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Thermal Comfort - Science topic

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I'm working on adaptive thermal comfort (CIBSE TM52 / TM59). Calculating the running mean temperature using the formula Trm= 0.2Te(d-1) + 0.16Te(d-2) + 0.128Te(d-3) ... is giving me values for Trm significantly lower than the previous daily averages (Te(d-1), Te(d-2) etc).
From the formula this makes sense as we're adding 0.2 + 0.16 + 0.128 etc which is significantly less than 1.
But intuitively, this doesn't make sense. Shouldn't the running mean temperature be much closer to the previous few days' mean temperatures?
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In fact, the exponentially weighted running mean temperature proposed by Nicol and Huphreys (see attached file) converges very slowly. For the recommended value α=0,8 (the one you used), the sum of the first 33 coefficients is 0,84, and the sum is only 0.75 if limited to the 10 first members. However, if the "simplified" formula
Θrm = (1- α)Θed -1 + α. Θrm-1
is used, the running mean temperature tends to the the average temperature after about 20 days if the dayly mean temperatures are constant. If the dayly mean temperatures increased in the past days, the running mean temperature is larger than the average temperature of the past days. At the contrary, if the dayly mean temperatures decreased in the past days, the running mean temperature is smaller than the average temperature.
Conclusion: Use the so-called simplified formula, introducing the dayly average temperature of the first day for Θed -1and the average tempertaure of the first two days for Θrm-1 in the first use of the equation above.
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I study on some kind of infrared barrier and I don't know how to calculate normalized reflectance spectra weighted by human body radiation?
For example you can see results of this article but authors did not mention the calculation method:
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I'm researching on the comparative analysis of the different waste-based innovations in the Philippines but the existing materials do not have information on its thermal properties. Is there any testing center in the Philippines that specializes in testing for thermal properties or maybe thermal comfort?
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Sorry, I don't know any testing lab in the Philipines, but the attached hadndbook may helpo you or any lab to do the job.
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It is known that a small room without ventilation keeps air temperature higher than large room. Is there any published evidence about that?
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I agree with Harimi Djamila, Nagalakshmi Radhakrishnan and Maryam Iranfar.
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how to design a questionnaire for thermal comfort for a residential population residing in various streets to compare ?
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Step 1 - decide on your research hypothesis and research question(s).
Step 2 - based on what your hypothesis and questions are, make a rough idea of what kind of feedback you need from people
Step 3 - check out publications that have done similar studies and use their questionnaire to fine tune the language of your questions
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I need at least two software which can simulate the shading properties of semi-outdoor spaces and thermal comfort conditions of those spaces. Beside Envi-Met, which one is capable to express these inputs with PET?
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Dear Danial,
RayMan software simulates external thermal comfort through the PET index.
Below are article instructions.
Hope this helps.
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It must be:
first / for free.
Second / it calculates both thermal comfort and indoor air quality.
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I think you can use Ladybug tools plugins
they are free and easy to use
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Apparently, the existing adaptive models were developed for offices and schools.
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Leandro Carlos Fernandes came across this paper and hope so this might be of your use as well
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I'm planning on doing research about the relationship between city components (like buildings, streets, open areas, vegetation and etc.) and the thermal comfort of a city.
I would like to know there are any special methods, software for this.
Thank you.
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Нужно определиться с субъектом теплового комфорта. Кто определяет, что субъекту комфортно? Как определить числом состояние комфорта? Если человек находится в помещении, показатели комфорта определены стандартом. Комфорт в городе - часто оценочное суждение. Нет четкого критерия.
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Dear colleagues,
Does anyone know if there is any rainfall threshold (mm/year, month or day, etc.) for a city to be considered "rainy" or "very rainy"? Or the rainfall intensity thresholds (weak, moderate, heavy, etc.)? Are there any international standards, for example from ISO or another institution? If there is a reference to support it, it will help better.
Ditto for wind speed thresholds (m/s or kt) for a place to be considered "windy". Does anyone know any references?
Thank you in advance for your attention.
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Dear Christiano,
The concept of Precipitation Concentration is crucial to understand the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitations. Many authors define thresholds which mostly converge: the most common (you can find in the following open access article) are :
Wet day: >= 1mm/day
Heavy wet day: >= 10mm/day
Extreme wet day: >= 50mm/day
Best regards,
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Hello all! I want to simulate a DSF on a hot arid climate which is consists of interior shades in its cavity, so I need to calculate its effects on thermal comfort. I would greatly appreciate it if you kindly give me some solution or know any honeybee component which helps me on this occasion.
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I am looking for a public available 3D building model dataset, BIM with sensor data for temperature, humidity, occupancy, and others IAQ parameters. This will be helpful with thermal comfort-related research. A proper citation will be given to original source.
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I guess you can use RETScreen Expert Software.
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im using the google engine and i need calculated mean radiant temperature from reanalises datas and i need the formula
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I am currently working on my MSc dissertation with a focus on 'Impacts of urban surfaces i.e. roof surface, pavement surface and vegetation on urban micro-climate in hot arid regions'.
Envi-met simulation software was used to predict the air temperature of the micro-climate. However, due to the software's limitations the surface air temperature of the roof can not be calculated.
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Hi dear Farah.
Climate Consultant software
Climatic studies include reviewing the climate file and providing diagrams and data related to temperature change, amount of radiation and sunlight, etc. , This software is a graphic-based computer application that helps architects, students, etc. to better understand the climate of their desired location and be able to analyze it. , For sustainable design and design of zero energy buildings, we need climate design, which this software leads us to this goal. , This software uses 8760 hours of annual data in EPW format recorded by meteorological stations.
