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I think that ectoin enzyme is important for the soil and terrestrial plant ecosystem. I think that the origin of this enzyme, which increases the resistance of plants to drought, should be discussed. Thank you for your ideas and comments that will contribute to this issue.
Kind regards,
Turan Yüksek (Ph.D.)
Professor of Ecosystem Ecology
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Probably created imo :)
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How can extracted the building point, vegetation and ground point for terrestrial laser scanner data (point cloud) please suggested the publication and automatic MATLAB code.
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Vinamra Bhushan Sharma Your request indicates that perhaps you may not have already familiarized your self with the basic fundamentals of the technology. It would helpful to you if you explained your knowledge, skills and experience and what you have found out yourself as a starting point. What follows is a short list of various aspects and types of Lidar, which generate various sorts of point clouds, which then have optimal algorithm(s) for feature extraction in situation from bone fragments to asteroids - otherwise your essentially asking me to teach a class on Lidar:
Laser Source(s):
Surface Illumination
Single pulse
Pulses in the air
Multiple Pulse
Laser type
Single
Number of sources
Multiple
Push broom
Flash LiDAR
Frame
Single Wavelength
Multi Spectral
Single footprint
Small Footprint
Large Footprint
Scanning
HighSNR
Signal Strength
Number/size of beams
Scan ning mechanism
Multibeam
Oscillating Mirror
Rotating Polygon
Risley Prism
Low SNR (Photon Counting)
Si ngle Stop
Discrete Retums
Multistop
Full Waveform
Discrete and Waveform
Fiber Optic Bundle
Electro-Optica
Crystal Waveguide
Signal Processing
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Hello everyone
With the assumption that the ERA5-Land variables (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/reanalysis-era5-land-monthly-means?tab=overview) are inputs and outputs of a model (I don't know if that assumption is correct), I am trying to calculate a mass balance for a grid point using the Terrestrial Water Storage equation (TWS; eq 12 of 10.1175/2008JHM1068.1)
dTWS/dt = P + E + R
where P, E, and R are precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff, respectively, on a monthly time scale.
Will this point of view be ok, to obtain a water balance on a single grid point of ERA5-Land?
Cheers
Note: For TWS add "Volumetric soil water layer 1, 2, 3 and 4"; for P use "Total Precipitation"; for E use "Total Evaporation"; and for R use "Runoff", but I haven't been able to get a water balance so far for a single grid point.
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Oui je suis d'accord avec toi Monsieur on souf le bilan massique et la bilan énergétique
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Soil
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The use of artificial intelligence to recognise and control microplastic pollution :)
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Hi folks,
I am looking for a reference that compares primary production across different ecosystems (marine vs terrestrial vs freshwaters). Especially, including streams (maybe even headwaters my research focus). I did a quick research and I cannot find anything answering my question within one study. Does someone has something in mind for me?
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You will have to do a meta analysis and account for bias, such as different methodologies and duration of studies :)
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I'm trying to pass through characterization into normalization for a product which I found on literatture in an excel sheet.
The method I'm using is IMPACT 2002+.
I considered putting my impact categories as follows:
  • Human health: human toxicity + respiratory effects + ionizing radiation + ozone layer depletion + photochemical oxidation
  • Ecosystem quality: Aquatic ecotoxicity + terrestrial ecotoxicity + Terrestrial Acid/nutria + land occupation + aquatic acidification + aquatic eutrophication
  • Climate change: global warming
  • Resources : Nonrenewable resources + mineral resources
However, this calculation is incorrect according to the prior example, which was created entirely in SimaPro. I believe there are several factors that are missing.
Anyone could help me ?
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maybe before checking 2002+ which is EU focused you could take a look at the new method they developed IMPACT world https://www.impactworldplus.org/en/methodology.php
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How to accurately calculate the terrestrial carbon sink at large and small watershed scales? Model stimulation or field work?
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Need to focus in individual species within the watershed, and test soil once a year to determine the increased in organic matter, because it will be different from species to species.
Another interesting test to do, is carbon date the soil carbon, and see how long each species sequesters the carbon in the soil. Testing Nevada desert grassland soils last year, it was a minimum of 300 years, which makes desert grasslands a very good place for long term carbon sequestration.
Saudi Arabia (KSA) started a project this year, to sequester carbon by planting one million trees a WEEK, for a total of 10 BILLION trees at the end of that project, that I got started with my website at https://www.ecoseeds.com/cool.html in 2002 when KSA set aside 175 million acres of preserves to do ecological restoration, to convert the barren deserts back to grasslands and forest.
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Dissolution process of terrestrial sediments, for identifying major and trace elements, with AlF3 insoluble substance formation.
  • How to dissolve these samples?
  • Are the AlF3 formation because of samples are too high in aluminum?
Thanks for your answer!
My previous process is:
  • 50mg sample powder dissolved in 1.5ml HF, heat at 120℃, close to dry
  • followed by 1 ml HNO3 and 1.5 ml HF mixture, airtight heating 72 hours, 190℃
  • add 1 ml HNO3, heat at 120℃, close to dry, twice
  • add 1.5 ml HNO3 and 2 ml H2O, airtight heating 12 hours, 120℃
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Thank you! Yeltay! I had tried hotplate, and oven, but dissatisfactory;I find some methods with unusual reagent(for me), therefore, not try them; if u want these methods, I would like to send it to you. :D
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Dear researchgate freiends,
I'm doing research for my PhD study regarding rain attenuation for mm-wave based on raindrop size distribution (DSD) in tropical country. Main focus is for terrestrial link and with path length less than 1km. I will considered canting angle as well. Do you think there is any other way to make this research more interesting?
and do you have any suggestions any research that use canting angle as one of the parameter considered in the rain DSD measurement. I found some but it is very few. Maybe some of my friends here have any information that I do not know.
Tq in advance
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thank you Mustafa Sadiq Aljumaily . Really appreciate it @
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Dear Colleagues
Perhaps there are databases on the internet. Animal carcasses are an important component of terrestrial ecosystems. I want to make an overview of the confinement to the corpses of a certain taxonomic affiliation of insect necrophages. I will be glad to discuss methodological approaches to solving this issue. If you are interested, write I will be glad to cooperate.
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Интересный вопрос!
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Hello everyone. I am curious whether it is possible to grow terrestrial orchids hydroponically under normal conditions, not sterile. Does anyone have such knowledge? I would wonder if Calanthe could be cultured that way after seed germination in sterile conditions. With a small scale culture system, hopefully we may be able to avoid plant viruses and promote growth.
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Terrestrial Orchids are well-suited for hydroponic growing, as they grow in moist, loose soil and need constant food and moisture to thrive, which is supplied with a hydroponic growing method. Selecting varieties suitable for the growing conditions in hydroponics improves chances of success.
