Science topic

Tics - Science topic

Habitual, repeated, rapid contraction of certain muscles, resulting in stereotyped individualized actions that can be voluntarily suppressed for only brief periods. They often involve the face, vocal cords, neck, and less often the extremities. Examples include repetitive throat clearing, vocalizations, sniffing, pursing the lips, and excessive blinking. Tics tend to be aggravated by emotional stress. When frequent they may interfere with speech and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS. Conditions which feature frequent and prominent tics as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as TIC DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp109-10)
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Hello, everyone.
I am currently working on a growth model with time-invariant and time-varying covariates.
I came across a model a latent basis growth model. However, I am having trouble finding
articles that enlighten me on how I might be able to incorporate TIC or TVC in the model.
It would be much appreciated if someone can point to some articles where I would be able
to find more information on it, and if possible how to model it in Mplus.
Thank you all in advance.
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Yes, it is possible to include total indirect effects (TIE) and total direct effects (TDE) as well as total effect (TE) for a latent variable model (LVM) or a latent basis model (LBM) in SEM.
Total indirect and total direct effects can be calculated using the concept of "mediation" and "moderation" respectively. Mediation refers to the extent to which one variable (the mediator) explains the relationship between another variable (the predictor) and a third variable (the outcome). Moderation refers to the extent to which a variable (the moderator) modifies the relationship between another variable (the predictor) and a third variable (the outcome).
The calculation of these effects can be done using specific software, such as AMOS, Mplus, R or Python, that allows the estimation of SEM models. These software's allow to estimate these effects by adding specific parameters, such as indirect and direct effects, to the model, and then running the model to obtain the estimates of these effects.
It is important to note that these calculations assume that the model is correctly specified, and that the assumptions of SEM are met. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a statistician or SEM expert before attempting to estimate TIE, TDE and TE in LBM.
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I study the synthesis of MXene (Ti2C) from Ti2AlC.
As a result of immersing Ti2Alc in 40% hydrochloric acid for 5 hours, cubicTiC was obtained.
In the book 2D Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes), the reason for this phenomenon is the dissolution of Ti2AlC in acid.
If anyone can explain in detail the breaking and formation of bonds in this reaction?
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Generally, when you produce MAX phases, such as Ti2AlC, you will have a mixture of MAX, cubic carbides (TiC), and intermetallics. Ti2CTx is not the most stable MXene, so what this means is that your etching conditions are leading to the complete degradation of the MXene. It is not the Ti2AlC that is transforming to TiC, but the TiC from the initial mixture that is remaining after the intermetallics and Ti2AlC have decomposed.
Broadly, I suggest decreasing the HF content to 5-10 %, and etching for short periods of time. Depending on where you purchase (or how you make) your MAX, the conditions will change. Use XRD to confirm etching.
This article will help you understand what you are seeing in XRD and other characterization techniques: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0079642520301213
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The below XIC chromatogram is from TIC of parent ion scan of various metabolite of the drug in the plasma of rat.
LC MS/MS is done, equipped with Triple Quad (QTOF) instrument. Fragment ion is fixed and parent ion is scanned in this data driven experiment.
The XIC chromatogram of each metabolite is overlapped in the attached figure, can I say that the largest peak in the XIC chromatogram is the most abundant metabolite in the plasma, qualitatively ?
Any kind of help/clarification regarding the same will be highly appreciated. Thanks in advance!
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Hello,
The principal problem here is that there are not enough data points in your scans, so you should probably increase the dwell time. To mee, it seems that you do not have enough peaks to define a good chromatographic peak. I guess the problem comes for having several parent ions scans running at the same time. My advice is to do create different methods with the different parent ion scans.
Also, I see that all your molecules are eluting quite early and depending on the size of your column it could mean that you are not able to retain your compounds with this column and that could be also a problem.
Regards,
Andreu
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I am working on the synthesis of MXene Ti3C2.I use the pressureless sintering method using basic elements with stoichiometric ratio.Unfortunately, I have not succeeded in making MAX phase Ti3AlC2 so far.
At the temperature of 1100 degrees Celsius MAX phase Ti2AlC was observed, but at the temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius only TiC was obtained. The furnace was kept at the maximum temperature for two hours.heating rate=10 Degrees Celsius per minute
Instead of graphite, I also used TiC as a raw material and also slightly changed the molar ratios of the raw materials, but the result was still the formation of TiC.
