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Post-Modern architecture has different themes. So I like to know these themes pls.
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A few themes of ''Postmodern Architecture", according to Charles Jencks: Hybrid expression, Variable space with surprises, Eclectic, Semiotic articulation, Variable mixed aesthetic depending on context; expression of content and semantic appropriateness towards function, Pro-organic and applied ornament (structure/construction as ornement), Pro-representation, Pro-methaphor, Pro-historical reference, Pro-humour, Pro-symbolic, Collage/collision.
To see: Charles Jencks , Late-Modern Architecture (London: Academy Editions, 1980); Charles Jencks (Ed.), Post-Modern Classicism (Architectural Design 5/6, 1980
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The three terms indigenous, vernacular and traditional are used frequently not only in architecture but in other fields also. Generally when we talk about them we know what we mean, but I am looking for definitions of each term which can distinguish one to other.
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Thank you very much Vivek for a well explained answer.
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An integrated architectural design is considered an item to develop teamworking skills for professional practise. I’d to know the issues and models that used in architectural education.
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According to the previous literatures, the issues are:
- choice and career flexibility,
- teamworking in a competitive academic environment,
- srereotyping,
- professional attitudes,
- curriculum issues,
-finding a balance,
- assessing across departments, and
- internecine ownership and resourcing.
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Geoffrey Broadbent presented four types of architectural design as mentioned above. I’d like to know the difference between them pls.
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Pragmatic design depends on trial and error, available materials, and climate, for example Mammonth hunter tint.
Iconic design dealing with climate, materials, social interaction, and mental image, for example snow house or igloo.
Analogical design is the Centre of creativity and depends on existing form and nature, for example step pyramid of temple by Imhotep.
canonic design depends on proportional system so it provides the designer with many design decisions, for example Parthenon.
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As we are living in information city, how can we transform the architectural language to response to such major cultural change? At the same time we have to maintain our traditional continuity of architecture and culture.
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The two major approaches can be a Rationalist (Futurist) and Empiricist (Contextual). Both have been successful in each own ways. Under these two major paradigms, I can think a lot has already developed and continue to do so from the Pyramids to modern contemporary buildings. The attempt to develop various styles is essentially the architectural vocabulary or language development. While I agree that we need to conserve various styles that had been copied, analyze, critique, deconstructed and became part of architectural curriculum in various countries around the world there's a need to bring in new spirits or renew spirits in architectural profession and pedagogy. The houses and public buildings should try to reflect more of the current praxis and needs of the society. For instances, the idea of climate responsiveness in response to global warming or the need to conserve water especially in cities that are drying up. The vernacular houses people live in the 19th or 20th century were a manifestation of the era's material and other resources availability, skills of the people, socio-culture and lifestyles, etc. In these thatch houses, the owners used to collect rain water and store it for future use, even when they had plenty of portable water from the streams. Today, connectivity by travel or internet media and subsequent spread of information DATA, and these should enriched the vocabulary of architecture significantly to address pertinent issues of the social, economic, and environment. In other words, we should not limit architectural languages and its practice should not be limited to classicism, modernism, post-modernism, vernacularism, revivalism, neo-modernism, and so on.
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Schulz presented the theory of architectural totality. I’d like to know the structure and content of this theory pls.
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Have no idea about architectural sciences , just following.
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Post-Modern architecture has many paradigms. So I like to know these paradigms pls.
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It is necessary to develop a single conceptual apparatus that does not contain evaluative concepts. However, postmodernism denies this.
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The structuralism is one of the philosophical approaches that affected architectural design and scientific research. I’d like to get some evidences by architects or researchers whom used this approach.
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Structural Engineering is the basic philosophy of Articteral Planning . Engineering
& Philosophy of Art merges.
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Architects and topologists need to follow certain steps to transfer any ‘’Type’’ to a ‘’Model’’. I like to know these steps in sequence.

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The stages of Model Making are:
1. The existence of the object or system (the aim),
2. The intentions that express the selective characteristic,
3. The observation and trial methods, and
4. The translation method.
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Regarding the theory of type and typology in architecture, architects and schools have different points of view. For example between new realism architecture of British architect Robert Venturi, and new rationalism in architecture of Italian architect Aldo Rossi. I like to know how they treated with type to get new models of specific design.
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In order to remember the historic architectural form, the new rationalism school used the typology, while the new realism school used the model.
