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Thin Film Deposition - Science topic

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I am not able to understand the reason behind non-stoichiometric behavior shown by the thin films deposited with reactive sputter deposition technique.
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Again, have you verified with a TixNy standard of defined stoichiometry that your XPS values are accurate? At this point of the discussion it's still not settled that your compounds are non-stoichiometric in the first place.
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Why do cockpit windows often appear to have a rainbow ‘tint’?
It’s similar to what you would see when looking at a shallow puddle of water with oil on top. Here is an example of a Airbus cockpit window with the same rainbow effect:
Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light.
It's the same mechanism behind your oil example. The thin film in this case is the heating coating applied to the windshield, which is intentionally non-uniform (explained below), making the effect even stronger.
Fringes observed on a windshield due to thin film interference caused by a conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin film deposited on the window for electrical defrosting/defogging.
The fringes are strongly visible because the thin film thickness is highly non-uniform on purpose: as the voltage is applied on two opposite points of the window, a uniform conductive film (uniform sheet resistance) would lead to non-uniform current density, and non-uniform defrosting. Some window parts, especially on the sides and far from the electrical contacts, would dissipate less heat, and defrosting would be significantly less efficient here. The ITO thickness pattern is cleverly designed to provide a rather uniform heat dissipation over the whole window.
We know that like most of other TCOs, ITO thin films can be produced using vacuum-based and solution-based methods. There are several methods, such as:
- Thermal Deposition
- DC-magnetron sputtering
- Vacuum evaporation
- Sol-gel method
- Chemical vapor deposition
- Electron beam evaporation
- Spray pyrolysis
*But these are common laboratory and industrial scale coating methods for ITO coating on glass substrates with regular geometry. But for substrates with irregular geometry, our minds face important questions and challenges.
**But the main question is which of these coating methods can create such a non-uniform design (in terms of thickness) on glass substrates with irregular geometry?
According to Figure (windshield), a non-uniform thickness of the deposition layer is applied to the windshields of the windshield aircraft.
We really need your help and guidance.
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These colours are also visible on the large windows of buses. May be it's a property of the multilayer (different polymers) window and not related to the ITO.
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I want to deposit MoO3 over ITO by spin coating, but I am looking for some  transparent binder which can prevent dissolving the MoO3 thin film in 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in electrochemical analysis.
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I wonder have you already find a way to prevent MoO3 thin film from dissolving in H2SO4 solution ? if yes, can you share it to me ?
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I have tried different standard methods of Si wafer cleaning like RCA1, RCA2 and ultrasonication with acetone and IPA, but it didn't work out well. I have observed the wafer surface before and after cleaning with an optical microscope. The surface is almost similar in both cases.
I attached the silicon surface images obtained from an optical microscope for your reference.
Can anybody please help me to get a clean Si surface for the deposition of thin films ( around 100 nm) using sputter deposition?
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You can try oxygen plasma cleaning
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Dear all, I am going to fabricate thin film of a perovskite material using Pulsed Laser Deposition. In bulk form, we can easily measure the electrical properties such as dielctric constant, Polarsiation etc. by simply coating the bulk pellet with Ag/Au. I am wondering how can I do the same if want to do same characterization of a thin film deposited over a substrate(say Si/SiO2).
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Some researchers explain the development of preferred orientation texture during growth of thin films deposited using PVD sputtering techniques as a competition between strain and surface energy. For example in CrN films, the (200) plane is the lowest surface energy plane; whereas the (111) orientation of CrN would be expected when the strain energy predominated. How's the surface energy of this plane is determined? And there's any relation with the surface energy of thin films calculated using Owens, Wendt, Rabel & Kälble (OWRK) method with contact angles?
Thanks in advance.
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things are difficult to match....lets see...if you consider only one crystal cell unit then surface energy of the crystal measured by any method should be same...but when you put many cells and grains and the whole the inner and outer things may not match...there are many reasons for that...non uniformity and anisotropy can be considered as inevitable along with that process parameters of preparation, impurity and many more cause difference in the values...second is the approach to measure them...whenever we do such kind of indirect measurements...they involve may parameters, where we assume certain and certain were ignored...hence results are deviating. so it is difficult to correlate...or you can find all missing pieces and make them LHS=RHS....Best of Luck
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I do Ti/Au e-beam deposition on bi layer PMMA and Az1505. there is bubble like deffect that is forming on the substrate. the starting pressure is around 2-4x10 -7 T and climb to 2x10 -6 T during deposition. I don't have temp reading. deposition rate is 4 A/s. i do 2x300 nm with a 15 min pause. what could be the source of the problem? i did a lot of that kind of deposition in the past with no problem. the only difference is that we change the cryopump in early january. any hint will be appreciate.
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Because secondary electrons are generated during the electron bombardment of the target, these secondary electrons and charged ions can damage PMMA during evaporation. An effective solution is to put a magnet above the target, which deflects the secondary electrons and ions in the magnetic field so that they can't bombard your sample. If you can't do it, try increasing the evaporating rate. Although the energy of the charged ions will be higher, there should be less secondary electrons generated because the coating time is reduced
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I am working on depositing thin film of Silver on Quartz by DC Magnetron Sputtering. What would be the best way to clean quartz substrate ?
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Surbhi Yadav you can do sonication in solvents such as acetone, methanol, and IPA followed by DI rinse. However, the method that I've found works best is a Piranha solution. This consists of a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by a DI rinse. After cleaning it's best to deposit your thin film as soon as possible.
Good Luck,
Adam
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Silicon nitride(Si3Nx) thin film stress deposited by IBAD (IAD)
The peeling of silicon nitride(Si3Nx) thin film is happened when the GaAs device was heated for CoS(chip on submount) package in the attached video file. Silicon nitride(Si3Nx) thin film is deposited Si e-beam evaporation method with N2 ion beam assisted deposition. Thickness of the silicon nitride(Si3Nx) thin film is around 1220A. Is there any solutions how to improve thin film quality?
