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Tourism Management - Science topic

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I am looking for information on Total number of doctorates in Hospitality and Tourism Management In India ?
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Great question Ankita Sharma , you may try below links or consult the institutes direct to provide the update data on doctorate numbers.
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In my research that focusing on technology acceptance of tourists I am looking for the effect of culture in tourist acceptance.
The model is proposed UTAUT and my plan is to hold a survey among two clusters one for domestic tourists and the other one for international tourists among 5 main countries for tourist arrival.
Do I consider nationality or culture in my study?
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You can also see the effect from the lens of each country as moderator/MGA. It would be interesting to see how tourist from each country perceives your model. Thanks
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I graduated with a PhD in Tourism Management. I would like to join a group of researchers in the same area and other Tourism researches at Post-Doctoral level.
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Hello, I am a management student and I am thinking about working on "sustainable aviation" for my master's thesis
I am looking for suggestions, what can be interesting to talk about in 2021, or the most interesting topics to dive into. I'm a tourism management student in Germany.
Thanks in advance for your help, I'm just trying to collect updated interesting topics from people who already work or know about the industry.
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Sustainable Tourism got to do with the local community. The economic impact of sustainable tourism in developing nations is still scarce in the field. Covid may have changed or affected the majority of local community socio-economy across the world particularly those heavily rely on tourism engagement to generate economy.
Challenges over the term 'Sustainable Tourism' itself. Nowadays with AI mushrooming - many fake destinations claim 'sustainable' while against the genuine value of 'sustainable' itself or time to go back revisit Ceballos- Lascurain Eco tourism origin long before sustainability exist in mass.
Post covid polemic - Is sustainability ever exist? the world is continuously suffering in the hand of mass-tourism (esp unethical China mass tourist) have ongoing discussion yet heavily over webinar platforms. Or does covid itself fails to provide a steadfast lesson to an unethical tourist?
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The field of Hospitality and Tourism Management has a very great potential to become a research centered courses with its many specializations. This will open a possibility to increase their career options if properly taught and have aa network to share research ideas and solutions.
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I think This is a needful thing in the current context. Also, it is a lacking area in the hospitality industry. If we can develop research organizations to support both undergraduates and postgraduates students, It will fill a vacuum in the industry. Since many hospitality graduates are working in the industry, this will create a bridge to identify the industry issues and conduct research on them to develop solutions and implications. It will be helpful for both parties.
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Hello, my dear network!
We are looking out for experts in the fields of #Open_innovation and #digital_Transformation. Ideally, with interests in the areas of #hospitality and #tourism_management. We are surveying open innovation adoption in #Morocco. We require inputs from researchers and executives with substantial knowledge of open innovation.
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Will you accept from other countries ?
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I've recently heard in several webinars (mainly hosted by local tourism managers and entrepreneurs) that tourism industry have always demonstrated that is very resilient and that it will recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, but I would like to know the opinion of the academia about it.
Thank you in advance!
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I totally with you, Erick David García-González. That is the case. Holding the sustainable balance is very difficult in real life.
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Good afternoon dear researchers! If you're aware of any articles using PLS-SEM methodology, about residents' perception of tourism development during SARS, Ebola, H1N1 or COVID-19 outbreak, please, feel free to share with me! Thank you all in advance!
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my project is a recommendation system for tourism and I need a dataset by which I will find out the similarities between users and recommend some places to them... 
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Pavlos i need complete dataset of tourist including tourist personal information and their revies about their complete tour?@ Pavlos_Kefalas
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Dear all
Climate change is nowadays a reality that is affecting insular destinations like Cuba or Dominican Republic. Do you consider that due to its impact All-inclusive model is going to disappear from these destinations?
Thanks in advance
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Certainly many studies of tourism have shown the importance of climate in the tourist destination and there are many islands in some countries where tourism is seasonal, such as Malaysia in the state of Terengganu there are three islands only receive tourists for 6 months .. So it could be a negative factor or positive on Tourist area, currently there is a high global competition in the tourism sector and the choice of destination tourism is not as before there are many influential factors
some of paper covering aspects of this topic:
and if you interested in tourism sector with new technology you can check my papers on my profile
Best regards,
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I am thinking to apply S-D logic in tourism management. Any suggestions/reading welcome.
