PC1 ~ Treatment, data = data, fct = BC.5()) #BC.5 is Brain-Cousens
summary(hm.m2) #f parameter p-value is 0.0021
# without 20-3 data point, the f parameter p-value is 0.77
modelFit(hm.m2) #lack of fit is not significant
Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
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nonlinear form
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I wonder if there have been any efforts to develop testing procedures that do away with the requirement to kill a large percentage of the animals.
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"Is there a reason why LD 60 might be preferable to LD 50 (or some smaller value) in studies of fish diseases/toxicology?"
There is no such reason. I could argue for a long time on this subject and give some mathematical formulas, but again I will answer briefly: there is no such reason. I do not understand what prompted the author to ask this question.
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We have realized a toxicological experiment with Wistar rats. Liver was collected and fixed wtih formallin. Histopathological analysis was performed from HE stained sections. Now, I am looking for a more specific method for analysing liver lesions from these formallin-fixed material or embedded tissue. Unfortunately, I do not have molecular techniques nor immunohistochemistry. Is there an histochemical method or histological staining specific necrosis detection? Thanks for helping!
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Is it possible to use Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Biological and Medical Sciences to search databases for potential candidate drugs/genes to solve global problems without first performing animal studies?
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We hypothesize that future generations of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies specifically adapted for biological sciences will help enable the reintegration of biology.
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Dear Academics,
Kindly could you identify the reason for existing dark color particles inside of the Zebrafish egg yolk.
(refer the attached photos herewith)
Thanks.
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In the present plastic age plastics have appeared as highly versatile and immensely beneficial materials to human society. As the most recently used plastic polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation, the huge influx of such persistent and complex materials poses potential risk to the health of environment and organisms including human beings. Their indiscriminate disposal puts a heavy burden on the waste management systems, allowing plastic wastes to infiltrate ecosystems, with the potential to contaminate the food chain and elicit toxic effects on diverse forms of life. Still, there remains paucity of ecotoxicological studies, lack of quality knowledge generation and a huge knowledge gap about the action, potential and toxic effects of microplastics and nanoplastics of environmental origin.
Dear my friends and respected scientists, you please come forward and take part in the discussion on this RG platform and contribute substantially to make it a thought provoking and enriching brainstorming exercise for all of us concerned about this emerging environmental hazard.
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Kindly check the following review link in which the results of cutting-edge research about the interactions between a range of aquatic species and microplastics, including effects on biota physiology and secondary ingestion have been summarized:
Also, kindly check the attached pdf that may be useful:
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I'm looking for databases for (eco)toxicology data of chemicals. Specifically; biodegradability, aquatic toxicity, and bioaccumulation. A strong interest is also for data of ionic liquids. Please recommend both public and commercial databases.
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Dear Ademi
Please kindly follow the attached document and also my papers regarding the toxicity......,hope they will be helpful !
this site can help you too : https://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/
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I am currently working on Mammalian and Aquatic toxicology, particularly on testing new drugs on mammalian models. I wanted to focus on new technologies and methodologies which will be future-proof. Can anyone suggest new technologies in the field of Toxicology?
I am planning at the molecular biology level including cell culture, patch clamping etc.
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Please, I want free journals without processing charges in toxicology, poultry science and animal sciences. Thanks.
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Indian journal of Animal sciences, Veterinary Research Communications
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Cancer cell lines (Ex. HL 60, HEP3B, HEPG2) are prominently used for toxicological studies. why we don't use normal cell lines? wouldn't it be more appropriate to study the toxic effect on a normal cell rather than using a cancer cell?
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The intrinsic cell sensitivity plays an important role in determining the specificity of toxic action of chemicals. This intrinsic cell sensitivity depends on several cell characteristics that are likely to be preserved only in part in vitro. These include chemical biotransformation and binding, membrane permeability and surface determinants, intracellular synthetic pathways, and adaptive and recovery mechanisms. The functional status of the cell is important rather than the cell type which determines the inhibition of a given biochemical mechanism that is critical to the function and survival of the cell.
When the mechanism of toxicity of a chemical is under investigation it becomes necessary to consider specific characteristics of specialized cell types. So, cancer cell lines are used for toxicological studies because they are well characterized and more easily cultured as compared to primary cell cultures. There are also other specialized cell types that have been used in toxicological studies which are derived from liver, lung, heart, muscle, and nervous and reticuloendothelial systems. Therefore, those cells that retain their specialized functions can be used for toxicological studies.
I hope this is helpful.
Best.
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Hello, I will try to produce Sb2S3 films with thermal evaporation technique using Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces. Then I will complete the production with thermal annealing. Could you please give information about the risks of Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces and the precautions I should take?