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The contemporary urban design as being about place-making, so I am looking to experience the process of transforming spaces into places.
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It is necessary to determine the semantics of these concepts. This will fill the phenomenon of the cultural component. However, the assessment of a phenomenon in a person’s mind is subjective. Therefore, the formation of the space-time continuum will depend not only on real actions, but also on our perception of the actions themselves and their outcome.
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Post-modern architecture presented many paradigms including feminism. I like to know can this paradigm influence architectural design act and then communication and interpretation.
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Following
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Nature’s imitation have different methods to design sustainable architecture. Would you identify these methods and the architect that follows each one.
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Architects can imitate nature through biomimicry, solving problems by emulating nature through observing and studying its workings. Some examples of biomimicry: bullet trains inspired by Kingfisher birds, helicopter design by the dragonfly and the humpback whales, Airbus design by the albatross. There is a study called Biomimicry and there is a Biomimicry Institute: https://biomimicry.org.
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The Phenomenological Approach is one of the philosophical approaches that affected architectural design and scientific research. I’d like to get some evidences by architects or researchers by using this approach.
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Your discussion begs the wider question about whether design can or even should be practiced within some philosophical approach. Over many year I have studied many successful and interesting designers. I would say the vast majority do not claim to have some overarching philosophy. some would undoubtedly say that you should not design to prove a theory. My view is that design is simultaneously a wonderful and yet highly problematic cognitive activity. Anything that is found useful by any designer to aid their thinking seems fine. The idea however that one approach is more correct or useful than any other does not find favour with me. I have found a tendency to claim the fundamental rightness of some philosopy exists in design schools, more often in architecture than other areas of design. In my view this is dangerous for the young design student struggling to find their way.
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There is different understanding between these terms. I like to know the exact differences between them.
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"Type" categorizes buildings in two different ways: functional type -- what is it for, is it for example a dwelling, a retail store, a factory; and formal or physical type -- what is its configuration, is it a one-story big box building, a skyscraper, a domed rotunda.
"Character" refers to the impression a building makes, how it is perceived. Is it serious and formal or lighthearted, playful, amusing; is it brash and flashy or modest and understated. The term is analogous to character in a story or drama; it enters the architectural discourse from theatre in the eighteenth century.
"Pattern" is a visual device, a scheme for arranging things like windows, siding panels, masonry units. Grids, checkerboards, basketweaves, and diapers (diagonal grids) are common patterns.
There's considerable scholarly discussion of Type, some of Character, and not much of Pattern, as far as I know. I can suggest some sources in a few days, if you're interested.
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As a part of architectural transformation in Post-Modernism, the term of ‘’Responsive Architecture’’ emerged. I like to know the characteristic and examples of such trend.
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Responsive Architecture should response to environment via passive systems firstly, then to intelligent technologies via using active systems Secondly.
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Usually functionalists and topologist have different points of view regarding physical and cultural milieus. Architects and urban designers have to start design process from a specific point. What do you prefer and why.
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If I understand your question correctly, I think the answer maybe 'argumentative'. In other words, it may not be a strictly 'yes or no' answer. It is subjective and contextual base question that needs to be satisfice differently for different cases. For instances, even the same architect or designer may have different starting point in the design process of a building (say, museum) depending on the specific physical and cultural milieus. These issues are one of the reasons why architecture seems more like a hybrid activity of science and art with good old common sense. Also, the architects and urban designers may not be a good comparison since the hierarchy and complexity levels of urban design and building or interiors design may differ significantly. Hence, their design process may differ although similar strategy and methods could be tweak to suit both purposes. Case in point, one may use the same design process (say, Double Diamond) process in designing a small interior or furniture or for designing a large university campus. The strategy of Divergence, Transformation, and Convergence may be tweak in both cases of design works. Various disciplines may involve different levels: components level (bed, chair, etc), product level (house, vehicle, etc), systems level (housing apartments, traffic, etc), community levels (city, town, etc).
Just try out and see if these process is applicable. Architectural building design strategies and methods by RIBA (1965) list the following steps of design activities, in sequence:
1. Inception, 2. Feasibility, 3. Outline Proposals, 4. Scheme Design, 5. Detail Design, 6. Production information, 7. BoQs, 8. Tender Action, 9. Project Planning, 10. Site operation, 11. Completion, 12. Feedback.
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According to the post-structuralism in architecture, the decomposition presented as a mechanism to deals with architectural form. I like to know the effect of such mechanism, at least the perception act.
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Dear Martin,
“Decomposition” is a tactical stage between structuralism and deconstructivism in architecture. See the trials of Peter Eisenman to design many houses using decomposition to develop architecture language.
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The relationship between form and meaning varied through historical periods as a result of the nature of thinking changes reflecting specifically on that relationship. I am looking for characteristics of communication and interpretation act of such relationship through Modernism and Post-Modernism periods.
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Have a look at:
Modernism, Postmodernism, and Communication Studies: A Rereading of an Ongoing Debate
Postmodern sophistications: Philosophy, architecture, and tradition
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The book of complexity and contradiction in architecture by Robert Venturi focused on the complexity in architecture, but I could not find the rules or procedures to implement such complexity in order to get the meaning of ambiguity through architectural form in architectural design studio.
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I interviewed Bob Venturi together with partner Denise Scott Brown. you can see the result of that as a chapter in my book Design in Mind. Venturi’s approach is simultaneously scholarly and playful.he sketches prolifically and talks as he does so. He liked to use the phrase Less is a bore, as a counter to the Miesian Less is More. He often ran an object through more than one meaning. For example a handrail might slope its way down a staircase and at the bottom turn into a dado moulding on a wall.So I think the kind of complexity he is calling for depends upon a detailed knowledge of architecture and its elements through the many historical styles. But it also depends upon being able to play around with these elements. Look at the house he built for his mother to see many examples of this. I’m sure he would not call for rules but for a good architectural education!
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Deconstructivist in architecture presented the new system of irregular geometries and the end of perfect and the beginning of imperfection.
can you present any justifications for its creativity?
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Dear Zisanda Zulu, I share your indignation at the refusal to directly answer the question “Deconstructivist Architecture as a means for creativity”. Because the architectural style is the result of creative activity, not is a means. If someone wants to use it as a means (to accept the design of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and build the same it again in Siberia, India, Cyprus or elsewhere) then the reaction of the architectural community we can be foreseen. If a creative search leads you to the use of indirect angles, which will allow a blind person moving in your building to realize that he is in a destroyed or broken building, which reminiscent of a concentration camp and been hearing frightening sound of metal things scattered under the wheels of his mobile chair, I assure you, you have reached the necessary result in your work. In doing so, you will give theorists a reason to think.
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As apart of architecture theories, there are different themes, concepts, and ideas applied to design studio. I will be grateful if you suggest any references please.
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It is puzzling that one should believe that there is a single answer to questions concerning cinematic architecture, narrative architecture, forensic architecture, performance-oriented architecture, artistic production oriented architecture, architecture engineering, and so on, when even each thematic take in itself frequently comprises of many and often contradictory approaches. As architecture is maturing the range of different approaches increases and more areas of specialization occur. One example of this kind is the notion of performance in architecture in which clearly rather opposing approaches exist. For this reason I like to reiterate my question regarding the thematic context of the question of theoretical concepts for studios. Without a more detailed discussion responses will tend to be formed by interpretation based on no discernible criteria and biased by personal preferences. In a scientific forum we should be able to do better.
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The analytical approach to the principles of designing with the forces of nature, climate, in a deliberate and empirical way can be said to be a seminal and critical design research method, especially in architectural theory. The aim being sustainable design as a matter of necessity and socio-economically responsible agenda in design practices. Some researchers opined that the need to have adequate and sufficient weather and solar house component operating data is a prerequisite in any attempt to evaluate solar house design performance. In this similar vein, it has been highlighted that climate, socio-lifestyle (use), and architectural design affordances of form and function, and economical low-energy building operation systems are strategic parameters.
‘WHAT’ parameters can be added or reduce? ‘HOW’ can these parameters contribute in the (Re)Search for appropriate architectural design paradigms? For instances, Can we reduce the process of 'design research' by omitting some steps, such as on-site survey and measurements? In other words, the design research is essentially proposing a quantum proportion passive solar house modules base on climate, optimum design elements, and most energy efficient lifestyle operations.
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Can we reduce the process of 'design research' by omitting some steps, such as on-site survey and measurements? In other words, the design research is essentially proposing a quantum proportion passive solar house base on climate, optimum design elements, and most energy efficient lifestyle operations.
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This is stated in many publications. It is even named Phi in honor of the sculptor. But is it true that the measurements of the Parthenon facade are in this proportion?