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S-D logic is applied to every sector of Economics, therefore you may have to be a bit more specific.
Also, S-D is a method, a tool, to answer specific questions. You don't state what is your topic - a the question you would try to answer - by applying the Supply and Demand model...
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How should we plan and develop a tourism management policy which is sustainable, open new avenues of tourist attraction and most important it promotes eco-tourism.
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Dear Safyian
Let me briefly point to the fact that sustainable tourism includes (as my colleagues Edwin already suggested) a social dimension alongside the environmental dimension usually connected to eco-tourism. My suggestion therefore is in starting your research to first disambiguate the terminology and then to focus on a specific aspect of developing a sustainable tourism policy. In other words: your research questions at the moment, however interesting, is too broad to be successfully set at the centre of a study.
In any case good luck with your work
Elena
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Case: katale khor.
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Dear Neda,
Your intention to develop karstic cave to as a touristic destination. I hope before going for service marketing better use tourism marketing.
I hope you have to more focus about the existing products/attractions that motivate (Pull) tourists to the destination. Then you have to think about the value addition to the existing products.
Recommend to read the following texts.
Heath, E. and Wall, G. (1992). Marketing of Tourism Destinations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Holloway, J.C.and Plant, R.V. (1992). Marketing of Tourism (second ed.). London:
Piton. Hudson, S. (2008). Tourism and Hospitality marketing: A Global Perspective. London: SAGE Publications.
Kotler, P., Bowen, J. and Makens, J. (2002). Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism (second ed.). New Delhi: Pearson Education.
Middleton, V. (2001). Marketing in Travel and Tourism (fourth ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Middleton, V.T.C., Fyall, A. & Morgan, M. (2009). Marketing in Travel and Tourism (fourth ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Morrison, A.M. (1996). Hospitality and Travel Marketing. New York: Delmar Publisher.
Swarbrooke, J. & Horner, S. (2007). Consumer Behaviour in Tourism (second ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Thanks
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I am hoping to conduct research on residents` perception of tourism develoment.
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Yes, you can ask, but a faculty member from 27 years ago may be retired or dead not.  Be aware that many researchers from this era may be hard to find, or may no longer have their records.
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Monthly inbound tourists data.
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Hi Rana,
contact the State Administration of Statistics. They must have data..
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 white water adventure recreation providers currently employ unofficial industry qualifications standards to show guide/leader competencies in the Kithulgala Adventure Based Camp. Very hard to find International Standards for guide competency exist.
New regulations have been proposed to regulate commercial white water rafting across Canada. These regulations will govern all aspects of commercial white water rafting, from equipments requirements to record keeping procedures. The impacts and influences of these regulations and how they are similar to and differ from the current standards, qualifications and policies practiced by white water rafting in the Kithulgala Adventure Based Camp is the main focus of this research.     
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Hi everyone, 
 if you have another paper on this topic please send to me..
I researched the impact of standards in fruit production. (GLOBALGAP, EUROGAP). The most important thing is to determine the position of the input attributes of determining the start of the implementation of standards. Measure the difference between input and output. The attributes you have to define itself.
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My research paper deals with use conflicts in tourism (such as conflicts over natural ressources, social conflicts due to tourism), and I'm trying to find some articles / books about the creation of these conflicts. I would like to focus on one part on the fact that maybe some conflicts existed before the development of tourism, and tourism made them worst. I am wondering if tourism is not more like  the straw that broke the camels back,  than the real reason that provoked the emergence of conflicts. 
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Dear Rose.
I use the following principle. I type the keyword in Google and put the journal and pdf. So get similar papers.
