Questions related to Thermodynamics
Scientists have abandoned testing the correctness of Carnot efficiency (1-T1/T2) (Method A), instead of using theory to aggregate experimental data and achieve a compromise between theory and experiment (Method B).
If scientists rigorously tested the Carnot efficiency, the second law of thermodynamics would have been over long ago.
Radiation is joking with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and scientists have been tricked. Below is a comparative description.
A--Output of the second law of thermodynamics
B--The experimental performance of radiation.
1A, Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat cannot spontaneously transfer from low to high temperatures.
1B, thermal radiation: Low temperatures can radiate to high temperatures, while high temperatures can radiate to low temperatures.
2A, scientists bet on the heat transferred by radiation: q (T1_to_T2)>q (T2_to_T1), where T1>T2
2B, actual intensity of thermal radiation:
q (T1_to_T2)=q (T1, n1); Q (T2_to_T1)=q (T2, n2)
n1, n2- Number of internal radiation structures of heat sources 1,2. Specific examples: 1 is helium, 2 is CO2, and n1 will be less than n2 In this case,
q(T1_to T2)<q (T2_to T1) where T1>T2
3A,Scientists from the 17th to 18th centuries believed that knowledge like 2A could be forgiven.
3B, scientists in the 21st century still believe in knowledge like 2A, which would be a bit foolish.
4B, see simulation case (image) for details
Abstract: The radiation power f * T ^ 4 [W/m3], 1.2 * f * T ^ 4 [W/m3], absorption rates of 0.2 [1/m], 0.1 [1/m], wall temperature of 293.15K, emissivity=0 in two calculation domains, and there is a temperature difference in the calculation system: the temperature in areas with strong radiation is lower, while the temperature in areas with strong radiation is higher, with a temperature difference of more than 10K. Both the 0th and 2nd laws of thermodynamics are incorrect.This phenomenon objectively exists: for example, under the same conditions, the radiation power of carbon dioxide and water vapor will be greater than that of oxygen and helium. This asymmetric radiation condition is arbitrarily set in engineering and is constrained by the 2nd and 0th laws of thermodynamics.
See picture for details
There is no equilibrium state in an isolated system, and the second and 0th laws of thermodynamics fail.
2. Nonequilibrium fluctuation test
The helium and carbon dioxide in the container are mainly carbon dioxide in the lower part of the container, and are near its critical point, so the fluctuation energy of the gas is large. The upper half of the container is mainly composed of helium, which is a conventional gas. The fluctuation energy is small. The fluctuation energy of the lower part will be transferred to the upper part, which will destroy the thermodynamic equilibrium probability distribution of the upper and lower parts of the container. The average internal energy of the lower gas is converted into fluctuation energy, while the fluctuation energy of the upper gas is converted into average internal energy, resulting in an increase in the temperature of the upper helium and a decrease in the temperature of the lower carbon dioxide. The thermal equilibrium cannot exist, and the 0th law and the 2nd law of thermodynamics fail at the same time.
All thermodynamics textbooks say that the Clausius formulation and the Kelvin formulation are equivalent to the entropic formulation - and this is proven. Meanwhile, there is only one proof scheme, which turns out to be wrong. The matter is serious, so at this stage there is no point in going further with the description.
Hello all dear
A solvent enters a vessel at a temperature of 100 °C and turns into solvent vapor at a temperature of 150 °C.
I want to know if this analysis I am doing is correct?
The 100 °C solvent inside the vessel becomes a 140 °C solvent and the amount of heat it absorbs due to the increase in temperature is calculated from Q=mcdT.
140 °C solvent turns into 140 °C solvent vapor and the amount of heat that is absorbed only to change the phase is calculated from the enthalpy of vaporization formula.
Then, the 140°C solvent vapor is converted to 150°C solvent vapor, and the amount of heat absorbed to increase the temperature of the vapor is also calculated from the Q=mcdT.
Is this analysis correct?
Thanks in advance
I would like to obtain a design program, a free version, available to engineering students for a graduation project. The graduation project is a simple gas cycle and exhaust from it enter to HRSG . Therefore, I am looking for a program to design the HRSG , dDetermine the number and size of tubes in each part of hrsg ( evaporator, economizer, super heater ), and connect it through the program to the gas turbine. Thank you for participation.