According to articles in this field, MAX phase should have been made, but I don't know what the problem is.
Thank you for taking the time to read and answer my question.
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Generally, I can think of four reasons why this could be occurring:
  1. Your powders aren't properly mixed (e.g. ball milled). In many cases, if you do not ball mill your powders, you run into kinetic phases that form. This can lead to different phases forming. Do you see a lot of intermetallics in your mixture?
  2. Your furnace is not properly calibrated. If your furnace is actually hotter than measured, you will decompose the MAX phase and it will lead to TiC formation.
  3. You have a leak in your furnace (or a crack in your tube). This can lead to oxide formation, where different phases will result. Notably, you will see alumina if this is the case.
  4. XRD pattern acquisition issues. MAX phases are anisotropic, so it may be the case that you do not see characteristic MAX peaks (namely (002), (004), etc.). Are you applying texture (pressing) your powders prior to XRD? This will overemphasize the (00l) peaks in MAX.
To better figure this out, the natural question is where is your Al going? Are you forming intermetallics, alumina, or do you not see Al at al?
There are two articles you should look at: This one uses a higher than stoichiometric amount of Al and leads to better properties. You can try copying this methodology as it leads to better Ti3AlC2 regardless, but the higher Al content makes it easier to compensate for a bit of problems (above).
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0079642520301213 - In this article, we go over how to characterize your MAX (mostly focused on MXene). So it may help guide you a bit more.
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I have bought a compound from macrocylics. I have analysed it using LC-MS where it shows multiple peaks. I have selected the peaks and did an area integration. The quantitative analysis of TIC gave be 85% purity whereas the product is endorsed as 95% pure.
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Your real question..... Additionally, you appear to be making an assumption that your results should equal the results obtained by the supplier for your sample ( a reasonable starting assumption, but the real question is far more complicated). There are thousands of variables present in any LC-MS analysis. Any "purity" values assigned to a compound are relative to the EXACT method of analysis used, on that system. With LC-MS (or MS, MS-MS) analysis, the instrument operator, the settings (and their are a LOT of settings), the HPLC method and the specific instrument used all contribute to the results obtain. Just as with your method, the original method used to determine "purity" may or may not be comprehensive (we have no idea). All methods need to be evaluated by professionals to insure they are fit-for-purpose and selective for the sample under analysis before any conclusions are drawn.
Any MS system can output data that is or is not accurate. The system is just a "dumb" tool and to obtain quality output requires a very skilled user with a great deal of practical experience.
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Hello,
I have a problem with signal stability in LC-MS/MS apparatus. It was turned off during the summer break and after turning it on again last week we can see a dift in signal for analytes that we did before the break. This loss is around 30-50% in every sample (around 7 min). Noise also is lower with every sample. We also noticed that after changing polarity back and forth for consecutive samples signal was higher over time. Then after few samples in negative ion mode signal begin to fall again.
Ion source was cleaned before first analysis but after turning it on.
Can we do something about this problem without hiring a service technician?
1.png is a TIC over 10 min with calibration solution.
Thank you for help.
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You can't do anything beyond what you've already did. I wanted to suggest that you clean the source, you did that. Call your service provider and ask for a preventive maintenance.
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Alklinity can be calculated by titration of acid on pH endpoint. I have a data set with bounches of water quality parameters, only without Alklinity. Is there a way to get Alklinity only by calculation from other parameters (pH, TIC, Dissolved CO2, temp, and cations, onions, ect.)
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The following H and OH ion calculation procedure may also be seen.
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Hi
I am looking for sources which provide pH of ceramic Compounds; for oxides, nitrides, carbides and... . for example: TiN, TiC, SiC, ZrN, TiF3, ZrO2, Si3N4 and...
Does any one know about it?
please help me
thank you
best regards
Mostafa kargar
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Hello Mostafa,
thanks for posting this interesting technical question. I my opinion there is no answer to this question, because the pH value specifies the acidity or basicity of compounds in aqueous solution.However, typical for the ceramic materials
mentioned in your question is that they are practically insoluble in water. Thus I see no chance of determining the pH of these materials. If you make a slurry of such materials in water the pH will most likely not change.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
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question edited as no longer applicable
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Your comments imply that your method may be invalid. Could you provide us with the peak retention time(s) using your above method? A chromatogram, with scales shown would also be very useful to see too.