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estimate time of residence
toxicology
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I found this interesting document in which it is it stipulated that people who live near a hazardous waste site, might be exposed to endrin from contaminated air, dirt, or water:
Stay safe
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Dear readers, I am a master degree student currently working on phototoxicity assessment using Balb/c 3T3 cell line. However, I have encountered some technical issue during the running of this assay, for both UV- and UV+ exposed well plates. The cells (passage number 20, cultured in DMEM + 10%Calf serum +1% Pen-Strep 5% CO2, 37°C ) get rounded and detach after the first and in particular after the second washing step required by the test guideline at day 2 after the 1h and 50 min incubation with the test substance (1h in incubator and 50min in dark or under UV-light exposure). I would underline that, in my case, the test substance consist of only 1% DMSO in HBSS (Mg+Ca+) because the issue of detachment occurs even with this vehicle (we have tried also with just HBSS but we obtained the same issue).
Do you have any clue on how to troubleshoot this problem? Thank you in advance.
Material:
  • 96-well plate NUNC 96-well plate (#167 008) (I have tried also with poly-lysinated or collagenated plates, both were unsuccessful)
  • Buffer for washing: warmed HBSS (Mg+ Ca+)
  • 8-pin manifold to remove buffer (we have tried also to invert the plate over a absorbent paper, but was unsuccessful)
  • Serum used: Calf serum (we have tried also with FBS or with combination of Calf+FBS, both were unsuccessful).
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Hello Luca,
You can check on this paper for help.
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As we know MSG is widely used food additive and acts as a flavour enhancer. It is also approved by USFDA as GRAS! But some controversy are there regarding clinical reports where the physiological illness was shown after consuming MSG. So, is MSG good or bad for health? Are there any research related conclusions?
Thanks & Regards
Asik Ikbal
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Studies providing the evidence of MSG toxic effects have raised the increasing interest in MSG intake as flavor enhancer. Neurotoxic effects in brain, obesity and metabolic defects, „Chinese restaurant syndrome“ and detrimental effects on sex organs are the most discussed in the connection with MSG intake. http://ibimapublishing.com/articles/JMED/2013/608765/
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Can I know why is the change of animals and what is reason behind it
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I think this depends on the availability of the animals, the sets to be used for testing and the previous models usedin previous studies and I feel that rats may tolerate better than mice in toxicity studies. Additionally, the size of animals is bigger in rats that may help in the experiments used.
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I have to prepare a mixture of 7 antibiotics and test its toxicity on algae. My intent is to evaluate the toxicological effects in 8 different mixtures of antibiotics in which the concentrations of each compound will be arranged in a geometric series with a factor of 2.
Ex.
Ant: Ant1, Ant2, Ant3, … (mg/L)
Mix1: 10, 8, 12
Mix2: 5, 4, 6
Mix3: 2.5, 2, 3
...
My question is: it is possible, and make sense, to derive the value of EC50 for each individual compound?
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Try to separate the compounds and test each one alone, or the determined LD50 is LD50 of the mixture.
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Since the paper of Weiss et al 2009 and Hamers et al 2020 it is well described that PFAS are disrupting the thyroid hormon transport TTR. So far as published only a handfull PFASs has been measured for this important in vitro toxicity endpoint. Are their other published data for in vitro thyroid hormone disruption such as ToxCast or EU ChemScreen or Norman network data based?
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Can I use protein with glycerol (added to prevent protein aggregation, and maintain stability during -80 storage) in mice (intraperitoneal) to study anti-inflammatory properties of the protein?
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Hi Komal, did you end up using glycerol, what percentage and what was the outcome? Best wishes,
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Hi!
Yesterday in experiment I careless get stabbed by the needle pinhead of a used microfluidic chip on bench and get bleeding. I washed the wound under running water and then treat with iodine That needle is the outlet of 1.5%008-fluorosurfactant in HFE7500 oil and polyacrylamide bead (crosslinked). The chip was discarded half a month ago. Should the reagents get evapoured? How harmful is the remaining reagents (and maybe the polyacrylamide bead as well) getting into body through blood? How should I get treated?
Thanks!
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Toxicology studies say, Ethanolic extract of A.calamus even at a higher dose(3gm/kg) there is no toxicity which is done on adult rats. How to fix therapeutic dose for infant rats.
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Need names/list of journals publishing free of cost/minimal charges in two different fields #1 endocrinology and #2 toxicology. Thank you very much in advance.
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Statistics that I have found so far with regards to opioid overdose aren't differentiating between unintentional vs intentional overdose. Like this stat, which mentions about 50,000 deaths were due to opioid overdose during 2018. What I want is, a paper or textbook that goes deeper and analyzes those deaths, like 10% were intentional, 90% were unintentional, 5 % were due to a drug that was taken accidentally?
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Dear colleaque ,in 2017 there were 47506 total opioid deaths excluding homicid 43036 unintentional deaths(90.6%),1884 suicides (4%) and 2586 deaths of undetermined intent (5.4%).
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Dear colleagues,
our health institute in Italy recently released a guidance for risk assessment of chemicals in which the benchmark dose must be used to assess the risk (as margin of exposure) of genotoxic carcinogens.
I would like to know if you can suggest some sources/repositories for this property.
Thank you
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Thank you for the answers but I am looking for BMD already calculated, a kind of repository or dataset including list of chemicals with derived BMD
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Imagine, you have no problem choosing one of the following disciplines.