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Dear colleagues
All I can find are models to measures destination image but I can find anything about how to manage it. Thank yyou for your help
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The answers given by Mr. Olya, Ph.D., and Mr. Mensah, Ph. D., offer na wide spectre on the issue. If needed, I can give you some references in Spanish, Portuguese and French literatures also.
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Can anyone advice me of the more recent models (using time variable) concerning the evolution and impact of a megaevent to the development of a place?
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Dear colleague
I think that the following research note will help you.
Dalonso, Y.; Lourenço, J.; remoaldo, P.C.; Panosso Netto, A.P. (2014), Tourism experience, events and public policies”, em co-autoria com Y. Dalonso, J. Lourenço e A.P. Netto, Annals of Tourism Research, 46, pp. 181-184 (ISSN: 0160-7383).
DOI:10.1016/j.annals.2014.03.003
Best regards.
Paula Remoaldo
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Am kindly requesting for 2016 peer reviewed articles on Climate Change Adaptation and Tourism?
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Thanks Rajiv...much appreciated!
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It has been suggested that the hosting of sport tourism events can socially impact the quality of life of the residents living within the host community .
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I'd also like to share this paper of Taks (2013). She has developed the position that local (smaller) sport events might create more social impact than mega (larger) sport events. Mega events might be more interesting for developing economic impact and local events for social impact. Interesting position for policy makers, but I think more research on this topic is needed.
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In context of smart destinations, colleagues and myself are developing a research project on digital visitor management. We are searching for existing cases where digital media are already being used for visitor management.
I would appreciate any tips and information from research teams working on this topic.
Thanks
Jan
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I am looking for a textbook with recent concepts, up-to-date examples, and easy-to-follow text?. The textbook should facilitate the gradual knowledge building for undegrads? 
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This was the one my lecturers suggested when I was a student: Marketing for hospitality and tourism  by Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens
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I have been looking for many journals, but its not appropriate. I want to ask, in our project,there are many variables and dimension which is very valuable to create an ouput names sustainability index. to draw the variables and dimension we use ATSI (Amoeba Tourism Sustainability Index). In ATSI there is a rate per dimension/variables which is can inform anyone the position of the impact of sustainability-->intermediate,low,high,etc. My question, is different calculation method can compare into one amoeba/radar chart to create one index?
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We have been spent almost one month to search about how to compare different dimension and calculation into one amoeba/radar chart, and we difficult to find books and software to create that radar chart. Cc: Dr Meena Potdar
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Tourism is believed to have various impact but are their specific impact from religious tourist? If yes how can the be measured or got from the destination given the fact that some religious sites are periodic (not always open)
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please refer to my papers. all the best
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Especially in Europe countries? 
Are tourist organisations willing to take the role of cluster office?
How can they improve cluster development?
Could you give some sase studies?
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Michael, E. (2007) Micro-clusters and networks: The growth of tourism. London: Elsevier
would be a good start. see also:
Zapata and Hall (2012) Public–private collaboration in the tourism sector: balancing legitimacy and effectiveness in local tourism partnerships. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 4(1): 61-83.
I hope they help
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tourism management study
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How can someone implement such strategies ? 
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I think first you have to know the destination in many aspects as much as possible .then starting to Bold up the factors which exists and can be improved and be acceptable for large amount of people , even people who are very far away from your destination.
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because we use number of facilities like hotel transportation entertainment facility we can calculate carrying capacity quantitatively for that but in natural areas like forest, wild life sanctuaries how it  is possible to calculate quantitatively 
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Friends Here,
Carrying capacity in case of tourism does not mean clothes, bags and food. Here carrying in capacity in tourism indicates- visitors load, frequency of visit, intensity, facilities to serve tourist, vehicle per day playing in tourist or natural area etc. How many tourist can accommodate by the spot with out disturbing the natural balance in the spot. 
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I'm interested in international campaigns developed by the Bulgarian national tourism authorities.
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Hi, Daniela! I didn't , so your help would be great for me! Thank you! 
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Dear colleague,
I am studying topic “Factors impact to Community Tourism”. But I find it is difficult to determine the factors related to the relevant model. And how to measure the performance of the Community Tourism Model.