Hello all dear
It happens at a constant temperature of 140(Tb)
The composition is similar to gasoline
Can you introduce an equation?
Thanks in advance
It is easier for scientists engaged in nuclear fusion to switch careers to permanent motion, so it is recommended to switch careers.
- The three formulas in the figure are the dynamic basis of this perpetual motion machine.
- The only difficulty is charge binding: the diffusion process of charges from A to B requires a constrained electric or magnetic field. The difficulty of this constraint is relatively small compared to nuclear fusion, and it is easy for them to switch to making perpetual motion machines. Suggest transitioning to nuclear fusion and engaging in perpetual motion machines.
- Although some progress has been made in nuclear fusion, there are still many technical challenges and high costs.
- There are various ways to implement perpetual motion machines, not limited to this model.
I am trying to explain corrosion mechanisms in alloys through DFT. i wanna know which fundamental thermodynamic properties i need to calculate to explain corrosion in alloys.
- The correctness of scientific laws depends on quantitative prediction and experimental compliance, rather than relying on life experience and engineering experience.
- The two major expressions of the second law of thermodynamics are life experience and engineering experience. The core quantitative prediction is η= 1-T1/T2. The verification method is Method A in the figure (with quantitative prediction), but scientists extensively use Method B (without law prediction), indicating that seeking equilibrium in theory and experiment is actually cheating: concealing the inconsistency between the second law of thermodynamics and experiment. This violates scientific discipline and morality.
- Scientists possess a large amount of data, and if they used Method A (which is in line with scientific discipline and ethics), the Second Law of Thermodynamics would have been shattered long ago.
1）The first law of thermodynamics calculates the Carnot efficiency；
2）the second law of thermodynamics predicts: η= 1-T1/T2.
1）The first law: P=P (V, T), E=E (V, T) DE=Q-W==>η，Efficiency needs to be calculated and determined.
2）Second Law: Anti perpetual motion machine, guessing==>1-T1/T2.
1）The first law: E, P, W, Q ，η of the cyclic process can be obtained,
2）Second Law: Only efficiency can be obtained：η= 1-T1/T2.
- The uniqueness of natural science requires scientists to make choices.
- The second law of thermodynamics can only yield a single conclusion: η= 1-T1/T2（Meaningless--- lacking support from E, P, W, Q results.）Like an island in the ocean.
- In the figure, one gas is an ideal gas (dE1/dV1=0) and the other is a real gas (dE2/dV2 is not equal to 0), which can achieve heat transfer from low temperature to high temperature without consuming external energy. This is the second type of perpetual motion machine.
- Real gas (dE/dV not equal to 0). This is the simplest middle school physics knowledge.Middle school physics knowledge can defeat the second law of thermodynamics. Isn't this very funny?
- This field will produce Nobel Prizes, welcome to join.
Friends, I am using Gaussian 09 to calculate Bond dissociation energy (BDE). How to view the entropy of this molecule after optimizing its molecular structure
We cannot imagine the existence of classical and modern physics without Newton's second law in its general form.
Newton's second law is a hypothesis of universal law that does not need mathematical proof.
It is inherent in almost all theories of physics such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, Einstein's relativity and even the QM Schrödinger equation.
The famous Potential plus Kinetic law of conservation of mechanical energy, inherent in most formulas of QM and classical mechanics, is a form of Newton's law.
We would like to see a rigorous proof of the famous E = m c ^ 2 without Newton's second law. .
The unanswered question arises:
Can Schrödinger's PDE replace Newton's law of motion?
1-Quora Q/A, Does Newton's law of motion agree with the special theory of relativity?
When using Gaussian 16 to model a chemical reaction that occurred at 100 degrees Celsius with two reactants, should I include the temp=373 keyword during the thermodynamic calculations of species or during the transition state calculation? Additionally, if studying the reaction in a solvent, which dielectric constant should be considered? Dielectric constants can change with temperature, so how do I determine the appropriate value for the temperature at which the reaction occurred
Quantum computers have not led to an increase in information entropy. The information theory of the second law of thermodynamics is deceptive.
