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# Thematic Analysis - Science topic

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Hello everyone.
I have questions regarding comparing frequencies between groups. I will be happy if someone can help.
So I will describe first briefly my research design:
- I am analysing online shaming that has per se 10 types (10 types of shaming).
- I am analyzing 6 cases (multiple case studies) of shaming events.
- I am using thematic analysis.
- In the data (comments from social media) I am analyzing how many types of shaming occur in each data.
- In each case, I have obtained by thematic analyses how many times each type of shaming occurs (per se type 1 occurs 50x times in case 1, type 2 occurs 124 times in case 1 - type 1 occurs 12 times in case 2, type 2 occurs 32 times in case 2 etc).
- The 6 cases will be grouped into three groups by the theory, so I will have three groups (in one group there will be 2 cases, in the second group there will be another 2 cases and in the third group there will also be the other 2 cases).
- I want to compare the frequencies of types of shaming between these three groups.
So how do we compare frequencies/proportions between groups?
I must notion that the number of all codings was different in individual cases. For example in example 1 the number of encodings was - say 1,200, in example 2 the number of encodings was - say 800. A number of codings = number of all codings related to the types of shaming. So I can't just count these frequencies, but I have to weigh them. Does anyone have an idea how to compare the frequencies between different cases where the numerus are different?
Thank you so much for your help.
SHORT QUESTION: How to compare frequencies between groups where in each group there are different cases and each case has a different number of total codings (thematic analysis)?
I don't know this method and I cannot tell you if this would be legit in your case. This seems a topic in linguistic research (I am not a linguist). It seems the method of choice when your frequencies are from different "corpora" (whatever this means) and when you want to campare these corpora (not directly the word frequency distributions). But as I said: this is beyond my expertise.
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How many coders are needed for Thematic Analysis: Pilot Qualitative Study?
Kindly check also the following useful RG links:
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My research aims to explore how the letter to stockholders is used as a strategic method of communication by organisations, and I wanted to conduct a thematic analysis of the letters to identify themes. I planned to search for themes within the letter and then link these to existing theory. I initially thought this would be inductive as the themes would be derived from the data, but if I link this to existing theory afterwards, does this change the approach? Would this oppose an interpretivist philosophical view?
I think your problem is one of data interpretation. In each research we compare the results with the literature to see if we have produced new knowledge.
By comparison, there are several possibilities - to complete or modify the existing theory, to contradict the existing theory or to produce a completely new one. If your results match the literature it means that an old theory also applies in the context you studied.
This means that you have verified (even if that is not what you set out to do) an old theory in a new context. Theories are provisional, must always be verified and their applicability expands with verification in new contexts. So it can be a win even when you discover something that coincides with literature.
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I am conducting a honours project that is investigating ''How effective are the current domestic and family violence (DFV) crisis organisations in responding to the needs of PWD experiencing DFV (at home)?"
My research design incorporates a thematic analysis which allowed me to develop 'indicators of effectiveness' from relevant existing research. In the second part of research, I am planning to conduct a directed content analysis using my predetermined indicators as codes for analysing each organisations (website). I was wondering if there is a particular process that i should follow? I have looked into Hshieh and shannon (2005) which looked relevant and Assarroundi et al. (2018) which looked very complex as I dont intend to develop further 'preliminary codes' and 'generic categories''. As the aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of organisations, I was planning on directly coding the (website) data based on the indicators created and then measuring the frequency of the code/indicator presented in each website. This will allow for comparisons of frequency of codes to assess which organisation is deemed as 'more' effectiveness' . Would this work?
I recommend looking into more quantitatively oriented versions of content analysis, such as those by Krippendorff and Neuendorf.
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I am currently undertaking a literature review as part of my undergraduate dissertation in which I am synthesising the results from 5 qualitative studies. I was thinking of using either thematic synthesis or narrative synthesis.
What is the difference between thematic synthesis (Thomas and Harden 2008) and thematic analysis? I presumed at first that thematic analysis was only for primary data collection methods, however within narrative synthesis (Popay et al 2006) they state to use thematic analysis if synthesising qualitative data in step 2: 'developing a preliminary synthesis of findings of included studies'.
So, really the question is can I use thematic analysis for a literature review, within the process of narrative synthesis? They don't specify which guidance to use regarding thematic analysis (whether that is Braun and Clarke or another author), so I am a bit stuck. I have found a simplified approach to thematic analysis by Aveyard (2014) in 'Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide' which I would use within narrative synthesis if this is appropriate.
What are everyone's thoughts on this? Advice would be greatly appreciated. Which is more suitable for an undergraduate dissertation: narrative or thematic synthesis?
Kindly visit the thematic analysis in the RG link.
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Hello,
I am doing a qualitative research with semi structured interviews, N=10 and the method of analysis is thematic analysis. However, I see that my themes do not answer or correspond to the research questions. The approach that I followed in analysis is inductive.
Thank you.
Just my two cents, research hypotheses may not be necessary for a qualitative study. If the literature review is relevant to the interview questions, the content analysis or thematic analysis should give the answer to the research question. Hope you are doing well and stay safe.
All the best,
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Our team become interested in telemedicine/telehealth because of its great potential during and postpandemic. However, we would like to seek your suggestions on the specific area of research. Also, most of the team members are inclined to doing qualitative evidence synthesis.
Dear Celso Pagatpatan, Jr.,
the use of Human Health Digital Twins (HHDTs) to support telemedicine/telehealth is a current and broad area of research.
the Figures 10152, 10153, 10154 and 10159 illustrate the idea of using HHDTs.
The added literature sources should give you a broad overview of the use of HHDTs.
Best regards and much success
Jorge Luis Rojas-Arce, Eduardo Cassiel Ortega-Maldonado: „The Advent of the Digital Twin: A Prospective in Healthcare in the Next Decade“; In book: Advances in Production Management Systems. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable and Resilient Production Systems; Aug 2021, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-85910-7_26
J. Masison, J. Beezley, Y. Mei, HAL Ribeiro, A. C. Knapp, et al.: A modular computational framework for medical digital twins; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, May 2021, 18;118(20); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024287118
Haya Elayan, Moayad Aloqaily, Mohsen Guizani: Digital Twin for Intelligent Context-Aware IoT Healthcare Systems, IEEE Internet of Things Journal ( Early Access ), Jan 2021, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3051158
Eugen Octav Popa, Mireille van Hilten, Elsje Oosterkamp, M.J. Bogaardt: „The Use of Digital Twins in Healthcare; Socio-ethical benefits and socio-ethical risks“; Wageningen University, Technical Report, Jan 2021
Tolga Erol, Arif Furkan Mendi, Dilara Doğan: The Digital Twin Revolution in Healthcare; 4th International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT), Oct 2020, DOI: 10.1109/ISMSIT50672.2020.9255249
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Hi,
I am looking to analyse my survey responses (N=16) responses.
They are not heavily detailed and are in response to a total of (N=3) open ended question. The questions were asked to a set of professionals. It is a small scale study.
I originally thought of thematic analysis.