Lower flow rates are preferred with most types of MS detectors (some can be run at 1.00 mL/min, depends on the method). However, in all cases, the HPLC column used must be sized properly for the flow rate and method used. Your 4.6mm ID column is the wrong size for your flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and points out the need for training before using an LC-MS system for analysis. A 2.1mm ID column would be scientifically appropriate for flow rates ~ 250 ul/min.
*BTW: I think it is great that you are trying to learn these techniques, but please be aware that it takes many years of professional industrial experience/training just to acquire a basic level of training in HPLC (emphasis on 'basic'). As you are new to this area, please start by learning the basic fundamentals of chromatography before using the HPLC to analyze samples (text books can help to learn these concepts when starting out). Please have someone with HPLC experience and training help you with this project. Data acquired using poor quality methods leads to poor quality conclusions.
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in most of the investigation grain core's still remain ZrB2 or TiC after SPS mixture of ZrB2-TiC, i need to attain Fully (Zr-Ti)B2-(Zr-TiC solid solution composite.
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Dear all,
I think Sepehr Pourbahraini intends to fabricate a full solid-solutioned composite material; i.e. between ZrB2 and TiB2 as the matrix as well as TiC and ZrC as the reinforcement, not between the hexagonal ZrB2 and cubic TiC which is impossible.
Since solid-solutioning is a time-consuming phenomenon, a short-dwell-time sintering process such as SPS can not guarantee this purpose. Meanwhile, your idea needs the progression of a chemical reaction at first:
ZrB2 + TiC = TiB2 + ZrC
So, in order to approach your goal, not only the above reaction must be completed, but also the diffusion-based solid solution formation.
In conclusion, I believe having a 100% SS in not possible, but you can boost both processes (reaction and diffusion) via decreasing the size of the starting materials in order to provide more available surfaces for the components to react/diffuse each other and performing a high-energy ball-milling for surface-activating of the powders. Choosing a longer dwell time can also be an option.
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I have done an LC-MS analysis for one of my samples in which it is expected to contain sugar molecules whose molecular weights are less than 200 Da. When I am using a method there is a big hump in TIC obtained for that sample but when I extracted the BPC chromatogram I could see the clear separation. What are the possible ways to optimize the method o obtain a neat and clear chromatogram.
I am attaching both TIC & BPC with method parameters in details.
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This is a very useful question. I am agree with the answer made by Noel W Davies.
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If we are to add 10g each of TiC, TiN, NbC, ZrO2, TiB2 in a matrix let say Austenitic steel, I would like to know if the solubility of each reinforcement in the steel to form a composite could be predicted using software and how it could be done.
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I think thermodynamic/phase diagram/modelling softwares will be more helpful in this regard.
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People may experience: Behavioural: aggression, antisocial behaviour, compulsive behaviour, fidgeting, hyperactivity, impulsivity, repetitive movements, screaming, self-harm, social isolation, or persistent repetition of words or actions Muscular: inability to combine muscle movements, poor coordination, tic, or clumsiness Mood: anger, anxiety, apprehension, or loneliness Also common: depression, learning disability, nightmares, restricted behavior, sensitivity to sound, or stuttering
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Asperger's Syndrome, as such, has been "discontinued" as such, by the DSM-V (5) of the APA, and without "specific traits or own indicators" has been introduced within the "Autism Spectrum Disorders ( ASD) "... now well -and that said- if you are interested in the" proper indicators "that appeared in the DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR (included within General Developmental Disorders), these were:
A) Alteration of social interaction, manifested by at least two of these characteristics: 1- Important alteration of the use of multiple non-verbal behaviors such as eye contact, facial expression, body postures and regulatory gestures of said social interaction. 2- Inability to develop relationships with peers appropriate to the level of development of the subject. 3- Absence of the spontaneous tendency to share enjoyment, interests and objectives with other people. 4- Lack of social or emotional reciprocity.
B)Restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, manifested by at least one of these characteristics: 1- Absorbing concern for one or more stereotyped and restrictive patterns of interest that are abnormal, either due to their intensity or their objective or by both. 2- Apparently inflexible adherence to specific non-functional or adaptive routines or rituals. 3- Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. 4- Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects.