-Analytical Chemistry
-Organic Chemistry
-Physical chemistry
-Inorganic chemistry
-Applied Chemistry
-Medicinal Chemistry
-toxicology
-Clinical Biochemistry
-Nano chemistry
Which of these disciplines do you choose? Be sure to state the reason for your choice.
Thanks a lot
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Inorganic chemistry. But..in PhD i will change to biochemistry ☺
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In a toxicology experiment the mixing pattern of two or more toxicants required for the physiological or lethal effect. what is the suitable program or equation that I can use?
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Greetings, and happy new year to all.
I am interested in doing a Ph.D in Toxicology. However, there are so many areas to choose from that I am having difficulty in choosing a particular research title. I was thinking something on the lines of antibiotics as well, but I am open to all ideas. Does anyone have any suggestions? Maybe someone knows of any interesting papers which I can follow up on?
All answers are appreciated!
Regards,
Matthias
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Combating antibiotic resistance with natural products: a toxicological perspective.
Possibilities of anti-SARSCoV-2 resistance and the way out from the perspective of toxicology.
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It was published in the Journal of the American College of Toxicology in 1990, but the author's information does not appear in the journal
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Jonathon T. Busch. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Carbomers-934, -910, -934P, -940, -941, and -962. Journal of the American College of Toxicology 1990; 1(2): 109-141.
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I am checking the additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects of mixed chemicals based on the EC value and other physiological parameters. I read some papers using different softwares such as ToxRat, ToxCalc etc. to calculate different parameters and also statistical significance.
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If you meant statistical Analysis, there are many viz., medlab, SPSS, metaboanalyst, multivariate, and genstat.
Regards
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I want to know normal value of Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione and malinoaldehyde in tissue of rat.
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Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant are antioxidant parameters but malondialdehyde are oxidant markers. The values of these factors are different in the articles. Different laboratory kits, different animal tissues as well as measurement methods can be the cause of this difference. Last but not least is the unit of measurement that should be considered.
I think it would be helpful to search for articles with similar measurement methods to your own work and to compare control groups.
Best regards
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Is it possible to back-calculate/estimate the amount/dosage of a molecule consumed by looking at ante- or post- mortem toxicology blood levels? If you don't know, can you suggest a contact that might know? (I appreciate there will be issues around blood redistribution and site of sampling, etc.)
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Pharmacokinetic equations are inverse equations that you can calculate any unknown parameter
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Category of toxicology based on research methodology has four major sub- division. I wish to identify these divisions.
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I had to teach the subject from a historical perspective, and I have used the following book that I found very useful:
- GUPTA, P. K. Fundamentals of Toxicology. Essential Concepts and Applications. London: Elsevier, 2016.
In this book, there is a chapter on "sub-disciplines" of toxicology that gives you this extended list:
"Forensic Toxicology: Forensic toxicology deals with medical and legal aspects of the harmful effects of the chemicals. Clinical Toxicology: Clinical toxicology refers to health problems caused by or associated with abnormal exposure to chemical substance. In other words, it deals with the cause, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical management of health problems/diseases that are caused by or are associated with toxic substance(s). Nutritional Toxicology: The study of toxicological aspects of food/feed stuffs and nutritional products/habits. Reproductive Toxicology: The study of the occurrence of adverse effects on the male and female reproductive system due to exposure to chemicals or physical agents. Development Toxicology: The study of harmful effects of chemicals and drugs on the development of an organism; manifestations of development toxicity include structural malformations, growth restriction, functional impairment, and/or death of an organism. Veterinary Toxicology: This deals with the cause, diagnosis, and management of established poisonings in domestic and wild animals. Teratology: The study of malformations induced by toxic agents during development between conception and birth. Environmental Toxicology: This deals with the effects of pollutants on the environment (food, water, air, or soil) and their prevention. Its specialties could include ecotoxicology, aquatic toxicology, and others. Analytical Toxicology: The application of analytical chemistry tools in the qualitative and quantitative estimation of the agents involved in the process of toxicity. Aquatic Toxicology: This deals with the study of adverse effects of chemicals discharged into marine and fresh water on aquatic organisms and the aquatic ecosystem. It is largely a study of water pollution and its ecological effects. Ecotoxicology: A more specialized area of environmental pollution in populations and communities of living organisms. Ecotoxicology, in general, considers effects of pollutants on organisms other than humans. Food Toxicology: This deals with natural contaminants, food and feed additives, and toxic and chemo-protective effects of compounds in food. Formal Toxicology: This deals with the formal toxicological studies that are prerequisites for the release of new drugs/chemicals (eg, calculation of LD50 and minimum toxic dose). Genetic Toxicology: This deals with the study of the interaction of toxicants with the process of hereditary. Industrial Toxicology: This deals with the clinical study of industry workers and the environment around them. Occupational Toxicology: This deals with assessing the potential of adverse effects from chemicals in occupational environment and the recommendations of appropriate protective and precautionary measures. Regulatory Toxicology: This deals with administrative functions concerned with the development and interpretation of mandatory toxicology testing programs and controlling the use, distribution, and availability of chemicals used commercially and therapeutically. For example, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates drugs, cosmetics, and food additives Regulation: Regulation is the control, by statute, of the manufacture, transportation, sale, or disposal of chemicals deemed to be toxic after testing procedures or according to criteria put forth in applicable laws. Toxicodynamics: The study of biochemical and physiological effects of toxicants and their mechanism of action. Toxicokinetics: The study of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of toxicants in the body. Toxicovigilance: This deals with the process of identification, investigation, and evaluation of various toxic effects in the community with the aim of taking measures to reduce or control exposures involving the substances that produce these effects. Toxinology: This deals with assessing the toxicity of substances of plant and animal origins and those produced by pathogenic bacteria/organisms. Toxicoepidemiology: The study of quantitative analysis of toxicity incidences in organisms, factors affecting toxicity, and species involved, and the use of such knowledge for planning prevention and control strategies." (pp. 10-11).