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I mean the advantages and disadvantages
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Leads to Biological oxygen demand BOD
In enrichment of nutrition and they have poor oxygen in a water
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How to measure Biomass of Terrestrial trees to Know C- sequestration
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@ Abhijit, the atomic weight of Carbon is 12 and the atomic weight of Oxygen is 16 . The weight of CO2 in trees is determined by the ratio of CO2 to C is 44/12 = 3.67. Therefore, to determine the weight of carbon dioxide sequestered in the tree, multiply the weight of carbon in the tree by 3.67. Biomass and carbon calculations are usually calculated together because carbon is stored in forest biomass and has a tight mathematical relationship. The amount of biomass is multiplied by 0.5 to get estimated carbon because 50% biomass is assumed as stored carbon in forests (IPCC, 2000). Biomass is defined as the total amount of aboveground living organic matter in trees expressed as oven-dry tons per unit area. It is referred to as biomass density when expressed as mass per unit area, e.g., tons per hectare.
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Dear everyone. In addition to my own primary field of research, I am also engaged in research on germination of poorly germinating terrestrial orchids and their breeding as a hobby in life.I have been currently looking for seeds of Calanthe plantaginea in particular for many years. This species is growing wild in northern India, Nepal and Bhutan. If it is possible to obtain these seeds, I would appreciate any information on how to obtain them. I appreciate it.
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Very interesting... Following
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Hi there! I am interested in understanding (or making myself more confused, whatever) the evolutionary pathways of coprophilic habit in dung-inhabiting fungi. Taking into account the dung of herbivore animals as a substrate to dung fungi growth, we have few "candidates" to be dung-producers with some requirements to early dung fungi (e.g. the amphibians Ichthyostega (I don't know if it was an herbivore or omnivorous, appearing about ca. 375 million y/a in Devonian, once the first tetrapod herbivores made their first appearance in the fossil record near the Permio-Carboniferous boundary, ca. 300 million y/a.). Terrestrial plants made their first appearance ca. 450 million y/a, with a well-accepted role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in this process. So, my question is about if there is some study dealing with the evolutive process of dung-inhabiting fungi, presenting some consideration where and how, in the evolutive process, this ecologic habit firstly appears? Any considerations are welcome! Thank you!
If you want to help me with this question with more details (or more questions ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ ) or papers/books, feel free to also send me an email at: calacafjs@gmail.com.
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Also kindly check the following very good link:
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If this is so, then we must credit this change to global public awareness and activism against the rampant pollution, degradation and the destruction of the global environment and the mental health of our young generation; caused by consumerism and the insatiable profit-making schemes of monopoly capitalism. It is to the credit of the brave teenagers like Greta Thunberg who inspired and mobilized the world youth to environmental activism and more recently by the profound soul of a data scientist like Frances Haugen; who risked her career and probably her life to expose the greed of corporations that knowingly put profit over the well-being of humanity!
This activism of our fresh and young generation stands in sharp contrast to the conformed, cautious and career minded troops of “scientist-serfs” (a term coined by the Bengali poet Tagore) who willingly enable the rampage of the Frankenstein Monster, commonly known as corporate capitalism. Can we now have hope that the activism of our youth world-wide, will form a Tsunami that will drown the Frankenstein Monster forever and usher in a new dawn?
The prestigious Nobel Award is a yearly ritual that sets the direction and the priorities of scientific research on a global scale. For about a century since Einstein’s theory of general relativity, this Award was mainly and obsessively focused on the esoteric theories of physics and on mysticism about cosmology; that served the interest of the established order and theology; but which has no or little relevance to life in terrestrial Nature. Was this a century-long ploy by the compliant Nobel Committee to divert attention from the ravages being done to mother earth and her children by greedy corporate capitalism?
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Very interesting contribution Prof. Janusz Pudykiewicz, as Prof. Abdul Malek says.
Could you please elaborate a little more about the phrase in your post "I always expect that the future will hold even more surprises and that we will see another Nobel Prize related to meteorology; this time it will be assigned to a scientist who will make an actual weather forecast for three weeks, which is most likely a theoretical predictability limit as suggested by A. Kolmogorov."
I just find it very interesting.
Thank you so much in advance.
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I want any books or articles to help me to understand how can I correct tha measured data from terrestrial sation
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I don't think measured data from terrestrial weather stations can measure these differences in wavelength and if so such stations are rarely available and data accessible. The conventional stations rather provide a single UV value from a UV sensor and/or solar radiation sensor. A spectroradiometer of some sort would be needed on the station to measure UV wavelength range 100-400 nm that is divided into three bands: UVA (315-400 nm) UVB (280-315 nm) UVC (100-280 nm).
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I have been reading and searching information about why insects evolved from being hemi-metabolist to holometabolist.
It has been pointed out that insects have evolved to complete metamorphosis to avoid competing resources between adults and young instars as it happens with some terrestrial hemimetabolist insects. But I am not quite sure about aquatic insects like mayflies, dragonflies, damselflies among other groups. As adults emerged occupied another environment, while some occupied both.
Are there some information, literature about ecological perspective of how these two holo and hemimetabolist insects evolved?.
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The idea about competing resources between adults and larvae is absurd, because nobody can compete with himself. The single serious publication about complete metamorphosis is my paper: Kluge N.J. 2005. Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923. // Russian Entomological Journal (2004) 13(4): 189–229.
and my new book in Russian: http://www.insecta.bio.spbu.ru/sys-ins.htm
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Dear colleagues:
I am interested in this topic because I want an organism that consumes food waste at a high rate and the data for insects and worms seem more homogeneous. I have to admit that terrestrial isopods have me completely surprised. Some species reproduce at much higher rates than other invertebrates. However, the data in the literature speak of very low daily intakes of less than one mg per g of live weight. On the other hand, as they live at overcrowding levels of tens of thousands per square meter they could compensate this low feeding rate. Even so, it is not clear to me. The species that I keep in the laboratory as a companion to the terrariums is Porcellio laevis. I don't know if I have minimized the effect of terrestrial isopods as detritivores. I know that isopods crush the food considerably and help the bacterial processes of decomposition. I do not care whether they degrade directly or indirectly. I want to know their exact contribution and I repeat, the results are very disparate and confusing. For example in these papers:
Effects of Terrestrial Isopods on the Decomposition of Woodland Leaf Litter Author(s): M. Hassall, J. G. Turner and M. R. W. Rands Source: Oecologia , 1987, Vol. 72, No. 4 (1987), pp. 597-604.
Abd El-Wakeil, Khaleid. (2015). Effects of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea) on leaf litter decomposition processes. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology. 69. 10.1016/j.jobaz.2015.05.002.