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In outdoor space, can the Tmrt (mean radiante temperature) be lower than Ta (air temperature), and if it's the case, when or why can this happend?
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Outdoor thermal comfort autonomy (OTCA) is one of the recently introduced induced for climate-conscious urban design. I was wondering if this new outdoor comfort metric has been embedded in the new versions of Ladybug Tools? Otherwise, I would really appreciate receiving your suggestion regarding the post-processing of data for the computation of OTCA.
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Ladybug tools is a good tool for rough macro-scale comfort calculations for outdoor spaces.
this is commonly done using the UTCI index, which you will find it by searching on GH canvas.
You can take a look at this tutorial series:
You may also find about 7-10 GH algorithms for different aspects of outdoor comfort calculations at:
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I am working on a study that needs to assess thermal comfort at the interior spaces of buildings as well as their surrounding urban space. As far as I know, Envi-met is the most suitable software for this goal, while most simulation tools analyze thermal comfort particularly on indoor or outdoor spaces. I was wondering if there's any tool that simultaneously analyzes thermal comfort in both types of space.
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To the extent of my knowledge, there is not a single tool or common workflow for this purpose, but you can build up your own workflow with a custom Rhino>Grasshopper algorithm using Dragonfly(probably the legacy version for the ENVI-MET calculations) and Honeybee, both from https://Ladybug.tools.
I recommend you to start building this workflow and/or ask your questions on https://discourse.ladybug.tools. there are main developers as well as professional users from both sides (indoor/outdoor) who can help you with the technical issues of this interesting project of yours.
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Dear academic community,
I am a young researcher from architectural background. I am looking for possible novel approaches to evaluate outdoor thermal comfort in urban streets using artificial neural networks...suggestions regarding novel techniques, academic papers featuring research gap/future avenues and any link regarding this would be a great help!
Thank you !
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Looking at the academic director Scopus. I can form for you a list of investigations that could be useful in your investigation. The list is ordered from highest to lowest index of citations within the Scopus academic directory. Only article-type scientific contributions are considered in this list.
  • Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: Analysis across different European countries
  • Shading effect on long-term outdoor thermal comfort
  • Impact of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality from field measurements in Curitiba, Brazil
  • The influence of trees and grass on outdoor thermal comfort in a hot-arid environment
  • Outdoor thermal comfort within five different urban forms in the Netherlands
  • The influence of urban design on outdoor thermal comfort in the hot, humid city of Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Studies of outdoor thermal comfort in northern China
  • Seasonal effects of urban street shading on long-term outdoor thermal comfort
  • Outdoor thermal comfort study in a sub-tropical climate: A longitudinal study based in Hong Kong
  • Thermal comfort conditions of shaded outdoor spaces in hot and humid climate of Malaysia
  • Effect of thermal adaptation on seasonal outdoor thermal comfort
  • Outdoor thermal comfort in the Mediterranean area. A transversal study in Rome, Italy
  • Urban microclimate and outdoor thermal comfort. A proper procedure to fit ENVI-met simulation outputs to experimental data
  • Study on the outdoor thermal environment and thermal comfort around campus clusters in subtropical urban areas
  • Potential changes in outdoor thermal comfort conditions in Gothenburg, Sweden due to climate change: The influence of urban geometry
  • Psychological and physical impact of urban green spaces on outdoor thermal comfort during summertime in The Netherlands
  • Numerical simulation studies of the different vegetation patterns' effects on outdoor pedestrian thermal comfort
  • A new method to assess spatial variations of outdoor thermal comfort: Onsite monitoring results and implications for precinct planning
  • Outdoor thermal comfort in a hot and humid climate of Colombia: Afield study in Barranquilla
  • Outdoor thermal comfort and activities in the urban residential community in a humid subtropical area of China
  • Outdoor thermal comfort under subarctic climate of north Sweden – A pilot study in Umeå
  • Part A: Assessing the performance of the comfa outdoor thermal comfort model on subjects performing physical activity
  • Urban microclimate analysis with consideration of local ambient temperature, external heat gain, urban ventilation, and outdoor thermal comfort in the tropics
  • Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective
  • Evaluation of outdoor thermal comfort in sunlight, building shade, and pergola shade during summer in a humid subtropical region
  • Simultaneous environmental parameter monitoring and human subject survey regarding outdoor thermal comfort and its modelling
  • Investigation into the differences among several outdoor thermal comfort indices against field survey in subtropics
  • Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador
  • Investigation into sensitivities of factors in outdoor thermal comfort indices
  • Analysis of microclimatic diversity and outdoor thermal comfort perceptions in the tropical megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh
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Dear All, I have a scientific question which I hope you help me through: There is a class room (Volume = 210m3), which had Co2 value of 420 ppm and temperature 17°C when nobody existed in it and all windows were closed, after 30 minutes there was some students in the room, where co2 value reached 1200 ppm and temperature increased 1°C while windows are still closed, There is an equation in the german code which applies the variables: volume flow rate, co2 and number of people. I have tried to apply this equation but it doesn't work if volume flow rate or number of occupants = 0. What I know is that a student generates heat = 70 W. how do you think such a problem could be solved ? Best regards
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1. Initial CO2 levels at 420 ppm, close to atmospheric levels. Implies indoors was at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 levels. This does not add extra information.