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Someone who has been published the paper on the journal of Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, please can you contact me? I need the urgent information which didn't find on the journal page. Thanks for your help.
Ababo Workineh
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@ Jose Ochoa Disselkoen thanks for your help. I have submitted my manuscript to the journal of Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology on May 18 and the status of the manuscript has been changed to review completed. However, I'm not clear with the status of the manuscript, whether it’s rejected or accepted. Please can you make it clear for me about the status of my manuscript? Thanks 
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I'm currently working on a project on heavy metal concentration in contaminanted soil in a mining site and and the toxicological processes governing heavy metal uptake from soils into plant tissue system. So far I have used some indices such as BCF and BAF in my evaluation. But I'm hoping I could do with more indices to validate my results.
Your inputs will be highly appreciated
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@Omolara, many thanks for your contribution. It was quite helpful
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I am looking for a cyanobacteria to be used in a toxicology assay on agricultural runoff. Preferably a single celled cyanobacteria with a large role in the nitrogen cycle that would survive in freshwater/ pond water and that would be easy to plate on solid media. I have a cultivation set up and plan to use BG-11 media and plates.  I have tried a few strains already but lately have been running into some issues and am looking to start over with something that may be a little closer to ideal.
Any and all suggestions would be appreciated.
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Good idea .
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Dear Fellow Researchers,
I need your guidance to clarify questions a Reviewer has on estimating Ci in our binary mixture toxicity study.
Our Derivation of Ci: 1) For binary mixture, we ran separate Probit analysis for the organism’s response against each metal concentrations (C1 and C2) in the binary mixture (C1+C2). 2) We took Ci as the concentration of each metal in mixture where 50% response occurred in the Probit analysis. Reviewer says we are wrong! Hence recommended that manuscript be rejected!
Reviewer’s Suggestion on Ci: 1) Calculate concentration of binary mixture (Cmix) for the two different metals as Cmix = pi.Ci (metal 1) + pi.Ci (metal 2) where pi is proportion of each metal in the mixture. 2) Determine LC50 for Cmix. 3) Calculate the concentration of each metal (Ci) in the LC50mix.
Questions: Is it possible to combine the concentration of two different metals as a single mixture concentration?
To my knowledge, to describe mixtures of unidentical metals, one states each metal concentrations in the mixture e.g. Say we mix 2.5 ug Cd/L with 4.5 ug As/L, then one can state the binary mixture as 2.5/4.5 ug/L Cd-As or Cd/As mixture equals 2.5/4.5 ug/L. Many articles we cited gave the individual metals in the mixture separately as well and not as a combined single mixture concentration.
Could you please help clarify how possible to give a single mixture concentration for different metals?
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Gangue or tailing content harmful effect are not asked. Is it safe to touch ash melting slag, blast furnace slag and steelmaking slag separately at cold state, if they are not too sharp-pointed? What about toxic effects for long term skin contact with various metallurgical slag, as the case for jewelry made of slag?
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It depends what metals and other substances are in the slags and clinkers. I would expect skin absorption to be low for most of the metals. You may run across some individuals with skin allergies to certain metals such as nickel and chromiums. There can be inhalable dusts and hand-to-mouth behaviors that can cause exposure. Slag may or may not carry polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depending on what other materials have fallen onto it.
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I couldn't find a standardized usage of brain Pb level unit in literature. Yes, every group use μg/g but its never indicated in the method if the unit is μg/L per weight or μg/dL per weight. In our study we monitored Pb levels in both blood and brain, and we want to use an unit which is common in the literature and also easily comparable with the blood lead level.
Thanks in advance!
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Mercury, chromium, nickel, and manganese.
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I suggest you should go for the manufacturers standard in order to avoid a degrading/contaminated salt due to storage
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I want to improve my knowledge on ecotoxicology/aquatic toxicology. Whereas there are many book available. Do you have a good recommendation? Thank you very much!
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Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Its very good.
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there are different branches in toxicology like basic and clinical toxicology, most of them related to drugs and chemical toxicity. I see that pharmacists more related to this science than physicians
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I agree with your idea,
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Dear Colleagues
Does anyone could introduce a reference (Book/Manuscript/ Review, etc) which compares taurine concentrations in different tissues (Exactly by mentioning it's concentrations).
