Science topic

Telencephalon - Science topic

The anterior subdivision of the embryonic forebrain (prosencephalon) or the corresponding part of the adult forebrain that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
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Publications related to Telencephalon (6,210)
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Motile cilia are hair-like structures that move and propel fluid, playing important roles in the physiology of organs. Here, we present a protocol to visualize and measure ciliary beating and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the telencephalon of an adult zebrafish brain explant. We describe the preparation of brain explants, the recording of cilia...
Article
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Kisspeptin plays a vital role in mediating the stress-induced reproductive regulation. Cortisol, known as a stress-related hormone, is involved in gonadal development and sexual differentiation by binding with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate the expression of kiss gene. In the present study, cortisol treatment in yellowtail clownfish ( Amp...
Article
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Neu1 is a glycosidase that releases sialic acids from the non-reducing ends of glycoconjugates, and its enzymatic properties are conserved among vertebrates. Recently, Neu1-KO zebrafish were generated using genome editing technology, and the KO fish showed abnormal emotional behavior, such as low schooling, low aggressiveness, and excess explorator...
Article
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Physical enrichment is known to improve living conditions of fish held in farming systems and has been shown to promote behavioral plasticity in captive fish. However, the brain’s regulatory-mechanism systems underlying its behavioral effects remain poorly studied. The present study investigated the impact of a three-month exposure to an enriched e...
Article
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Human cerebral cancers are known to contain cell types resembling the varying stages of neural development. However, the basis of this association remains unclear. Here, we map the development of mouse cerebrum across the developmental time-course, from embryonic day 12.5 to postnatal day 365, performing single-cell transcriptomics on >100,000 cell...
Conference Paper
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Like other vertebrate groups, chondrichthyans diversified during the Devonian. Although mostly known from their teeth, some conservation deposits like the northern American Cleveland Shale or the northern African Thylacocephalan Layer yield complete skeletons of early chondrichthyans. Based on several nearly complete skeletons and some 3D crania, w...
Article
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Left–right asymmetries in the nervous system (lateralisation) influence a broad range of behaviours, from social responses to navigation and language. The role and pathways of endogenous and environmental mechanisms in the ontogeny of lateralisation remains to be established. The domestic chick is a model of both endogenous and experience-induced l...
Article
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Determining how variation in brain morphology affects cognitive abilities is important to understand inter-individual variation in cognition and, ultimately , cognitive evolution. Yet, despite many decades of research in this area, there is surprisingly little experimental data available from assays that quantify cognitive abilities and brain morph...
Article
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A longstanding issue in biology is whether the intelligence of animals can be predicted by absolute or relative brain size. However, progress has been hampered by an insufficient understanding of how neuron numbers shape internal brain organization and cognitive performance. On the basis of estimations of neuron numbers for 111 bird species, we sho...
Article
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In the avian brain, adult neurogenesis has been reported in the telencephalon of several species, but the functional significance of this trait is still ambiguous. Homing pigeons (Columba livia f.d.) are well-known for their navigational skills. Their brains are functionally adapted to homing with, e.g., larger hippocampi. So far, no comprehensive...
Article
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Neurokinin B (NKB), a member of the tachykinin (TAC) family, plays important roles in mammalian neuropeptide secretion in related to reproduction. However, its potential role in spawning migration teleost is less clear. In the present study, Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was employed to study the performance of NKB in regulating reproduction. Re...
Article
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The successful transfer of farmed post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) depends on proper stress responses and cognitive functions during the early seawater (SW) phase. However, with increasing summer oceanic temperatures, these processes may become a challenge, implicating allostasis and welfare. Therefore, we examined the effect of post-smolt...
Article
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Background De novo deletion of the neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) locus is associated with idiopathic autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The in vivo function of NECAB2 in the brain remains largely elusive.Methods We investigated the morphological and behavioral profiles of both necab2 knock-out and overexpression zebrafish models. The e...