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For my part, Francisco, I’m skeptical.
Those who see golden sections in the end elevations of the Parthenon never mention the side elevation. To harmonize part of a building and not all of it sounds like an oxymoron. Who would bother? The extravagance and diversity of the various overlaid explanations might also tell us something. Especially as these overlays don’t seem to acknowledge the well-known optical corrections in this building.
Unfortunately, there’s no documentary evidence and the question can’t be settled empirically. Phi advocates allow themselves a bit of a fudge factor in fitting the Golden section to actual rectangles and especially to non-rectangular things like a gable end. So, for example, one would never know whether a designer had used Alberti’s “sesquitertia doubled” (9:16) ratio or the irrational Golden ratio, or neither. And if the conceptual differences don’t matter, then surely phi doesn’t matter.
Ultimately, however, the doctrine of the phi rectangle is an element of sacred geometry. As such it is an article of faith, outside the realm of critical thinking. So if a phi rectangle has been revealed to someone in a fish or an assemblage of marble blocks or a crumpled newspaper, then this cannot be denied.
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Need to find a Journal that specifically fpcus on debate on modernity in phenomenology.
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Dear Niranjika,
I suggest :
Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research
regards
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the data and books are extinct on the website can you help me 
engrjaffarkhan@gmail.com send me at this mail
the course outline is ::::
35. Title of the Course: Architecture & Town Planning
Credit Hours: 3 + 0 = 3
Specific Objectives of course: To understand ancient and modern form of living. To impart knowledge related to planning and development of inhabitant areas. Course Outline: Architecture: Historical Development. General introduction to history of architecture; Emergence / Development of Islamic Architecture. Geographical, climatic, religious, social and historical influences. Architectural beauty. Qualities: Strength, vitality, grace, breadth and scale. Factors: Proportion, colour and balance. Use of Materials: Stone, wood, metals, concrete, composites, ceramics. General Treatment to Plan of Buildings: Walls and their construction; Openings and their position, character and shape; Roofs and their development and employment; Columns and their position, form and decoration; Moulding and their form decoration; Ornament as applied to any buildings. Town Planning: Definitions; Trends in Urban growth; Objectives of town planning; Modern planning in Pakistan and abroad. Preliminary Studies: Study of natural resources, economic resources, legal and administrative problems, civic surveys and preparation of relevant maps. Land Use Patterns: Various theories of land use pattern. Location of Parks and recreation facilities, public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers, public schools, industry & residential areas. Street Patterns: Lay out of street, road crossing & lighting; Community planning. City Extensions: Sub Urban development, Neighborhood Units, Satellite Towns and Garden City Urban Planning: Issues related to inner city urban design and emergence / upgradation of squatter settlements. Recommended Books: Dan Cruickshank, Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, Architectural Press; 20 edition (September 25, 1996) Leonard Benevolo; Origins of Modern Town Planning, M.I.T. Press, 15-Aug-1971 Sir Rymond Unwin, Town Planning in Practice, FQ Legacy Books (December 31, 2010)
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There are many books you could read. Try "Cities for People" by Jan Gehl. https://islandpress.org/book/cities-for-people
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There are several new initatives having been established over the last 10 years or so in Europe to both strengthen the relationships of work and creativity between the skilled building trades and the design community, something that has of course occured really since the Medieval period of Europe, but only recently being taken more seriously as an authentic field of enquiry for research and building design practice, also from intentionally trans-disciplinary and trans geographic perspectives.  Examples include the Baumuster Zentrale and the Haus der Farbe in Zurich, Byggnadsfabrikken i Malmo, Sweden,  http://byggnadsvard.se/hos-dig/byggnadsv%C3%A5rdsbutiker/byggfabriken-malmo and independent craftsmen such as Else Sprossa Rønnevig in Norway.  Further, Haakon Goethesen, an experienced restoration carpenter in Norway, wrote a recent book on window restoration based on his long experience, in Norwegian: GAMLE VINDUER HISTORIKK RESTAURERING OG VEDLIKEHOLD.  How do we build more intense, effective, authentic dialogue?  Finally, a recent book from 2012 on the restoration of the Norwegian Stave Churches deals with this issue from an interedisciplinary perspective. Can we build a European wide network of interested people interested in this effort?