C)The disorder causes a clinically significant impairment of the individual's social, occupational and other important areas of activity.
D) There is no clinically significant general language delay.
E) There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or in the development of self-help skills typical of age, adaptive behavior -except for social interaction- and curiosity about the environment during childhood.
F) Does not meet criteria for another pervasive developmental disorder or schizophrenia.
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I have analyzed the sample of one Essential Oil to identify its chemical components by GC-MS. The report shows the qualitative data having R. time, I. time, F. time, area, area %, height, height %, and A/H against each identified peak. How can I calculate the percent concentration of each identified compound by using the mentioned data? Please guide.
Thanks in anticipation.
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Area %. refer to the main compounds in the TIC,
So the area %, is not a concentration percentage
 
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Hi,
I have the following results from wastewater with samples taken every two hours.
The first four samples are off-spec while the last two samples indicate a regular COD/TOC ratio.
Can someone explain the increase in COD/TOC ratio to me? What is causing the COD and TC to increase and TIC to decrease this much? I will have to note that there was some sort of sludge (bacteria?) in the samples but unfortunately I did not measure the BOD. The amount of chloride, Kjeldahl nitrogen and phosfor doesn't seem to be the problem.
I'm guessing that bacteria from the sludge turned some of the inorganic carbon into organic carbon and thus decreases the TIC which resullts in a higher TOC. But how does this explain the increase in TC and COD?
I know that chloride will interfere with COD but with other interferences can I expect with TOC (catalytic combustion)?
Thanks in advance!
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Abstract
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is often used for disinfecting hospital wastewater in order to prevent the spread of pathogenicmicroorganisms, causal agents of nosocomial infectious diseases. Chlorine disinfectants in wastewater react with organic matters, giving riseto organic chlorine compounds such as AOX (halogenated organic compounds adsorbable on activated carbon), which are toxic for aquaticorganisms and are persistent environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity on aquatic organisms of hospitalwastewater from services using NaOCl in pre-chlorination. Wastewater samples from the infectious and tropical diseases department of ahospital of a large city in southeast of France were collected. Three samples per day were collected in the connecting well department at 9a.m., 1 p.m. and 5 p.m. during 8 days from 13 March to 22 March 2001, and a mixture was made at 6 p.m. with the three samples in order toobtain a representative sample for the day. The toxicity test comprised the 24-h EC50onDaphnia magnaand a bioluminescence assay usingVibrio fischeriphotobacteria. Fecal coliforms and physicochemical analyses such as total organic carbon (TOC), chloride, AOX, totalsuspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were carried out. Wastewater samples highlighted considerable acute toxicityonD. magnaandV. fischeriphotobacteria. However, low most probable numbers (MPN), ranging from < 3 to 2400 for 100 ml, weredetected for fecal coliforms. Statistical analysis, with a confidence interval of 95%, gave a strong linear regression assessed withr= 0.98between AOX concentrations and EC50(TU) on daphnia. The identification of an ideal concentration of NaOCl in disinfecting hospitalwastewater, i.e. its non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) on algae andD. magna, seems to be a research issue that could facilitate thecontrol of AOX toxicity effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, it would be necessary to moniator the biocide properties of NaOCl on fecalcoliforms at various doses and its toxicity effects on aquatic organisms. D2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Sodium hypochlorite; AOX; Hospital effluents; Toxicity; Daphni
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For my B.Tech final year project I want to test multilayer coated carbide insert and test it for tool life and wear properties. I am looking for CVD and PVD facilities that can coat tungsten carbide inserts with materials like TiC, Al2O3, TiB2 etc., in India.
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PVD and CVD coating facilities are available in some of the labs in India including ARCI, Hyderabad, NAL Bangalore etc.
Regards
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TiB2 and TiC particles are heterogeneous nucleation sites for α-Al and advantangeous secondary phases with high modulus. The addition of them can enhance the strength of alloys. However, the agglomeration phenomenon is usual to be seen in microstructure, both intragranular and intergranular distribution.
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the best is using microscopy! Optic or electron doesn't matter. TiB2 and TiC usualy have narrow size destribution. so analysis of size destribution leads to separation of aglomerates and single particles. note you have to measure aglomerate as one particle.