Please recommend me some references about this topic and suggestions about the performance.
Thank you so much.
Your sincerely,
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Laverack, G. and Thangphet, S. (2009) Building community capacity for locally managed ecotourism in Northern Thailand. Community Development Journal. 44 (2): 172-185.
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We believe that cross-fertilizing the tourism and seaport literatures on the specific topic of relationship networks for competitiveness can favour the spreading of practices and can create a collaborative environment to solve problems that cannot be solved by one sector alone. The final aim is to identify and promote common tools for the sustainable development of both tourism destinations and seaports in the city.
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I am carrying out research on the territorial network that tourism workers produce from their daily commutes between their homes, their workplaces, leisure and study sites.
Delivery of the thesis that the space produced by tourism is larger than the space produced by tourists and seek to prove this from the mapping of the territorial network produced by other social tourism agents: workers, businesses, government and resident population in tourist destinations .
At this early stage of research, I am conducting a literature review on the commuting of tourism workers, especially those related to lodging facilities in general.
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Olá Aguinaldo,
Talvez o texto abaixo te ajude em algo. Sds,
ZHANG, Jie; MADSEN, B.; JENSEN-BUTLER, C. Regional economic impact of tourism: the case of Denmark.  Regional Studies, Cambridge, v. 41, n. 6, p.839-854, Aug. 2007.
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I am searching for specific methodologies that have been applied to different territories in order to obtain information about the attractiveness of their resources (resources related to tourism potential, ie, churches, palaces, old buildings, festivals, natural parks, events,...)
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TOURISM IDENTIFIED: In order to measure, one need to specify specific type of tourism. One country may have more then one type. The demand for tourism may be estimated according to its type or adjective describing it. These may include:
Agritourism
Birth tourism
Culinary tourism
Cultural tourism
Extreme tourism
Geotourism
Ghetto tourism
Heritage tourism
Medical tourism
Nautical tourism
Pop-culture tourism
Religious tourism
Sex tourism
Slum tourism
Virtual tourism
War tourism
Wellness tourism
Wildlife tourism        ........ see link to wikipedia.
ASSESSMENT: After particular sectors of tourism are identified, we can track their growth year-by-year. For the non-growth area, we may assess their potential if the factors influencing their growth could be identified. Thus, there are at least two areas: (i) currently growing, and (ii) potential to grow. For the currently growing, one can use trend test to verify their magnitude and direction. The available tools may include: (i) the Military Handbook Test, and (ii) La Place Trend Test.
(i) Military Handbook Test: This test is based on chi-square distribution as a test for significance. The test is given by:
(1)   X2r2 = 2 Σ ln(Tend / Ti)
... X2 = chi-square value; ln = natural log base e; T = arrival time of event; and r = number of events (sample size). The chi-square table is given by degree of freedom and critical value to test the significance. Ho: X2(obs) < X2(Table) means not significant trend and HA: X2(obs) > X2(Table).
(ii) La Place trend Test: the second method uses the Z-test. The test statistic is given by:
(2)   Z = sqrt(12r) [Σ (Ti -(Tend / 2)] / rTend
... Z = observed Z value with this value look for F(Z) = % confidence int he Z-table; Tx = as defined above.
THE CHALLENGE FOR UNDEVELOPED SUBSECTORS: For the sub-sectors in tourism that has T value, i.e. posting dollar amount earning per year, we can test its trend. The significance of trend test here allow the researcher to estimate growth magnitude and direction and policy makers can also assess whether to invest in such a sub-sector. The challenge is to test for potential growth in certain sub-sectors that we want to develop but has no data, i.e. undeveloped sector. here, we could only answer whether such sub-sectors have potential in a form of (Yes | No); this is reduced to binomial and discrete data analysis. First list factors that are required for the sub-sector that needs to be develop and score whether the sub-sector have the factors present (yes) or not (no). Score yes = 1 and no = 0. The probability of success under the La Place Rule of Succession is given by:
(3)   p = (s + 1) / (n + 2)     where s = number of yes counts.