These studies report composting rates of more than 70% of the biomass ingested (~millipedes), which is logical if we look at their diet. But the most surprising thing is that they also talk about feeding conversion ratios (FCR) between 1.5 to 2, which would place them at the same level as the tenebrionidae. I would like to set up a discussion on isopods can be used on an industrial scale to firstly degrade waste and secondly to compost. The thousands of isopods I have in my lab inside terrariums don't seem to be effective enough to attract attention. Judging by their numbers the breeding conditions are appropriate. In short: I don't know what to think of isopods. I guess I'll have to do a lot of tests before I decide.
Any suggestion?
Thanks
****************************************************************************
Daniel Patón. Numerical Ecology. Ecology Unit
Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences
Faculty of Sciences. University of Extremadura
Avda. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
****************************************************************************
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Daniel; The only conditons that I pay any attention to are;
1. Well aerated.
2. High humidity but not saturated.
3. Unprocessed material is thick enough for it to be dark at the isopod layer.
Cheers, Jim Des Lauriers
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So far, most of methods about inferring the trophic or ecological interactions take account of the circumstance of aquatic ecosystem. Many methods have emerged, such as the method based on body size (Gravel and Poisot et al., 2013) and the method based on published data (Gray and Figueroa et al., 2015). However, these methods have many limitations when applied to terrestrial ecosystems. Are there any generic methods to infer the trophic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems?
Any helpful answers would be appreciated!
Best wishes.
Reference
Gray, C. and D. H. Figueroa, et al. (2015). "Joining the dots: An automated method for constructing food webs from compendia of published interactions." Food Webs 5: 11-20.
Gravel, D. and T. Poisot, et al. (2013). "Inferring food web structure from predator-prey body size relationships." Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4 (11): 1083-1090.
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Hi Hao Xiyang , kindly check whether the below link is helpful for you.
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Alternative method of comparing satellite and terrestrial rainfall data. So far, I have made a comparison by climate zone, elevation range, location, and years; any other suggestions are welcome ?
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You could also look into the rainfall distributions (e.g. for the regions you already analyzed) or only consider rain rates above certain thresholds or percentiles.
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We are going to do an RNA-seq analysis to study transcriptomes\ profile of different organs in terrestrial orchid species within genera including Dactylorhiza, Ophrys, Himantoglossum, and Orchis but their underground fleshy tubers contain high content of glucomannan (a carbohydrate which gives special rheological features to products obtained from Salep) and it's difficult to obtain a pure RNA in presence of such contaminations. Is there any special and home-developed protocol to extract a pure RNA sample suitable for RNA-seq analysis from such tissues?
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Sanaan Fathi thanks for your answer. We usually use Ethanol and Isopropanol in the RNA extraction protocol. The first one washing the resulted pellet and removing extraction solution or other contamination in the final step and the second one for precipitation of RNA molecules.
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It is known that the pedosphere is one of the largest reservoirs of organic matter on the planet (up to 2060 ± 215 Pg C). This is significantly more than combined in the atmosphere (~ 800 Pg C) and terrestrial vegetation (~ 500 Pg C). It is also estimated that over 12,000 years of agricultural use, soils have lost an average of 133 Pg (petagrams, 1015 g) C, and the rate of losses has increased significantly over the past 200 years. On the other hand, soil microorganisms respond to rising ambient temperatures by enhanced decomposition of organic matter. Can CO2 emissions from the pedosphere significantly affect the increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and, accordingly, increase its global temperature.
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The pedosphere is an important carbon sink that removes carbon from the atmosphere. Soil does this by trapping the carbon in plant tissue (which the plant itself absorbed from the atmosphere during respiration and photosynthesis). Soil degradation and the clearing of forest for farmland (which itself can lead to soil degradation) is therefore an important concern for climate change.
I think these chapters could help you;
  1. The Future of Soil Carbon, January 2018,
  2. Soil Carbon, January 2018,
  3. Earth’s Climate as a Dynamic System,
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Net zero refers to a state in which the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere are balanced by removal out of the atmosphere. A growing number of countries, cities and companies are aiming for 'net zero' emissions to meet climate goals, and the International Energy Agency has unveiled a plan to get there.
For tree based removal of CO2 would demand between 0.4 and 1.2 billion hectares of land. That’s 25% to 80% of all the land currently under cultivation. How will that be achieved at the same time as feeding 8-10 billion people around the middle of the century or without destroying native vegetation and biodiversity?
If we add technological removal, it may be termed as investment with no return.
If we are purly dependent on plantation, growing billions of trees would consume vast amounts of water – in some places where people are already thirsty. Increasing forest cover in higher latitudes can have an overall warming effect because replacing grassland or fields with forests means the land surface becomes darker. This darker land absorbs more energy from the Sun and so temperatures rise. Focusing on developing vast plantations in poorer tropical nations comes with real risks of people being driven off their lands.
And it is often forgotten that trees and the land in general already soak up and store away vast amounts of carbon through what is called the natural terrestrial carbon sink. Interfering with it could both disrupt the sink and lead to double accounting.
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The ideas of environmentalists and the public to create a clean planet are clear in ideological terms, and of course we all strive for them.
However, the technical specifics of the plans and actions of "Net zero emission" raises many doubts.
Thus, the plans of companies to restore ecosystems and forests can lead to the purchase of land for free from poor farmers in developing countries.
Compensatory measures of enterprises (restoration of forests, land, carbon capture, etc.) may be minimal in comparison with the reduction of emissions at their own production facilities along all supply chains and in the process of consumption of released goods.
On the part of enterprises, various manipulations are possible with the withdrawal of operations with the highest level of emissions to companies and countries where there is no carbon regulation.
In this sense, "Net zero emission" is a slogan.
In order to turn the slogans of environmentalists into specifics, it is necessary to switch to clean production based on promising energy carriers. The transition to a new technological structure will completely prevent industrial emissions and there are plenty of specific technical opportunities.
One of the possibilities is to switch to electron-beam energy carriers:
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Hi fellow students and scientists.
Im studying organic carbon levels and its origins in deep sediment cores from seagrass meadows sampled along the swedish Skagerrak coast. One core was successfully dated with C14, and the oldest section seems to be well within the Littorina sea period.
This site has apparently never been above sealevel, according to geodata since the last glacial ice cover. So I wonder, is it possible that the oldest part (thick, brown clay layer of organic and terrestrial carbon) is ackumulated humus transported by the glacial melting and subsequent runoff on the Swedish west coast?
I read in an article that during the Littorina sea period, there was indeed much runoff from land but nothing was mentioned about organic carbon - just inorganic.