Thanks a lot
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1- Galler, S., Hutzler, C., & Haller, T. (1990). Effects of taurine on Ca2 (+)-dependent force development of skinned muscle fibre preparations. Journal of experimental biology, 152(1), 255-264.‏
2-Ripps, H., & Shen, W. (2012). Taurine: a “very essential” amino acid. Molecular vision, 18, 2673.‏
3- Baskin, S. I., & Finney, C. M. (1981). Factors that modify the tissue concentration or metabolism of taurine. In The Effects of Taurine on Excitable Tissues (pp. 405-418). Springer, Dordrecht.‏
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Dear Fellow Researchers,
We presented dose-response curves as supplementary information to a section of our study which has X-axis as Log[concentration] because the concentrations were graded exponentially so the model we used to generate the dose response curves did include Log[0] because Log[0] is not a defined value. A reviewer suggested that we include 0 concentration which we provided a rebuttal stating the facts for which the Log[0] was excluded by the model and as such the reviewer recommended to Editor that manuscript should not be accepted in that form.
Reviewer recommends that if we cannot include Log[0] then dose-response curve is meaningless. That we should remove the Log[concentration] and convert all back to ordinary concentrations on X-axis.
How do I fit exponential concentrations ranging from 0 to 3125 to give a Sigmoid curve on a linear scale, without manual improvisation? If concentrations were linear then that I think may be possible. Please clarify.
I have seen many dose-response curves in many peer-reviewed reputable journals including Nature, Science and Cell that provided dose-response curves with Log[concentration] and excluding Log[0]. How do you respond to this type of reviewer that kept insisting that we are wrong if we don't include 0 concentration on the curve? His reasons were that 0 is the control that will help to determined NOAEC since our article is on risk assessment?
Looking forward to your responses?
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Dear Olushola Awoyemi,
In general sigmoidal .... is the model. That means you have chosen a model, and it means that the selection has been evaluated by parameters assessing the fit of the model (eg AIC, BIC etc). So you have appropriate justification of the model based on relevant criteria. If you decide that best model is for example sigmoid Emax model with a baseline effect parameter (WNL model 106) then 0 is not a defined value. In many studies nonzero baseline effect is present (heart rate for example). If it your case and in your model baseline nonzero effect exist it cant be stated that 0 is the control. 0 could be element of the model or not its depend on your model justification and selection process. It should be your argument for discussion with Editor.
Best regards
Tomasz
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What common study types exist in NGS research and wide genome profiling related to risk assessment studies ?
What are the appropriate publishing standards of reporting results from the above mentioned research field ?
key word : Toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, RNA seq
_freshman
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Depends on the nature of the study. A lot of environmental toxicology in general is observational. And much of toxicology in general is observational (you dose cells or animals and compare the outcomes of exposure to non-treated controls and then intrepret the dose response in the context of adverse or non-adverse outcomes). But toxicology and transcriptomics also apply to clinical and pre-clinical medicine and veterinary medicine. So yes, sometimes a randomized control trial approach is applied in areas like drug discovery (especially with a family of related compounds to be evaluated for risk and efficacy decisions before selecting a final candidate for pre-clinical trials). Depends on what the context of the study is.
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the difference between the toxicological reference value and the oral reference dose during chemical risk assessment
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Toxicity Reference Value (TRV) is a broad term encompassing exposure through various routes (e.g. inhalation, oral). It's subypes could be OEL/RfC/TC/TCA (inhalation route), oral (ADE)/PDE, MRL etc. The sub-types are also named differently in different parts of the world.
TRV: Toxicity reference values are established for a route-specific critical health effect to a given chemical exposure over time (e.g., acute, sub-chronic or chronic) and can set the upper margin of exposure to a given chemical for the general population; this represents a level below which adverse health effects are unlikely to occur.
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Please guide me.
Thank you
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I agree with Keshav Sinha
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Do you consider Castor oil (15-60 ml) to be safe for ingestion for constipation (as an indication)? I read animal studies that showed cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity? What is your take on this?
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Castor oil contains ricin, one of the most toxic substances found in nature.
But consumption of castor oil itself isn’t dangerous. The toxin enzyme concentration is minimal, so using it regularly poses no threat. Even so, an overdose of castor oil could lead to digestive problems such as colic, diarrhea, and nausea
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1_ Indian journal of forensic medicine & toxicology
2_ Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
Indeed I noticed that the first one is predatory and the second journal is seems to be fake because it has malpractice cases.
With best regards
Munad AL Duliamy
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(Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry) also appeared in SJR, from 2009- 0ngoing, H index: 16
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The tragic loss of life and injury resulting from the December 2019 eruption of the Whakaari White Island volcano, located to the east of New Zealand, is trending in global media.
There was an earlier eruption there in 1914 that killed 10 people.
I am interested that reporters are not discussing Hydrogen Fluoride gas emissions from this volcano that is known to emit 1500 to 2000 kilogram of HF gas each day, when it is in its "quiet" mode. HF inhalation has caused death in numerous industrial accidents, usually within 24 hours and burns to the skin from this gas have claimed victims some days later.