This is e-beam process condition for Si evaporation.
E-beam emission current: 150~160mA
This is N2 ion beam process condition.
emission current: 77~78mA
Chamber temperature: 120C
And also we tried to evaporate Si3N4(99.99%) e-beam source for silicon nitride(Si3Nx) thin film deposition. But it has always happened that the Si3N4(99.99%) e-beam source explode like popcorn. How could we evaporate Si3N4(99.99%) e-beam source? The size of Si3N4(99.99%) e-beam source is about 1~4mm.
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Two suggestions (in case the problem has not been solved yet):
1. 'gentle' Ar ion-beam cleaning of GaAs just before the deposition, to remove any contamination layer (acting as a weak boundary layer);
2. deposition of a very thin a-Si layer (around 1nm) just before the deposition; it will act as a bonding layer, and will be almost totally transform into SiNx at the beginning of the deposition.
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I am trying to deposit a thin film of ferrite on a platinum coated silicon substrate by a dip coating method. But when the substrate is being pulled out of the solution, whole deposited layer drained from the surface of the substrate. So how can I increase the adhesiveness of thin film on a substrate? or the wettability of platinum coated silicon substrate for thin film deposition?
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Happy new year 2022,
You can activate the surface of platinum by wet etching it using Aqua Regia.
For the detailed processing please reefer to the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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I am trying to investigate the conduction mechanism in BiFeO3 thin films deposited on ITO coated glass substrate with Ti as top electrode. What value of Richardson's constant should i use to fit the calculated and experimental data.
Thank you in advance
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The answers to a previous RG question could be helpful:
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To obtain the same amount of plasma at the same pressure:
Is RF power needed for (copper bonded sputtering target) is greater or equal to RF Power needed for (unbonded sputtering targets)?
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As some of the previous replies emphasised, there should be no difference in the plasma. Cu backing plate, and Cu bonding to target is basically used for efficient cooling purposes. Without bonding some target materials will simply crack at higher powers. Cu is preferred because of its high thermal conductivity, and will efficiently remove the heat generated during the sputtering process
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For photoelectrochemical applications.
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yes, it is suitable.
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Don't know, is anyone asking for this or the same question, but
I want to do the electrochemical measurements of thin film deposited on a silicon substrate (the structure in the picture). So, should I create an insulating mask (I can get it by SiO2 (thermal oxidation) or by chemical-resistant varnish) around this film to eliminate the influence of silicon surface on measurements?
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I agree with Thomas Breuer.
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trying to find out hydrogen concentration in a thin film deposited on glass.
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Dear Sutapa,
thank you for asking this intteresting question.
However, I did not get the full meaning. Please provide more information.
What do you mean by "hydrogen concentration". Is there dihydrogen (H2) on a surface of a thin film? Or are there protons in the thin film material? And what type of thin film material do you have?
Without these information, I fear, no-one can help you.
Best wishes
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How does the argon flow rate affect the crystalline quality of TiO2 anatase thin film deposited at constant temperature (350 °) in the sputtering method (other deposition parameters are also constant, varying only the flow rate of Ar )?
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Dear Serrar, thank you for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. In this context please have a look at the following potentially useful articles which might help you in you analysis:
Influence of Argon Flow Rate on TiO2 Photocatalyst Film Deposited by dc Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
Influence of argon flow rate on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by RF sputtering
and
A Review on the Pathways of the Improved Structural Characteristics and Photocatalytic Performance of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Thin Films Fabricated by the Magnetron-Sputtering Technique
The last two articles are freely available as public full texts on RG. The full text of the first paper can certainly be easily requested directly from one of the authors via RG.
Good luck with your research and best wishes!
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I'm looking for a rubber-like material with low permeation to water vapor. Rubber itself doesn't work for my application because it is very permeable to water vapor. Thanks.
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Moiature permeability related question i found the link and I felt this might be of use to you https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/moisture-permeability
Martin E. Baltazar-Lopez please do comment on the same and interesting question to work upon as well
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I am looking for a lab where I can coat some films with metal oxide and/or metal oxynitride using plasma-activated thin film deposition equipment, preferably roll-to-roll. Thanks!
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Ok
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I am using carbon/silver paste as adhesive for thin film deposition. After that, I want to remove the paste residue. It seems acetone + methanol + IPA does not work.Attempt to try piranha solution.
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Dear Tingyu Su , it would be useful to provide details about your paste, so that we can help you better. This said, let me imagine you used some kind of carbon paste or carbon based adhesives used for mounting SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) samples. This could be also true for the silver paste. These pasted are filled with conductive materials (carbon, silver,...) but the binder is some kind of organic adhesive, and while piranha could digest most of them, it could easily damage your thin film too (depending on its composition and structure). The solvents you tested or their mixtures are all of them polar, and most adhesives are not soluble on them, so I would give a try to some non-polar solvent before to use harsh chemicals. Among non polar solvents you can easily find hexane, diethyl ether, toluene, etc.
Hope this helps. Good luck with your research.
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Hello, I will try to produce Sb2S3 films with thermal evaporation technique using Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces. Then I will complete the production with thermal annealing. Could you please give information about the risks of Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces and the precautions I should take?
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Please explain in details
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Peak shifts can be influenced by many things such as the thickness of the layer, crystallinity, doping concentration, type of molecule, phase composition and possible energy. In some cases, applied energy can also influence the peak position. rest Prof. Huge already mentioned. Now the question is which material exactly you are looking at.
regards
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I aim to deposit Sno2 thin film on ITO substrate using spray pyrolysis. What are the vital points I should take into consideration?
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If use spray pyrolysis, to get a good adhesive film on Ito substrate take care for the cleaning procedure , use SnCl2. 5H2O dissolve in same quantity of methanol and deionised water substrate kept at 400 oc during deposition to obtain homogeneous films
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Are there interlayer materials like TaN for copper nano film deposition, so that copper doesn't diffuse into a silicon wafer, are there any such materials for tungsten deposition?
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It looks like Ti/TiN are common to be used as adhesion layer as the adhesion is usually poor between W and dielectrics.
Ref:
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I am facing lift-off issues (resist gets hardened) for Tungsten deposited by e-beam evaporation and sputtering and no patterning is obtained. What is an effective way to deposit Tungsten? 
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The thickness of the resist you are using may play a role here. Thin resist compared to the metal thickness may result in lift-off issue due to sidewall coverage.
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My query is whether the helium plasma can etch the surface of deposited film and damage the film more in comparison to hydrogen plasma?
The gap between my plasma zone and substrate at present is ~50mm. If the previous damage is imminent, can increasing the gap between plasma zone and substrate is a good solution?
Kindly suggest.
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With plasmas, you can have two etching processes:
1) A physical sputtering process that is just caused by highly accelerated ions of the chamber gas impinging on the substrate. This process works both with He and H, but usually you don't want this to happen in PECVD since it can generate defects so most chamber setups will be optimized to avoid it.
2) A chemical etching process in which the reaction gas, either as an activated molecule or in atomized form, forms volatile species with the substrate that desorb, e.g. SiH4 if you etch Si. This process can behave geometrically different since surfaces with many dangling are more affected. This effect should not make significant contributions in a He plasma since there are no stable neutral He compounds.
In conclusion, I dare to say that using He for the etching process would not so much be harmful with respect to defect generation but primarily be brutally ineffective in most PECVD setups.
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Hello all,
My goal is to achieve a perovskite (cs lead bromide) film with high stabiity under humid environment? What is the standard ay I can check the PL stability of the films deposited?
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Dear Jitesh Pandya , you can monitor the PL intensity variations of a solid sample like a perovskite film using Front-Face photoluminescence spectroscopy. It is usually carried out with a conventional spectrofluorimeter equiped with a Front-Face accessory. In this way, you can scan the emission spectrum in succession and investigate the effect of moisture on PL emission over time. Moreover, if you do not have access to a front-face accessory, you can also take advantage of a plate reader in order to scan the PL emission of the surface. If still do not have access to any of these, you can use a UV cabinet and take several photos in succession. By extracting the RGB values you may investigate the PL variations over time. The following question has thoroughly discussed the front-face PL spectroscopy. Attached you may also find a picture illustrating how the front-face accessory works.
Best,
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a group of theoretical researchers want to develop a metal oxide thin film at low temperature which growth techniques would you use to realize the film? and why?
The above illustrated question is mismatching with my thinking, Is it means growth modes of thin Film or methods used to deposit a film in nano scale at low temperature?
, Thanks
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Hello Mohamed Gameel Basyouny , it seems like the method/technique for deposition of the metal oxide film.
Sputtering can be an easy option if one don't have e-beam evaporation facility. We usually deposit oxides of copper as a thin film over the desirable substrate in our magnetron sputtering setup without elevating the substrate mounting assembly by an external source. One can vary the precursor gas (e.g., O2, Argon, H2 etc.) to modify the deposited film's quality. Although, there may be an issue in achieving plasma discharge while depositing magnetic materials by magnetron sputtering.
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Hi,
I'm doing a process that uses a thin layer of SU-8 as an insulator. I was getting short circuits so I made a simple metal-SU8-metal structure (Figure 1 ). My SU-8 tests included SU8-2000.5, 2001, and 2002 with thickness varying from 0.7 um to 4.5 um. I also tested two different e-beam evaporated thin films, gold and chromium, around 100 nm for each layer.
All of them seemed to be shorted. I have attached some pictures showing the layers under the microscope (Figure 2-5). I spotted some potential pinholes or bubbles ONLY in SU-8 layers on top of the bottom electrode. The SU-8 layer alone on Si and Au/Cr layers alone seem rather clean. I wonder why this is happening and if you have any suggestions?
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I agree with the points raised by Xuhua Wang and Robb Engle It might be that 'high' substrate temperatures during Au/Cr coating might exacerbating H20 contamination effects. Perhaps a very simple way to reduce substrate heating would be to increase your deposition time with a moveable shutter, depositing your film in a series of short bursts with periods of substrate cooling in between.
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Hello,
I have a question regarding statistical analysis of the thickness of thermally evaporated organic thin films. I need to deposit a rather thick organic film (300 nm) through a slow thermal evaporation process. After a few repetitions, it becomes clear that there is always a mismatch between the target thickness and the measured thickness, and the deviation had a normal distribution. In order to estimate the standard deviation of the thickness and run capability analysis, I needed to have a large sample size of these deposited films. In the interest of saving time and material, I have done my repeated qualification runs at a smaller target thickness of 50 nm. While I now have the mean and standard deviation of the process with a target thickness of 50 nm, I'm wondering how to derive the corresponding data for a target thickness of 300 nm. I assume I can simply multiply the mean by 6. But how about standard deviation? Can I simply scale that linearly as well?
Thanks,
Pouyan
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Dear Motamedi: There is no chance for you to multiply the result you obtained on 50nm 'to get the expected result of 300nm, you need a simple regression coefficient to estimate that value. If you are not well acquainted with this simple statistics, please check that in a statistic book or design of experiments.
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Dear all,
I am currently working on BTO thin films deposited on Si/SiO2/TiO2/Pt substrates via chemical solution deposition (Sol-gel + spin coating).
How can I leave some part of the bottom electrode uncovered during the spin-coating?
I have tried with the tape method but it´s not always successful, is there another way?
Thank you for the help.
Regards,
Federica
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@Federica Benes,
If you could acess to a laser micromachining tool, that is the best way to remove the BTO layer and leave your electrode uncovered by the BTO films.
Alternatively, the tapes are very often used in the laboratory scales. You have to use a special tape such as a thin, tolerant to the higher temperature and chemicals.
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I need to disperse Fe304 nanoparticles (25nm) in PVA solution. I tried to do it using a bath sonicator as well as a probe sonicator but the particles seem to agglomerate and settle down at the bottom.
So, I decided to coat the particles with a surfactant and then disperse them, below is the steps I followed for coating:
Step 1: 0.05g Fe304 NMP were added to 2ml of citric acid(0.5g/ml conc) and were left to incubate at 90C for one hour
Step 2: After one hour, the solution was subjected to vigorous stirring for one hour while maintaining the temp at 90C.
Step 3: The black precipitate was washed with deionized water and centrifuged 3 times to remove any remaining citric acid.
Step 4: The particles obtained from centrifugation were dried at 100C to remove any water.
After the above procedure, I tried to check if the coat was successful by seeing if the particles were attracted to a magnet and they were, so the problem of dispersion remains.
Did I miss out a step in the coating process? Can I use another method to successfully disperse the NMP.
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I have to coat hydride particles with polymer. I tried by simple dip coating method which led to agglomeration. So, I am thinking to disperse it with surfactant. Please can you help me in this regards.
Moreover, I have some questions, in case I can apply them in my case:
1. For what purpose have you used incubator at an early stage?
2. What is the use of vigorous stirring after incubation?
Thanks in advance.
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I have fabricated the ZnO thin film on glass substrate. I have found only the (100) and (101) planes in XRD of ZnO thin film. 
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strain = FWHM cos(theta)/4
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I am attempting to prepare GO paper using the vacuum filtration technique, I used a cellulose acetate membrane to filter the GO solution(1mg/ml) andwas able to get a brown film on the membrane, the membrane was dried it at rtp initially and then put it in the oven at 50C for 12h, however the thin GO film remained attached to the membrane rather tightly.
Lit. mentions that the film can be easily peeled off the membrane however in my case I am not able to peel it  at all. Can anyone with experience in this suggest how it can peeled off?
I tried to dissolve the membrane by dipping it in acetone and the membrane did dissolved within seconds leaving behind only the thin GO film like I wanted, but the problem is the GO film got wrinkled and isnt smooth anymore. (Pic attached).
Any suggesting on removing the film while maintaining its smoothness are welcome.
P.S.- I know other membranes might give better results but unfortunately I only have a cellulose acetate membrane and need to do it using this.
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In my case, I used 0.22 mm PTFE hydrophilic membranes (Haining Yibo, China).
The GO films were peeled off easily after wetting the membrane on the opposite film side using ethanol :
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Few days back, I deposited Zn film on glass using e-beam evaporation and it was successfully deposited. The vaccum was about 3x10^-6 mbar with diffusion pump. Today, when I turn on the system I could not get high vaccum. The penning gauge is not responding and it stuck to ^-3 mbar. All appears to be okay, I just could not figure out the problem. You suggestions are highly appreciate.
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Hi,
Generally, low melting point metals like Zn, Sn are dirty as far as e-beam is concerned as they contaminate the chamber heavily. They are better deposited in a thermal evaporator. If your vacuum gauge is at a line-of-sight location w.r.t. your source, there is high chances that its active component is choked. You may have to degas the vacuum gauge. You also observe the load on the pump (like normal operating power, current, etc). This will show higher values if there is an outgassing source in the chamber. If this values are normal, gauge is the culprit.
Regards
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Hi all,
I deposit Sb2Te3 thin film 150nm by PVD (sputtering, single target, with low power as much as I can) on SiO2 substrate and anneal it to 200°C with 0.5K/min as rate.
I found some sample got damage and ashes around the films.
I would like to have comments from this issues.
Keep healthy,
Best
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Around the film means close to the edge of the substrate ?
In that case I am not surprised that despite your appreciable choice to use low power during deposition some local higher temperature due to plasma density variations could develop and then cause ash and local film spallation. You can try to use a substrate wider than the area you would like to deposit in order to avoid the presence of film edges.
In the case the ash and/or delamination are in the whole deposit consider the substrate surface cleaning and at last of course there is the issue of different thermal expansion as reported for example in this paper.
Best regards,
Simone
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Could anyone provide names of metal thin film deposition vendors that also do high temperature annealing, in the range of 300-500 C?
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This u can do, deposit metal films for fraction of second to few second, raise the temp and pressure to high level.. Using SEM or AFM detect that..
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I need a simple cleaning procedures
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I came very late to the question. But may answer may be useful to other researchers on the RG.
There is a standard silicon substrate cleaning before deposition which depends on what are you going to deposit.
But a common procedure is to make the following cleaning steps:
- Dipping in trichloroethylene with ultrasound agitation and warming
- Dipping in Ethanol with ultrasound agitation
- Dipping in deionized water with ultrasound agitation.
- purging with dry nitrogen
- Put it dry in an oven at 120 degree centigrade. The oven contains a container with silica gel to absorb the water vapor.
- you have to avoid the contamination of the surface of the substrate by working in a dust free zones such as laminar flow boxes.
Best washes
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Hello all, I have used E-beam evaporation to deposit the Ti-Ni film. However, the composition of the obtained film (Ti:Ni~1:8) is far away from the corresponding ingot (Ti:Ni=1:1). The ingot was prepared by arc melting, for homogeneous element distribution.
Currently, I'm about to prepare some equiatomic TiAlV films by EBPVD. To this end, I may need to deviate the ingot composition slightly from 1:1:1. Can anyone suggest a potential solution? Or is there any theory that can help me design the ingot composition so that I can obtain near equiatomic TiAlV films? Best.
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Ah, that is not an easy problem.
You may not want to hear it but for highly accurate compositions, your choices are
a) extensive trials with different composition ingots
b) mulitple e-beam system for simultaneous deposition from a separate e-beam hearth for each element. Calibrate the rate from each hearth and control each element individually. You would need some nice baffles so each rate monitor only sees the hearth it controls, but shouldn't be too hard to build if you are careful. Hold a small dental mirror at the source position and adjust baffles so can only see a single rate monitor from each heart (or put mirror alternately at each rate monitor and ensure that can see only single hearth). See the deposition rate for each element to give the composition you desire.
If you have only a single hearth and your stoichiometry does not need to be exact, try this as a starting point: For equiatomic deposition, make the ingot's fraction of each element inversely proportional to that element's vapor pressure at the melting point of the alloy. Use that as a starting point, and check the resulting composition. Adjust the composition of the ingot for the next trial by assuming that the first deposition composition is a measure of the vapor pressure of each component at the evaporation temperature. Keep e-beam power consistent between trials.
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I want to measure the contact resistance of metal oxides thin films deposited on top of n-type silicon wafers. Can I use the Transfer length method for measuring the same?
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To measure the contact resistance between the metal and undelaying semiconductor layer you can use the the three probes methods.
This method is explained in detail in the paper at the link:
Best wishes
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Hello all,
I have to do RF sputtering for MoO3 for my LED project. But I have come across many recipes for reactive RF sputtering of MoO3 ,using Mo as a target and Oxygen as the reactive gas But I want to RF sputter MoO3 directly (not via Mo target and then react it with Oxygen). Can anyone suggest me a good recipe for that?
Thank you being helpful with my other questions.
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You should find your recipe varying sputtering parameters (power, pressure, gas, distance, substrate temperature), looking for material properties you would like (conductivity, transparency, density, deposition rate, whatever,..).
Consider MoO3 is dielectric and there must be a power density threshold not to overcome, to avoid target cracking: the target producer usually can give you a value or rough idea. Check their website.
Moreover, when you sputter from a stoichiometric oxide target, you usually get a film with some oxygen deficiency (e.g. O vacancy is believe to be responsible for the n-type conductivity in sputtered ZnO). In your case, you might produce a bit of MoO2, which has different physical properties than MoO3 (e.g. band gap). If you have any hint it is happening, you must sputter in a mixture of Ar/O2 to compensate. You should plan a series to determine the best amount of O2 to get the desidered phase, maximise the deposition rate and/or prevent voids incorporations.
Some indication to start can be:
- Power: just below what is suggested by target producer;
- Pressure: around 5E-3 mbar, move from 1E-3 (with magnetron) to 1E-2 to identify the best;
- Distance: depending from your equipment, use data from previous RF-sputtered material;
- Temperature: depending if you aims to crystalline or amorphous material (consider deposition rate drops with increasing substrate T) - post-dep annealing is also a chance but higher T would be involved for cystallisation;
- Gas: start with Ar only, identify the best recipe (above parameters) and then introduce O2 if needed (usually O2 flux is some % of total flux).
Best of Luck!
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Optical emission spectroscopy for plasma diagnostics of low temperature plasma
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Dear Ali Zahid
Actually line intensity ratios carry a lot of information regarding the plasma parameters. Widely, this spectroscopic method is used for the accurate measurement of the electron temperature. I mean accurate in the sense that the plasma is not disturbed at all as in other diagnostic approaches. Once you obtain the electron temperature you can have a lot of information about the low-temperature plasma.
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Hello,
I am making a graphene oxide/polymer composite membrane using spin-coating. When the precursor solution is made (blending and sonication of polymer with graphene oxide, followed by centrifugation), I get a clear solution that is stable for over a week. However, when spin-coated, the graphene oxide agglomerates, and I end up with poor membrane performance. I tried different spin coating techniques, precursor solution ratios, and many other ways but I seem to face the same problem. Any idea what is causing this?
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You can use a suitable caping agent that is the only one that can terminate the agglomeration as well as use purification processes for long as possible
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I am depositing Al onto PMMA via thermal evaporation. Currently I have already tried to improve the adhesion of the films by two different strategies:
1. Evaporating SiO prior to the Al deposition i.e PMMA+SiOx+Al
2. Introducing/eliminating air plasma etching performed before the evaporation of Al or SiO+Al mixture
I can't achieve proper adhesion of the Al films. The Al films totally delaminate after tape test no matter which combination of the two listed strategies I use. Does anyone have any experience with this kind of thermal evaporations? Any reccomendation about other adhesive layer alternatives beside SiO with high adhesion on PMMA?
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What is the Al thickness? If it's < 50 nm I'm surprised it's delaminating. If it's 50-150 nm then you might be able to do a 5-10 nm Ti layer first to help. If it's more like 300-500 nm then you might have to look at lowering film stress by raising/lowering the dep rate or adding substrate heating.
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I am depositing pure metal oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis. I am getting good quality films. Whenever I am  trying with the doped metal oxides deposition with the same optimized conditions(distance between nozzle and substrates, molarity, solvents,quantity, temperature, air pressure and solution flow rate), films are not uniform. It is observed that after very thin deposition, powders are forming and it is in turn avoiding the deposition further. How shall I come out of this problem? What might be the effect of ultrasonic cleaning of thin films after deposition? Will it creates any defects in material and films?
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I think you can use solvent of higher boiling point and lower molar concentration of solution. Because solvent with lower boiling point evaporates from a certain height and form the powder. Solvent with higher boiling point can bring the droplet closer and due to levitation of the droplet it easily absorbs by the substrate. So, the film will be uniform and dense.
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How to measure the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity of thin films deposited on the ITO substrate. the thicknesses of the thin films are between 200 and 500 nm.
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Dear Mahmound,
Do you know the three-omega method? Generally, the thermal conductivity of the thermoelectric thin films are measured by this methods. A vacuum chamber with at least four probes are needed to finish the measurement. This equipment can also be used to measure the seebeck coefficient. You may refer to this article:
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I was wondering if increasing the bias voltage during deposition of DLC coating would increase the carbon content as well. Any papers pointing to the relation between bias voltage and increasing the carbon content in diamond like carbon coatings/films.
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Thank you everyone for your valuable feedback
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Adhesion is of vital interest in thin-film science because the fragile film relies on the underlying substrate, and the adhesion between the two for durability.
my question is:
Is there an easy method to calculate the adhesion ratio of thin film deposition by spray pyrolysis method to substrate?
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Thank you very much for this information, which will help me.
Greetings
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Adhesion is of vital interest in thin-film science because the fragile film relies on the underlying substrate, and the adhesion between the two for durability.
my question is:
How to change the adhesion ratio of thin film deposition by spray pyrolysis method to substrate with the change of the substrate temperature?
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Depends on your substrate and the thin film you are depositing. There is no general rule that applies to all materials. And if you are creating interfacial layer.
For instance, you van deposit gold on silicon, but it changes with temperature. My work showed formation of gold silicide at lower temperature, total gold infusion in silicon at higher temperatures.
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Dear all:
Have anyone deposited Al contacts on substrates of CdS and/or PbS, using an e-beam physical evaporation system ?
The following is happening with my CdS and PbS films ,
I'm trying to deposit a good quality Aluminum electric contacts with an e-beam evaporator, on the top of chemical bath deposited CdS and PbS thin films...
In both cases I'm trying to grow a deposit of 200 nm or 300 nm of Al. But when I run the deposits on the CdS films, the Al deposited above de CdS looks with a 'regular' quality, however sometimes I get a silvery uniform finish of the contacts.
But when I try to do the same on the PbS thin films, I always finish with a deposits with a somewhat white aspect, meaning that Al2O3 is growing on there, but this doesn't happen with the CdS films ...
Anyone has experimented something like it ?
Do you think the roughness of the films may be having an impact on whether pure-Al or a mix of Al and Al2O3 is growing on the e-beam deposited films ?
I am doing both deposits (Al on CdS and Al on PbS) with exactly the same conditions (i.e. current, grow rate, temperature and vacuum pressure).
Do you think it could be a matter of the surface of the susbtrate ? .. this would be unexpected, since I am growing 300 nm of Al... is not 10 nm, so the substrate should n't have an impact on the morphology of the above deposited thin film, and not to say an impact on the chemical composition of the surface of the films (Al films).
I hope someone can give me any help
Kind Regards !
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Dear Thomas:
The working pressure is 10-7 torr
The CdS and PbS were grown by Chemical Bath Deposition, these deposits were conducted in a different site, previously than the e-beam deposits.
I agree with your second comment,
Do you think that the big difference in the roughness of the films (between those of the CdS and PbS deposition). This hypothesis could be logical if I were try to grow 10 nm of Al, but I'm trying to grow 200 nm. What end deposited on the surface of the 200 nm-contacts should be affected by the roughness of the substrates. However, the roughness of my PbS thin films is on the order of microns, I saw the surface on SEM, and it is composed of big particules of PbS, measuring between 1-100 microns, the surface is highly non-uniform.
In opposition to the CdS films, where which the roughness isn't at the order of microns.
Do you think the morphology of the surface, in this case could be the problem ?
Even, I placed one of my PbS films and a black glass substrate in the same deposit, and the Al deposited on the glass ended up with a metalic aspect, but the Al deposited on the PbS film ended up with the white aspect, in the same deposition run. So same run and same conditions, but one ended metallic, and the other one ended white
Thanks for help ,
Regards !
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How to change the optical properties of tin oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysisthe by changing the solution concentration?
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Yes, i agree with MELOUKI Mohamed comment. Spinning speed (if used spin coating),spinning time, annealing time and annealing temperature are the well known parameters those are affect the film properties electrical as well as optical.
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Dear all:
I am looking for the data of the Vapor Pressure for these substances :
- Bismuth
- Tellurium
(for both of these elements I found a few data, but for points of temperature above 650 °C)
- And Bi2Te3;
after have searched for the Vapor Pressure of Bi2Te3 in literature, I found any data, as if the Vapor Pressure for Bi2Te3 coudn't be possible to be measured.
Does anyone know why is this ?
Or, Is it that I need to search for longer ?
Even in some data sheets there is a empty space for the Bi2Te3's Vapor Pressure.
Hope someone can help me with this.
Thank You !
Regards, !
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Hi All ,
I am using a fresh Silicon target (dia 2 inch and 6mm thickness 99.99%pure ). The base pressure of the system before gas flow is 10^-5 mbar and the Ar mass flow sccm value is set to 20. Then the pressure is 10^-3mbar. The power is given 20W. The reflected power is 0W. The target-substrate distance is 6 cm. The system is rf magnetron sputtering with has a automatic matching network. The plasma is pinkish purple. I have done this for 1hr still there is no silicon deposited on glass substrate.
I am not able to find the reason for no coating. Please help.
Thanks,
Sutapa
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Your ultimate vacuum is not very low and it is likely that there is still some oxygen in your deposition chamber so that you probably deposit SiOx which could be transparent, that is why I recommended in my first answer to check the presence of Si by an EDS analysis after a deposition on a substrate without Si.
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Please is there any simulation software for thin film deposition and characterisation? If there, how and where can I get it?
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I have tried at 25 mTorr Ar, 50-75 watt with commercially bought porous Si target. But I have not got any deposition. I have not found any reason for this failure also.
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Hi , How did you resolve it? I am too facing a similar issue. Your response is appreciated.Please help.
I am using a fresh Silicon target (dia 2 inch and 6mm thickness 99.99%pure ). The base pressure of the system before gas flow is 10^-5 mbar and the Ar mass flow sccm value is set to 20. Then the pressure is 10^-3mbar. The power is given 20W. The reflected power is 0W. The target-substrate distance is 6 cm. The system is rf magnetron sputtering with has a automatic matching network. The plasma is pinkish purple. I have done this for 1hr still there is no silicon deposited on glass substrate.
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Dear all :
I need help with the following question :
It is possible to grow n-type Bi2Te3 thin films, deposited on glass substrates using the e-beam technique ? If so, What would I require ? or What considerations do a have to take ?
I have acces to an e-beam deposition chamber and I have Intermetallic crucibles (BN-TiB2) and Graphite crucibles.
Then, I have a commercial bulk-Bi2Te3 n-type. So, my plan is to cut a piece of the ingot, and then breake pieces into little pellets, to place them directly into the crucible ,
Will this work ?
Thank you for the help ! :)
Regards !
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You can achieve the result if you use ion-plasma sputtering.
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I am trying to simulate the deposition of Silicon over SiO2. In reality, when we try to deposit a crystalline Silicon over SiO2 (amorphous), we get rather a polycrystalline Silicon. In ATHENA though, when simulating the same process, the final deposited Silicon layer is not Polycrystalline Silicon but Crystalline silicon.
So, If someone can help me know how to capture this effect in Silicon and how to measure the quality of the deposited film in the Silvaco ATHENA TCAD tool, it would be really helpful.
If the proper simulation is not possible in ATHENA, please let me know which tool can capture these effects properly.
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I think your test can not bring a decisive judgement about the crystallinity of the structure. It is the dislocation distribution in the deposited material that can give the grain nature of the deposit. It is so that at the grain boundary you will find a high density of dislocations. In the grain bulk you will have less dislocations.
Also the distribution of the crystallographic orientation in the layer.
You can also judge the crystallographic structure by measuring the resistivity of the material. It is so that the resistivity of the polycrystalline si is much greater than the single crystal.
Best wishes
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I have some powder samples. For photoelectrochemical measurement (PEC) measurements, I want to prepare thin film of my samples on FTO. Can any one please help me which Nafion solution I will use for it? As there are different type of Nafion solution are available in Sigma Aldrich and Alfa Aesar.
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Dear Nasima,
You can use Sigma Aldric. But you have to use a very little amount like 1 ml solution used only maximum 30ul.
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Hello RG fellows, I am trying to coat/deposit a thin layer via PECVD on Polypropylene substrate. The functionality of the coating will be water-vapor barrier. Which precursors are the best for this purpose? Thanks!
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Hi Martin,
it is not easy to reply because of many options and variables.
By my knowledge, if the thickness is higer than some 0.2-0.3 mm and the substrate is not greatly flexible, then 100 - 500 nm thick SiOx based coatings obtained starting for example from HMDSO are a good solution. I tried in the past with multialyer coatings based on different SiOx design with satisfactory results in terms of barrier properties. Otherwise, if the substrate is greatly flexible the film risks to be fractured and lose its barrier properties. In such case polymeric coatings with lower barrier properties but higher flexibility should be more effective. Best regards, Simone
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I am trying to coat pure silicon on a glass (and SiO2) substrate with a sputtering machine. But I obtain the SiO layer instead of Si each time! Our initial pressure is 3E-7 Torr and pure Ar gas (%99.999) is used during the sputtering procedure. We use about 50W power for sputter gun.
Does anybody know the problem?
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Well. First of all you should keep in your mind the simple relation: 1e-6 Torr means that you have one mono-atomic layer of residual gas molecules deposited on your substrate per second. This means that 10-7 Torr of the initial pressure is not so good pressure for your task. Your sample chamber is covered by absorbed gas molecules (when you open your chamber to load the substrate). If you use dry nitrogen for purging - it's fine, but in any case you will have a mono layers of adsorbed water molecules on all internal surface of your chamber. These water molecules desorb with time and absorb together with Si on your substrate.
So, to get pure Si you need remove water from your chamber. Cryo panel (with LN) can help for that. Another option is fast annealing of the chamber.
(for UHV chambers it is a standard procedure - heating for two days at 180oC, in your case 100oC for one hour should help).
And last, but not least. You use ultra pure Ar, but you should test your gas line and valve to be sure, that there is no leak where.
If you have difficulties with cryo-panel and heating, only a way is to increase sputter rate of your target. In this case you will keep constant your water deposition rate, but increase deposition rate of Si -as a results the oxygen concentration in your film will be reduced.
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Dear colleagues:
When you have an Aluminum plate, and then, lets say you sand its surface with a sandpaper, you remove its native Al2O3 thin layer previously formed on the surface.
Instantly, after you remove it ,the Al2O3 quickly grow again, due to the exposure to the Oxygen on the room environment.
Does anyone know What is the Growth Rate of this thin film ? and, What is roughly the film's thickness achieved by this process at a regular room atmosphere?
Thanks all !
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The natural Al2O3 grown on Al is irregular and weak. Its thickness is a few microns (not like Al2O3 grown by electro-chemical process which gives a regular width of 3000-5000 angstroms). The layer is time, humidity and temperature dependent. it grows quickly on the surface within few hours.
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Hi,
I am currently struggling to achieve a uniform thin film coating of Zinc oxide nano particles for use in QD-LED device.
I have many papers detailing similar steps towards achieving the above but I have not been able to.
I made 40mg/ml solution of ZnO NPs dispersed in a 1:2 (IPA:MeOH) solvent and toluene. Attached is an image of the IPA:MeOH mix (1500rpm for 30seconds).
The toluene samples appeared to create a better film with less aggregation but still not satisfactory.
I have varied the speed settings from 1000rpm to 5000rpm, time from 30 seconds to 2mins and the quantity of ink used from 100ul to 500ul without thin film being achieved.
Annealing makes not noticeable difference to the final product.
I am about to test dispersing the ZnO NPs in PMMA to see how this fares.
Would any be able to provide any feedback on the steps I have taken so far if there is anything noticeable that I am missing to achieve thin film?
I have read though the FAQ section of the ossila website for how to counter the streaking defects I am experiencing but with no luck.
Must I employ a purification step or specific dispersion technique when making my solutions for deposition?
Thank you.
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If you are making ZnO thin film from the zinc oxide ,dispersion. You can dilute it with ethanol(depending upon your concentration), for mine that I use in random lasing I make it 10% conc (by volume). Then you can spin coat it on the substrate (usually glass cover slips) at 500 rpm for 15 s and then at 5000 rpm for 45 s. Finally place it on hot plate maintained at 300 0C for 2 min to evaporate the ethanol. It works well with me to get uniform film of ZnO
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I am measuring the resistance of a CNT thin film deposited on Si substrate with a four probe attachment setup. The setup consist of a nanovoltmeter and current source with copper probes. The I-V curve in a direct DC sweep measurement is in the figure. I was hoping if anyone may have an explanation for such a behavior or guide me into the potential measurement errors from the described setup (Such as effect of substrate, probes, etc) that may have caused this.
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welcome,
You have a very good I-V curve. Normally one has to plot I versus V. But this is irrelevant. Your specimen shows breakdown at voltages at -1.5 to 1.5 V. Then it has an ohmic behavior. The resistance is deltaV/deltaI= 3V/ 100 uA= 30 kohm.
Best wishes. The most important condition to measure the measure the sheet resistance using the 4 point probe is that the substrate must be insulating for staight forward assessment of the sheet resistance as rohs= 4.44 V/I= about 130 kohm per square.
The resistivity of the layer will be rohs x the thickness of the layer= 130 kx 1 nano=.013 ohm.cm which means that it has a very low resistivity or high conductivity.
Best wishes
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Can we have a easy approach of using a different material other than Pt in DSSC without compromising the performance of DSSC
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This might help you -
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Fundamentals and Current Status
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Hello, I would like to ask the possibility of failure piezo properties performance of AlN thin film deposited by reactive sputtering? I have good ellipsometry, XRD & SEM results but poor piezo- coefficient. The only thing I thought there is 3-4% Oxygen in EDS results. Thanks for advise.
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Following..
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Which equipment can be used to measure this?
How can I calculate the measurement?
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Based of my research I found it high N2/Ar ratio with deposition pressure give me a well C-axis oriented sample, however as we know the target became poison and there are defects on AlN due to high N2 gas.
What would be the good parameters to deposit AlN layer to avoid poisoning as well as get good c-axis orientation? I use high N2 ratio, 300-400 C heat subs before and during deposition and low deposition pressure about 2-4 mTorr.
My goal is to get very well C-axis oriented film with narrow FWHM rocking curve.
I use DC reactive sputtering without bias voltage and never used RF sputtering.
Thank you
Saeedeh
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Do a statistical study by doE using the effective parameters those influence the texture of the film......you can see this article
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I am working on semiconductor thin films. When I recorded transmittance spectra of thin films deposited at different thicknesses, for some films i got interference patterns and for some films i didn't get interference patterns in the spectra. What is the reason?
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You have to take into account the light diffusion in the bulk, which is very important for thin films with very small grains.
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I'm using a home-made PECVD processing chamber with parallel plate/showerhead reactor. I may add reactive and carrier gases as needed, but I don't know details about feeding hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) as precursor. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.
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OK, thank you Bachir Semmache .
Also I read in the MSDS that it is explosive if exposure to air within some limits. What would be your recommendation for handling it, while opening the container and pour it into the reservoir of the system?
Thanks!
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I deposited Zinc thin films on two types of substrate materials, one is ITO and second quartz substrate. When I calculated optical direct band gap there is difference in energy for 0.2-0.4 eV higher for Quartz.
Is there any reason why I am getting higher band gap for thin films deposited on quartz than on ITO?
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Take a look at this article. In my opinion, such phenomena are not uncommon.
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I am doing theoretical research on thin films and want to know the procedure of simulating thin films deposition and growth using NASCAM interface.
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I asume that you have already downladed and installled NASCAM
Then generally speaking you have to follow the procedure
1. Define substrate dimensions (at the tab Substrate definition)
2. Define parameters of the depositing flux (tab Deposition parameters)
3. If you want to take diffusion into account, you have to set the activation energies for diffusion (tab Physical constants)
4. Finally. at the tab Simulation setup you have to define number of deposited atoms
Then just click green triangle at the right upper corner and start the simulations.
A couple of advices.
1. Try to run examples and find an example which may be close to your problem. Then you can modify the examples to meet your requirements
2. If you have questions, try to read the manual : Help-->Open Help
3. Certainly, fell free to contact me, I'll be glad to answer your questions
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We observed a dye absorption blue shifted when deposited as a thin film from a solution. Also the spectra is broadened for film.
Any clarifications.
We performed the concentration dependent solution study and we dont see such peak shift and broadening. This is happening only in thin film. the thin film is deposited on glass substrate using the spin coating technique.
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In thin films light waves interfere and you can get color even without dyes. Maybe interference is responsible for the color change. What do you observe when you change the film thickness?
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Repeatedly, I am getting a peak at around 26.5 (2 theta) in thin film sample (either impure phase or wurtzite structure) while I have changed most of the possible parameters in sputtering as well as heat treatment (300 to 575 degree C at different S vapor)
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In my opinion the following article will answer your question:
Suryawanshi, M.P., Agawane, G.L., Bhosale, S.M., Shin, S.W., Patil, P.S., Kim, J.H. and Moholkar, A.V., 2013. CZTS based thin film solar cells: a status review. Materials Technology, 28(1-2), pp.98-109.