My samples were treated with acid to remove inorganic remains. If there's anybody here with knowledge on postglacial sediments, Id love to hear what you think :)
The core profile can be summarized as follows:
___________________________________________________
1. Seagrass sediment section: Zostera marina.
~0-60 cm slice depth (decompressed).
Age 0-1700 BP.
Exclusively marine signal, from C/N ratio & isotopes.
___________
2. Grey clay section: much rocks and shells.
~65-95 cm slice depth (decompressed).
Age 1700-3800 BP.
Both marine and terrestrial signals, C/N ratio & isotopes.
___________
3. Brown clay section: small amount of rocks.
~105-130 cm slice depth (decompressed).
Age 3800 - 8092 BP.
Exclusively terrestrial signals, C/N ratio & isotopes.
___________________________________________________
Thank you in advance!
Sanne Bergman
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I have one small idea. You can have a palynological analysis done. I don't know who can do it today, but I'm sure someone will find it. In our area (Ostrava, Czech Republic) a number of peat sites are known from glacial sequences (glacial s. s., glacilaku., glacifluvi etc.). They probably come from interglacials and sometimes contain rich pollen communities. It was solved a lot in the 50s of the 20th century, today no one deals with it.
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I need to build a model with meteorological data and terrestrial maps and prefer the output to be in the form of maps. I studied ML but I want to design a unique method. Which references or models can help me?
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You can use R programming for combining model with numerical data and spatial data and also use Bradely-Terry Model for this work.
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Kindly, name some reliable/popular field survey technique employed for amphibians (frogs) & terrestrial skinks (scincidae) in tropical forests. Thanks a ton.
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Hello,
besides the previous answers, and integrating some of them, I list some survey techniques used for amphibians and most terrestrial reptiles, inclusive of skinks, in tropical forests, but also in more general contexts.
Active methods
· Visual detection along fixed transects (not the best in tropical environments, but applicable in some context)
· Visual detection without fixed transect, freely scouting a specific area
· Acoustic encounter along fixed transects (amphibians)
· Acoustic encounter scouting a specific area (amphibians)
· Sporadical-opportunistic observations and acoustic records
Other active methods (captures):
Amphibians
· Hand-capture
· Dip-nets
Skinks
· Hand-capture
· Grabber
· Noose
The use of binoculars can be applied in some environmental contexts and cameras are often essential, as photographs of detected or captured animals are an evidence for verifying species identifications.
Obviously, a general knowledge of the potential presence of some species in the investigated area must lead to examine the zone keeping into consideration the general ecology of each taxon:
- specific forest type (e.g., zones where small areas of primary-secondary dry forest, transitional dry to moist, moist forest, human altered forest are close to each other)
- specific habitat (e.g., trees, poles, tree holes, small rivers, and waterfalls, breeding sites)
- best season
Naturally, each point should be examined regardless of the knowledge of the potential presence of some species in the investigated area (hiding places for some amphibians and skinks, poles for tadpoles, etc.).
Other similar, obvious considerations are as follows.
In all cases, the above mentioned techniques are employed in different ways based on:
- forest type
- season and/or the weather conditions
- hour of the day
(e.g., clearly, for amphibians these techniques aren’t employed in tropical dry forests, during the dry season and in full daylight).
To maximize the success of a survey, some artificial environmentscan be used, such as:
· Artificial covers (amphibians)
· Shelters (amphibians and skinks)
· Basking substrates (skinks)
If the transect techniques is used, each transect can be settled basing on the presence of one of these artificial environments.
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Passive methods (amphibians)
· Pitfall traps (eventually with drift nets)
· Funnel traps
· Bottle traps
· Artificial cover traps
· Microphones (vocalizations ;-)
· Camera-traps (very rarely)
Passive methods (skinks)
· Pit-fall traps
· Pipe-trap
· Camera-traps (very rarely)
Here again cameras are essential, as photos of captured animals are an evidence for verifying species identifications.
A general, again obvious, remark is to record the location, date, time, and micro-habitat of each record.
A conclusive short remark is as follows.
There aren’t fixed rules to plan a survey, even though sometimes it’s recommended to involve, if possible, 3 to 6 people for 3-5 days in each survey. The number of surveys and their temporal distance depending on the specificity of the study.
Last but not least, if aiming at creating an erpethological checklist of an area:
Op­portunistic records by local people
Finally, op­portunistic records of various species encountered by local people are useful to create a more exhaustive checklist of the species of an area.
General references
Bennett, D. (1999). Expedition Field Techniques - Reptiles and Amphibians. Geography Outdoors.
Heyer, W. R., M. A. Donnelly, R. W. McDiarmid, L.-A. C. Hayek, and M. S. Foster (1994). Measuring and monitoring biological diversity. Standard methods for amphibians. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
Rödel, M.O, Ernst, R. (2004). Measuring and monitoring amphibian diver­sity in tropical forests. I. An evaluation of methods with recommen­dations for standardization. Ecotropica 10: 1–14.
Wilkinson, J. W. (2015). Amphibian Survey and Monitoring Handbook. Pelagic Publishing, Exeter.
Simply three case studies in tropical forest environments
Costa-Campos CE, Freire EMX (2019). Richness and composition of anuran assemblages from an Amazonian savanna. ZooKeys 843: 149–169. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.843.33365
Mira-Mendes CB, Ruas DS, Oliveira RM, Castro IM, Dias IR, Baumgarten JE, Juncá FA, Solé M (2018). Amphibians of the Reserva Ecológica Michelin: a high diversity site in the lowland Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. ZooKeys 753: 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.753.21438
Rödel MO, Glos J (2019). Herpetological surveys in two proposed protected areas in Liberia, West Africa. Zoosyst. Evol. 95: 15-35. https://doi.org/10.3897/zse.95.31726
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Anomalous phenotype; polydactyly, adactyly, hyperregeneration, trematodes & mutations are observe in amphibians. Similarly, beside the the aforementioned reasons what are other associated phenomenon responsible & may suspected to influence such developments in terrestrial skinks (Scincidae) as well. Please suggest, thanks a ton.
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Although I am not a specialist in the field of amphibians, I know for sure that my colleagues carried out this research in Russia. One of the reasons for this is environmental pollution. This was primarily observed on the territory of large cities. Subsequently, we found that the reason for everything is the high content of heavy metals.
Regards, Sergey
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In some crude oils or source rocks reported in previous publications, it is sometimes mentioned that the organic matter exhibite an pararent contribution of bacterial reworking of terrestrial organic matterial. So, which biomarkers are typical compounds resulting from bacterial reworking of terrestrial organic material ? In addition, which parameters can qualitatively characterize the degree of bacterial reworking ?
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Dear Hong Xiao thank you for asking this interesting technical question. Please have a look at the following potentially useful article which might help you in your analysis:
Molecular indicators of diagenetic status in marine organic matter
This article has been posted as public full text on RG. Thus it can be freely downloaded as pdf file. I hope it helps.
Also please see:
Lacustrine organic geochemistry—an overview of indicators of organic matter sources and diagenesis in lake sediments
Good luck with your work!
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I would gratefully appreciate tutorials on processing Terrestrial LiDAR Data. I use the CLOUD COMPARE software to process the data in FLS (FARO TLS) data format. Cloud compare supports importing fls data as point clouds. But I am struck up with wat next. Going through different video tutorials which mostly explains step by step procedures, it seems inconsistent on the sequence of steps to be followed especially using the data as intensity or scalar value etc....
To illustrate an example, in optical remote sensing, we get the data as DN values, then we convert it to radiance and finally to reflectance (though currently many products are directly provided as radiance and reflectance).
In a similar fashion, it would be good if some one can suggest how a point cloud can be ultimately converted to elevation (with respect to WGS 1984 - orthometric). we have also carried out DGPS survey to generate tie points so as to generate orthometric height.
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After downloading the data (JPL/CSR/GFZ) from  ftp://podaac-ftp.jpl.nasa.gov/allData/tellus/L3/land_mass/RL05/netcdf/ to calculate TWS (Terrestrial Water storage) do we need to do any additional post-processing without multiplying with the scaling factor? Especially before using the TWS to calculate groundwater level or drought severity index"?
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I couldn't access this dataset
do you know why?
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Hi everybody! Does anyone may suggest me some useful references (papers, books) for the interpretation of the signals emitted from the organic matter preserved in the sediments? Can be great to find a sort of table reporting the different kinds of organic matter (e.g., algal, terrestrial) and their response under specific emission filters.
Thanks in advance,
Luca
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Dear Mr. Pellegrino,
We have studied sedimentary basins across the world since many years backed by coal petrographic analyses under different wave length.
The publications below are all available on request for download from the RG server:
DILL, H. G., KOCH, J., TESCHNER, M. and WEHNER, H. (1991) Coalification and organic geochemistry of the Permo-Carboniferous beds in the Stockheim Basin, NE-Bavaria (F.R. Germany).- Erdöl and Kohle, 44: 97-105.
DILL, H.G., KOCH, J., SCHEEDER G., WEHNER, H., and STRAHL, J. (2003) Lithology, palynology and organic geochemistry of carbonaceous rocks in fluvial-lacustrine series of Tertiary to Quaternary age (Kathmandu Basin, Nepal).- Neues Jahrbuchfür Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 227: 1-38.
DILL, H.G., WEHNER, H., KUS, J., BOTZ, R., BERNER, Z., STÜBEN, D. and AL-SAYIGH A. (2007) The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential.- International Journal of Coal Geology 72: 89-123.
DILL, H.G., KUS, J., DOHRMANN, R. and TSOY, Y. (2008) Supergene and hypogene alteration in the dual-use kaolin-bearing coal deposit Angren, SE Uzbekistan.- International Journal of Coal Geology, 75: 225-240.
DILL, H.G., KUS J., ABED., A.M., SACHSENHOFER R.F.and ABUL KHAIR H. (2009) Diagenetic and epigenetic alteration of Cretaceous to Paleogene organic-rich sedimentary successions typical of the western margin of the Arabian Plate, northwestern Jordan.- GeoArabia, 14: 101-140.
DILL, H.G., BECHTEL, A., KUS, J., GRATZER, R. and ABU HAMAD, A. M. B. (2010) Deposition and alteration of carbonaceous series within a Neotethyan rift at the western boundary of the Arabian Plate: The Late Permian Um Irna Formation, NW Jordan, a petroleum system.- International Journal of Coal Geology, 81: 1-24.
DILL, H.G. , BECHTEL, A., BERNER, Z., BOTZ, R., KUS, J., HEUNISCH, C. and ABU HAMAD, A. M. B. (2012) The evaporite-coal transition: Chemical, mineralogical and organic composition of the Late Triassic Abu RuweisFormation, NW Jordan - reference type of the “Arabian Keuper”.- Chemical Geology, 298-299: 20-40.
DILL, H.G., TECHMER, A. and KUS, J (2013) Evolution of an old mining district between 725 and 1630 AD at the boundary between Thüringen and Bayern, SE Germany, using mineralogical and chemical markers, radio-carbon dating and coal petrography of slags.- Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 5: 215-233.
DILL, H.G., KUS, J., KAUFHOLD, S., RAMMLMAIR, D., and TECHMER, A. (2017) Oligo-Miocene coal in a microtidal environment reworked under Quaternary periglacial conditions (Western Falkland Islands/Isla Gran Malvina). – Coal formation and natural sand processing.- International Journal of Coal Geology 174: 8-22.
DILL, H.G., KUS J., BUZATU A., BALABAN S.-I. ,KAUFHOLD S., and BORREGO A. G. (2021) Organic debris and allochthonous coal in Quaternary landforms within a periglacial setting (Longyearbyen Mining District, Norway) - A multi-disciplinary study (coal geology-geomorphology-sedimentology).- International Journal of Coal Geology (on-line)
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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Dear all,
Is it possible to identify this earthworm species (terrestrial oligochaete).
Many thanks
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A ventrolateral pic of the new adult specimen would be better, but I do not think that this is A. festae.
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Generally forest ecosystems are often developed on poorly fertile soils where the plant available pools of nutrient cations are frequently very low, but the content of available potassium for a natural terrestrial forest stand shows a very high value of 671.89 kg/ha using the standard method for the soil chemical analysis, is it natural for the soils of a terrestrial forest patch?
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Excellent, do you find any distinct variation in soil test values as per stand of different forest species , let us look at the root density vis-a- vis root education dictating such variation in soil test values , including K...
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Colonization of Mars and the terrestrial ocean-bottom probably runs parallel. There is a new space competition in human astronautic goals, and there is no competition to build settlements on the bottom of the sea.
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The challenge of pressure!
It is much more difficult to explore ocean than space.
In fact, we know many more planets than our oceans (see figure).
Colonizing the oceans requires structures much more rigid than those used in space exploration, even if it is going to be cheaper, I do not believe that difference is very big.
I believe that we will have many space stations and colonies on other planets before having research stations submerged in great depths.
I would particularly like to see scientific exploration of oceans with underwater bases.
Regards,
Prof. Wiltgen
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From your viewpoint, what are the future main challenges in studying Biomes, Biogeography, Terrestrial & Aquatic Ecosystems of the World?
Best regards,
Saeed
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Discussion about biodiversity is specifically important especially under the uprising pressure of climate change nowadays, which is profoundly becoming to be shown as natural disturbance in some specific areas.
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Explain the flow of matter in tree
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Discuss the process and flow of matter or information associated with the tree in an ecosystem.