However, I don't think TA would be an appropriate method as I am worried the dataset may be too small. Are there any other types of methods/coding analysis I could use?
Dear Emma McLorie ,Thematic analysis or content analysis.
Kind Regards,
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I would like to use a Thematic analysis for a qualitative data
Thabiso Molefe , your inquiry is a good question to follow. Kindly visit the RG links related to NVivo analysis.
Kind Regards,
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Hi,
I am looking to analyse my survey responses (N=16) responses.
They are not heavily detailed and are in response to a total of (N=3) open ended question. The questions were asked to a set of professionals. It is a small scale study.
However, I wondered if TA would be an appropriate method? I am worried the dataset may be too small. Are there any other types of methods/coding analysis I could use?
If you only have limited data, then using different methods won't make a whole lot of difference. I'd try TA by using open-coding and/or process coding and then see what I get, and if not satisfactory, then maybe try content analysis like Kailash Jandu (above) suggested.
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Hi everyone,
When looking into thematic analysis, you always find a notion of it as a method rather than methodology. Therefore, I was wondering, if TA can ever be considered as methodology? If so, under what conditions, and what philosophical stances does it represent?
If it's always just a method, is there any particular methodology that links with it?
I hope this makes sense. Thank you for your replies.
Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes or patterns of meaning within data. This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning.
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I am currently conducting a Scoping review and plan a thematic analysis in the content of the included papers. I would be curious what software you would recommend and why?
Nvivo
MAXQDA
Atlas.ti
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Hello everyone. I have question about obtaining data from Internet.
In my research I will analyze comments from websites and social media platforms. And I am searching for applications/apps/technologies other tools to download comments from Internet to my computer.
There is around 10.000 comments and if I would copy/paste one by one it would take me a lot of time. I want to obtain data quickly.
Do you have any suggestions for me?
Thank you so much for help.
Regards, Nejc
You could use a scraper as the faster method, but be mindful that there are many privacy laws on the internet about how content can be copied, downloaded, and analyzed. In general, just because it's online doesn't mean it's acceptable for download, analysis, or use. Check the country of each commenter and site, as well as the privacy policy of the site hosting the comments.
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Hello everyone,
I am working on my qualifying exam. I want to employ qualitative Delphi study to elicit educators opinion on
what engineering concepts should be included in K-12 education. For the qualitative analyses, instead of using thematic analysis, is it appropriate to use grounded theory because my overarching aim is to develop a conceptual framework which shed light on the aspects of engineering. My research question: What nature aspects of engineering are considered to be important for K-12 science education by science and engineering educators? Thanks.
Hello, please take a look at this research. These statistical coefficients are used for determining the conformity or reliability of experts' evaluations, and the Kendall coefficient with a value greater than or equal to 0.7 was considered as the stopping index for the procedure of the Delphi method.
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We have been working on a report that would present the current state of clinical ethics consultation/support services in Turkey. As a part of the study, we interviewed ethicists, ethics committee members, and administrators informally to understand their views regarding the subject matter. The interviews are not fully structured although we have a list of questions at hand. By the end of the project, we expect to have talked to 10-12 people. In the interviews we have made so far, we have seen that some people agreed to meet face to face and gave detailed answers to the questions we asked, while some others sent their answers in written form and kept it quite short.
We believe that every information shared with us is valuable, as the practices regarding clinical ethics consultation/support are very limited in Turkey. However, we are confused about how the raw data from those key informants should be presented in an organized manner. How/by what method should we analyze the data in total? Or should we?
Is your main question whether you can pole together the shorter written answers you ave got with the transcribed intervviews into one data set and analyse them as a whole? My answer to this is yes you can do that.
Or is your question which method for analysis that could be used for your kind of data? My answer to that would be that a thematic analysis for example by Braun & Clarke (2006) or content analysis for example Krippendorff (2019) or Lindgren Lundman & Graneheim (2020)
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I am doing qualitative research for my DBA thesis, it is based on multiple cases from same industry and I am willing to do thematic analysis for it. Further to that I have three models in my conceptual framework which I am using in the study. one of my friends has suggested me to either take one model and use multiple cases or to use multiple models and one case to conduct thematic analysis. however, my previous supervisor did not mentioned to me anything like that and I have change of supervisor now and she is confused the way I am conducting my research. I would like some help if someone can explain to me that if I can do thematic analysis for multiple cases by using three models complementing each other in conceptual framework.
thanks
Triangulation can be conducted by using different methodologies. A suggestion is using thematic analysis where the first set is inductive; you conduct data exploration, though it can be informed by a conceptual model. The second model could test the first and look for divergence. If you have a third case study, you might collect the data differently and use a different method, such as quantitative. By doing this, you are using mixed methods.
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I have 27 interviews for a psychology research paper with 4 people involved in the project and willing to code using Thematic Analysis. Is it better to use a software programme to do that or to just do it manually ? I would be grateful for anyone else's experience with these programmes. In particular the budget is small so expense may make a difference. Finally does it take long to work out how to use them? Those involved are clinicians and may not have done research in some time.
With 27 interviews, you are definitely in the range where using software will help you, especially when it comes time to search through your codes.
In terms of which software to use, all of the major programs can do thematic analysis equally well, including ATLAS.ti, Dedoose, MAXQDA, and NVivo. To make a choice, I recommend looking at their tutorial videos and choosing the one that gives you the best introduction for what you want to do.
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As per my limited understanding, there are few techniques of analyzing the qualitative data that include
a) thematic analysis
b) content analysis
c) discourse analysis
d) narrative analysis
I am confused about the appropriate use of these techniques in different kind of studies. For example, if we have conducted interviews then we can simply deploy framework or thematic analysis but if we have selected different studies to reach out a new conclusion, what technique should be used?
1. It is not clear what do you mean by different studies.
2. What do you want to achieve/ what are you looking at? What kind of data are you examining? You need to clarify your objectives- the research questions, aims, and methodology.
3. I suggest that after you are clear about the 2 steps above, then do read and understand all the kind of analysis that you have stated. Choose the most appropriate kind of analysis accordingly. Best wishes.
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I am designing a study to gain insight into the experience of returning employees with a history of mental health issues. i want to understand how they feel about returning to work. is it ok to use interviews with IPA on returning employees and then thematic analysis on employees and family members of employees ? so IPA would only be on a subsection of the total sample. How will i justify this approach?
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Hello, I am a researcher in Psychology, who is gradually getting more and more interested in mixed methods research. My area of interest is trauma and gender based violence, with a focus on South Asia. Recently, I have been trying to understand if we can map GBV in South Asia on to a continuous trauma structure, and assess mental health and well-being from that perspective. For this my initial plan was to use a sequential exploratory mixed methods design, with a qualitative study informing a larger, quantitative study with well validated questionnaires. I had initially conceptualized the qualitative study as a post-positivist (aka Boyatzis 1998) analysis.