Quantum computers have not led to an increase in information entropy. The information theory of the second law of thermodynamics is deceptive.
- A perpetual motion machine is a concept of engineering and outcome. It plays a small role in the first law of thermodynamics, but in the second law of thermodynamics, perpetual motion machines have become the starting point of theory, greatly improving their status. When comparing the two, it can be found that the logic of the second law of thermodynamics is filled with experiential themes, lacking rational logic, and is a loss of the rational spirit of scientists.
- In practice, scientists extensively use method B in the figure to try to find a balance between theory and experiment. This kind of thing was originally invisible, but scientists treated it as a treasure. It's quite ironic.
- Originally a trial of the second law of thermodynamics, it has become a trial of scientists. I believe there will be a response from scientists.
I believe temperature T, pressure P and volume V are all measurable quantities. Entropy S is not measurable. Further, there is an uncertainty relation associated with temperature and energy. That is, temperature can only be measured by bringing a system into contact with another system of known temperature. However, energy can only be measured in an isolated system.
The second law of thermodynamics is difficult to solve the phase transition equilibrium of capillaries!
See pictures and links for details:
Article 1: To solve the static equilibrium of capillary liquid level.
It is almost impossible to solve the phase transition equilibrium of the capillary liquid surface. This is a test for the second law of thermodynamics.
Hello all dear
Solvent enthalpy, amount of condensate in terms of time, temperature before and after solvent evaporation
- η=η (T) =1-T1/T2 (excluding volume). E (V, T), P (V, T) contains volume, using η (T) Calculating E (V, T), P (V, T) does not match the experiment. This is in line with mathematical logic. The specific scientific calculations have changed their flavor. Please refer to the following figure for details
- η=η (T) =1-T1/T2 is about the ideal gas formula.
Discontinuity (artificially) of The Thermophysical Properties of NIST affects the second law of thermodynamics：
1) Scientists create Type 2 perpetual motion machines;
2) Scientists have discovered new laws of phase transition.
3) Scientists don't need to create a bunch of fake things for the second law of thermodynamics.
Hello all dear
The temperature of the vessel before being filled with solvent is 105 degrees, and after the solvent enters it, a certain amount evaporates and the temperature of the vessel decreases to 98.
Knowing the enthalpy of the solvent, how to calculate the volume of evaporated solvent?
Combining the pictures to see the logical flaws and deviations from the experiment of the second law of thermodynamics.
1，Please take a look at the picture: Compared to the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics is a pseudoscience: Perpetual motion machine is a result and engineering concept, which cannot be used as the starting point of theory (the second law)
2，In the second picture, the second law of thermodynamics was misused by scientists, indicating that this theory does not match the experiment.
3，The above two explanations indicate that the second type of perpetual motion machine exists. If you're not satisfied, you can read my other discussions or articles.
4，With the second type of perpetual motion machine, the energy and environmental crisis has been lifted. By using the electricity generated by perpetual motion machines to desalinate seawater, the Sahara desert will become fertile land, and there will be no food crisis. War and Poverty Will Move Away from Humanity
What is the equation that describes the relationship between Gibbs elasticity and elastic modulus in polymers?
This discussion addresses an important issue related to gases, which are known to be one of the fourth states of matter (gases, liquids, solids, and plasmas).
We learn from high school the ideal gas of equation of state, where particles are considered point particles, non-interacting, and massless (sometimes).
Even though using that simple model, many nontrivial questions that help to understand more complicated models can be answered for all Statistics, from the classical Gibbs and Maxwell Boltzmann distributions that obey Gaussian curves, where even degeneracy can be taken to be part of the exercise; to the more complicated Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; where quantum effects are unavoidable, even if the gas is considered a free gas of electrons, or bosons non-interacting quasiparticles.
But what happens when the expansion terms are higher than for a simple gas and interactions are taken into account?
"What classical and/or effects survive from the ideal gas model and what has to be modified?" arises.
The question can be addressed for statistical equilibrium thermodynamics but also can be part of non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics.