Students were used on White Island as human Guinea pigs who were not wearing gas masks and it was estimated that some breathed in up to 8 ppm HF during their island visit.
Please let me know if you find media reports mentioning Hydrogen Fluoride as the most lethal gas associated with the deaths and casualties.
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I was interested to learn that Hydrogen Fluoride gas was measured using FTIR spectrometry from a boat as well as on the crater at Whakaari White Island, New Zealand. Reference: Love SP et al. 2000. Passive Infrared Spectroscopic Remote Sensing of Volcanic Gases: Ground-Based Studies at White Island and Ruapehu, New Zealand, and Popocatepetl, Mexico. in Remote Sensing of Active Volcanism. Volume 16. Wiley
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What is the basis of human toxicity evaluation based on Zebrafish model fmodel?
I am not specialized in Toxicology, however interests about chemicals and health impact related topics (for example, we can not test some chemicals on human). If someone can explain how the Zebrafish test data convert into Human toxicity (or something like huma Cancer risk), it would be great.
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@Michael Sekotha..definitely, rats/rabbits are used to predict human reproductive toxicity so far. Sheep is not a model, if you know this field as it is difficult to use higher animals. Zebrafish is being used for early investigative work to reduce the use of animals under 3Rs concept (Replace, Reduce, Refine). Link: https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/the-3rs
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Good evening, I have an already esablished Overall Systemic NOAEL from a toxicological study (mg/Kg bw/day) for a pesticide wich i'll be studing the effect by oral administration on rats, can i use directly this dose in my experimentation or do i have to calculate the Oral NOAEL ? and if so, how can i do it, is there some kind of conversion method ? also is it possible to convert Inhalatory NOAEL to an Oral Noael ? any response would be of a great help.
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Ok
I suggest to review the following properties of this xenobiotic before to commence with oral study
pKa, acid-base stability, gastric irritation and chemical-food interaction.
you have to buffer its optimum pH since weak acids will have more serum level that may be toxic.
you can also assess acid-base stability within hours at 37 C.
gastric irritation could be predicted from SAR.
Then oxoid food contents adsorption could also be assessed by spectrophotometry.
Provided that there were no previous studies that role out those parameters
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Is SUBLETHAL a genuine and clear, reproducible scientifically defined term or an imprecise pun / phrase / play of green thinking scientists?
Who has and where was the term SUBLETHAL scientifically defined?.
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Found this information:
1. Sublethal effects are defined as biological, physiological, demographic or behavioral effects on individuals or populations that survive exposure to a toxicant at lethal or sublethal dose/concentration. A sublethal dose/concentration is defined as inducing no apparent mortality in the experimental population. Ref.: )
2. EC50 (median effective concentration): The concentration of chemical in water to which test organisms are exposed that is estimated to be effective in producing some sublethal response in 50% of the test organisms. The EC50 is usually expressed as a time-dependent value (e.g., 24 h or 96 h EC50). The sublethal response elicited from the test organisms as a result of exposure to the chemical must be clearly defined (e.g., test organisms may be immobilized, lose equilibrium, or undergo physiological or behavioral changes). (Ref. Book: Handbook of Toxicology, page 948. Editors, Derelanko & Hollinger, 3rd Edn., CRC Press).
3. EC50 (effective concentration–50%): A statistically or graphically determined concentration of a chemical that reduces a sublethal response parameter of interest by 50%. (Ref. Book: Haye's Principles & Methods of Toxicology, 6th Edition, page 2084).
4. Most toxic effects in polluted ecosystems are sublethal and so sublethal tests should be used in order to assess the likely effects of pollutants. This can be done by determining the median effective concentration (EC50). This is the concentration of added toxicant that in a given time under given conditions brings about a specified sublethal effect in 50% of the test population. Such an effect might be a 20% reduction in growth rate relative to a control with no added toxicant. It could also be a 20% change in any physiological process, such as a 20% reduction in photosynthetic or respiratory rate relative to a control, or a 20% change in a developmental process such as the formation of reproductive bodies in an alga. (Ref. Book: Fundamental Toxicology, 2006, Editors: Duffus & Worth, page 268, RSC publishing).
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Can anyone help with literature on reactions of Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), or its degradation products such as (Aminomethyl)phosphonic acid with Fluoride, HF or Fluorine? Material safety data sheets simply state that they are incompatible with Fluorine. Of interest are reports of complexes of Uranium and Europium where Glyphosate and Fluoride are brought into close proximity. This brings into question the wider subject of Fluoride attack on Phosphorus in biological systems and the basis of observed epigenetic interference with human genes.
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Dear Geof,
I had a look at material safety data sheet of Glyphosate and it states that this compound is sensitive to fluorine due to high oxidation potential of F2.
This seems reasonable as C-P bond in Glyphosate looks like something that can get oxidised quite easily. I have found a couple of articles supporting this hypothesis:
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I am looking for Medaka Ricefish (Oryzias Latipes) for toxicological studies. Please contact with me somebody who have them in breeding (aquarium).
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I follow.......
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Dear all,
this question concerns a case study where 4 beagle dogs were administered a drug vehicle (PVP-K17, no active compound in formulation) through intramuscular (IM) administration; how likely is it for anaphylactoid reactions to be triggered by intramuscular injection of certain formulations?
All dogs showed symptoms resembling an anaphylactoid (non-IgE-dependent hypersensitivity) reaction (generalized erythema/skin redness, general pruritus with head shaking and rubbing, pawing the ground) and 1 animal showed what could best be described as sluggishness/decreased motoric coordination.
Symptoms manifested themselves 15-20 mins post administration and disappeared again approximately 1h post administration.
All animals were naïve in regard to PVP-K17 (no prior administrations) so there was no sensitization towards this vehicle/excipient (no anaphylaxis).
Any ideas/suggestions or insights would be very much appreciated, thank you in advance!
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well, I have never performed any experiment in dogs, the anaphaylactoid reactions we have tried befor was conducted by intravenous injection and subcutaneous injection in mouse.
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Trying to contact Dr. John A. Timbrell, London College, author of several toxicology books published by CRC Press. Please inform me of his email address if available or ask him to contact me on Research Gate.
Thanks
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Tel:+989128981607
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i am looking for future prospective of marine toxicology and find out their remediation through natural ways
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Marine life are expose to diverse pollutants which is cause by runoff, sewage materials, dumpsites, fertilizer, waste materials, hydrocarbons and subsequently cause increase in heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biaphenyl etc in the water body and then bioaccumulate in the tissues of fishes.
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This because table sugar is extracted naturally from sugar cane or sugar beets and hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose and never could reach the body cells in its origin form. The hydrolysis process occurs in mouth, stomach and small intestine which the products of sucrose in body may be in a similar manner to that of honey and bread. In other words, sucrose is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable. But, why there is no similar propaganda to the not natural synthesized chemical candy such as aspartame and so on.
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Hi there,
I think this one question is actually a combination of various different questions and assumptions.
The fact that sugar is extracted from "natural sources" such as sugar beets and sugar cane does not mean that it "good", just because of its natural origin. Likewise, you cannot say that "artificial" sweeteners are "bad", just because they are "artifical". You probably also would not say that cocain is a good thing, just because it can be extracted from plants....
In my opinion the problem is that in the modern Western diet, people consume extremely high amounts of fat and sugar. There is also an increasing use of high-fructose-corn syrup and similar products. If you buy, for example, a modern joghurt with fruit (flavour), it contains > 10% sugar. If you look at "sweets" for kids, they often contain 30% - 50% of sugar. Therefore, the "density" of sugar much higher that in fruits or vegetables.
It is probably difficult to eat so many fruits and vegetables to get similar amounts of sugar. But if you would, for example by eating huge amounts of honey and dates every day, this also would not be good for your health. At least in Europe, nutritionists warn people that also intake of too much "natural sugar" (milk products, fruit juices) can cause health problems.
You also mentioned sweeteners such as aspartam and asked why nobody is complaining about them. First of all, these products are much sweeter than sucrose or fructose, so there are much smaller amounts used. Second, there are people in both Europe and the US who warn customers not to use such products.
In summary, I would say that eating huge amounts of sugar is not good for your health, no matter if it comes from fruit, vegetables or modern "convenince foods". The peoblem seems to be that modern food is just unnaturally high in sugar and people, therefore, consume much lager amounts of sure than decades ago.
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The diamides are the most recent addition to the limited number of insecticide classes with specific target site activity that are highly efficacious, control a wide pest spectrum, and have a favorable toxicological profile. Currently available diamide insecticides include chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, with cyantraniliprole already being sold in some countries as launch progresses.
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It is slowly, it is almost within three months
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Hi everyone,
I am working on toxicological effects of REEs NPs on earthworms. During the experiment, I found at some treatment they are producing more casting as compared to others. Which parameter should we test to understand their mechanism? Does anyone work on NPs with earthworms? I have revised my experiment many times and found they die so fast. How should I deal with this situation to collect our sampling for data? Your suggestions will be highly appreciated.
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Please kindly visit the web page in Research gate :
and also
Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology
  • Kevin Richard Butt, Niki Grigoropoulou
  • Published 2010
  • DOI:10.1155/2010/562816
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On-the-ground experience would suggest that sound/noise pollution and mercury contamination may be coincidental in artisanal and small-scale gold-mining stakeholders and their bodies. If so, does any literature make explicit this coincidence or explore it further?
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Based on my general understanding and opinion only, artisanal and small scale gold mining stake holders are exposed to both noise and mercury pollution at the same time. However, the impact of both kinds of pollution on their bodies depends directly on the techniques being used. For example, a low noise, low mercury way of mining gold would impact less than a high noise, high mercury technique. Note that the impacts are different, as the chemical effects of mercury poisoning are very different to the more physical and potentially psycological effects of noise pollution. Unfortunately, I do not know any literature that explores this coincidence explicitly.