The interview schedule was very open and we have collected quite a bit of data. I recently found out, one of my students have already analyzed some of the data using reflexive thematic analysis (aka Braun and Clarke 2006-2021). Now I am in a bit of a fix, because I do not want to lose the interview data we have collected, yet I do not see how the social constructionist position used in reflexive TA fits into the quantitative parts of the study , which will involve variables etc.
Now, here are my specific questions
1. Can I have the collected data (transcripts), re-analyzed from a post-positivist position, using reliability coding TA, by another researcher? (We haven't published the reflexive TA analysis)
2. Can a qualitative study with a social constructionist position ever be used in a mixed methods study- if so, how? If there are good references here, I would be grateful if someone can lead me to those.
The question of "additivity" in mixed methods has generated a number of options, based on what should be the result of integrating different methods.
Fetters & Freshwater (2015) proposed that 1 + 1 = 3, essentially arguing for a "synergy" approach.
Onwuegbuzie & Hitchcock (2018) proposed that 1 + 1 = 1 by arguing for full integration at every stage of using the two methods.
For a qual --> QUAN design, where the sole goal is to increase the effectiveness of the quantitative design, I would argue that 1 + 1 = 1.5
The picture is less clear if the design is QUAL --> QUAN, where the goal is to produce a stand alone set of qualitative results as well as a more effective quantitative design. So, perhaps 1 + 1 = 2.5?
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I've been asked to give feedback on a study that used a survey with the option for comments in each question. Some participants decided to share additional observations and thoughts for some questions. I've found that these additional comments carry rich qualitative data so I'm suggesting they analyze them and integrate them into the results (since they're currently not).
However, I'm not sure how to justify this methodologically (or even if it's appropriate). Even though these comments add insightful information about the participant's perceptions, they only account for a portion of them.
Options I'm currently considering:
(1) Use a common theme analysis for the qualitative data and relabel the study from quantitative to mixed-methods.
(2) Still define it as quantitative, but mention that some qualitative data was gathered as optional comments and analysed as well (would this be methodologically correct?).
(3) Do not use the qualitative data for the results, since it doesn't come from all participants.
Any thoughts?
Thank you very much in advance!
Of course, they should be added and used (qualitatively) -- it's data, and respondents felt a need to add them, so we should report them. Since the researcher did not ask for comments, it doesn't make sense to call it a mixed method study. It's a quant study with supplemental comments. You add a section to the report describing qualitatively, what was said, including areas of convergence and divergence if the sample is large enough, and with some representative verbatims in any case. You should also include the % of respondents who added comments, for context.
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I am conducting a qualitative study and my questionnaire has both open ended and closed ended questions. With open ended questions I know have to do the coding and themes and I know how to do that. But what about closed ended questions, e.g. Marital status? Age? Gender? How do I analyze such data using thematic analysis?
You can't analyze these types of questions using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis by its definition is to dig deeper and find a pattern of meaning below the surface. You may need to analyse the findings of the closed-ended questions separately perhaps using descriptive statistics not thematic analysis.
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qualitative research thematic analysis of phenomenological approach of research.
I agree with David L Morgan and Mohialdeen Alotumi that thematic analysis does not entail counting the number of codes. Instead, it focuses on generating meaningful themes to capture the essence of your data.
Having said that, thematic analysis is a relevant method of data analysis for phenomenological research. Interpretive and descriptive phenomenology has its own methods of data analysis depending on the methodologist and philosophical tradition (Husserlian or Heideggerian). For example, Husserlian tradition you can use the methods proposed by Merleau-Ponty, van Kaam, Colaizzi, Giorgi, Polkinghorne, Moustakas, & Garza. For Heideggerian, you can use Ricoeur or Gadamer. Researchers use Brun and Clark thematic analysis for almost everything. Please review their papers in which they have clarified numerous times the differences in thematic analysis and other data analyses methods in qualitative research. Please read this recent paper. Please see the following quote. A majority of qualitative researchers will agree that thematic analysis is not a suitable method for data analysis in phenomenology. TA (Thematic Analysis) & IPA (Interpretive Phenomenological analysis)
There are two important differences between reflexive TA and IPA. The first is that IPA incorporates a dual analytic focus: both a thematic orientation—the identification of themes across cases (participants)—and an idiographic approach—interest in and focus on the particular and unique details of each case. Second, related in part to this idiographic focus, IPA procedures are rather different from TA procedures: IPA involves a detailed focus on the analysis of each case, before developing themes across cases” (p.5)
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). Can I use TA? Should I use TA? Should I not use TA? Comparing reflexive thematic analysis and other pattern‐based qualitative analytic approaches. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 21(1), 37-47.
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I have collected my qual data in my sequential explanatory study and am considering the best approach for analysis. I see there are hybrid thematic analysis approaches, but they differ greatly in their approach in the literature. Any advice?
Adopting explanatory sequential mixed methods design, a study starts with a structured process (i.e., a quantitative stage), followed up with a semi-structured or unstructured process (i.e., a qualitative stage). For analyzing the data from the latter, you could use directed content analysis (DCA) which uses the key concepts or variables identified in the quantitative stage as initial coding categories of the qualitative data. If flexibility is sought, deductive thematic analysis, in which specific questions underpin the coding process, could be used. You might refer to the following for further insights.
Armborst, A. (2017). Thematic proximity in content analysis. SAGE Open, 7(2), 2158244017707797. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244017707797
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500107
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res, 15(9), 1277-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
Good luck,
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Hi,
I wanted to do a thematic analysis and I want to know whether there are softwares that highlight dominant patterns/sentiments in qualitative research work. I am looking for academic (non student) low expense or open source options.
Several of the more expensive academic software programs offer "sentiment analysis," which essentially reports on statements using a range from more positive to more negative.
As for open-source programs, two good options are QDA Miner Lite and Taguette.
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I am trying to do the analysis for my qualitative research with an inductive approach using thematic analysis. I used semi-structured questionnaire where I included multiple choice phrase phrases and open-ended questions, I have few elaborations yet not the same theme
Can you please advise? I need to extend the analysis yet I am confused. Thank you
A semi-structured questionnaire is a method for collecting qualitative and quantitative data systematically. Its use should be driven by the study purpose and design—albeit yours is not clearly pointed out. For its analysis, you might start by cleaning the collected data, especially for the open-ended questions, with the study objectives or questions in mind. Afterward, you could apply thematic analysis, using theory-driven coding, i.e., approaching the data with specific questions that underlie the coding process. You could refer to the following references for insights.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2020). Can I use TA? Should I use TA? Should I not use TA? Comparing reflexive thematic analysis and other pattern‐based qualitative analytic approaches. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 21(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12360
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. SAGE. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/successful-qualitative-research/book233059
Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods,16(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847
Good luck,
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I am writing a qualitative research paper on EFL graduate students' academic writing challenges in a university in Turkey where English is the medium of instruction. The research instrument is a semi-structured interview, and thematic analysis (TA) will be implemented. Based on what should I choose the sample size? What is the best/ideal sample size to reach the principle of saturation?