The probability of failure (no) is simply;
(4)   q = 1 - p
The potential may be verified through probability determination of P(X) given by:
(5)   P(X) = [n! / (n - X)!X!] AB       ...where X = number to be tested
(5.1)   A = pX
(5.2)   B = q(n - X)
The test for significance may be accomplished through:
(6)   Z = [(X / n) - p] / sqrt(pq / n)
This is to assume normal distribution of the data because Z-test uses the Z-table (unit normal distribution). According to this set up, of Z(obs) < Z(0.95), it means that sector is not significant. Dont' bother investing in it because it does not have the infrastructure to support its growth.  I hope this is helpful to get you started on the project. Cheers.
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I am working on impact of tourism on locals, study area is forest and the villages that are involved in tourism are not exploiting forest much as compared to the villages that are not touristic. So, I am planning to collect data from locals through some tricky question in order to get data of forest exploitation. It is expected that people who are involved in tourism directly or indirectly are not exploiting forest. Can anybody help me?
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ISSUE: Impact measurement
FACTS: There are 2 communities: (i) tourism oriented community that exploits more of forest resources and (ii) non-tourism oriented that exploits less of forest resources. The target of measurement is: "what is the level of forest exploitation by each community?"
DATA SOUGHT: There are three types of data: (i) quantitative, (ii) ordinal, and (iii) nominal. If you use written survey to collect data, try to collect all three types of data so that you analysis would involve multiple tests, thus, the result (final report) would be data rich and methodologically interesting. If use survey questionnaires, avoid this type of Likert scale: 1, 2,3,4,5. Try to use scale that includes zero: (0, 1, 2, 3) where 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, and 3 = high. As for intensity level measurement, leave that to statistical test on parameters.
DESIGN: Let Y = dependent variable (effect or effect level of forest exploitation). Let Xi = independent variables, i.e. x1, x2, .., xn. You may run simple regression between Y and X, thus:
(1)   Y = B0 + B1X1
The test statistic is a simple t-test given by:
(2)   tr = r[sqrt(n-2) / sqrt(1 - r2)]
... where r = Sx / Sy.
If using multiple independent variable, multiple regressions is given by:
(3)   Y = B0 + B1X1 + B2B2 + ...+BmXm
The test statistic to verify statistical significance is:
(4)   F = MSR / MSE
(4.1)   MSR = SSR / p     where p = number of Xi
(4.2)   MSE = SSE / n - p - 1
(4.3)   MST = SST / n -1
(4.4)   SST = Σ(Yi - Y*)     where Y* = mean of Yi
(4.5)   SSE = Σ(Yi - Y^)     where Y^ = Y-hat
(4.6)   SSR = Σ(Yi^ -Y*)
LATENT EFFECT MEASUREMENT: With the multiple regression, try to confirm whether there are "interaction effect" among the independent variables: X1, X2, ... by employing the latent effect model thus:
(5) Y = B0 + B1X1 + B2X2 + B3X1X2 + e
... where B0 = intercept; and X1X2 the interaction effect between X1 and X2 to produce Y---which is generally not measurable in conventional multiple regression equation. The parameter for the latent effect is determined by:
(6)   B3 = B^ -B1 - B2 - B0
(7)   B^ = Y* - (B2 - B0) - B1
The test statistic to verify the significance of the interaction is given by:
(8)   TLatent = (B1 - B2) / sqrt(C / D)
(8.1)   C = n1SE12 + n2SE22
(8.2)   D = n1 + n2 - 2
The designed thus described is for structural modeling using continuous data. You may also want to measure the effect level of forest exploitation in a dichotomous form: discrete data type. That would involve different statistical test.