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TTX is stated to be heat-stable, and thus cooking does not render it safe, but I'm having trouble finding a specific citation which indicates to what temperature range it is stable.
Of course, taking a pufferfish and turning it into charcoal will likely render it "safe" but is it indeed heat stable to say 450F? What exactly is the range of temperature that the molecule remains intact and active?
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Stable to boiling except in an alkaline solution.Klaassen, C.D. (ed). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2001., p.1079
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Dear Colleagues, we would be most grateful if you could complete this very short survey on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs). This survey is intended to inform the wider scientific community about the progress and impediments to endocrine disrupter research in invertebrates. We welcome views from those working outside invertebrate toxicology
Please follow this link https://forms.gle/tZAbHnhn6fArnAZR8
By participating you will be giving consent to your anonymous data entries being used as part of the survey. Due to the anonymous nature of this survey participation can't be removed. For further details on this project and how the data will be used please feel free to contact alex.ford(@)port.ac.uk [Please remove the () around the @]
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Hello ;
Dear Alex
Several effects of PE on invertebrates
Disturbances of larval stages
Egg malformation
Disruption of the nervous system at the target level; receptors
Modification of biosynthesis; metabolism and elimination of natral hormones
Risk for the species and the higher-level food chain by bioacumulation of persistent substances
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For anyone interested in zebrafish as model species: August 12th-16th: the fifth edition of the Radboud Summerschool course on Zebrafish models in Biomedicine and Toxicology: https://lnkd.in/dxXNSGj An excellent opportunity to learn more about zebrafish and meet with experts in the field
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Hi Sarah
We had to cancel this years course, we had too few applicants.
Since we will probably revise the course for next year, possibly including more hands-on training, I would be very interested to hear what you are looking for.
Best,
Erik
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Can any one explain why vitamin c shouldn't be taken with fanta and coca cola in referencing to a court ruling I just read. Just wandering.
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Here is a paper on the topic as well as a wikipedia article.
In short, vitamin C (i.e., ascorbic acid) in the presence of a transition metal (not shown) generates a free radical from atmospheric oxygen which ultimately leads to the decarboxylation of the benzoic acid subsequent generation of benzene.
I should note that there are many factors that that promote and suppress the formation of benzene, some of which are explored in the article I linked. Notably lower pH and higher temperatures promote; when the concentration of ascorbic acid is higher than the concentration of benzoic acid, the production of benzene is ablated. Therefore, I am only commenting to suggest the mechanism for intellectual curiosity; I'm not attempting to arbitrate the validity the of these claims.
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I have read weak evidence articles (Animal studies) that showed cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity of ingestion of castor oil and I was wondering is this idiosyncratic reaction or dose dependent reaction and if the latter, do you consider 60 ml ingestion of Castor oil for radiology procedure to be safe or not?
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The seeds from Ricinus communis contain ricin, a higly toxic lecitin component.*)
Heating during the oil extraction process denatures and deactivates the lectin. Castor oil in doses of about 15 ml is used as a drastic purgative. The pharmacodynamic effect is due to the ricinoleic acid liberated by lipases in the dudodenum. Ricinolic acid has multiple effects on the intestinal mucosa. It can increase mucosal permeability and cause cytotoxicity associated with the relaese of eiocosanoids, platelet activating factor etc. Ricinolic acid disrupts the normal intestinal motiity and the combination of tese effects exert a powerful laxative action. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as "generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE).
*)Ricin has been involved in a number of incidents. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously shot him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in a hospital a few days later.
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I am trying to analyze Lead in water samples using an atomic absorption analyzer. I tried without modifier but i get really low absorbance levels. I guess I need appropriate matrix modifier to increase the signal.
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Note with using matrix modifier the furnace temperature program must be changed ashing and atomization temperatures must be increased
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Is it true that indoor air quality is becoming a very serious issue?
Is there any interest in the scientific community?
Is there any place to start?
What are the challenges today (i.e., aerosol particles, sources, working environment, processes, toxicology)?
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A couple of random thoughts to add to the mix ....
First, the ever-growing list of chemicals we use indoors for various purposes present a risk in the form of "trigger agents" to asthmatics and people with pulmonary diseases and/or allergies. Many of these chemicals are so ubiquitous that it is difficult for patients to escape them in both environments they control (their own homes) as well as environments they don't control (work, school, shops, etc).
Second, for the past year or so I have taken up 3D printing in my home and have discovered that some of the plastics that are used (notably ABS, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and to some extent PLA (poly lactic acid), release VOCs and nanoparticles during the printing process. While patients obviously should avoid these fumes and aerosols, the risk for otherwise healthy people of reacting adversely or developing disease related to these emissions probably needs study. Further, there are no standards relative to this issue; at least for hobbyists.
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Hello,
I'm working with rats in a toxicity test, I'm testing the effect of a fungicide and I would like to know the minimal number of rats I need to start my toxicological studies? Test rats and control rats?
Thank you
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The Up-and-Down procedures for oral toxicity begins with 3 rats and dose 2000mg/kg. Any case - use the OECD guidelines