Congratulation to the excellent question of the sample size of qualitative research. Please refer to the sooner question about the same topic to get more information: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_many_interviews_are_needed_in_a_qualitative_research_Is_there_any_rule_or_popular_practice
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Hello all,
I write my explorative dissertation using an abductive approach. Now, I would like to analyse my semi-structured interviews with the help of reflexive thematic analysis, according to Braun and Clarke.
I do not get the role of the conceptual framework yet. Having an abductive approach, I start with inductive coding based on the conceptual framework. After, I continue with creating codes based on the data. After several steps of re-coding and re-creating themes, the thematic map results.
What do I do with the conceptual framework now? Do I need to overwork it based on my findings / thematic map, or do I compare the initial conceptual framework with my findings to show what is new? Thanks in advance for any help!
Regards,
Christopher
@ Christopher Neller, no I never used codebook and, as you rightfully stated, you don't use codebook in reflexive thematic analysis.
To the best of my knowledge, your coding still falls under inductive approach. This is what Braun et al. (2019) said about the inductive/deductive approach to coding:
"There are two broad orientations to coding: an inductive orientation, where the
researcher starts the analytic process from the data, working “bottom-up” to identify meaning without importing ideas, and a deductive orientation, where the researcher approaches the data with various ideas, concepts, and theories, or even potential codes based on such, which are then explored and tagged within the dataset. In practice, any researcher will approach the data with preconceived ideas based on their existing knowledge and viewpoints. Coding inductively does not mean that we assume the researcher is a “blank state,” but, instead, that the starting point of the analysis is with the data, rather than existing concepts or theories".
I attached the paper here for your further reference.
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Hi, I want to analyse people social identities from forum posts.
For example in a forum post "As a mother, I should look after my children" statement will be a signal of mother identity. I am planning to find out identities until saturation. When I achieved the saturation, I want to claim that these social identities are most salient when people considered do post on forums. It is kind of text analysing. Which method should I use to analyse data? Qualitative content analyses or Thematic analyses or something else?
Good morning
Content Analysis plus Atlas.ti and semantic networds
Best regards
Ph.D. Ingrid del Valle García Carreño
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Hi,
I am doing my dissertation on the effects of complaints on sonographers in obstetric ultrasound.
I am doing survey as a mixed methods design. So a convergent design (questionnaire/data validation variant). I was advised to use descriptive statistics only for the quantitative data analysis. I cannot find any justification for this. Is this acceptable? Creswell seems to suggest I should be using inferential statistics as well.
I know its standard for surveys to be used a quantitative data only but I have done a lot of work on the justification for using it in a mixed methods study.
Also is thematic analysis standard in this type of study for the qualitative data analysis?
Many thanks
Gina
Without seeing your questionnaire and research question/hypothesis it is difficult to answer your question. However, if you are simply wanting to find out the impact of a complaint on sonographers and are not testing a hypothesis or aiming to generalise your findings (depending on the level of study) I think it is acceptable to use descriptive stats. Also, thematic analysis is often utilised for qualitative survey data but whether it is appropriate for your study depends on the research paradigm. Hope this helps and good luck with your dissertation.
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The Qur'anic Thematic Exegetical Analysis (al-Tafsir al-Mawdu'i) is a famous method within Qur'anic Sciences in Islamic Studies as much as the Thematic Analysis method is in researches of Social Sciences. Why it is being discriminated against when applied in Islamic Psychology, which is synonym with Islamization of Social Sciences? Are they apartheid who are rejecting subaltern post-colonial methods?
RE: "In Islamic divine scripture – the Holy Qur’an - the emphasis is on the heart as being mentioned to be governing (the king for) both the rationality, emotions, intellect, intuition, telepathy [sic], etc."
Locating any kind of mental activity in the heart is just a carry-over from ancient Greek views that regarded the brain as merely an organ for cooling the blood. As it happens, there have numerous cases of individuals kept alive without a heart who continued to experience all kinds of mental activity. Here's a quotation from a news report on one such individual:
« "It was an emotional roller coaster," Larkin said at a news conference, describing what it was like to live with a totally artificial heart, implanted to keep him alive until a donor heart became available. » — from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/man-lived-555-days-without-a-heart-before-transplant/
Here's another such report:
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I am working on my PhD research proposal, which is an exploratory design. Due to the insufficient existing study on the related issue, I plan to develop hypotheses and concepts through grounded theory (from both academic & non-academic resources, including magazines and articles from notable media) to serve as the guideline for the focus group. While the transcript of the focus group will then be analysed through thematic analysis to confirm the hypotheses built from the grounded theory.
Does this appear to be appropriate?
I agree with several of the others that Grounded Theory alone should be adequate for your work. In addition, using a single focus groups is problematic, because you have no idea whether the things you hear are merely unique to that one group.
You might, however, consider a focus group among your previous participants as a form of "member checking" (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).
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In one of my research studies, I'm looking forward to understand 'what does the term self-compassion mean to my participants, what do they think are the benefits associated with it etc'.
I hope to arrive at a conclusion regarding this concept for most of the participants which could then help in designing effective interventions.
I'm assuming that in this case, Thematic Analysis might be more useful. Would it also allow me to have more participants than IPA? Thanks
In general, IPA does pursue a deeper understanding of the phenomenon based on in-depth interviews with fewer participants, while TA uses more participants to get a bracer view of a topic.
You can find a comparison between IPA and TA by Braun and Clarke here:
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My research topic is: "examining the effective participation of deaf and hard of hearing persons in the criminal justice system".
Objective: to assess the experiences of the deaf and those who work in the criminal justice system.
Possible data sources: deaf people, judges, police, sign language interpreters, and family members.
Data collection strategy: interview, FGD, and document review.
Question: Which one should I use: Grounded Theory or Thematic Analysis?
Thank you!!
Simplifying the answer - the grounded theory is more demanding, as its application's aim is to create a new theory. Thematic analysis is more usual, but in this case You need to have some novelty too. What kind of novelty - depends on the researcher, or collected data itself.
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Hey guys,
So I'm running an explanatory sequential mixed methods study and I want to use thematic analysis. Only thing is I'm struggling to find any papers with guidance on which type, I have considered codebook ta due the the fact that I already have some idea of what themes will come up due to my stage 1 quant however I also like the idea of using relflexive ta to give a more in depth description and not assume what my participants want to say to me...any advice?
My opinion is that you should recognize be able to saturation during the interview process. For me, this goes beyond simply finishing with the sense that I have not heard anything new. In addition, during the interview, you should feel that you can almost predict what the person is going to say next, so that you not only have "heard it all," but also have a strong sense of how it all "fits together."
This version probably comes close to "theoretical saturation," but for that you really need to be doing coding during your data collection.
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I wonder if Braun and Clarke’s reflexive thematic analysis method suitable for content analysis or not. Any suggestions, references, or experiences? Thank you in advance
Reflexive thematic analysis and content analysis are two different approaches. The content analysis uses a deductive approach is merely descriptive while reflective thematic analysis is an inductive approach.
At the outset, content analysis is not a good fit for reflexive thematic analysis. However, it depends on your research methodological approach. The following questions may help you answer your question:
-Is the theoretical underpinning of your research allows a reflexive thematic analytic approach?