EXPLOITATION DEFINED AND MEASURED: If the answer sought for exploitation of forest issue is Yes = exploit and No = not exploit, then the response may be coded as Yes = 1 and n = 2. The probability of exploitation follows:
(9) p = (s + 1) / n + 2
... where s = number of Yes = 1. The probability of no exploitation is simply q = 1 - p. The test statistic, assuming that the data tends towards normal distribution, is given by:
(10)   Z = [(x / n) - p] / sqrt(pq / n)
... where x = target number of observation to be tested, i.e. exploitation counts where the probability of x is given as:
(11)   P(X) = ABC
(11.1)   A = (n! / (n - X)!X!
(11.2)   B = pX
(11.3)   C = qn-X
IMPACT MEASUREMENT: In order to measure impact, you need to allow the time to run from a starting period to a specified period subsequent to the starting time, then measure the significance of the changes. There are two ways of testing the impact where the data is dichotomous: (i) Two counts Poisson and (ii) Z-test for correlation proportion.
(i) Two Counts Poisson Test: Assume there there are two time period of the measurement t1 and t2. The target measurement is forest exploitation. Let the quantity or frequency or the count of exploitation be N and for the two time periods then the counts are N1 and N2. The average frequencies are: R1 = N1 / t1 and R2 = N2 / t2. The test statistic is given by
(12)   Z = (R1 - R2) / sqrt((R1 / t1) + (R2 / t2)
The null hypothesis is R1 = R2, meaning there is no impact or no different between the two communities.
(ii) Z-Test for Correlation Proportion: A second test is based on the chi-square distribution. It involves polling the answers among the targeted respondents in two time periods. Construct 2 X 2 table. Let the column be first poll and the row be the second poll for the answer Yes & no exploitation of forest.
                    YEScolumn          NOcolumn
YESrow      a                             b
NOrow       c                              d
Total counts: N = (c + c) + (b+d) + (a + b) + (c + d). The test statistic is given by:
(13)   Z = (b - c) / Nσ
(13.1)   σ = sqrt[((b+c) - (b - c)2 / N) / N(N - 1)]
I hope this could give you some helpful pointers to get your project started. Cheers.
REFERENCES: See link below.
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I need to understand if the local food influences the tourism on its territory of origin.
Is there any model to use and/or any study to refer to? How can I measure this influence? Thank you.
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Dear All,
thank you for your precious advices. I hope to use your indications for a next article.
Alessandro
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The overarching goal of this study is the rehabilitation of the salt marsh, which is funded by introducing a selected range of tourism opportunities (nature, scientific and cultural tourism).
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Hi Mark, in a recently research we conducted on wetlands in Colombia, which was based on expert knowledge and participative mapping, we found that salt marshes are especially important for regulating services, followed in importance by cultural and provisioning ES categories. Likewise, we assessed the importance of the ecosystem functions and our findings showed for salt marshes are important for regulation, followed by information, production and habitat functions.
If you need to think about economic activities for restoration plans of salt marshes, I would definitely recommend including the cultural services for example, tourism, fauna observation, scientific trips and scholar activities, but would suggest keeping the local community involved in it. As the local community has an economic benefit, people will keep the marshes in the best state as possible. How well you know the plants of the marshes? I am sure that there are some possibilities for handmade products… that is very common in the Tropics. Other activity you could explore is fishing (sport and commercial), which might be a key livelihood in the region. The central point here is the biodiversity. 
Cheers!
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I want to model Sustainable Tourism with data from Tourist and Community separately. Thank's
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I like Paul's response, very comprehensive. You want to be sure that whatever you do, your concepts are very comparable; or are standardized for comparisons, reliability, and/or validity's sake.
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Is it the role of ICT, e.g. booking platforms, recommendation platforms; is it a change in players on the tourism market place, is it the transition towards sustainable or health tourism etc.?
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"Most influential" depends on how you define influence and whom the influence will affect. However, a rough guide to answer your question can be to check the most cited articles of tourism journals. For example the currently most cited articles in Tourism Management are:
Role of social media in online travel information search by Zheng Xiang | Ulrike Gretzel
Tried and tested: The impact of online hotel reviews on consumer consideration by Ivar E. Vermeulen | Daphne Seegers
A review of innovation research in tourism by Anne Mette Hjalager
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Plenty of academic research work is carried out in tourism and E-Tourism research applying structural equation models to gain insights about relationships in the tourism domain.