2. Using heat balance to get the answer is quite difficult since students are not the only heat source in that room
3. Assuming 1200 ppm is what you get at equilibrium (that is, the CO2 value plateaus out), outdoors is 420 ppm, and students are engaged in typical class work (near sedentary) gives their CO2 emission rate of about 0.0052 L per second (for every student)
4. This will give the ventilation per student is ~6.7L/s [= 0.0052/(1200-420)] - remember 1200 and 420 are in parts per million, so a factor of 10e6
5. If you had a count of students this time, you can estimate total outdoor air entering into the room.
6. Next time you have students in the classroom, you can estimate from the measured CO2 value and the outdoor air ventilation rte you estimated in step 5 the number of students there are.
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Hi,
I would like to know if it's possible to combine the factor loadings in two different components?
The research is related to thermal comfort and the variables in both components are related to thermal stress in outdoors.
The variables have been standardised and four components received with oblique rotation. The components I want to amalgamate is to temperature and the other is related to wind climate.
Would want to create a single scale combining these factor loadings in both components.
Your input is much appreciated.
Thank you.
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@Kasun Perera you can not combine factor loadings of the two separate variables. Each factor has its own score and loading to be used in explaining the exploratory analysis. But you can combine the % variances of the first two components in explaining the total variance in the entire data set.
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I have temperature and percipitation data for some years and I would like to examine the thermal comfort of the region. In my knoledge even the calculation of the simpliest indices requires Relative Humidity or dew point..
Is there any bioclimatic index that I can estimate with my data?
Αlternatively, can I estimate relative hummidity or dew point from percipitation data?
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Francesco De Luca Thank you very much.
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Dear all,
Which are the most applicable models to analyze the energy effect and thermal comfort?
Models applies especially to occupant-controlled, natural conditioned spaces, where the outdoor climate can actually affect the indoor conditions and so the comfort zone
Many thanks in advance
Elena
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You can find a good summary of the thermal comfort standards we use in our research in this paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/22/9630
It includes criteria for naturally and mechanically ventilated, both with fixed threshold and adaptative models.
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I am looking for a formula to calculate specific temperature drop in duct based on airflow, knowing the specific power loss, airflow, thermal properties of the duct, and air temperatures. The goal is to be able to produce the graph attached.
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I can digitize the curves and obtain a formula that will accurately reproduce them if that would help. It doesn't tell why or reveal the basis but it's something, perhaps a step toward achieving the ultimate goal.
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Indoor environmental quality depends on thermal comfort, Indoor air quality, visual comfort and acoustics. There is a hierarchy of importance among these factors. Thermal comfort and air quality affects IEQ most. I want to know how much visual quality and acoustics contribute to IEQ
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I agree with Sepideh Korsavi
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I am working on a project relevant with Air/Surface temperature.
I was wondering if there is a equation for calculating the surface temperature.
I am curious of using air temperature and heat budget of the place in the target cell of the domain.
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Good Day to All
I am doing my theses on Urban Heat Island i want to calculate the effect of street geometry and surface treatment on Urban Heat Island
Can u please suggest me how i can calculate theses features.
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How can we restore the initial conditions of thermal comfort in a historic building (built heritage)?
We know that materials change their physical behavior because of their mishandling over time.
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These scientific contributions answer your questions from different perspectives. I hope this information is useful to you.
  • Effects of future climate change on the preservation of artworks, thermal comfort and energy consumption in historic buildings
  • Energy effciency, thermal comfort, and heritage conservation in residential historic buildings as dynamic and systemic socio-cultural practices
  • Evaluation of thermal comfort in a historic building refurbished to an office building with modernized HVAC systems
  • Assessing visitors’ thermal comfort in historic museum buildings: Results from a Post-Occupancy Evaluation on a case study
  • Thermal performance evaluation and comfort assessment of advanced aerogel as blown-in insulation for historic buildings
  • Energy efficiency and thermal comfort in historic buildings: A review
  • Refurbishment of historic buildings: Thermal mass modified, its influence on indoor comfort, energy efficiency and heritage value
  • The use of computerized energy simulations in assessing thermal comfort and energy performance of historic buildings
  • The use of computerized energy simulations in assessing thermal comfort and energy performance of historic buildings
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Based on your experiences, how we can increase in the developing countries - like Palestine - the awareness of architects & designers toward the energy used in their design and people in their living spaces? The big problem here is they believe that using the energy efficient solutions and stratigies in their design will increase its cost.
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These two scientific contributions will allow you to form a clear idea of the possible answers to your question. I hope this information is of great use to you.
  • Methods used in social sciences that suit energy research: A literature review on qualitative methods to assess the human dimension of energy use in buildings
  • The human dimensions of energy use in buildings: A review
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How can I use R statistical tool to find PMV / PPD thermal comfort model? Is there any other statistical tool for the thermal comfort model?
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You can use the comf package maintained by Marcel Schweiker who is also one of the authors of this package developed for R environment
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Can I couple IES-VE with other tools like MATLab or Modelica?
My research is focused on control for better thermal comfort and indoor air quality. So I want to use MATlab or Modelica, it will be helpful if it can be coupled with IES-VE by any mean.
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Dear Joshua Vasudevan,
Good question related to my current research,
I am doing all this work usind MATLAB Software simulink.
If you have any question feel free to contact me.
This link will help you for more information.
Thanks.
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I am looking for some technical content focused on studying the impact of conducting post occupancy evaluations and how POEs have helped in improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency post occupancy? It will be great if anyone can provide some leads.
Thanks in advance,
Priyam
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Within two European project, we performed POE of offices and residential buildings, and from these audits we learnt a lot , providing good bases for lectures to engineers and architects aiming to improve the indoor environment quality (IEQ) and energy performance of buildings. One of these documents is the attached Guidelines. The knowledge got from these audits also helped to draft new standards on IEQ in several of the participating countries.
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Energy consumption has been one of the most burning topic, and building(residential and commercial) consumes energy in excessive amount. Switching to Rat Trap Bond improves the thermal comfort, minimizes energy loss, emits less carbon-dioxide and is more economical. Similarly, introducing pitched roof can also contribute to thermal comfort and energy saving.
What building components when taken into account can contribute to energy saving?
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Construction and use of buildings is responsible for 39% of global energy-related emissions, according to the World Green Building Council – so a more sustainable approach is crucial as we fight to reach net zero carbon emissions as soon as possible. But focusing on sustainability can also create places we are truly happy to live, work and play in. Buildings that are more comfortable, more beautiful, and that reconnect us with nature.
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Have experimental value of air velocity, air temperatue...etc. Is there any software to predict PMV and PPD in Thermal comfort by had parameters include air temperature, radiant temperature, air velocity and RH?
or
Is it better way to create program in visual basic (VB)
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You can alternatively use the Python package called: pythermalcomfort (https://pypi.org/project/pythermalcomfort/) which allows you to calculate many thermal comfort indexes such as the PMV, PPD, SET, etc. You can access the official documentation using this link: https://pythermalcomfort.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
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Hello,
Does anyone have electronic version of 2017 ASHRAE Handbook and AHSRAE standard 55? It would be a great help if someone can share these two useful tools. My email address is lmhtongji@berkeley.edu. Thanks a lot!
Best regards,
Maohui
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Dear followers,
Thanks for your trust and help to share the ASHRAE handbook. I have sent the book to over 30 requests individually by email. For the convenience of future requests, you can find the book through the link below. If you have problems to open the link, welcome to give me an email.
Best regards,
Maohui
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Please complete this questionnaire
Name:
Age:
Office type: Open space office/closed office
HVAC system: Yes/No
Natural ventilated NV: Yes/No
Season: Winter/Summer
Climate zone:
Thermal comfort scale
-3 Cold
+2 Cool
+1 Slightly cool
0 Comfotable, Neutral
+1 Slightly warm
+2 Warm
+3 Hot
Thank you a lot.
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Name: Roulet Claude-Alain
Age: 79
Office type: closed office
HVAC system: Yes Heating only, by radiators
Natural ventilated NV: Yes
Season: Winter
Climate zone: Central europe (Swiss Plateau)
Thermal comfort scale
0 Comfortable, Neutral
Thank you a lot.
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I'd like to calculate an outdoor indicator of comfort from a weather station network. My input values avalaible are :
- infrared solar flux
- direct normal irradiance
- wind speed
- air temperature
- humidity
Bests
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You might get an answer to your question more quickly at unmethours.com
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universal thermal climate index(UTCI)and physiological equivalent tempetaure(PET), which is commonly used in the evaluation of the thermal comfort of the human body?
My thesis is about the renewal of the old city. There are many ways to evaluate the thermal comfort of the human body. I picked two, and I don't know which is the most suitable. The individual will have a better understanding of the PET, but it's like UTCI is the most perfect.
I hope the expert can give the answer. THANKS
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use questionnaire survey on thermal comfort feelings of users
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I am doing a research about interactive spaces in universities buildings, and I wish to measure this interaction by analyzing several variables that shape the interactive space including: visual connection, thermal comfort, daylight, furniture, circulation.
I wish to do this study by measuring these variable using Grasshopper in Rhino.
The point is that I can measure the environmental variables by ladybug but if I want to measure the non- physical variables, do you recommend any plugin?
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Here you may receive very good amswers but Grasshopper3d.com is , in my opinion, the best place to ask your question. You might want to use physical sensors, real cameras, so on and so forth. See the link below as an example. You might benefit asking people there who share similar interests.
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Generally in the third world countries,whenever infrastructure are planned to be constructed or renovated the concept of thermal comfort has been neglected. Even research and project carried out regarding this topic is less emphasized. Thermal comfort has not been included in many curriculum as well.Is it really important to consider this factor while designing or constructing any structure and how important is it?
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The thermal factor is very important in the design of buildings. This parameter defines the habitability or not of a building. In addition, the thermal factor influences 40% to 60% of the total energy consumption of the building. This factor has a direct impact on the quality of the interior environment and the health of the users of the building.
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Which role takes the skin temperature and skin moisture level between skin and clothing layer in, in terms of performance level output?
I measured and evaluated skin temperature and skin moisture level during cycling with different cycling clothing setups on different participants. Since sweating is an individual property of each athlete, I'm trying to find a calculation or statements on which microclimate (between clothing and skin) is best fitted for the energy output of an individual athlete under specific environmental conditions.
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He suggested building and standardizing tests to measure the desired variable
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I am conducting my PhD research and I would like to do some onsite field measurements which include temperature, relative humdity and global radiation. I plan to do these measurements for long time period ( 15 day) ... Any suggestions for a good affordable ones ?!
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Dear Wesam:
The option of Mr. Liu seems to be very fair, the HOBO seems to be a robust device to work with measurements outdoors on-site.
In addition to it, I want to share a little of my experience:
When I had to take daily measurements of the Total Solar Global Irradiance, outdoors, on-site, I used an Apogee Pyranometer, it is a very handy equipment, very transportable, easy to set up on almost any surface (you can order it with its leveling pate), and reliable enough, and very affordable.
I recomend you the SILICON-CELL option
You can plug the output of the pyranometer to a datalogger, and leave it recording the date for several hours
You can calibrate it with a simple software they have up on their webpage. And, if you can get access to a nearby meteorological weather station you can check your measurements with the constant-recorded station's data.
I think it was around USD 300.00 , in the past, not sure now
Regards ! :)
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Informations
What are the keys of thermal comfort in your office?
Describe your office how it is,
If you need to use an HVAC system,
What about your adaptation?
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Dear Ahmed,
I can say that my office is very uncomfortable in summer because there is no thermal insulation or sun breezes without adding that it is well oriented towards the sun (East-West), so intense radiation and great heat which really requires the continued use of air conditioning.
Best regards.
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Since Gagge proposed the concept of Standard Effective Temperature (SET), it has been modified many times. Even the defination of the standard environment of SET is disunified. What is the recognized definition of a standard equivalent environment? How to consider the metabolic rate and the related standard clothing in the standatd environment ?Is the version in ASHRAE Standard 55 realiable? What's the better version in practice to reflect the synthetic effects of several input parameters?
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CBE Thermal Comfort Tool considers the ASHRAE standard 55-2017.
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I have found some thermal comfort assessments included the survey of respondents' micro-climate control. May I know what is the importance of these questions and how does it link with the result of their thermal responses and comfort perceptions?
Looking forward for your sharing.
Thank you.
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Thank you for your shares Dr Mehdi
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For air-conditioned buildings, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) model calculates a comfort score ranging from -3 (cold) to 0 (neutral) to 3 (hot).
For naturally ventilated buildings, the adaptive thermal comfort model (ATC) model calculates an indoor design temperature, around which a range is defined as comfortable for 80% (or 90%) of people.
Is there a way to compare these two different comfort metrics?
For example, if I simulate a space to be air-conditioned and determine a PMV of 1.5 at a given time, then I simulate the same space to be naturally ventilated and determine the indoor temperature to be 4K over the design temperature - in which scenario is the occupant more comfortable?
Asked another way: when using the ATC model, can I use the difference between the indoor temperature and the design temperature to determine a comfort score based on the same 7 point scale as the PMV model, in order to enable a direct comparison?
Kind regards,
Max
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Dear Max,
We have used different survey's scales to investigate the accuracy of thermal comfort votes.
Maybe the following papers would be useful for you.
Hope you find your answer in them,
"A satisfaction-range approach for achieving thermal comfort level in a shared office"
"Investigating Occupancy-Driven Air-Conditioning Control Based on Thermal Comfort Level"
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What are the assumptions that should be used for IES-VE software when I want to simulate a 2 storey house in the tropical climate to calculate air temperature and relative humidity inside the house?
thanks
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there is a IES VE support group may able to help you. https://www.iesve.com/support/contact
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Informations
What are the keys of thermal comfort in your office?
Describe your office how it is,
If you need to use an HVAC system,
What about your adaptation?
Your age, Sexe, positoin,
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Being able to perform office task without transpiration.
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Considering the importance of the variable relative humidity, it is expected that adaptive models emerge that contemplate it in some way as an explanatory variable.
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Dear Leandro,
I copy below an answer I have given to a very similar question asking for adaptive comfort model and wind speed:
There is my ATHB approach, which combines
A) PMV and adaptive model (Schweiker, M. and Wagner, A., 2015. A framework for an adaptive thermal heat balance model (ATHB). Building and Environment, 94(Part 1), pp.252–262.),
B) SET and adaptive model (Schweiker, M. and Wagner, A., 2017. Influences on the predictive performance of thermal sensation indices. Building Research & Information, [online] 45(7), pp.745–758. ) or
C) TNZ and adaptive model (Schweiker, M., Huebner, G.M., Kingma, B.R.M., Kramer, R. and Pallubinsky, H., 2018. Drivers of diversity in human thermal perception – A review for holistic comfort models. Temperature, [online] pp.1–35. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2018.1534490>.).
As such, you can model adaptive effects together with the influence of air velocity, clothing insulation level and other factors available in PMV, SET, or TNZ. Still all versions are based on limited data and would require further validation, so that you are of course free to use them, but should carefully check your results.
All of those models above are implemented in the R package comf (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/comf/index.html) - check the following in R
?calcATHB for help
calcATHBpmv for equations of PMV application
calcATHBset for equations of SET application
?calcTNZPDF or calcTNZPDF for help on TNZ application or its equations
Let me know in case you have further questions or problems to use the R package.
Marcel
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The question is about indoor thermal comfort studies and the different climatic zones.
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Dear Ahmad,
As per the my concern.
  • The study of different research papers in which they covered their existing climate zone to achieve their research objectives. You can cover the Climate Zone according to your research objective.
  • For the indoor thermal comfort study in different climate zone, sometimes play a significant role and sometimes not. It depends on the existing indoor environmental condition like ventilation, air-supply system etc. and sometimes seasonal variation is also a significant impact on this.
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I have a few factors like temperature, humidity, radiation and thermal characteristics that affect thermal comfort inside a building. Now, I need the thermal simulation for a model in Ansys.
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Following.
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Is there a good calibrated sensor that you would recommend to measure the Mean radiant temperature? Something that will let me connect to a computer and record the data over time. It would be better if I could connect the sensor to an Arduino/Raspberry pi and get the sensor measurements.
I did find some systems that can record the data to a SD card so I can import it into my computer later but I could not find something that enabled me to get the readings in real time to analyze them.
It would be better if it is not very expensive (<$100).
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I'm sorry Ashrant Aryal, but my paper is not yet published in English.
I attached a paper from another researcher, but with the method I used in my study.
Best regards!
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I have several factors like temperature, humidity, radiation and natural ventilation (wind speed) that affect thermal comfort in my CFD model. Now, I need the thermal comfort results (PMV) for my office model in Ansys Fluent. I don't know how to use the abovementioned factors to get it.
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Thank you Mr Asit Mishra
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As I understand, adaptive thermal comfort is calculated as a function of prevailing outdoor temperature. Inputting this value returns a fairly large comfort range, based on the fact that occupants can take adaptive measures (clothing change, opening windows, etc.).
I am currently testing natural ventilation simulations, to explore how building design can affect comfort. Air speed in a building is an important factor - two naturally ventilated buildings in the same location but different air speeds will be perceived differently.
Is there a way to make this explicit? I.e., is there a formula that adds wind speed as a parameter to the adaptive thermal comfort model, or is there a different model for this altogether?
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Dear Max,
There is my ATHB approach, which combines
A) PMV and adaptive model (Schweiker, M. and Wagner, A., 2015. A framework for an adaptive thermal heat balance model (ATHB). Building and Environment, 94(Part 1), pp.252–262.),
B) SET and adaptive model (Schweiker, M. and Wagner, A., 2017. Influences on the predictive performance of thermal sensation indices. Building Research & Information, [online] 45(7), pp.745–758. ) or
C) TNZ and adaptive model (Schweiker, M., Huebner, G.M., Kingma, B.R.M., Kramer, R. and Pallubinsky, H., 2018. Drivers of diversity in human thermal perception – A review for holistic comfort models. Temperature, [online] pp.1–35. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2018.1534490>.).
As such, you can model adaptive effects together with the influence of air velocity, clothing insulation level and other factors available in PMV, SET, or TNZ. Still all versions are based on limited data and would require further validation, so that you are of course free to use them, but should carefully check your results.
All of those models above are implemented in the R package comf (https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/comf/index.html) - check the following in R
?calcATHB for help
calcATHBpmv for equations of PMV application
calcATHBset for equations of SET application
?calcTNZPDF or calcTNZPDF for help on TNZ application or its equations
Let me know in case you have further questions or problems to use the R package.
Marcel
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Talk about your strategies, your preferences your choices and your opportunities against this situation.
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Hello Ahmed
Cooling equipment keeps the temperature and humidity in the comfort range throughout most time of summer. Because the ventilation and fresh air injection system are not present, the window opens for air conditioning.
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i would like to know if there are validated models that can forecast thermal discomfort using either observed or satellite data.
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Dear Christian,
My master's thesis has an extensive literature review of thermal comfort theories but, unfortunately, it is written in Portuguese.
I would recommend you to read about Fanger's model, developed on 1970's. It's easy to understand and to apply as a first guess to assess local thermal comfort.
Good luck!
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PMV index depend on 6 factors: velocity, humidity, air temperature, mean radiant temperature, clothing insulation and metabolic rate. The first four can be found easily by, for example, using CFD. My doubt is how to fix the last two if I want to represent the iso-PMV lines.
Do I simply suppose a constant metabolic rate and clothing in the whole domain?
If I wanted to find thermal comfort of someone in a room, I would just do the average of PMV single point values in the space occupied by that person?
PMV algorithm:
PMV=(0,303e-2,1M)·((M-W)-H-R-Ec-Cres-Eres)
Where:
M: metabolic rate. INPUT
W: mechanical power. INPUT
H: heat exchange by convection. H=f(fcl, hc, Tcl, Ta)
R: heat exchange by radiation. R=f(fcl, Tcl, Tr)
Ec: heat exchange by sweating of the skin. Ec=f(M, W, HR)
Cres: dry respiration heat loss. Cres=f(M, Ta)
Eres: latent respiration heat loss. Eres=f(M, HR)
In which everything is INPUT except fcl, hc and Tcl. First two can be found directly using empirical equations and Tcl through an iterative process. This iterative is based on assuming Qcond_skin-clo=Qconv_clo-air+ Qrad.
I have the following two questions:
- Does it make sense to plot iso-PMV lines? By looking the algorithm it seems to me a whole body sensation instead of a single point property.
- How to find PMV value using numerical methods like CFD? Running a CFD code we get velocity, temperatures and humidity for single control volumes. So the only way to insert them in PMV algorithm is by doing an average of this properties surrounding the body, right?
I would appreciate any help or document in which these topics are explained in more detail.
Thanks in advance.
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You can simulate iso-pmv lines by HoneyBee(grasshopper plugin) and also the Designbuilder CFD.
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I'm looking for further information on occupant-centric retrofitting scenarios of non-domestic existing buildings.
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you can find examples in these two papers:
"A satisfaction-range approach for achieving thermal comfort level in a shared office"
"Investigating Occupancy-Driven Air-Conditioning Control Based on Thermal Comfort Level"
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Give me some basic idea of this software tool. also can we analyze humidity ratio, air-temperature and win-flow through this?
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You can also Use "Airpak" which is a very powerful platform of CFD for thermal comfort analysis. Here is the example:
"Investigating Occupancy-Driven Air-Conditioning Control Based on Thermal Comfort Level"
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Which method is suitable for validation of physical measurement (environmental factor i.e, temperature, humidity, wind-speed) data for thermal comfort study in indoor environment.
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- Calibration against reference instruments
- Calibration of instrument sets against each other, i.e., ensure that all your temperature sensors read the same value under the same conditions (and so on)
- Repeatability of measures - look at time trends and standard deviation of measurements
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The purpose of this question is to examine the thermal resistance of clothing and its relation with the thermal comfort of the body.
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Shayan,
The thermal resistance of clothing is somewhat independent of environment, that is to say that the resistance (thermal and evaporative) are related to the amount of dry heat or evaporation that can pass through the clothing (analogous to Ohm's law). Testing for the thermal and evaporative resistances can be done using a sweating hot plate (for textiles) or using a sweating thermal manikin (for full ensembles). There are some standards for these tests (i.e., ASTM F1291-16 and F2370-16). These values can be used to model the clothing affects on the human for any environmental condition (the resistances don't change per se). However, knowing the interplay between the human, environment, and complexities of the clothing (e.g., effects from moisture, air movement, solar) is the tricky part. Collectively these can give you an idea of change in thermal statuses (e.g., core or skin temperature rise/fall).
Thermal comfort on the other hand is trickier still, as it includes subjectivity....
I would suggest checking out some of the papers related to modeling thermal physiological effects that focus on clothing. We have a handful from my group that look at physiological effects (e.g., Potter et al., 2017) but some of the more widely recognized works that address thermal comfort could be helpful also (Fiala et al., 1999 or 2001).
Hope that helps.
Best regards,
Adam
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The aim of this research is to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) by characterizing the concentrations of different indoor air pollutants (VOCs) and their sources within a refurbished educational building and their effect on the health of occupants.
For the study, i am conducting an IAQ monitoring campaign by measuring indoor environmental variables (temperature, humidity, airflow), carbon dioxide levels and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by diffusive (passive) sampling method for an 8-hour exposure spread out within different scenarios to assess impact of the building materials, furniture, occupant activities on IAQ.
For this purpose, i have found the Health Safety Executive, 2005 which gives permissible limits of different chemical substances but in the context of a workplace. The standards for schools such as Building Bulletin (BB) 101 (2006), Priority schools building program (PSBP, 2014), Guidelines on ventilation, thermal comfort and indoor air quality building bulletin 101 (2016) - Draft consist of values based on Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) i.e. TVOC > 300mg/m3 as an indicator of poor IAQ. However, specific values for individuals VOCs do not exist which can lead to undervaluation of the toxicity of different chemical compounds present in the space during assessment of health effects for the most susceptible group i.e. children.
So if anyone could lead to me to an appropriate standard or guideline for permissible limits and health effects of different chemical compounds for schools in UK.
Thanks
Melvin
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Additionally to the previous answers,maybe the following link is also useful:
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Public space is a gathering place for various activities and each user can change at any time. Meanwhile, the comfort of space and place is one of the important things, not only about visual comfort but also thermal comfort.
How do you meet thermal comfort in a public space? whereas, thermal comfort is very subjective. Can we ignore that subjectivity?
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@ Harimi Djamila
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Is there any technique to validate these types of questionnaire for indoor thermal comfort study.
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Study the latest BCO Report Wellness Matters 2018. This gives many references and shows the span of factors that affect thermal comfort and hence need to be referred to in any questionnaire design.
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CFD simulations clearly demonstrate that forgotten ancient Turkish architectural element “Cumba” can enhance ventilation rate by 276% and harvesting wind from different directions even in the single facade ventilation. Furthermore, the room’s mean air velocity and ventilation rate could be adjusted to a broad range of values with the existence of Cumba. As a passive strategy, understanding the working principles of “Cumba” can contribute the effectiveness of wind-driven ventilation strategies in modern dwellings.
During my visits to different countries I recognised the existence of architectural elements that have some similar characteristics with Cumba. I would like to ask any colleague to inform me about the names of these architectural elements (especially in some European countries). I know the "bay windows", they are common particularly in terraced houses (e.g. in UK), but they have some fundamental differences with Cumba. The details about Cumba can be found in the article; Aydin, Yusuf Cihat, and Parham A. Mirzaei. "Wind-driven ventilation improvement with plan typology alteration: A CFD case study of traditional Turkish architecture." Building Simulation. Vol. 10. No. 2. Tsinghua University Press, 2017.
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I'm afraid my "contribution" is not an answer but another student's question. How does the level of humidity in the air effect the "performance" of such passive features as Wind towers, Cumba, Bay Windows etc as far as cooling is concerned? I can understand that such features do improve ventilation but will they also increase air humidity and dust in the building? I live in Malta and our greatest problem is not heat (high temperature) per se but high humidity and dust levels - which adversely effect the effectiveness of sweating, general thermall comfort and health (particularly for asthma and allergy sufferers). Opening windows for wind ventilation frequently causes excessive dust ingress in my country.
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the research goal is to achieve maximum thermal comfort in outdoor spaces in hot dry climate areas
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Hello Osman,
Here you go:
1- L Shashua‐Bar, D Pearlmutter ... (2011). The influence of trees and grass on outdoor thermal comfort in a hot‐arid environment.
2- JS Golden (2004). The built environment induced urban heat island effect in rapidly urbanizing arid regions–a sustainable urban engineering complexity.