-Is your data collection method fits with the reflexive thematic data analysis approach?
You may evaluate your methodology and find out whether reflective thematic analysis good fit or not. Baron and Clarke have developed a checklist for the same, which you may want to use for your study.
With Best Wshes,
Apurva
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I am doing my MA dissertation related to the experiences of SEND students in higher education. I used the survey method to gather data and wanted to use thematic analysis for data analysis. The questionnaire includes both open-ended and Likert-scale questions.
Can I use Likert-scale questions in thematic analysis?
Thanks
This Question which interested me a lot, thank you very much
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Would you please clear me how I can do the narrative analysis based on the transcripts of in-depth interviews?
I actually collected the narratives of participants, can I now conduct thematic analysis? if so, what is the name of such analysis?
I believe that nowadays, interacting between narrative analysis and thematic analysis implies knowing how to fit perfectly with the experience and the meaning of life experienced as a special and motivated fact in our case on a literary level. It is about interacting in the first person, where "Time" plays its important role, not only because of the importance we give to "information", but also because of the approach that is already being given to the "New Social Phenomenon" that we are living.
Both analyzes interact, Dear.Dr .Tauhid Hossain Khan, they are not divided.
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Hi everyone! I have planned to use Reflexive Thematic Analysis by Braun & Clark for data analysis in my qualitative research. This method involves reflexive practice and is different from Thematic Analysis which brings about only descriptive accounts. Can someone please direct me to useful resources or any online course which I can take to develop in-depth understanding of Reflexive Thematic Analysis method.
Braun and Clarke have their own resource page, which you may find useful. https://www.psych.auckland.ac.nz/en/about/thematic-analysis.html
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When conducting a systematic review, whether selected articles are qualitative and/or quantitative, can the analysis perform qualitatively by using the thematic analysis method?
This depends on subjects of specializations like humanities , social science or any kind of language qualitative review may be possible. But for scientific subject whether purely qualitative review is is possible!!
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I have conducted one focus group and one interview where the same questions were asked. Could I analyse both data sets together using thematic analysis?
Firstly, the purpose of conducting a focus group discussion is different than conducting an interview. The data collected in both these approaches for the same set of questions will be different.
You might use the same coding technique to analyze the data collected through focus groups and one-on-one interviews. However, the data from the focus groups will have perspectives/experiences of different participants as against just one participant in an interview. You might want to describe different aspects from focus groups about a specific group and an individual's story from an interview.
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Hi, my research question is How do understanding the biological, psychological, psychosocial risk factors of depression in older adults can inform good geriatric social work practice?
It is a semi-structured literature review of secondary data. I am collecting data using a mixed-method approach and I was wondering if I can use Thematic Analysis to analyse my data for potential themes?
The literature about thematic analysis predominantly defines Thematic Analysis (TA) as a foundation of qualitative research methods (Braun and Clark, 2006)..
Any suggestions please.. Help me ;(
Yes, (in agreement with Thomas Owren), qualitative inquiry is context-specific (inductive) should consider what method/s fit your work.
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Dear Researcher / Colleague;
Hope all of you are doing good and safe. I am at the final lapse of my PhD research submission. I have been informed to conduct a thematic analysis by getting constructive qualitative feedback about the work that I have done.
For this purpose, I have created elaboratory video clips covering most of the salient points in my research. I would be very pleased if you can assist me with this requirement. If you`re willing to contribute, please inbox me your email address.
Then, I can send an official email with the relevant details and video urls.
Just an email with reflective qualitative feedback would be more than enough for me.
Kind Regards
Kaneeka V
I agree with comments above. Before committing I think that everyone would like a bit more information about research and our role in it. Nonetheless, I am interested.
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Braun and Clarke's original article on Thematic Analysis (2006) has now received over 100,000 citations on Google Scholar, which is quite an accomplishment.
I wonder what other qualitative researchers think of the popularity of this method?
David L Morgan its a dream come true for a researcher and particularly on the famous favorable platforms like ResearchGate or Google Scholar and superb congratulations for the achievement and use this subject itself is quite interesting and worth my weekend read
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Can you explain the specific procedure for thematic analysis using six steps developed by Braun and Clarke with an example
Thank you
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I'm doing a desk-review project where we're required to analyze the findings from existing research. Most of my articles have used thematic analysis to analyze their data. Is it appropriate/rational to also analyze their themes using thematic analysis?
Combining the results from a set of qualitative articles is known as Qualitative Systematic Review, and it is possible to use thematic analysis in this process. Here is a link to one such article, and you can find more in Google Scholar.
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What percentage should I consider for the emergence of my themes/sub - themes. For instance, if for one open-ended question which I asked (one by one) to participants, and I have in my transcripts, that 30% students were saying something similar, and 50% were having a different opinion from those 30%, and the rest 20% are neutral.
For a theme emerging from this angle, what/how should I have the themes/sub-themes? Is three themes because there are three different opinions or what number among the participants(or percentage of them) should constitute or decide when a theme should emerge? If a few of the participants have a common idea, is it not important to consider that a theme/sub-theme?
It would be nice to try machine learning to do the job instead of you. Specifically, it would be really interesting truly to create a decision tree that describes all possible answers. Decision trees are splitting the original data according to some criteria. When gini index is used during splitting, it usually gives the best split.
The beauty of decision trees is that they are nicely interpretable unlike many other machine learning methods.
Some clustering methods can give interesting results too. Clustering methods put together similar answer into groups automatically.
It would be interesting to try several ML methods on the same data. This can bring new insights into your data and its interdependence.
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I’m doing a research paper for my dissertation focusing on that of experiences of thearpists Working with a specific client group. It’s a qualitative study using thematic analysis. I’m struggling to find examples of Hermenitics and phenomenology in a thematic analysis study and wanted to know if needed to discuss in write up?
Your guiding methodology should shape how your research is structured and how you frame your own involvement within the sense making process. See Smith, Flowers and Larkin's book on Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis for related guidance.
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I am searching for some user-friendly freeware software for the purpose of bibliometric analysis, content analysis and especially thematic analysis. I found some of software for bibliometric analysis, citation and co-citation analysis, but could not find accurate and reliable software for thematic analysis and content analysis.
I suggest VOSviewer. It is a software tool for constructing and visualizing bibliometric networks. These networks may for instance include journals, researchers, or individual publications, and they can be constructed based on citation, bibliographic coupling, co-citation, or co-authorship relations. VOSviewer also offers text mining functionality that can be used to construct and visualize co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. I agree with the researchers
Yaser Gamil
, Maxime Descartes Mbogning Fonkou and Nkosingiphile Zungu
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I am looking to assess patient satisfaction (specifically for a Cannabis Use Disorder Intervention) and also look at their potential barriers and facilitators to access this treatment intervention. I am doing a qualitative study surrounding this and struggling to find topic guides within this area. Any advice would be hugely appreciated.