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For my final year thesis I require data on the average body mass of terrestrial predators and their prey. I have come across many papers which have used such data sets however, the data is not provided or I cant access it.
Thank you in advance for any help.
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Smith, F.A., Lyons, S.K., Ernest, S.K.M., Jones, K.E., Kaufman, D.M., Dayan, T., et al. (2003). Body mass of Late Quaternary mammals: Ecological Archives E084‐094. MOMV4.1. Ecology, 84, 3403(updated version obtained from senior author).
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Satellite altimetry is usually used for assessing relative changes in water levels, in lakes, seas etc ... why the same technology can not be used in terrestrial surfaces?
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Another type of radar data is used to monitor subsidence and crustal deformations, but with a different technology than altimetry.
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Storage components such as soil moisture, snowpack, groundwater, and surface water are poorly known at the sub-watershed scale due to a lack of well-distributed and continuous in situ networks. To ‘predict’ Spatio-temporal change in terrestrial water storages which hydro- and land surface models are more accurate and feasible at a local scale?
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I find the reference by Hasrul Hazman Hasan is very necessary and help you in answering your quation
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I want to measure the metabolic rate and water loss in amphibians, usually frogs and salamanders, that have different life histories. And, I want to build a chamber that I can use for aquatic and terrestrial species or life stages. I want them to work for both because the idea is to take measurements in the field and the system itself is already large.
I am starting to work with physiology, so any advice for the chamber or how to measure metabolic rate is welcome. Thanks!
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Hello Zuania,
In your case, I think it would be interesting to build a chamber that can measure respiration both in water and in air. You can check papers on mudskipper or crabs which studied bimodal respiration, you may find advices for chamber design.
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I need research papers with problem statement as well as research questions in respect of the above mentioned topics
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Dear Waris Ali Gabol, there are several ongoing projects that talk about the destruction of biodiversity in many National Parks and Forest Reservoirs in Venezuela.
The information is primarily in RRSS. However, some articles have appeared recently, this situation is dire in all senses.
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I would like to promote a discuss if the recent global climate changes can influences microsporogenesis, microgamatogenesis, megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis. I was wondering, based on the million years of terrestrial plant existence, if the plants can adapt the sporogenesis and gametogenesis for the possible changes in climate. Also, what is you thought about the possible plasticity in crop plants?
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@ Joao, plant fertility is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. Heat stress has pleitropic effects on male sporogenesis. Heat interferes with male meiotic cross-over designation and cell wall formation, providing a mechanistic basis for plant karyotype change and genome evolution under high temperature conditions. The male reproductive system has been repeatedly found to be most susceptible to temperature stress.
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Hi everyone,
The goal: i want to register crop point clouds and spectral information in a plot of the field.
The data detail:
1.The crop point clouds will be obtained by terrestrial Lidar (or UAV with rgb using SFM method) in a plot which is of high quality, you can see the accurate 3D structure of the crop.
2. The spectral information of crop will be obtained by UAV with Multispectral camera.
This is a field experiment, and i am a rookie in this field, I hope you can give me some suggestions, if it is some literature, it would be better.
Thank you !
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Thank you Sir Taylor Bennett
I'll try your method as soon as possible!looks great!
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Hi all,
Does anyone here know where to obtain estimates of paleo land areas for continents? I need data for the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and/or early Paleocene for each continent individually. While paleomaps are relatively easy to come by I haven't been able to find estimates for land areas although I assume such estimates exist.
Cheers,
Thomas
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Dear Thomas Marcussen,
In 1983-1984 in time of Stratigraphy Course it was thought for us,
if I remember correctly , it remained in Romania…, but in the internet exist the next link:
It is in Romanian language… I am staying 350 km from the closest Library…
Regards,
Laszlo,
If you do not get help I will try to resolve somewhat this no-pleasant situation.
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I have designed an antenna to operate at 14.25 GHz( 14 to 14.5 GHz)uplink frequency of Ku band with linear polarization. what kind of application is suited for my designed antenna? and reference paper pls suggest me.
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Of course. It can be a special relay communication and your antennas can be used as a partial element of an antenna array. On the other hand, it can be a control link to UAV or UGV.
I agree with Alaa Hafez that your antenna can be used for radar's antenna array as well.
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I learned from the literature that Sargassum sp. can directly secrete DOC in shallow seas, so I want to know whether large submerged plants in the lower terrestrial waters can directly release DOC, and it releases DOC what is the physiologically reason?
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What is DOC?
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Global warming affects many processes in biological ecosystems. Different species of flora and fauna change their habitats and geographical areas according to climate change and specific geographical environments. Areas of occurrence of specific species, for example insects in terrestrial areas and fish and arthropods in the seas and oceans, change. Bird habitats change, so migrations of some bird species may also be subject to modification. In the situation when forest areas dry out and turn into steppes and deserts, changes in natural habitats and areas of occurrence of species change and concern simultaneously many species of flora and fauna.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
What changes in natural ecosystems are caused by the ongoing global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems.... Crabbe, M. J. C. (2008). Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: Modelling the effects of temperature. Computational Biology and Chemistry, 32(5), 311-314.
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I am currently conducting research on ecological aspects of juvenile crabs of the species Cardisoma crassum. I need information on related species.
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Gracias. Saludos cordiales.
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Dear RG members,
Hi,
I want to get information about the foods consumed by a few terrestrial insects; So I need to extract the contents of their stomachs. What is your propositional method that is applicable to extract these contents?
Best regards,
Saeed
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Hello Saeed; Allow me to add a detail to Julian's description. I once did a similar project involving the larvae of the Pleocomid genus Pleocoma. They feed on roots. It was important to arrest the digestive process quickly. Dropping the larvae in a fluid preservative was too slow. What did work was to immerse the larvae in boiling water for 20 seconds. That heated the gut quickly and stopped digestion. Following that step I followed procedures similar to those that Julian describes. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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Hi,
For a client I need to investigate the several remote sensing options to count individual rubber trees for a plantation in west Africa.
The total area to be surveyed is 20 000 hectares. Rubber tree canopies are difficult to delineate due to their complex canopies, unlike oil palm trees. The client has tried surveying using drone images before but without success.
The options I came up with so far:
High resolution satellite imagery
- 0.3m worldview 3 images.
Satellite imagery would be the most cost effective but considering the complex canopy structure (see attached image) I don't see this as a viable option.
LiDAR:
- terrestrial lidar scanning:
Pros: High density pointclouds of individual trees.
Cons: Very time consuming, need several lidar instruments, need more manpower, .
- airborne lidar scanning (helicopter or plane ?)
Pros: fast, reliable, large area cover
Cons:
- ATV lidar scanning?