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Dear Asim and Marlena,  thanks for the comments and links and information!  Very interesting.  Start of wider network.............  I look forward to keeping this discussion going......  If you think it wise for your own networks, please forward this question and comments to your networks............ David
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for example in the below image two L - shaped slots and E - slots are made, 
How to determine the position of the slot.............like why that place only why not other position another shape
Slot lengths, width?
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Other positions and other shapes will (probably) work.  It is possible that another shape in a slightly different position will give the same performance, but this is what the engineer came up with first.  Parameters like slot width and length and x and y position are usually used in optimisation programs in electromagnetic simulation packages (even more so if the design is by hand and uses look-up tables), so for that reason you often end up with rectangular slots and copper, unless, for instance, a genetic algorithm is used to search for a solution, in which case you may end up with a shape similar to the one shown but without right angles and with bent bits that actually do very little.  It is easier and quicker to find an answer by optimisation if the range of shapes you are going to search is limited in some way, provided that it is possible at all within the range you allow.  This design may also have been developed in stages and by experience, using simple easily understood circuit elements to improve the previous performance.
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One of my student wants to work on architecture of temples. I want to know how architectural patterns are related to socio-economic environments. What are the recent trends in Geography of Architecture?
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Not sure if I have the expertise to answer your question, but one area you might look would be to search and explore the term "city and regional planning" ... at my university this topic covers some of the intersection between planning, spatial issues, architecture, and is somewhat related to the separate field of geography. We also have a center for urban and regional analysis --- google CURA at Ohio State University -- this may provide interesting examples and links.
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I am working with wood but when trying to draw a reciprocal frame there is a differential error that generates a unsymmetrical structure when total number of members are greater than 20.
Thank you for your help.
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It is a very complete article, thank you!
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·         Adam, r. (2008). Globalization and Architecture. Retrieved from: www.adamarchitecture.com. Visited (2016.1.1).
·         Eldemery, I. (2009). Globalization Challenges In Architecture. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, PP. 354-343.
·         Nasr, S. (1987). Islamic Art and Spirituality. New York: State University of New York Press.
·         Nurullah, A. (2008). Globalisation as a Challenge to Islamic Cultural Identity. The International JOURNAL of INTERDISCIPLINARYSOCIAL SCIENCES, Volume 3, Number 6.
·         R.Turner, H. (1995). Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction (fifth, 2009 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
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Your question is so broad. What do you mean by Iranian Islamic Architecture? the forms? the design methods? the solutions provided for a certain design problem? patterns? techniques? It is good to narrow down your question first.
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I myself find integrating it somehow keeping student more involved.
But integrating Drafting , Projection and visual Studies with the Design module at the beginning might make it hard to digest for beginning students.
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I have to agree that hand drawing and drafting, strictly as a way to communicate the creative solution, is a fundamental need for concept illustration. For an architect, this is on the same basic level as expressive writing. If the writing or illustration is not clear, the concept can not be comprehended by the persons being communicated to.
I have seen design presentations that are graphically beautiful but do not have accurate delineation of the concept presented, thus not fulfilling the reason for the presentation in the first place.
By having the fundamentals of drawing and drafting taught at an entry level, the concepts arrived at, as well as the process of arriving at the concept, are made clearer for both the creator and the observer.
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Has there been any works on Haptic codes in architecture? Can there be a concept of Haptic form?How do we haptically percieve environment and architecture and how do we code it into aesthetics?
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Saeedeh Zeinali completed a master thesis in Eastern Mediterranean university about hapticity.
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I am researching Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter, architect and designer for the Fred Harvey Company and Santa Fe Railway. I am trying to locate her research sketchbooks or field notes of Puebloan ruins in the southwest from the 1930s. Does anyone have any ideas outside of NPS or the two company collections?
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Thank you for both suggestions. I have contacted Grand Canyon museum collection and the Nat. Reg. nomination forms as well.
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As part of a lit review in preparation for a Culture and Theory essay within a Masters program. Any suggestions are greatly appreciated.
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Carol, I am glad to have been of service. My own research was right on the point of your fine question.
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How should the teaching of digital design tools be integrated in architectural education frameworks?
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I think this depends on what actually you want to teach the students, for example teaching BIM in the early stages minimise its use as whole, as students in the early stage didn't yet know about construction documents and buildings simulations, so BIM capabilities will be limited architectural visualization, which is not the main capability of BIM, also this will make the students lake some of the architectural skills like sense of scale/ratios (this is according to my personal experience with students).