3- Eduardo Krüger, D. Pearlmutter, & F. Rasia, (2010). Evaluating the impact of canyon geometry and orientation on cooling loads in a high-mass building in a hot dry environment.
Best,
DA
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Hello, I have a question about the last version of Airpak. Airpak is a precise
and fast responding software that is exclusively used for ventilation
cases and has a vast ability to present the temperature contours, velo-
city vector and stream lines and evaluating the indoor thermal comfort.
My question is:
What is improved in Airpak 3 compard to Airpak 2?
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GUI of Airpak 3 is better than 2. Further, 3 includes alot of package for FSI
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With regards to tools and models, thank you.
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I think you need to clearly define what you mean by greenery in this context. And how would the results be useful for actual urban designs.
For simulations, may be you can use a software like Envi-MET. For actual measurements, I would advise to focus on air temperature, humidity, radiant temperature, air velocity, and solar radiation.
For measurements you can try to simultaneously record the situation in different landscapes: nice shady trees, green grassland, near large water bodies, concrete landmass. Similarly, for simulations, you could also try these different landscapes.
I would suggest, to use resources appropriately, conduct some initial simulations and help narrow down on your measurement requirements.
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Looking for a free softwar that can calculates PET indices from given inputs.
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We are trying to estimate the power required by HVAC to obtain a desired temperature which we also forecasted based on historical data of occupant behavior and environmental parameters. Is there any theoretical equation that we can use to estimate the HVAC energy to obtain a desired temperature using the historical data of the outdoor temperature and the indoor temperature of the zone .
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As Michalis wrote, you need the history of HVAC delivered or used power together with the history of indoor and outdoor temperature. In addition, if the building is not well protected from the solar radiation, you also need the history of solar radiation. You may then calibrate a simple model such as the one proposed by Michalis or a simple dynamic model including internal capacitace(s). Such a dynamic model is proposed in the old standard EN-ISO 13790 or more recent ISO 52017-1.
No serious prediction can be made on the history of internal and external temperature only.
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The CBE (http://comfort.cbe.berkeley.edu/) website is difficult to use for big sample data. I want to calculate ASHRAE 55, EN-15251 and adaptive thermal comfort of 1000 samples. Is there any source to download a spreadsheet to make calculations faster?
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For adaptive thermal comfort, depending on which model you want to utilize, you can easily construct your own spreadsheets since the formulation is just a linear equation between outdoor temperature and comfort temperature. For PMV, since the equations are non-linear and implicit, I am not sure if a ready-made spreadsheet exists.
For implementation of comfort models in a programming environment, you can check the "comf" package of R.
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How to prepare thermal comfort questionnaire for field survey
and what is the way of methodology we should follow?
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First thing you must do, before going onto questionnaires, is design your study:
-decide on what is the hypothesis that you want to test
-decide what are the research questions that you want answered from the survey.
There are several samples of thermal comfort questionnaire availale in literature. A good starting point is ASHRAE Standard 55 and the ASHRAE Performance Mesurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings.
Decide on if your questionnaire is going to be paper based, app based, or webpage based (or some other variation)
Have a care regarding who the target participants a
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I need this equipment for evaluating thermal comfort in case study buildings. I would need to measure air temperature, relative humidity, globe bulb temperature, and air velocity. I couldn't find a good tool which measures particularly indoor air velocity and streams data online.
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Dear Maryam Khoshbakht,
HAZ- Scanner GB 2000 is a portable IEQ data logger equipment for air temperature, relative humidity and co2 concentration measurement. You can add different filters to measure various types of airborne particles. Also, it is capable to be connected with external anemometers kit like as AM4202. It is a suitable single equipment for case study buildings.
Regards
Iman
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When we talk about human comfort, we usually think of thermal comfort, and many good models for individual thermal comfort have been proposed.
So my confusion is “How to measure the individual olfactory comfort?”. Could you tell me some models or theory related to it?
Or what factors can affect individual olfactory comfort?
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Dear Pei-feng,
there are standardized methods for the assessment of odour qualities:
  • The European Standards EN 16841 Part 1 and Part 2 introduce the measured variable of percentage odour time, i.e. the frequency with which the recognition threshold in the ambient air is exceeded during a single measurement and odours are recognized beyond doubt, e.g. facility-specific odours. Intensity and hedonic odour tone in the field are also described as additional characteristic variables of an odour (VDI 3940 Part 3). The determined intensity and hedonic odour tone of a facility-specific odour can serve as a guide to the estimation of the degree of nuisance.
  • Sensory testing of indoor air and the determination of odour emissions from building products using test chambers is specified in the international standards ISO 16000-30 and ISO 16000-28, respectively.
Best,
Sascha
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Does water cooled condenser give low cooling energy/electricity than air and evaporatively condenser HVAC system for hot humid climate.. need explanation?
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Thank you Mr. Chowdhury for that introduction.  The CARMON continually self cleaning heat exchanger addresses the maintenance issues you mention.  In many wet and humid climates it enables the use of surface pond water and also eliminates the need for costly clean water purchases.  As an added bonus, it cleans the pond water during use.  More details at www.ecoviacorp.com
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Indoor, PMV and adaptive model.
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Thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The temperature is an indication of the physical environment.
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I want to calibrate my building energy model using measured temperature data, I know it can be done using measured heating/cooling energy consumption of building as mentioned in ASHRAE guidelines, but can we do it with temperatures also ?
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