UAVs
LiDAR mounted on drones.
Cost effective, but can be unstable in windy conditions, limited flying range, and battery duration.
Anyone has any experience with such acquisitions and any idea of the costs and hours such acquisition takes?
happy to hear your thoughts.
regards,
Vincent
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Do you need the individual positions or just a total count? If you are only interested in the total count, a very simple technique of using individual pixel colors as features for a standard size image and using a regression model for count can give you usable results. For identifying individual trees you may dive in some clustering/segmentation methods combined with supervised classification.
However, you need labeled data for using the above models. I would recommend using LiDAR in a limited area to generate labeled data that can then be used to develop predictive models based on satellite imagery.
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Iodine is essential for human health, it is
essential element in the human diet and a deficiency can lead to a number of health outcomes collectively termed iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The geochemistry of iodine is dominated by its volatility with volatilisation of organo-iodine compounds and elemental iodine from biological and non-biological sources in the oceans being a major component of its global cycle. As a result of the dominant oceanic source, iodine is strongly enriched in near-coastal soils, however, the major zone of marine influence generally stretches to only 50–80 km inland and terrestrial sources of volatilised iodine, from wetlands, soils and plants are also an important aspect of its global geochemical cycle. Iodine in soils is strongly bound with transfer factors from soil to plants being generally small and as a consequence there is only limited uptake of iodine through the plant root system. It is likely that uptake of atmospheric iodine by the aerial parts of plants is an essential process and, along with iodine deposited on plant surfaces, is a major source for grazing animals. Human intake of iodine is mainly from food with some populations also obtaining appreciable quantities of iodine from drinking water. Plant-derived dietary iodine is generally insufficient as evidenced from the low dietary iodine of strict vegan diets. Seafood provides major iodine-rich dietary items but other inputs are mainly from adventitious sources, such as the use of iodised salt and from dairy produce, which is a rich source mainly due to cattle-feed being fortified with iodine, and to the use of iodine-containing sterilants in the dairy industry. While the distribution and geochemistry of iodine are reflected in the global distribution of IDD, the recent upsurge of IDD in developed countries would seem to reflect changes in diet.so why iodine is essential?
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Dear Tareq Alasadi
Iodine is important in building thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones are important in food metabolism and proper growth
And it has importance in building the bone and brain of the fetus
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Looking to connect with any research, papers or groups using remotely triggered stereo cameras to create 3 dimensional pictures of wildlife and gather data on cryptic species. Wanting to set up a system similar to the BRUV (baited remote underwater video) but for terrestrial systems, possible using a downward facing camera?
I'm thinking someone out there is probably already doing this?
Cheers,
Jamie
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Hi Jamie Mcaulay Here's an example with tapir in South America. But no idea if this research continues or if the group is still active. Published using 2D only but the group may be interested in participating in this fascinating idea of advancing with 3D ...
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Please see question above. Thanks for your response.
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Hi Bharat,
In this thesis we use dense point clouds in characterizing forest structural components. So far we have applied point clouds from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) since it provides detailed digitization of horizontal forest structure (standing trees) as well as forest floor (downed dead wood). Considering the hemispherical scanning geometry, it could be helpful to use dense aerial point clouds to better characterize the upper parts of forest canopy. So if airborne laser scanning data is used in this thesis, it is used combined with TLS data.
You can find the substudies of my thesis in my RG profile. The full thesis will be an open access publication.
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By this I mean that vision and compute technology appears to drive current and near-term environmental awareness and subsequent knowledge. So for example, whether an image is derived from a geo-satellite or field microscope, and to include all other considerations; is not a single picture grid theoretically standardized regarding its capture, so that a uniform data interpretation across the material panoply is possible?
I am focused on proximal terrestrial agricultural sensing, but I don’t see a limitation theoretically in conceptualizing a system of standard projected optical understanding which extends across the anthropogenic artifact and controlled conditions.
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Please see a new presentation on imagery vantages
This in the context of past project updates.
Project update - "Plots Ahoy!"
Project update - "Optical Perception Acquisition"
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Hello,
I have TLS (terrestrial) and ULS (UAV based) point cloud which I want to calculate Vertical Complexity Indices using forestR R package. But according to manual, input data must have XYZ coordinates and Vegetation Area Index (VAI) in order to run this package. Can anyone please let me know if there is any relatively simpler way to calculate VAI?
Thanks,
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You should have a look at the `lidR` package. It is providing a lot of functions dealing with your request. There is also a lot of support as the github Wiki of the developer [lidR Wiki](https://github.com/Jean-Romain/lidR/wiki)
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We know that some terrestrial vertebrates has exposed teeth,some of them are for sexual displaying,some are for a weapon or a tool,but most terrestrial vertebrates' teeth are cover by lips,the surrounding in the mouth and ouside is different.so is there any special mechanism for maintaing the exposed teeth of those animals?
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Hello Li; The exposed teeth that you are thinking about, elephants, pigs, some rodents, lagomorphs and a few deer all have open pulp cavities and as a result the teeth grows continuously throughout the animal's life. That growth compensates for the wear that occurs as a result of the tooth's function. In fact, if the wear of the tooth doesn't approximately equal the growth rate then serious malocclusions may occur. The attached photo is of the skull of a California Ground Squirrel where such a condition resulted in the animals' death. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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I am currently working on a particular deepwater sedimentary system, which probably records processes and deposition within a forearc setting. The effects and deposits from a nearby volcanic terrane (both terrestrial and sub-aqueous eruptions) are clear throughout the succession. I have found a number of comparable systems in the literature, but there seems to be a general lack of information concerning this type of setting . If anyone has any good examples of a such a system, which I have not already found, it would be greatly appreciated.
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Hi Tom. The Triassic Songpan-Ganzi turbidites (West China) could be a nice example in the back-arc setting.
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The terrestrial organic matter injected into the sea through estuaries may be the important hydrocarbon generating parent material of natural gas in sea areas.
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Hi,
Their are some forward stratigraphic models (e.g. DORS) which can simulate the transport, degradation and burial of preserved organic matter in sediments. You can have a look at IFPEN work on this topic (https://www.researchgate.net/project/DORS-Dionisos-Organic-Rich-Sediments).
Cheers,
Mathieu
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My point is that the lost sink is so great that the amount of measured or estimated emissions after impoundment doesn't really matter because either way the net loss is going to be high.  If possible kindly suggest me something, because it means that the condition of the flooded land is the most critical factor in net emissions after impoundment.  Is that correct?
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Can you be more specific?
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Often Oil spills on the terrestrial landscape including the wetlands. This could be either operational or as a result of sabotage. I will like to know if there is a technology that can be used to detect in near real time and monitor such (potential) spills. This takes into consideration the fact that such spills could occur in a thick bush or vegetated areas. Any thoughts here would be appreciated.