Article
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Attention, referring to selective processing of task-related information, is central to cognition. It has been proposed that voluntary attention (driven by current goals or tasks and under top-down control) and reflexive attention (driven by stimulus salience and under bottom-up control) struggle to control the focus of attention with interaction i...
Article
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Zebrafish telencephalon acquires an everted morphology by a two-step process that occurs from 1 to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Little is known about how this process affects the positioning of discrete telencephalic cell populations, hindering our understanding of how eversion impacts telencephalic structural organization. In this study, we ch...
Article
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Kisspeptin system was shown to be a key factor in mediating social stress and reproduction. Yellowtail clownfish, Amphiprion clarkii , is a hermaphrodite fish, whose sex determination and gonadal development are affected by the social status of individuals. The yellowtail clownfish is a fantastic animal mode to explore sex determination by the soci...
Article
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Neurogenesis is significantly reduced in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is a potential therapeutic target. Contrary to humans, a zebrafish can regenerate its diseased brain, and thus is ideal for studying neurogenesis. To compare the AD-related molecular pathways between humans and zebrafish, we compared single cell or nuclear transcriptomic data fro...
Article
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Pax6 is a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor that positively and negatively regulates transcription and is expressed in multiple cell types in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). As indicated by the morphological and functional abnormalities in spontaneous Pax6 mutant rodents, Pax6 plays pivotal roles in various b...
Article
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The cerebral cortex develops from dorsal forebrain neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Following the initial expansion of the progenitor cell pool, these cells generate neurons of all the cortical layers and then astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Yet, the regulatory pathways that control the expansion and maintenance of the progenitor cell pool are cu...
Article
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Subcortical heterotopias are malformations associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability, characterized by the presence of ectopic neurons in the white matter. Mouse and human heterotopia mutations were identified in the microtubule-binding protein Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 1, EML1. Further exploring pathological mechani...
Article
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The cortex is a highly organized structure that develops from the caudal regions of the segmented neural tube. Its spatial organization sets the stage for future functional arealization. Here, we suggest using a developmental perspective to describe and understand the etiology of common cortical malformations and their manifestation in the human br...
Article
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Adult neurogenesis could be considered as a homeostatic mechanism that accompanies the continuous growth of teleost fish. As an alternative but not excluding hypothesis, adult neurogenesis would provide a form of plasticity necessary to adapt the brain to environmental challenges. The zebrafish pallium is a brain structure involved in the processin...
Article
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Most of the studies on neurochemical mapping, connectivity, and physiology in the hypothalamic region were carried out in rats and under the columnar morphologic paradigm. According to the columnar model, the entire hypothalamic region lies ventrally within the diencephalon, which includes preoptic, anterior, tuberal, and mamillary anteroposterior...
Article
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A few studies assessed how natural products can protect fish from the neurotoxic effects of Microplastics (MPs). Therefore, the goal of this study was to look into the neurotoxicity of PE-MPs on the brain tissue of African catfish (C. gariepinus), and whether dietary feeding on Chlorella, citric acid, and lycopene could help alleviate their toxicit...
Preprint
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Determining how variation in brain morphology affects cognitive abilities is important to understand inter-individual variation in cognition and, ultimately, cognitive evolution. Yet, despite many decades of research in this area, there is surprisingly little experimental data available from assays that quantify cognitive abilities and brain morpho...
Article
Full-text available
The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the anterior communicating artery (AComA) are important arteries of the telencephalon and are prominent location for cerebral aneurysms. Their embryological development is closely linked, and explains the possible variants seen in adults. In this paper, we present details related to the development of these tw...
Article
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The mammalian amygdala is a complex forebrain structure consisting of a heterogeneous group of nuclei derived from the pallial and subpallial telencephalon. It plays a critical role in a broad range of behaviors such as emotion, cognition, and social behavior; within the amygdala each nucleus has a distinct role in these behavioral processes. