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Tourism Impacts - Science topic

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I'm looking for ways to measure or explore the effects of Covid-19 on countries where its economy is most reliant on travel and tourism.
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The travel and tourism industry is badly affected by the covid-19 pandemic. International travelling and tourism has been restricted severely. The effect is devastating on the industry.
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I am doing meditation where life satisfaction is a mediator between Tourism Impact and Quality of life and I want to compare this model in two regions. Do I have to check the mediation in both the region separately or there is any other way? kindly suggest a way.....
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If we want to study an area of tourist interest for bringing it under the concept of Eco-tourism, what parameters should be selected? Or what aspect we have to study and analyse? What changes are expected to convert tourism in to Eco-tourism?
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Ecotourism can be defined by three core criteria: nature, learning and sustainability. The ecotourist market has been segmented by the nature and learning criteria only. It has been assumed that ecotourists are environmentally concerned and therefore sustainability is a factor in their decision-making. However, little empirical research has confirmed this assumption. This study surveyed 243 respondents participating in an ecotourism experience in Australia. It identified ecotourists according to the nature and learning criteria as per previous segmentation studies. Pro-environmental attitudes were measured as an indication of their support for sustainability. Results revealed no significant differences in pro-environmental attitudes between those identified as ecotourists and those considered non-ecotourists. While demand exists for nature and learning experiences, compliance with the sustainability criterion seems to be no more a factor in ecotourist decision-making than for mainstream tourists. Implications are that market segmentation research should consider all relevant criteria when segmenting a market for a particular product to ensure supply matches demand. However, demand for certain products can be created by innovative marketing practices. This would enable the ecotourism industry to respond to the market's demand for nature and learning, but also influence the behaviour and structure of the market with regard to sustainability.
Narelle Beaumont (2011) The third criterion of ecotourism: are ecotourists more concerned about sustainability than other tourists?, Journal of Ecotourism, 10:2, 135-148, DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2011.555554
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This is not conventional forensic science; it is about forensic-type methods used in the social sciences, including geography, with special reference to cultural heritage.
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Hi Michael, 
I even wrote the paper in this area, but I'm very interested in this topic. If something you write a paper, please inform me.
Sincerely,
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My research paper deals with use conflicts in tourism (such as conflicts over natural ressources, social conflicts due to tourism), and I'm trying to find some articles / books about the creation of these conflicts. I would like to focus on one part on the fact that maybe some conflicts existed before the development of tourism, and tourism made them worst. I am wondering if tourism is not more like  the straw that broke the camels back,  than the real reason that provoked the emergence of conflicts. 
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Dear Rose.
I use the following principle. I type the keyword in Google and put the journal and pdf. So get similar papers.
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In my recent study i realized that ecotourism resources are scattered in my study area, and with that, am suspected that economic growth, ecological and environmental pressure in these locations might be affected either positive or negative. Therefore, i need literature in relation to tourism and ecotourism and the implications of their spatial distributions.
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"Challenges to Implementing Community Based Ecotourism (CBET) as a Bottom up Development Approach in the Sinharaja Rain Forest (Sri Lanka)" this is my PhD thesis . I will send it's link to download. as i think it will be use full for ur work  
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Am kindly requesting for 2016 peer reviewed articles on Climate Change Adaptation and Tourism?
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Thanks Rajiv...much appreciated!
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In context of smart destinations, colleagues and myself are developing a research project on digital visitor management. We are searching for existing cases where digital media are already being used for visitor management.
I would appreciate any tips and information from research teams working on this topic.
Thanks
Jan
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How to assess tourism potential of an unexplored region, had unique cultural practices, tradition & heritage in ancient time. At present, most of the reference for the region available in ancient text only along with few cultural practices and attractions.
Please help me to understand investigation procedure and way to assess potential for the region. 
Thank you very much!
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Dear Abinash,
In this instance explore natural and anthropogenic resources. The methodology for assessing the potential of the destination through cultural and historical tourism resources selected it is assessed on the following criteria:
• capacity (potential power) development, consistent with the factors and conditions for the development of resources;
• stage of impact / influence - unique experiences to assess the level of attractiveness and appeal;
• temp of change (as a result of tourism) - evaluation of usefulness / value / importance of the tourist attraction;
Necessary criteria to take into account the position (viewpoint) of concrete character/form, specificity tourist destination and opportunities for practical application of the research results. These criteria should make a reply to expected trends and dynamics in the behavior of tourists, namely:
1. The trend in consumer demand last in time;
2. Increasing demand from tourists to quality, authenticity, attractiveness and variety / range of tourist services;
3. Increasing demands of tourists to the quality of technical infrastructure, tourist site and the material base of tourism, offering specific services, example: architecturally-minded visitors and needs of tourists;
4. Directing preferences of tourists in the country to destinations and places that offer security, safety and secondly to specialized forms of tourism - cultural, eco- and rural, adventure, etc .;
5. Increase the proportion of children and young people, especially students in cultural and educational tourism, travel to explore other countries, communities and people;
6. Increasing role of information and communication systems in hotels and tourism businesses in relation to demand, planning and implementation of tourism trips;
7. Increasing the share of the adult population in tourism or participation of people from the "third age" in tourist trips.
Best Regards,
Snezhinka
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Tourism is believed to have various impact but are their specific impact from religious tourist? If yes how can the be measured or got from the destination given the fact that some religious sites are periodic (not always open)
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please refer to my papers. all the best
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I'm interest in the study of the growth of tourism in the city of Lisbon and it's impacts. Can someone recommend some projects/articles related to this?
Thanks.
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A more direct link to such publication can be the site of the Portuguese journal "Tourism & Management Studies" ( http://tmstudies.net/index.php/ectms ), as well as the sites of the TMS INternational Conferences - Algarve 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014. You simply have to write them in Google and the confences site will apear. As I remember on this conferences there were several papers on this topic an I myself reviewed a paper on literature torusim in Lisbon (tourism related to novels in which the action take place in Lisbon.
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tourism management study
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I am doing my thesis on developing a system dynamics model to simulate interdependence of tourism, impacts on environment, and burden on urban services. As tourists visit a city, they burden urban services. If municipal bodies don't provide satisfactory level of urban services, tourists are less likely to visit the place. But, if services are well maintained, tourists may increase until some other aspects of the place are burdened enough to discourage tourism (a feedback effect).
But, for the simulation model, I need to have a quantitative  relationship between urban services (mainly water supply, sanitation, and MSW) and tourism attractiveness. I am planning to conduct a survey from tourists to know how quality of each of these services affect overall tourist arrivals.
I am finding it difficult to design the survey that can help me find the quantitative relationship for the model.
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In addition to the water supply, sanitation, and MSW, perhaps, availability of hotels & motels, reliable public transportation system, food services, places to see (historical places), arts, and museums may be considered. Reliable air transportation at a reasonable cost may also be something to consider. It is a given fact people will not travel to unsafe environment.
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I am undertaking some research on the connection between glamping (luxury camping) and landscape (production, consumption and appreciation), but can only find limited published research on glamping. Can anyone help with suggestions? Thanks in advance
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Thanks for this case study, Rebeca.
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I am searching for papers dealing about tourism impact (or not) in protected areas and any information would be useful. Many thanks in advance.
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The following may also be useful for you:
“Wildlife Watching and Tourism” (2006) a report on the potential for wildlife watching tourism to contribute to community development and conservation; and on practical ways to use planning and visitor management to ensure the long-term sustainability of this activity, published by the UN Convention on Migratory Species
Forging links between protected areas and the tourism sector: How tourism can benefit conservation (2005) published by UNEP
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Many types of tourism attempt to be helpful to the poor, volunteer tourism, slum tourism, and community tourism as examples. How do these really affect those dealing with urban poverty? Which model is better, or do we need a new model?
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You've received some very good suggestions re a form of tourism specifically involving poor people or poor communities as objects or destinations.  However, I think that in most large cities there is more opportunity for poor people to make a livelihood from conventional tourism through training and loans/grants for microenterprise development.  Many tourism related jobs are relatively low skill (though low paid) and may be accessible to the poor with some modest help.
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I am carrying out research on the territorial network that tourism workers produce from their daily commutes between their homes, their workplaces, leisure and study sites.
Delivery of the thesis that the space produced by tourism is larger than the space produced by tourists and seek to prove this from the mapping of the territorial network produced by other social tourism agents: workers, businesses, government and resident population in tourist destinations .
At this early stage of research, I am conducting a literature review on the commuting of tourism workers, especially those related to lodging facilities in general.
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Olá Aguinaldo,
Talvez o texto abaixo te ajude em algo. Sds,
ZHANG, Jie; MADSEN, B.; JENSEN-BUTLER, C. Regional economic impact of tourism: the case of Denmark.  Regional Studies, Cambridge, v. 41, n. 6, p.839-854, Aug. 2007.
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I would like to know your views and relevant literature on the implication of tourism on coastal / near shore fisheries.
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When man lives in one place and makes part of that ecosystem he has the right to use that space as any other animal. But tourism is most of the a predatory relationship. We should change this relationship and limit or prohibit avenues by the sea shore, lights, buildings block the wind, etc. 
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If you want to do some research on any topic in the countries where there is more terrorism, decrease in the arrivals is mainly due to terrorism, due to which other variables results are biased. How to control it?
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I agree with Paul:
1. Use time-series data preferably over a sufficiently long period of time (prior to the terrorism threat/incidences). Preferably built around the tourism cycle most relevant to your research problem (i.e. 1 year)
2.Note the volatility (e.g.in arrival) due to seasonality effects, and "discount"/adjust  it for the time-series data. This should provide the baseline series for comparison with the time-series after the terrorism threat.
3.Consider  time-series over the same duration as in point 1 that is after the terrorism threat). Note the seasonality volatility. And assuming that your targeted tourism cycle is 1 year it would also be good to consider that particular year when the terrorism occur and how it affected the arrival/other variables
4. Compare and contrast the seasonality effects from the time-series discussed in point 2. with that of point 3.
5.You should be able to isolate/control for the "terrorism effect"
6. This is still a very rough and dirty approach, to fine-tune it perhaps consider Granger causality and co-integration tests.  This is partly to control for "percolating factors".   Do a Google search with the following query search string: "granger causality and cointegration tourism terrorism filetype:pdf" 
7. Other considerations: example when post-terrorism policies design to mitigate the threat that actually augmented the arrivals, and other similar positive/negative feedback loops in the system. You may need to consider a systems approach to this.
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I am working on impact of tourism on locals, study area is forest and the villages that are involved in tourism are not exploiting forest much as compared to the villages that are not touristic. So, I am planning to collect data from locals through some tricky question in order to get data of forest exploitation. It is expected that people who are involved in tourism directly or indirectly are not exploiting forest. Can anybody help me?
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ISSUE: Impact measurement
FACTS: There are 2 communities: (i) tourism oriented community that exploits more of forest resources and (ii) non-tourism oriented that exploits less of forest resources. The target of measurement is: "what is the level of forest exploitation by each community?"
DATA SOUGHT: There are three types of data: (i) quantitative, (ii) ordinal, and (iii) nominal. If you use written survey to collect data, try to collect all three types of data so that you analysis would involve multiple tests, thus, the result (final report) would be data rich and methodologically interesting. If use survey questionnaires, avoid this type of Likert scale: 1, 2,3,4,5. Try to use scale that includes zero: (0, 1, 2, 3) where 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, and 3 = high. As for intensity level measurement, leave that to statistical test on parameters.
DESIGN: Let Y = dependent variable (effect or effect level of forest exploitation). Let Xi = independent variables, i.e. x1, x2, .., xn. You may run simple regression between Y and X, thus:
(1)   Y = B0 + B1X1
The test statistic is a simple t-test given by:
(2)   tr = r[sqrt(n-2) / sqrt(1 - r2)]
... where r = Sx / Sy.
If using multiple independent variable, multiple regressions is given by:
(3)   Y = B0 + B1X1 + B2B2 + ...+BmXm
The test statistic to verify statistical significance is:
(4)   F = MSR / MSE
(4.1)   MSR = SSR / p     where p = number of Xi
(4.2)   MSE = SSE / n - p - 1
(4.3)   MST = SST / n -1
(4.4)   SST = Σ(Yi - Y*)     where Y* = mean of Yi
(4.5)   SSE = Σ(Yi - Y^)     where Y^ = Y-hat
(4.6)   SSR = Σ(Yi^ -Y*)
LATENT EFFECT MEASUREMENT: With the multiple regression, try to confirm whether there are "interaction effect" among the independent variables: X1, X2, ... by employing the latent effect model thus:
(5) Y = B0 + B1X1 + B2X2 + B3X1X2 + e
... where B0 = intercept; and X1X2 the interaction effect between X1 and X2 to produce Y---which is generally not measurable in conventional multiple regression equation. The parameter for the latent effect is determined by:
(6)   B3 = B^ -B1 - B2 - B0
(7)   B^ = Y* - (B2 - B0) - B1
The test statistic to verify the significance of the interaction is given by:
(8)   TLatent = (B1 - B2) / sqrt(C / D)
(8.1)   C = n1SE12 + n2SE22
(8.2)   D = n1 + n2 - 2
The designed thus described is for structural modeling using continuous data. You may also want to measure the effect level of forest exploitation in a dichotomous form: discrete data type. That would involve different statistical test.
EXPLOITATION DEFINED AND MEASURED: If the answer sought for exploitation of forest issue is Yes = exploit and No = not exploit, then the response may be coded as Yes = 1 and n = 2. The probability of exploitation follows:
(9) p = (s + 1) / n + 2
... where s = number of Yes = 1. The probability of no exploitation is simply q = 1 - p. The test statistic, assuming that the data tends towards normal distribution, is given by:
(10)   Z = [(x / n) - p] / sqrt(pq / n)
... where x = target number of observation to be tested, i.e. exploitation counts where the probability of x is given as:
(11)   P(X) = ABC
(11.1)   A = (n! / (n - X)!X!
(11.2)   B = pX
(11.3)   C = qn-X
IMPACT MEASUREMENT: In order to measure impact, you need to allow the time to run from a starting period to a specified period subsequent to the starting time, then measure the significance of the changes. There are two ways of testing the impact where the data is dichotomous: (i) Two counts Poisson and (ii) Z-test for correlation proportion.
(i) Two Counts Poisson Test: Assume there there are two time period of the measurement t1 and t2. The target measurement is forest exploitation. Let the quantity or frequency or the count of exploitation be N and for the two time periods then the counts are N1 and N2. The average frequencies are: R1 = N1 / t1 and R2 = N2 / t2. The test statistic is given by
(12)   Z = (R1 - R2) / sqrt((R1 / t1) + (R2 / t2)
The null hypothesis is R1 = R2, meaning there is no impact or no different between the two communities.
(ii) Z-Test for Correlation Proportion: A second test is based on the chi-square distribution. It involves polling the answers among the targeted respondents in two time periods. Construct 2 X 2 table. Let the column be first poll and the row be the second poll for the answer Yes & no exploitation of forest.
                    YEScolumn          NOcolumn
YESrow      a                             b
NOrow       c                              d
Total counts: N = (c + c) + (b+d) + (a + b) + (c + d). The test statistic is given by:
(13)   Z = (b - c) / Nσ
(13.1)   σ = sqrt[((b+c) - (b - c)2 / N) / N(N - 1)]
I hope this could give you some helpful pointers to get your project started. Cheers.
REFERENCES: See link below.
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I need to understand if the local food influences the tourism on its territory of origin.
Is there any model to use and/or any study to refer to? How can I measure this influence? Thank you.
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Dear All,
thank you for your precious advices. I hope to use your indications for a next article.
Alessandro
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Hello, I am looking for good academic works on tourism and environment. 
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This is a rich area of literature and the Journal of Sustainable Tourism is obviously one place where you should look for material as mentioned above. If you are not familiar with tourism the top four journals (in alphabetical order,  as measured by SSCI Impact Factors are Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Journal of Travel Research and Tourism Management. I would suggest you look at the publishers databases (Elsevier Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Sage), enter key words and then look at the articles. The reference lists will take you other key journals (e.g. Current Issues in Tourism).  Some key authors in this area would include Stefan Gossling, David Scott, Richard Tol, Susanne Becken (again in no particular order).  For a general introductory text book see relevant chapters in my own book (sorry about this self advertising - but I still think these are good chapters - 'Recreational Tourism – impacts and demand', Clevedon: Channel View Press.2003 while Mike Hall has published while I also like Natural area tourism: Ecology, impacts and management by Dowling, Newsome  and Moore - also published by Channel View Press (I think I have the order of the authors correct - but I may be wrong here).  
You will find plenty of material this way - and if published in reputable journals you will probably find the authors and their work in Research Gate. Happy hunting
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This example is more complex because I mean "normal" archeological sites, where there is no need to pay for entrance and tourism facilities don't exist or are represented only by educational table and the like. Also, the local community isn't usually aware of the existence of these sites.
I would like to assess the tourism potential of unrealized archeological resources. I can say that it has influence for regional tourism to offer, because sites development widens it. But it is only a statement, which can be formulated without any research...
Any ideas/help? Thank you in advance!
Damian
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Mrs. Potdar I reviewed two Your papers: about economic impact and environmental impact, but there are some foundamental differences, which cause that I can't use (or just I don't have idea how to do it) Your methods. You researched developed tourist destinations and You took into consideration all attractions of the region, and also You have visible evidences of impact that You can assess in many respects. Whereas I would like to take into consideration only one type of attractions (archaeological sites), which are completely undeveloped and I want to prove/disapprove hypothesis that: if we develop tourism on this sites, it will influences on sustainability in the region. My problem is: how to mesure it? How can I get the proper data? Where could they come from? I'm still reflecting on it but I only "famously remarked":) that "these archaeological sites will improve tourist offer of the region". Unfortunately it's obvious..
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Seeking a detailed number of tourists coming to a country
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When the alternative is the secular underdevelopment, socio-environmental impact assessment for future tourist destinations remain like a "good practice dictate". Nevertheless, this assessment could be the only way for a sustainable and integrated develop of particular areas of inland; or in underdeveloped countries. One of my studies shows that local communities, at the begining of these processes, wait for tourism like for "maná" (meal); impacts are considered when they appear. Some other experiences?
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I will try to answer by presenting a response I already gave on the same topic. I think that the analysis of socio-ecological tourism-based systems requires new, qualitatively different evaluation schemes that enable an integrated assessment of ecological, social, and economic factors through the use of appropriate indicators related to the ecosystem service concept. People, indeed, begin to understand more clearly that human societies are dependent on the ‘services’’and ‘‘functions’’ provided by the earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems. Ecosystem services include the production of goods (seafood, timber, and precursor to many industrial and pharmaceutical products), basic life-support processes (pollination, water purification, and climate regulation), life-fulfilling conditions (serenity, beauty, and cultural inspiration), preservation of options (conserving genetic and species diversity for future use), and the assimilation of waste products (Daily, 1997). Nature-based tourism is strongly dependent on the quality of the environment more than any other form of tourism. Even eco-tourism, however benign it may be, will have some impacts on the environment (see e.g. Modelling socio-ecological tourism-based systems for sustainability), and therefore it requires management and control like any other resource exploitation activity. The amount by which resources are exploited is a critical tourism parameter because tourism must satisfy two constraints at the same time. First, ecological quality and integrity of resources must be maintained, to make sure they remain attractive to tourists as well as to residents (see e.g. Indicating fragility of socio-ecological tourism-based systems) . Second, the quality of recreational experience by tourists must be maintained, and this is based not only on the quality of natural environment, but also on the levels and the nature of interactions between groups of users and residents and their perception of environmental quality (see e.g. People perception of landscape change effects on ecosystem services in small Mediterranean islands....). Thus cost benefit analysis of tourism development should address such evaluation scheme based on ecosystem services and be oriented and controlled by people perception.