Fantastic - thank you Lafi
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Hello,
I'm working on case study which is about aftercare for preterm children. I've got 2 main research question for interviews with parents - 1) What is your experience with afterchar for your child? (I'm interested about their experience and feelings over the time) - here I am planning to use interpretative phenomenological analysis.
The second interview is focused on description of what kind of aftercare was offered and about time sequence. First I've planned to use thematic analysis but I am not sure. Could you please help me what kind of qualitative analysis suits the best?
Thank you!
Petra
Interpretive phenomenological analysis sounds like a good choice for the kind of interviews that you have collected. You can find out more data analysis in IPA by reading the book by Smith, Flowers, & Larkin.
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In my research I use thematic content analysis to describe legal documents. After building our coding framework, we have assigned a sample of the data between 3 independent raters. I have asked them to code the data and upon receiving their codes back, I calculated the score by dividing the total number of codes present with the matching score. The simple percentage score between the 3 raters is 88%.  I tried to calculate Krippendorff's Alpha using Recal3 (online), Real statistics (Add-in Excel) and with a R Script (icr package in order to calculate Krippendorff's alpha).
I always get aberrant data : -0,46 or -0,26 or a really low Kalpha like 0,10 or 0,11.
Why do you think this happens even if I have 88% of agreement?
My tables are composed of 3 rows (corresponding to the raters) and 26 columns (corresponding to the codes). The data is nominal, it only reflects the presence (1) or absence (0) of the category for the result of each encoder. The table is in the attached file.
Thank you
I personally think that very high rates of agreement are all that really matters. As David Morse notes, various coefficients of agreement can be highly sensitive to marginals. Unfortunately, too many reviewers blindly demand kappa or alpha, despite near perfect agreement among coders.
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I am conducting a single-case study research as part of my dissertation for a Master's degree. The topic is in the area of public procurement and innovation. The aim is to explore to what extent standards referenced in public procurement allow innovation in State-Owned Enterprises (in a one country).
The research is designed as a single case-study. As identified by Robert K. Yin in his book Case Study Research, one of the rationales of a single case study is the representative or typical case. As a result, I have arranged for an interview with one procurement professional from the selected organization. However, my supervisor informed me that a single interview will not be sufficient to get unbiased and comprehensive data for analysis and discussion. Additionally, I was advised to conduct surveys if it is difficult to arrange interviews.
I do not understand why is it necessary to involve more than one participant in the research and conduct more than one interview. Also, how surveys are going to help get sufficient data, given that I am conducting a qualitative research. As for data analysis, I am going to use thematic analysis in which I will link what to be said in the interview with my findings from the literature.
I would appreciate it, if you could advice me on what should I do
The classic strategy for determining the number of interviews in a qualitative study is saturation, i.e., the point at which no new information is being produced by your interviews. Of course, there is no way to predict this in advance, but if the information you are getting becomes repetitive after 15 interviews, then there is no point in conducting 10 more.
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Good evening everyone, I'm writing the methodology section for my Bachelor Thesis and I'm quite confused about what the underpinning of my Thematic Analysis actually should be. My research's title is: "Exploring young adults' perceptions of the contribution of social media in wellbeing, self-esteem and body image amidst of the pandemic".
The only thing I have come to terms with is that I am going to adopt an inductive TA and now the question is: should I include a critical realist constructivist thematic analysis as well? I base this thought on the fact that in the previous paragraph of my methodology section (the research design paragraph) I mentioned that I chose the qualitative approach for my research thematic due to the fact that previours researches regarding social media and body image/self-esteem, conclude with social media's role in the (social) construction of beauty, body image and self-esteem. Also, I used Thin's (2018) reasoning for qualitative research of wellbeing due to the many ways that it is culturally defined, expressed and generally "socially constructed". So I was thinking maybe I should adopt this underpinning. The problem is, this is the very first time I am conducting such research fully on my own and I have to decide about the theoretical underpinning of my thematic analysis (my supervisor does not provide me any help on this one even though this is the first time we are asked to choose an underpinning for thematic analysis) and unfortunately after many hours of online reading, I still do not fully understand this approach. If anyone could provide me with some insight or further enlighten me in any way, it would be much appreciated! If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to ask!
Thank you very much! :))
First, a bit of history. Starting in the middle of the 1980s (Guba & Lincoln, 1985), there was movement to promote qualitative research as relying on an alternative philosophy (constructivism) as compared to quantitative research (positivism). But the initial authors in this debate were always careful to say that it was about philosophical assumptions and not about the use of methods, which they considered to be a technical issue. This debate did a great deal to promote the legitimacy of qualitative research, but it also lead to a lot of confusion.
In particular, this debate somehow somehow got collapsed into being about qualitative and quantitative methods as well. Which leads to problems such as searching for a philosophical justification for a particular method, such as thematic analysis. And many older researchers who were trained back in the days of the "paradigm wars" still insist on such philosophical justifications.
If a power differential (usually advisor and student) is an issue, then the simplest answer is simply to put up with this outdated way of thinking when you really have no choice. In other words, tell the person what they want to hear, which in this case is that thematic analysis can be used within a constructivist paradigm.
Of course, Braun and Clarke actually say that their method does not depend on any particular philosophical basis, but notice how I have reworded this into "thematic analysis can be used within a constructivist paradigm."
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I am conducting a multiple-case study where I intend to compare a specific aspect between the two countries. When considering data analysis approaches, I came across TA several times but have not found another approach, so I wonder whether there is a more suitable choice to consider.
I have used Narrative Analysis within a Case Study approach in qualitative research. I had multiple cases of individuals and in-depth interviews that generated a volume of layered narratives. So it would depend on the nature of data you have collected. I would recommend referring to Cresswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. All the best.
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Hello Everyone,
I would love to get your professional and academic opinion about a way I have thought to write in the findings of a qualitative review the quotes of the participants. There are two approaches.
A. As suggested by King "When it comes to presenting quotes to support your analysis, in a paper, dissertation or report, we would accept that it is sometimes appropriate to carry out minor tidying up in order to aid comprehension" King, Nigel. Interviews in Qualitative Research SAGE. Kindle Edition. " The majority of researchers have used the original sentences, citing either all the interviewed or the most representative ones.
Others used a table saying " the quotes represent the synthesis of the researcher" and adding the number of people belonging to that idea at the end of the quote.
Due to the limited space in my work, cause of 18 interviews, I thought that 1. in the body of the paper I could allocate the quotes as my synthesis 2. allocate in an appendix a table with themes and codes reporting the full ideas of the people with the links to the synthesis.
In your opinion can this approach be valid and acceptable?
In the Results section, the themes you have located typically represent the basis for presenting those results. I generally think of the themes as forming an outline, so that each major theme is a heading in the Results section. Each of those themes is then matched to carefully selected quotes that help the reader understand the content of that theme.
If you are so pressed for space that you cannot follow that format, then you can use a table that presents the themes as rows, accompanied by one or two illustrative quotations.
In general, I would not advocate counting themes or quotations. The value of a theme is the extent to which it helps explain what was important in the data, and not the literal times that it was mentioned.