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The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 400 to 700 nm. Overall, oil displays a moderately larger reflectance than water, but does not show specific absorption or reflection tendencies. Thin oil layers or sheen appear silvery to the human eye and reflect light over a wide spectral range—as far as the blue. Thick oil layers appear to be the same color as bulk oil, typically brown or black. Overall, oil has no specific spectral information that differ from the water upon which the oil floats]. As a consequence, processes that inspect particular spectral regions do not enhance discrimination. One method of using visible spectra is to use a push-broom scanner that uses a CCD detector and an optical system to direct ground elements to different parts of the CCD detector.
taken from: A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing
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I've encountered an Ostracod species within Beech leaf litter from Aberdeenshire, Scotland and would like to know if:
- other researchers have encountered leaf litter Ostracods in the UK/Ireland/ Europe.
- there is a key to terrestrial species.
- anyone would be willing for me to forward to them a number of specimens for possible identification?
Best Regards
Brian
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I've had a look on SNH's files, and the only thing I can find is a record of Terrestricythere on Orkney. This was found by Professor David Horne (Queen Mary University of London) and two students in 2018, and a report is available at http://www.arcs.qmul.ac.uk/media/arcs/students/finances/bursaries-grants-scholarships/expeditions-fund/2017-18/Scotland-1.pdf. Prof Horne's page is at https://www.qmul.ac.uk/geog/staff/horned.html, so I think he'd be your best bet.
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I have heard that it may be around 23 GHz or 28 GHz.
Are we going to have unified communications Satellite and Mobile terrestrial?
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Follow
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I am looking for water quality effects on the toxicity to plants when diuron is used as an algaecide in water. I have seen documentation about use as a herbicide in terrestrial environments but can't find anything about aquatic ecosystems.
Low pH and high temperatures appear to be a factor but I haven't found any studies that look at these (or any other) factors - only dosage tolerance with little reference to conditions.
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Diuron can be degraded by bacteria, EC50 is 90 days in soil where diuron is modtely degraded by bacteria. Diuron is degraded at quite high rate and less effective at alkaline pH.
I read an article 1 or 2 year back which tells about "enviornmental fate of diuron", try google that.
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I have been comparing the community structure of aquatic plants and terrestrial herbs since they are both herbs but growing in so different habitats.
I want to see what is the key point to rule their community structure. As is well known, the precipitation is important for terrestrial herbs. Light and nutrient are also important for species composition in the terrestrial plant community. While for aquatic plants, water availability is no more limiting but water depth comes in as an new factor. Light and nutrient become more important.Therefore, it is something that can be testified in controlled systems.
What do you think which one can be the key point for plant community?
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Dr Cao, I was referring notes from Prof. J.M. Pelt from his book " La solidarité chez les plantes, les animaux et les humains" Edtion Fayard, 196 pp., 2004
Regards
jp
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According to Noam Chomsky, "the Martian language might not be so different from human language after all.”  And, "if a Martian visited Earth, it would think we all speak dialects of the same language, because all terrestrial languages share a common underlying structure” — he must mean "universal grammar."  Others also believe that since the laws of the universe are supposedly the same everywhere, the language alien civilizations use might be fundamentally similar.  Stephen Krashen, on the other hand, wrote "It is possible that alien language will be completely different from human languages." Do you think alien language would be similar to or different from human language?  
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Quite an appealing discussion! Any postulates on the topic can be only speculative until we finally meet an alien race. However, literature, and more specifically, SF, has contributed some invaluable ideas. The Encyclopedia of Fictional and Fantastic Languages by Tim Conley and Stephen Cain gather loads of such examples.
For instance, Ted Chiang's Heptapod A, and Heptapod B. The former, as described in the novella, sounds like "a wet dog shaking the water out of its fur" (119), that is, an unpronounceable sound for human physiology. The latter, in turn, was so different that enabled its speakers to realise time in a non-linear way.
There are also cases like the Kesh language, describe in Ursula Le Guin's Always Coming Home that is more phonetically similar to human languages but quite distinct when it comes to grammar, which also happens because of physiological differences between humans and the aliens.
Most of the cases to point into one direction: if the alien species are physiologically similar to humans, so are their languages; whereas if the aliens' physical buildup is different, so is their language. As Michael W. Marek has mentioned, the unimaginably different culture the alien races might have developed over millennia of existence may cause quasi-untranslatable languages - we can already see similar cases in human languages. That makes total sense, in my opinion.
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I am working on terrestrial LiDAR modelling and simulation, and I was wondering how to prepare the correct model of LiDAR rotation. I don't understand how laser scanning pattern looks like. I know that most of the 3D sensor has 360 degree horizontal FOV and about 27 degree vertical FOV but I don't know how to connect these two things. Based on pulse rate and rotation rate I calculated degree between pulses but only in XY plane (horizontal scanning). How to add also vertical scanning? Could you give me some examples of scanning pattern and how to simulate LiDAR scanning based on LiDAR's parameters?
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Ok. I did a quick search and found this:
There is a description of the Velodyne Sensor. There are 64 lasers. Each is aiming in an individual vertical direction. They span the entire vertical field of view from +2° to -24.9° and are rotating as one unit around the vertical sensor axis. The exact scan pattern depends on the triggering of these lasers and internal calculations within the device (according to its calibration). I would assume one get a more or less straight vertical line of 64 points in every horizontal direction. Please verify it.
Hope the paper helps understanding the construction of this sensor better.
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Indian Gastropods ..(Terrestrial and Freshwater )
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Well thanks for being part of the discussion ..My question was on Gastropods (Indian)..
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Terrestrial radiation
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Dear Malik Naser Abbood Alkinani , do you would like to estimate net radiation or global radiation using some mathematical models, shoul be that?
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Access to this paper?
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Could you use additional ideas on your microplastic research?
I'm happy to share a draft of a project on impacts of microplastic on terrestrial biodiversity & function. It received positive feedback, but we can't execute it due to changes in my career perspectives. Please feel free to copy or chery pick whatever suits best your interest. The important is that research goes on. ;)
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Contact Dr. Sufia Zaman in RG
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Terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes are calculated using GRACE data given as TWS = Surface water + Soil water + Snow.
How to calculate TWS from CMIP data ? what parameters can i use from GCMs?
Is there any possibility to calculate TWS from water balance equation?
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You need to assess the water balance from the climate data that CMIP Models. I recommend using a hydrology model to use the temperature and precipitation data from CMIP. If it is a regional study, VIC model might be ideal. If you are studying a watershed, you can assess TWS using a simulation model. Simple water budgets at a unit scale can also be used to assess water storage using GIS. Without specifics of your research, it is difficult to be specific.