However, I would be interested to what extend the tourism industry (tourism associations and intermediaries, destinations, accommodation facilities etc.) are exploiting the obtained academic results?
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As a former government person I agree that SEM findings need to be "translated" into readable documents for businesses. There is also a need for engagement with tourism businesses to ensure research has an end, a meaningful end, rather than just being research for research sake! It needs to be driven towards a usable outcome.
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I have been studying the restaurant industry for quite a while and now I'm starting to focus on the process of internationalization for businesses. However, I don't know much about this subject and I need your help. What are the main motivations and ways for a business to start exporting their services on an international way? Are there any specific critical issues and effects on performance that restaurants should be aware of? Please discuss this as it will be a great starting point for a possible future paper that I would like to develop.
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I completely agree with Krishnan that to get more guests and more facilities, apply the principle of affordability.
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It will be appreciated that the data refers to the biggest markets (UK, Germany, China, USA, etc.)
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Will the increasing use of the Internet and the emergence of online travel agencies positively or negatively affect classical travel agencies? Will classical travel agencies therefore disappear from the market?
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Sorry for the late reply……
To some extent yes, but it various from place to place based on travelers changing behavior i.e., based on factors which influence holiday decision making.
With respect to information and advisory role is concerned there again a person located across cities will be advising on the holidays, in many intermediary web sites travel portals or any tour operator/ travel agencies website we can see a pop-up CHAT WITH EXPERTS who will be available to give info and directions on holidays.
Yes quality expressed at the time of purchase has to be delivered at any cost otherwise the vendor will definitely lose the client, client will never sit quit they are going to forums where they can rate the service quality in the form of stars/points and consumer forums are very active n social media too…..
Normally travelers, who make online purchases, make a small research about the credibility of the portal and past reviews and discuss them with peer group online or offline who has already used the service…
Doing online purchase or not, depends on to things like
1) Knowledge about the use internet (people in many countries even today depend on fax or phone).
2) The credit card or net banking facility to make online payment either through computer or mobile it’s very important (Here again what is the percentage of population who are having these facilities).........
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Elham, my student just finished work looking at tourism on grey reef shark behaviors (see today's Coral Reefs for a preliminary reef site article about this work). Tourism can certainly impact on the health of a reef (anchoring, pollution, impacting animal behaviors etc) but without interest in the reef environment (or the tourist $$$ it brings in) coral reefs may not be able to be conservatively managed. As mentioned above its always going to be a trade-off
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Tourism-related Foreign Direct Investment (TFDI)
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This is a complex question to answer as much depends on the nature, size, state of economic development of the community in question, and indeed the political system under which a community lives. The economist would immediately point you in the direction of multiplier effects, the specialist in event management would refer to the ability of a community to initiate special events that features its cultural and other social capital assets, the sociologist might point you in the direction of changes in land usage patterns, the impact of migrant workers attracted by new job opportunities and much else. Another management specialist could refer to the impacts of new managerial techniques and methods that might be attracted. Like many questions - easy to ask- much more difficult to answer. There exists a significant literature about the tourism induced economic growth hypothesis. I note you are from Barbados, so is your question generic or nature or are you enquiring in terms of small island economies?
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Where I can find the statistical data on minihotels and guest houses in Europe?
Publications on this theme in the different countries are interesting to me.
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I am not sure, on second thought, of what you mean by minihotels and guest houses. Are they 1 or 2 star hotels? Or do you refer to B&Bs? One source of data on international tourism to Italy and from Italy is the Bank of Italy. You can check on the microdata web page of the Bank's web site: http://www.bancaditalia.it/statistiche/rapp_estero/turismo-int/microdati-turismo;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=it.
I am afraid that as of today there is not the English version of the web page. But if necessary I can help. In the survey foreign tourists on their way back home are asked whether they stayed at a hotel or B&B etc. Maybe it could be useful to you.