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Autosampler on platform was replaced with a new make and model and unable to obtain the same levels of intensity.
Some info on platform:
- MRM scan method using a flow program in Analyst software (ABSciex) (ie at time of 0.01, inject at a rate of 300 uL/min, then at time of 0.15, inject at 100 uL/min and so on)
- flow program is producing desired TIC peak shape (akin to a bell curve) but intensity only about 8.5e5 when it was 5e6 historically
- using Shimzadzu autosampler, no column (just an inline filter)
- all instruments have been PM'd and no performance issues
- may have to do with configuration of peek tubing - currently using red from autosampler to inline filter then tan to mass spec
- also tried lowering dilution of samples to increase concentration, but same TIC observed.
Thanks!
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What did you change besides the Autosampler?
Autosampler design and function can have a huge impact on results. The internal volumes of the sampler, needle, tubing, valve and any how the injection function operates may effect the sample as it travels through the system to the column and detector (This is a complex topic).
However: If you changed any tubing (length or diameter), then that will have an impact on dilution and measured signal. *Regarding PEEK tubing: If you used "Tan" tubing (0.17 mm) in place of "Red" tubing (0.12 mm), then the volume contained in the tubing (more diluted) will be double. This will change the results. Note, that incorrectly selected or fitted nuts and ferrules along the flow path may also have similar effects too. Be sure to have the system and all connections checked over by someone experienced in setting-up and using the same system.
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what is the yield and tensile strength of those carbide materials (TiC, Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2)?
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I agree with Saleemsab Doddamani
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Hello ,
I have a problem . I want to calculate the time in m / s from While loop so that I can integrate the values. I tried a lot, unfortunately that didn't work. I use the MPU6050 accelerometer . Can you help please, best regards
delete(instrfindall);
clear all
clc
serialPort = 'COM2';
s=serial(serialPort,'BaudRate',9600);
fopen(s);
%tic
%t=0.004
m=[];
%t0=0
vec_ax=[0];
vec_ay=[0];
vec_az=[0];
while 1
%t_start=datetime('now')
x = fscanf(s);
m = str2num(x);
if isempty(m); continue; end
ax = m(1);
ay = m(2);
az = m(3);
%t_end=
%t_delta=
%vec_ax=[vec_ax, ax]
%vec_ay=[vec_ay, ay];
%vec_az=[vec_az, az];
%vec_t=[vec_t, t_delta]
%vx = cumtrapz(vec_ax, vec_t)
%vy = cumtrapz(vec_ay, vec_t)
%vz = cumtrapz(vec_az, vec_t)
end
fclose(s);
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I want to know how to interpret spectra generated from LC-MS/MS. After subjecting my protein band to in-gel tryptic digestion followed by LC-MS/MS, I got two plots (TIC) of relative abundance against retention time( i.e ) ms1 and ms2. May I know if the two plots correspond to the same experiment run twice or they are entirely different.
The raw data was analyzed by Proteome Discoverer 2.1. Data base search was done using Mascot and Sequest HT for protein identification. I discovered that there are multiple spectra corresponding to different precusor ions (peptide fragments). I don't seem to understand this. Please  I need clarification on this aspect.
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Dear Sir,
We done our ESI-MS of our novel recombinant protein sample and found varying color (green,red,yellow) of peptide when matching to our known protein sequence (isolated and purified from plant source its ms spectra have identified 7 peptide and expressed it recombinantly). I have found all the peptide matching in our ESI-MS of recombinant protein with native protein ms (out of 7 peptide we have found 3 green 1 yellow and 3 red peptide). please clarify should i consider it my recombinant protein is have same sequence as native plant protein. Secondly what could be the reason of getting varying colour peptide.
Please clarify the significant of peptide deduced in sequence represented with varying color like green,Red and yellow. Could you please elaborate the percentage of similarity level of green, yellow and green peptides????
Thanks
Regards
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The emergence of innovative technological programs such as Augmented Reality (AR), Kahoot and so on, have allowed the development of new teaching techniques in foreign language learning. However, are you in favour, against or sceptical about this methodologies?