This science popularization thread will discuss some issues, as well as, some historical points in the development of this interesting subject, which belongs to exact and applied sciences as is the real gases issue.
Some new and old references cover some applied and theoretical aspects that will be addressed here. They are:
- "Statistical Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach" by John W. Daily. Cambridge University Press, 2019.
- "Thermodynamics Statistical Physics and Kinetics" by Yuri Rumer, and M.S. Ryvkin. Central Books LTD, 1981.
Generally, the rate of antioxidant reactions (activity) seem unrelated to total antioxidant effect (capacity); the latter is perhaps governed by thermodynamic considerations (pls. cf. redox reactions, Nernst equation etc.) and the complicated mess of real-world antioxidant reactions . This is one justification cited for combining both rate and end-point measurements in order to get more representative antioxidant evaluations. Consistent with this approach, there is the general chemistry principle which states: the kinetics and thermodynamic properties of reaction are unrelated . But why not? Some research (now quite old) shows that the rate of autoxidation reactions vary linearly as function of the net changes redox potential [ref. 3]. Marcus theory shows kinetic and thermodynamic "cross-overs" occur for single electron transfer reactions and (perhaps) other linear free energy relations [ref. 2]. Professor R.A. Marcus won the 1992 chemistry Nobel prize for the research completed initially in 1956; this model follows-on from Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory (cf. Activation free energy narrative) but in addition delta-G# is shown to be a function of Gibbs free energy (cf. delta-Go = n F Eo) plus a term for the solvent reorganization energy (L) – Marcus in brief!
Q1. Why is Marcus' theory not finding itself into standard chemistry texts?
Q2. Is there evidence for kinetics and thermodynamic cross-relations for single electron transfer reactions involving real-world antioxidants?.
this discussion was prompted by this post on the Marcus theory.
. Campos, A., Duran, N., Lopez-Alarcon, C., Lissi, E., 2012. Kinetic and stoichiometric evaluation of free radicals scavengers activities based on diphenyl-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) consumption. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society 57, 1381–1384. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000400010
. Silverstein, T.P., 2012. Marcus theory: thermodynamics CAN control the kinetics of electron transfer reactions. Journal of Chemical Education 89, 1159–1167.
. Kurimura, Y., Ochiai, R., Matsuura, N., 1968. Oxygen oxidation of ferrous Ions induced by chelation. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 41, 2234–2239. https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.41.2234
These two papers opposing the second law of thermodynamics received "recommendations" from 10 scholars. Welcome to read.
If you think it's good, give me a "recommendation" as well.
The original manuscript of this article is to answer some questions asked by Zhihu users, here added the second half of the content into the original manuscript, one for sharing, and the other to keep some views written casually, so as not to be lost, it may be useful in the future.
To talk about this problem under the topic of physics is because thermodynamics describes collective behavior and involves all levels. As far as the current situation of thermodynamics is concerned, classical thermodynamics + chemical thermodynamics seems more systematic, but it is not complete.
In comparison, thermodynamics is not as exquisite and rigorous as other theoretical systems of physics, the physical images of many concepts such as entropy, enthalpy and other thermodynamic potentials now are still unclear, and the mathematical transformations, from the perspective of physical meaning, cannot plainly shown what physical contents are transformed, the physical images of many derivatives, differentials, and equations are unclear, for instance, those derivatives, differentials cannot even distinguish between energy transfer and energy conversion.
The way classical thermodynamics is thought is also different from other systems of physics, the "subdivision" of the internal energy is not in place. We all know that the internal energy is the sum of different forms of energy within a given system, since there have different forms, then it should be classified, no, that's a pile. The description method is to see how much comes out through the heat transfer path, how much can come out through the work path, and calculate a total changes, the unique definitions are the parts that can be released in the form of work, called the thermodynamic potentials, when the path changed, one don't know whether they still are.
There is no even a basic classification of the internal energy, how to discuss the conversion between different forms of energy?
For example, a spontaneous chemical reaction, G decreases, S increases, but from the perspective of energy conversion, the answer by a professor of chemistry may not be as good as a liberal arts student who have studied a little in high school and forget most of it, the latter will most likely say that it is chemical energy converted into heat energy, although the terms are not professional, but the meaning of energy conversion is clear. The professors of chemistry know that G decreased, but they don't know what this decreased G turns into, there is no a complete narrative about energy conversion.
In the entire thermodynamic theoretical system, you can hardly find such a sensation, such as delicate, rigorous, physical image clarity, similar to that in the other theoretical systems of physics, and the appeasement philosophy is all over the place.
Statistical physics cannot independently establish equations for the relationships between thermodynamic state functions, relies on thermodynamics in the theoretical system, which also inherited the problems from thermodynamic theory. Statistical physics itself also brings more problems, for instance, statistical physics cannot explain such a process, an ideal gas does work to compress a spring, the internal energy of the ideal gas is converted into the elastic potential energy of the spring. If such simple, realistic problem cannot be explained, what are the use your statistical ensemble, phase spaces, the Poincaré recurrence theorem, mathematical transformations?
The thermodynamic direction maybe currently the last big chance in theoretical physics that can be verified or falsified, because it doesn't face the difficulties in other directions: you can write some dizzying mathematical equations, but maybe a century from now you don't know whether it's right or wrong.
Thermodynamics is the most grand theoretical system in the entire scientific system, a scientific system on natural evolution, although it is not yet complete, and has not yet risen to the level of fundamental theory, which provides a grand narrative of natural evolution, running through all levels.
Newton laws, Maxwell equations, Schrödinger equation, Hamiltonian dynamics, etc., for thermodynamics, that is only one law: the first law of thermodynamics, the law reveals the conservation of energy and conversion relationships of collective behavior at all levels and in all processes, the direction of change that the second law of thermodynamics described now has not been found in the dynamics of physics, will there be? there are some clues but not certain, because there is no corresponding theoretical framework.
The popular view of physicists on the conflict between time inversion symmetry of the fundamental process of dynamics and the second law is all wrong, the errors are: 1, confused the relationship between the fundamental laws, the theme that those dynamical equations discussed is the relation of conservation of energy, which correspond to the first law of thermodynamics, and the time inversion for the first law of thermodynamics is also symmetrical. 2, The symmetry of an equation and the symmetry of a phenomenon are two different concepts, the time inversion symmetry of the energy conservation equation only shows that energy conserve in past, present, and future, it does not explain whether the phenomenon itself is symmetrical in time inversion, the problem that the fundamental dynamic processes themselves are reversible or irreversible cannot be discussed by the equation of conservation of energy.
Have you noticed? in department of chemistry, one have to face the problem of time inversion asymmetry every day, and they also have dynamics, the chemical dynamics of time inversion asymmetry.
On the problem of irreversibility, those seemingly delicate, rigorous, time-inverse symmetrical physical systems are completely powerless, statistical physics is somewhat useful, such as explaining the diffusion phenomenon, calculating the number of collisions, its effective range has been limited by its theoretical postulates, the postulate of an equal probability determines that it is only valid for describing the processes tending to an equal probability distributions. In the framework of statistical physics, there is only one driving force of "change", tending to an equal probability distributions, the question is, the driving forces of "changes" in the real world around us are not only this one.
The second law of thermodynamics indicates that there are two different "dynamics": the physics of time inversion symmetry shows people a world without evolution, and the chemical dynamics of time inversion asymmetry shows us the different situations, whether the latter has universal sense at other levels is still unknown. From astrophysics to macroscopic, at least to the elementary particles level, all observed and confirmed results without exception strongly support the existence for the dynamics which are time inversion asymmetry, will it point to a final ending?
Let's take a look at the different thermodynamics?
The articles linked below show a new theoretical framework for thermodynamics that is different from what you can see in textbooks and other articles, and it also provides a new starting point for the study of a series of major problems.
Double gas Thermodynamic cycle achieves 100% efficiency of heat engine Keywords: entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, free energy, Condensed matter physics, theoretical physics.
[[ lfh note: This question has been hijacked by mistakenly celebrating a very non-responsive lecture on turbulence with Popular Answers. The lecture is even placed before discussion of the question. In my opinion it was without malice by RG or the person who posted it. Please read that "answer" on Page 4 below after reading actual discussion and clarification of the question, because the lecture is good history. ]]
[Original question comment] I think that the process of flow curvature formation at any scale in a fluid requires a pressure gradient across the curvature. The result outside the curve is increased internal thermal energy there. During subsequent decay of the curved flow, the curving kinetic energy fills the low pressure inside the curvature.
Carnot efficiency=1-T1/T2<==>dE/dV=(dP/dT) * T-P. The accuracy of the second law of thermodynamics requires accurate E=E (V, T), P=P (V, T). Now, as long as you know that E is a function of volume, you can verify the correctness of the second law of thermodynamics.The second law of thermodynamics will be exposed to sunlight.
Please refer to the attachment and link for details.
Dual gas Carnot cycle: heat is transferred from low temperature to high temperature without consuming external energy
I have come across this term several times. want to know the thermodynamic principle behind this. Can anyone suggest me suitable literatures in this regard?
The second law of thermodynamics does not match the experiment, so scientists provide an explanation or make some adjustments. The maintenance cost of the second law of thermodynamics is really expensive. The first law of thermodynamics does not have such maintenance costs.
The second law of thermodynamics is not a fundamental science.
Here is a case study：In 1950, American scientists tested 10-30 times the prediction of the second law of thermodynamics.The change in capillary vapor pressure: The experiment is 10 to 30 times the second law of thermodynamics (Kelvin formula). Is the Second Law of Thermodynamics a pseudoscience?
Please refer to the pictures and literature links for details.
For Methane dry reforming reaction (DRM), why do people try to avoid operating the reaction in thermodynamic equilibrium conversion?
Question: The measured decomposition voltage of HBr is less than the reversible voltage, and the prediction of the second law of thermodynamics is exactly the opposite. Do you have any other examples that do not comply with the second law of thermodynamics (prompt: in Physical Chemistry)?
The following is the answer from ChatGPT:
I apologize for my previous response which might have been incorrect. The relationship between experimentally measured decomposition potential and reversible potential does not necessarily always conform simultaneously to the predictions of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, Faraday's laws and the Nernst equation. Thus, decomposition reactions with lower measured potentials do not necessarily indicate that some decomposition reactions do not conform to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
In addition to the example of HBr, other anti-thermodynamic reversible reactions like the electrochemical deposition of thallium, where the reaction enthalpy is negative, also violate the prediction of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Moreover, in cases involving biochemical reactions, some enzymes drive high entropy reactions (i.e. different types of molecules are combined to form larger, more complex molecules) by consuming energy molecules such as ATP, which is also an example of a violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
However, it is important to note that these examples do not mean that the Second Law of Thermodynamics is incorrect, but rather that it is not applicable to all chemical reactions in the real world.
By pushing the boundaries of conventional thermodynamic cycles, exploring new materials, and embracing sustainable technologies, I, as a researcher, can aim to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion processes beyond the limits imposed by the Carnot cycle. This research, coupled with my passion and dedication, has the potential to revolutionize energy utilization and make a significant impact on our quest for sustainable solutions. In this pursuit, I welcome and value all suggestions from fellow researchers as we collaborate toward advancing our understanding and unlocking new possibilities in this field.
The decomposition voltage is less than the reversible voltage. The second law of thermodynamics is wrong again.See screenshot for details
This is the content from university textbooks, and scientists have been humiliated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
At which condition will the entropy of a pure solid be zero and what is the first law of thermodynamics according to Clausius?
In what flow of energy is unidirectional fill in the blank and unidirectional flow of energy in an ecosystem is in keeping with the first law of thermodynamics?
The change in capillary vapor pressure: The experiment is 10 to 30 times the second law of thermodynamics (Kelvin formula). Is the Second Law of Thermodynamics a pseudoscience?
Please refer to the pictures and literature links for details.
Many researchers correlate their experimental data in an equation by various dimensionless parameters like Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and so on for the thermal and hydraulic performance of a particular working fluid of heat exchanger. For the development of correlation of boiling and condensation heat transfer in a plate heat exchanger which are the most important dimensionless numbers?
How many data points are minimally required to develop a standard correlation?