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I am hoping for some guidance and additional reading material that will assist me in determining ontological and epistemological stance when not explicitly detailed within the research.
Here is an example paper I'm working with:
Would I be correct in assuming that this is an example of thematic analysis employing a critical realist ontology and a constructionist epistemology? I'm new to philosophy and qualitative research is not my strong point so I'm worried that I'm way off base here.
Any further guidance is greatly appreciated. Thank you.
I'd rather narrow down each study/paper to the very basic questions around ontology, epistemology, and methodology - i.e., does the study believe there *is* a reality? If yes, is reality knowable in a discrete, objective way?
If both yes, you're dealing with positivists.
If both no, you're dealing with constructivists.
If the first is yes, and the second is no (due to people's subjective background, including the researchers'), you're dealing with critical realists.
If they don't even bother questioning whether reality exists and can be known, but rather dive deep into methodology straight away, you're most likely dealing with pragmatists.
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In my research, I have used metaphorical elicitation tasks to investigate learners' conceptualization of speaking fluency. In the analysis phase, I used thematic analysis to make themes out of their provided responses to the elicitation tasks. In the next step, I want to conduct an inter-rater (inter-coder) reliability to increase my analysis's credibility. Any article to suggest for doing so?
I agree that the article recommended by Mohialdeen Alotumi is a strong resource for you.
If you would find it helpful to explore a tutorial on coding reliability measures, you might find this article to be useful:
Process guidelines for establishing intercoder reliability in qualitative studies
Wishing you the best!
Brooke Hallowell
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What is the purpose of this project?
• To investigate the factors affecting the rehoming rate of dogs.
Objectives:
• Questionnaire will be distributed to members of the public (over 18) for completion.
• Data will be stored in accordance with GDPR guidelines e.g. anonymous & password protected.
• Obtain data from various rehoming centres on successful rehomes and returns.
• Participants data will be analysed alongside data provided by rehoming centres.
• Thematic analysis and correlations between factors observed in rehoming data and analysed alongside questionnaire data.
Any further informtion is provided before the questionniare (Should you participate)
Ooh Scunthorpe - bet it's chilly up there! Good luck with the studies; I would have loved to have one mine full time at uni rather than whilst working full time to fund it.
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Recently, the key methodologies that may be applied in this context have been summarised; these include thematic analysis, meta-ethnography, realist synthesis and meta-narrative approach ( (Sharma, Gordon, Dharamsi & Gibbs, 2014).
Among all the methodologies discussed above, which methodology is the most suitable and appropriate for qualitative synthesis of data and how? Or is there any other approach that can be used instead of the key methodologies mentioned above.
References:
Sharma, R., Gordon, M., Dharamsi, S., & Gibbs, T. (2014). Systematic reviews in medical education: A practical approach: AMEE Guide 94. Medical Teacher, 37(2), 108-124. doi: 10.3109/0142159x.2014.970996
All those mentioned research synthesis designs are possible for qualitative synthesis. Which is appropriate to use, depends on the objective of the study. For example, if one intends to uncover that factors that contribute to an outcome of interest, then the realist approch would be useful. If the intention is to identify processes, then perhaps thematic synthesis maybe appropriate
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Hello All,
I am interested in consulting with someone about qualitative analysis for interviews. If you are available or know someone who may be, please let me know. I would be happy to pay for the consultation/consider including as an author on the research paper.
Thanks for your responses Ciro De Vincenzo and Joshua Ofoeda. I have sent you private messages.
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I am trying to get a better understanding if certain qualitative data analysis techniques (e.g. thematic analysis, content analysis) are more suited for specific methodological approaches (like phenomenology, grounded theory and IPA).
There are specific analysis techniques for both Grounded Theory (e.g., Charmaz on Constructivist Grounded Theory) and IPA (e.g., the text book by Smith, Flowers, and Larkin. The same is true for other phenomenological methods (for an overview, see the book by Beck, Introduction to Phenomenology: Focus on Methodology).
In contrast, Thematic Analysis is primarily used for semi-structured interviews.
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Hey everyone!
I am designing my research design for the master thesis in psychology, and I have some problems deciding which analysis to choose.
To briefly describe my research problem...
• I will analyze online shaming on social media. I will use qualitative method.
• Specifically I will obtain data from social media - comments from users. So I will analyze comments that users wrote on the social media (for each case of online shaming).
• Then I want to describe what is going on in the comments and which latent psychological constructs can be seen in the data. I have made some theoretical framework, and I want to see if I can interpret data with this theoretical framework, but at the same time I want to be open as researcher and to see what data is telling itself.
I have problems choosing between:
1. content analysis,
2. grounded theory or
3. some other analysis (e.g. discourse analysis etc.).
I want to analyze data in both ways at the same time — inductive and deductive — so both the content analysis and grounded theory can be used. But I have a dilemma deciding. In the coding I want to use both - pre-existing codes (that I want to create based on the literature review) and open coding. I have already talked to my mentor and she gave me option to decide by myself.
I already read debate here on researchgate.net and if I am not wrong - the hybrid approach between inductive and deductive ways of coding can be used in content analysis? Is this true? Is there any research that used this hybrid approach yet? Some references (articles etc.) on this hybrid approach would be very useful, thank you!
What would you suggest? Which analysis would you choose? Or you think is better to choose in my case?
Thank you.
Best regards, Nejc Ašič
Grounded Theory combines the data collection and analysis phases of the research, so that you continually analyze data as you collect it, and then modify your additional data collection to further your additional analysis. That would be a rare design in working with social media, so I recommend content analysis.
If you are emphasizing latent content, the most common approach to content analysis would be to develop your own codes, inductively.
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Hi, I did a literature review on innovation diffusion theories (Rogers), and I attempted to test the practicality of these theories when introducing novel medical devices. I did semi-structured interviews with clinicians. So is it correct that I am using a deductive method since I am looking for existing concepts in my data? What method should I use to analyse the interviews? Thematic? Content? Thank you!
Hopefully the following publications could help:
• Attride-stirling, J. (2001) Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research, Qualitative Research, 1, 3, pp. 385-405.
• Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 2, pp. 77-101.
• Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2014) Editorial : What can ‘‘thematic analysis’’ offer health and wellbeing researchers?, International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, 9, 1, pp. 1-2.
• Joffe, H. (2012) Thematic Analysis, in Harper, D. and Thompson, A.R. (eds.) Qualitative methods in mental health and psychotherapy: A guide for students and practitioners. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 209-223.
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Dear All;
I am a final stage PhD student. I am conducting a qualitative evaluation about a framework and a tool, I proposed for collaborative ontology engineering.
Are they`re any experts in the area of semantic web and ontological modelling who can assist me with my requirement ?
Please share your contact email or WhatsApp. Then I will share a complete video elaboration about my contributions. Henceforth, I need a constructive evaluation feedback, as I will be conducting a thematic analysis based on the feedbacks which I receive.
Appreciate your assistance and guidance in this regard.
Thanks a lot.
Kind Regards
Thank you Kaneeka Vidanage for your question. Can you share your publications to get more idea before doing any collaborations.
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We're doing a systematic review of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods articles. Since we have decided to analyze the results by themes through Maxqda software, can we use thematic or probably content analysis for all types of papers?
It seems like you are conducting a mixed methods systematic review. As Dean mentioned thematic analysis is used for primary data. For reviews, a qualitative synthesis methods called " Thematic Synthsis" is commonly used. You can look up thematic synthesis process by Thomas and Harden.
If you are using MAXQDA, it also allows for using techniques and methods of mixed methods research like data tranformation, joint displays, matrices, and so forth for the integration of qualitative and quantitative results from the studies included in the review. Depending on the type of your mixed methods review, for quantitative studies you can use vote counting, meta-analysis, and narrative summaries. For qualitative studies you can use thematic synthesis, critical interpretive synthesis, realist synthesis, and meta ethnography.
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I am conducting semi-structured interviews with graduate students to explore their academic writing challenges. I am using thematic analysis to analyze the Qual findings. Should I include a summary for each theme (and subthemes) in the findings chapter?
I often find it helpful to have a table at the beginning of this section which summarizes the themes and sub-themes. This can be particularly helpful to the reader if the numbers of theme and sub-themes is lengthy, or if their organization is complex.
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I'm trying to ensure the practical utility of the responses for informing practice is not lost through the process of raw data to codes then theme generation. To code and then create themes per question and then build overarching themes seems a good way to retain the meaning in responses when they move into codes then themes. If anyone know of an example of this they have seen in a paper I'd be grateful as I'm worried it's not allowed : ) Thanks in advance!
I agree with Nicolò Zarotti that it often makes the most sense to code entire interview for all the locations where a given code may occur. Brown and Clarke refer to working with a "corpus" of data, by which they mean the full data set, not just separate questions or separate interviews. In particular, if you limit your codes to what can be found in any one question, you may well miss connections between codes.
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We have carried out in-depth interviews of participants during and after the COVID-19 lockdown in India. We are using thematic analysis to understand people's experiences.
At the moment, we are writing the results in 2 parts: Phase 1 results and Phase 2 results with separate discussions and a general discussions. Each Phase has generated 5 themes. Making it a total of 10 themes in the entire study. I understand that many researchers and authors suggest to not go over 5 themes in a thematic analysis.
However, does it have merit to have 10 themes in this case? Or is it recommended that we further reduce the themes. What would be the optimum number?
Edit: My first phase has 46 participants and the second phase has 35 participants
Fahreen - themes are what they are. Personally, I don't go for the 'too little, too many' debate. If the themes have naturally evolved - they are merely a representation of the needed narrative. One cannot 'take out' themes if they already exist. I tend to be more critical the other way. If very few themes - I might argue - was an appropriate interview schedule used (assuming semi-strructured)? You talk about tow phases - so I assume it's a multi-methods study? If so - then the data is seperate - but related to the whole. There is also the question of 'are they all main themes' - or might some be sub-themes?
The atatched chapter may assist.
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I am struggling to define the methodology for the qualitative approach of my research:
I just become familiar with phenomenology-based ethnography but not sure whether is the right choice:
My research project aims to explore the sense of belonging of immigrants through their spatial practice ( perception and use of public space).
The case study (which I am also a member of) is a group of immigrants from a specific ethnic in a specific city.
The research adopts a mixed-method, quantitative, and qualitative.
For the qualitative part:
Data collection is through semi-structured interviews and field research ( due to covid is on hold)
As I am a member of the same social group that I am investigating and considering the sense of belonging as the phenomenon in this research required strategies that can reveal data regarding the understanding of how the experience of immigrants in urban space, influence their belonging.
my questions are :
Is phenomenology-based ethnography is the right choice?
And within this methodology for data collection, the “life-world analytical ethnography” (Honer and Hitzler, 2015) is the approach.
Regarding the analysis of the data, it was suggested that the hermeneutical-phenomenological analysis (Soeffner, 2004) through inductive thematic analysis of the interview transcript is suggested
As all of these methodology and analysis methods are new to me, Am I mixing so many methods and approaches all together?
And what are your thoughts on how to avoid presupposition and prejudgement as the researcher within this analysis method?
Great response from David. Mahgol - your proposed study seems 'somewhat confused'. I would not encourage it in its current format. Probably best to decide - it is phenomenological, ethnographical or mixed methods? The 'hybrid' that you present seems 'out of kilter'.
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Thematic analysis or Content analysis .. I am using a video recording device to help me investigate the phenomenon. Thank you!
Reflexive thematic analysis (the variety of TA now favored by Braun & Clarke) relies on the inductive analysis of latent content. In contrast, most versions of content analysis rely on a determined code book to examine manifest content
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I am struggling to decide with analytic method is most appropriate for my research question.
I am exploring the response/experience of visibly Jewish people facing Antisemitism in the workplace. My question will be something along the lines of:
How Do Ultraorthodox Jewish Men Experience Antisemitism in the Workplace?
I think IPA would be appropriate for this study as I am exploring the deep and personal experience of individuals. But I would love some assurance or if this is wrong.
Thanks
I agree with the previous two respondents in that both analyses may be relevant to analyse your data. Thematic analysis is good for beginners and has many different applications (seee.g. Braun and Clarke's publications accesible here on RG where they nuance the uses of thematic analysis). IPA is clearly a more theoretically informed methodology (phenomenology and hermeneutics) and allows for a much more detailed examination of lived experience, and how individuals make sense of their own world and the social world of which they're part. IPA is considered particularly suitable for exploring topics which are complex and/or emotional, like yours. What sets it aside from a thematic analysis across cases, is that it examines each particular case in detail before moving on to the other cases, and eventually a cross-case analysis. One crucial concern with regards to your study could be your sample size. Because IPA goes deep (interpretative, with respect for individual cases), fewer participants may be required. Good luck with you research, it sounds very interesting!
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Hi,
for my masters projoect im an looking at barriers to positive engagement (qual) and what can be done to break them. due to COVID i can't conduct interviews. i also cant do online or phone interviews. So if i was to give a questionnaire which consists of open ended questions would thematic analysis be appropriate? if not what would be better?
Open-ended survey questions are often part of a sensible research methodology, here are 4 ways you might approach it, each with pros & cons: (1) thematic analysis is inductive and often helpful for hypothesis generation if you're opening up a new line of research, (2) coding responses with inter-rater reliability provides you the depth of knowing what participants spontaneously say coupled with academic rigor, but it's the most time consuming approach, (3) automated frequency counts, like word-clouds or Peter's suggestion, which are objective descriptions but probably provide less depth than coding (like 1 & 2), or (4) run a pilot study with your open ended items and use those to craft a close-ended study 2 (e.g., Likert scale versions of the most common kinds of free responses). With this last approach you are somewhat inductive, will have quantifiable results, and while it's less spontaneous than free-response, you'll probably find people endorse more of the close-ended items than they write. Afterall, participants are often pressed for time and don't answer with as much careful thought as we might hope. Hope this helps you generate some ideas for your masters, Mariam. ~ Kevin
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