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In combination with communicative language learning, I think ICT can foster learning. Several years ago, I saw an interactive story telling program for children learning Ukrainian. The activities, geared toward reinforcing language (reading, hearing) were fun...even as an adult learning. :-)
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Is it possible/right way to match % impurity level observed in HPLC-UV to LC-HRMS. To my understanding HPLC gives the % area profile based on the UV absorptivity of the analytes (main & impurity molecules), whereas HRMS gives the peak profile (TIC/EIC) based on the m/z ion intensity. Is there any other way to quantitate % impurity in LC-HRMS such that to match % impurity observed in the HPLC-UV.
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It is irrelevant because it is depending upon the ability of the detector to see. The UV detector will give you the response or signal for the compounds that absorb UV light (having double bonds, for example). If you have tons of non-UV absorbing analyte such as hexane, you will see nothing in the chromatogram. However, if you have a small amount of acetone or benzene, you will see a huge response. This is true with LC-ESI-MS. If you have an analyte that gives you poor response on the ESI mode such as DDT, you will not see much of the signal and does not mean you have low concentration of the analyte because you see very little peak. If you ask a blind person of how many people he see in the soccer stadium full of the soccer fans, he will tell you he see nobody. Can you believe him or her?
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Estoy revisando literatura y la mayoría habla del simulador, sin embargo mi interés es comprender la acción de simulación en las clases de matemática de secundaria con las TIC.
Saludos
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I am working on Power system modles in MATLAB with some adaptive controllers. The simulation run for different time duration like 8,10, and 15 sec. Now i need to get the computational time taken by the computer to solve the iteration behind theses simulations. I found tic and toc command but need more detailed explanation to use it. Thanks
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% For Simulink model
tic, sim('Simmulink_model_Name'), toc
% It is strongly recommended that you run the model at least min once before
% this test because it compiled before start.
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La literatura revisada expresa la visualización relacionada al GeoGebra, pregunto para explorar otros objetos matematicos como las funciones, la probabilidad etc, existe literatura que amplia la visualización a esos aspectos?
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I am not sure that I understood your Q, but will recommend to explore for articles at Google scholar first:
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I have this molecule that is somewhat unstable and fragments. What can I do to increase sensitivity/signal so that I can see these unknown fragments in TIC? I am given the sample dissolved in solution.
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I estimate the water molecules in the complexs
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Design a Tic tac toe using machine learning
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What is the amount of electrical current that employed during the ZrB2, TiB2 and TiC sintering process?
can you introduce me some experimental articles or data related to current and sintering conditions (heating rate, sintering temperature, etc ) for ZrB2, TiB2, and TiC?
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Hi
Read the second part of this article, the part after introduction explains the sps conditions of TiB2 material.
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¿Cambia la didáctica con la integración de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones? ¿Cambian sus categorías: objetivo, contenido, métodos, medios, formas de organización y evaluación? ¿Cambia solo los medios de enseñanza? ¿Cambia el rol de profesor y del estudiante?
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Thanks.
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Hi All,
I'm looking for a way to create a nice figure of my GC-MS data so I can label important peaks in the sample. It's incredibly simple, I'm just looking to plot the TIC abundance against retention time. I'm working with Agilent directory .D files. I can view this TIC~RT graph in MassHunter Qualitative Navigator, but the lines are incredibly thin and not publication worthy.
If you have any tips on how to either customise (e.g. thicken the lines) and export the TIC image from MassHunter I would be grateful. I have ChemStation and the other programs in the MassHunter suite and would also be happy to use an open source program. Any advice is welcome!
Thank you,
Jess
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Amazing! Thank you
Florian Obersteiner
, John Canham and
John S Wishnok
for taking the time to answer my question, I really appreciate your help!
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Hi folks,
I'm trying to identify the intermediates produced from a degradation of Sodium Diclofenac. I'm using a QTOF (Agilent) and the method in negative and positive mode is from Agilent but for LC-QQQ). I have tried the positive mode and the TIC chromatogram is different from the UV but I get one peak for my standard sample (10 ppm) and 3 peaks for the degraded sample. However, I cannot identify the products yet (the results are inconsistent).Then I tried the negative mode, and the TIC and UV chromatogram are the same (great).However, I get 2 peaks for the standard (10 ppm) where one of them is broader.And for the degraded sample I get overlapped peaks. I increased the concentration of the standard to 50 ppm then I got 1 peak. I tried to optimize the system with different gradient, collision energy, fragmentor voltage but no luck.