Type 2 perpetual motion machines help humans achieve stellar civilization and eliminate it
Humans can only approach planetary level civilizations now. The following image shows the existence of type 2 perpetual motion machines, making travel and life within the solar system easier and safer.
The design of this perpetual motion machine has been recommended by two PhDs. If you support it, please provide a 'recommendation'.
What is the significance of the perpetual motion machine, the Russo Ukrainian War, and possibly the Third World War? Scientists should take on their own mission, and the key is that perpetual motion machines are indeed analyzable.
As shown in Figure 1:
1. The second type of perpetual motion machine is derived from the first law of thermodynamics, which is the opposite of the second law of thermodynamics. From a theoretical and logical perspective, the two are contradictory.
2. The second law of thermodynamics mainly relies on empirical induction (position B in the figure):
2.1 Engineering experience: The perpetual motion machine has failed many times.
2.2. Dynamic experience: Elephants rush into porcelain shops; From life to death.
3. The correct method to oppose the second type of perpetual motion machine should be at position A in the figure, which is to prove through theoretical physics that the first law of thermodynamics cannot deduce the second type of perpetual motion machine.
4. Scientists have discovered a large number of cases: the second law of thermodynamics does not comply with experiments, as detailed in the link:
5. By constructing thermodynamic cycles, it is possible to transfer heat from a low-temperature heat source to a high-temperature heat source without consuming external energy. Please refer to the link for details:
I am trying to understand the difference between these potential energy and free energy landscapes like how these surfaces can be created and what kind of information can be drawn from these two landscapes.
The phrase in the Title line imitates Karl Popper’s All Life is Problem Solving.
Since thermodynamics plays a role in life processes, it was surprising that searching “All life is thermodynamics” on Google on August 16, 2022 gave no results.
Don’t organisms seek to optimize and preserve the entropy of their internal energy distribution? And to optimize their use of energy and outcomes based on energy inputs? Aren’t survival and procreation ways of preserving previous products of energy use?
Is there justification for the statement, All life is thermodynamics? Or is the statement too simple to convey any insight?
Schrodinger in What is Life referred to thermodynamics, statistical mechanics; chapter 6 is Order, Disorder and Entropy. And more recently there is: J. Chem. Phys. 139, 121923 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4818538 Statistical physics of self-replication by Jeremy England.
Under the conditions recognized by the second law of thermodynamics, the second type of perpetual motion machine can still be realized.
According to the second law of thermodynamics, if the Carnot efficiency of the working medium is "1-T1/T2", the second type of permanent machine cannot be realized. Therefore, it can be deduced that "dE/dV=(dP/dT) * T-P --- (1)"
Let's assume that
P=RT/V+a/V/V. da/dT=0; （2）
Meet (Formula 1), or (Carnot efficiency="1-T1/T2")
Substituting Equations (2) and (3) into the thermodynamic cycle in the following image, you will find that heat is transferred from low temperature to high temperature without consuming external energy.
I am working on CFD simulation of detonation of hydrogen and air. I am using a particular reaction mechanism for my simulation using Chemkin.
I searched for different thermodynamic data (.DAT files) in chemkin format needed to solve the reaction. I came across multiple thermodynamic (.DAT) files like GRI.dat, etc.
How to know which thermodynamic data to use for detonation? Is there any particular .dat file or thermodynamic data used for detonation?
I would appreciate the help.
Is there a way to calculate the Boltzmann weighted average of thermodynamic properties calculated using the hsa_gist command of the SSTMap tool?
· Cryodynamics as a fundamental science was glimpsed by Zwicky in 1929
· Cryodynamics is the sister to Yakov Sinai’s deterministic Thermodynamics
· Cryodynamics confirms Zwicky’s global constancy of c from 1929
· Cryodynamics restores Saint Augustine’s eternal metabolizing cosmos
· Cryodynamics alters the properties of black holes
· Micro black holes are stable, uncharged and can eat earth inside out
· CERN’s official attempt to produce them is a risk to life for all
· A planet-wide IQ problem is in charge since 1929
· Stockholm loses ten Nobel medals
· The convictions even of large scientific groups can be marred
Oct. 12, 2020