Does anyone has any idea of what is wrong, please?
Why when I'm at the negative mode I see 2 peaks for SD 10 ppm and at positive 1 peak for SD 10 ppm but no consistency with TIC and UV?
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Hi Rafaela
This assay is actually quite straight forward so I am not sure where your problems are coming from.
Are you working with pharmaceutical preparations or are these extracts from biological samples?
What sample preparation are you performing?
What mobile phase and pH are you using?
What volume of sample are you injecting and what is the solvent for your sample? Is this the same as your starting mobile phase?
What is the mass difference of the peaks you are seeing as two peaks? If the elute at the same time but give different masses then they could be adducts. Which masses are you using to identify the diclofenac and the degradation products? Have you taken the ionisation effect and possibility of alternative adducts into account?
Is the column a new or used column?
What are the retention times for your analytes relative to the void volume?
Do these match your application note? The difference between a triple quad versus a qTOF should not give you different retention times nor different masses so you probably have high concentrations of background interference or a solubility problem or solvent compatibility problem.
Are your solvents for the mobile phases of high quality?
Dilution of the sample could solve your problem.
More information could give better pointers of where to look for your problem but this assay is very common and easy.
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Recently i purchased some TiC nano particles from china supplier and i did EDS analysis and that showed very low percentage (around 7%) of TiC (spec says 98% w/w TiC percentage). I want to know is my method accurate for metal carbides such as TiC or is there any other more accurate methods than EDS. I will attach my obtained EDS for more clarification.
Thanks in advance.
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XRD & XPS
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I'd be grateful if you will provide me some literature data about quantitative analysis of mixtures using TIC chromatogrames.
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No such thing as a standardless analysis in chromatography. You can ratio to internal standards but without knowing the precise response relationship between internal standard and compound you will not achieve meaningful quantification. UV appears to be as you state but the reality is different than the theory. If you want quantitative results you must derive a calibration curve.
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I want to calculate the computing time between two controllers implemented with Simulink. But when I try to use the "tic toc " function,. I got for the same controller two different values and are not acceptable.What is the best method for calculating time consuming?
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So far I know, there are no direct methods to calculate the elapsed time of a particular Simulink block/subsystem. You may follow the following steps:
1. Run the simulation in fixed step.
2. Put the controller inside the enabled subsystems block (Reference: https://uk.mathworks.com/help/simulink/ug/enabled-subsystems.html)
3. Try to use timer block to calculate the elapsed time of the enabled subsystems block (Reference: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/5761-reset-clock?s_tid=FX_rc1_behav)
If you want to compute the computational complexity of two controllers, number of mathematical operations is a good idea. For an example, please check Table II in https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5617865
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I am using a Shimadzu TOC analyzer for measuring organic carbon present in my sample. However, when I run my sample for TOC (TC-IC) analysis and TIC analysis, IC values in these two runs don't match. Technically, they must be the same.
For example:
Same sample tested for TOC (TC-IC) and TIC
TOC result: TOC: 85.24mg/L, TC:86.15 mg/L ,IC: 0.9127 mg/L
TIC result: IC: 57.32 mg/L
Why is this happening?
Thank you.
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Dear Sheetal, Please update information: What is the model of your TOC analyzer? What kind of sample have you analyzed? Have you checked results with standard solutions? Regards Marek
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I am viewing the total ion chromatograms of my MS samples and most of them have the intensity on average below the ideal treshold of 1xE9 and I would like to know what is it most likely due to? I have read that it indicates poor sample injection but I would like to know if it's related to the sample compositions. Thanks for help.
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I wish you good luck.
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I am comparing two extraction methods on an environmental sample. Triplicate protein extracts were analysed using an LTQ- ORB-trap (Thermo Scientific). Both extracts were equalized in terms of total protein quantity as far as possible before mass spectrometry. There are a range of protein quantification metrics provided by the Scaffold software. I have provisionally analysed my data using 4 methods :
1. Normalised spectral abundance factor (NSAF)
2. Normalised weighted spectra
3. The Exponentially Modified Protein Abundance Index (emPAI)
4. Normalized Total TIC.
My intention was to choose one of these metrics to descibe differences in protein representation between two extraction methods.Previously, I have been using NSAF but I wondered if normalized total TIC might be better ?
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One consideration is comparing the number of proteins extracted versus the quantity of those that are extracted. This is always a tough decision unless your situation helps to guide you. I.e. One extraction method might extract more total protein mass but less unique proteins. I've used TIC but I assume each of these have their merits depending upon exactly what you want to account for.
Best of luck.
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The amounts of carbonates calculated from total inorganic carbon are either higher or lower than the carbonates determined by XRD.
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What are your samples and what is the extent of the difference?
Firstly, there will always be some experimental error, so it would be more surprising if you got identical results.
Secondly, in my field (concrete durability) we're interested in the early stage carbonation of cement paste. In these instances we often find that the carbonate content determined from thermal analysis is greater than that determined by XRD. The most likely explanation for this is the presence of non-crystalline carbonates within our system. (This is normally confirmed by observing a much lower decomposition temperature than would be expected for calcite or other crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs).
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(Ti, Mo)C interphase precipitates have been widely used for creating stable strengthening steels without the effect of ageing at elevated temperature. This was believed due to Mo could retard the coarsening of (Ti, Mo)C precipitates.
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Hi, I cannot comment on the signifcance of the different effects named, but you clearly missed on important one: quench sensitivity: the alloying elements meant to cause precipitation hardening during ageing must be frozen in a supersaturated solid solution during quenching. "Slow" cooling potentially leads to quench induced coarse precipitation - those will reduce the atomic fraction left for precipitation hardening. We are currently working on quench sensitivity of 17-4PH and depending on the batch used the critical cooling rate for compllete supersaturation can reach up to 10 K/s.
Best Regards
Benjamin
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I recently got some data for MS. The protein I work with dimerises  both TICs seem to be very similar. Can one say something about the about the molecular weight from the TICs and also in the peak intensity, I noticed the peaks for the dimer were about 2x higher than that of the monomer.
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You cannot say anything about molecular weights by MS, because MS does not measure weights, but masses. Your dimer is almost certainly singly charged, so you can write out the molecular formula and see if the peaks you observe correspond to (protonated, +1) isotopologues of the protein. What you call the monomer may actually be the dimer, doubly charged. See if the peaks are separated by 1 or 0.5. If it's the latter, then the charge is 2, and you're still observing the dimer.
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I observed an increase in thermal conductivity with increase in temperature for PEEK polymer composite reinforced with TiC particles at all compositions. What may be the reason for this phenomena?
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Thank you for your kind reply
The neat PEEK also showed very small increase in TC, i.e from o.3 to 0.42
The data mentioned is already normalized against sample thickness
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I'm interested in researches focused in applied anthropology and ITC's uses from a social perspective.
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This paper focuses on southern Mediterranean cities:
Monzon, Andres. “Smart Cities Concept and Challenges: Bases for the Assessment of Smart City Projects” In Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems
Volume 579 of the series Communications in Computer and Information Science pp 17-31
Date: 07 January 2016
 This one on northern Med cities:
Leontidou, Lila. "«Smart Cities» of the debt crisis: grassroots creativity in Mediterranean Europe." Επιθεώρηση Κοινωνικών Ερευνών 144.144 (2015): 69-101.
This one on African cities:
Watson, Vanessa. "African urban fantasies: dreams or nightmares?." Environment and Urbanization (2013): 0956247813513705.
Not much by anthropologists, but I have a chapter in press on the intersection between SC and informality
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The sample is CNT reinforced Ti6Al4V MMC fabricated by SPS. TEM revealed TiC formed during powder preparation by HEBM, however XRD and RS did not reveal any TiC peaks
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You can try change the energy of the laser in Raman spectroscopy.
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If a child is forced to reverse their natural handedness for cutlery use (i.e. fork in left rather than their natural, dominant preference of fork in right hand), could it lead to problems such as stress, anxiety and associated symptoms, such as tics or stammer? Additionally, what affect might such a practice have on a child who has ASD?
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Thank you for responding to my question, Natalie. I didn't want to influence any answers by expressing my views in the question, but I agree with you entirely. This is a battle we are having with my son's school at the moment (they are trying to 'correct' his handedness). I have been frustrated by the lack of any scientific data to support or contradict my views.
Handedness and autism are beyond the scope of my personal research interests. I would be interested to hear from others who do work in the field, though.
Many thanks, again.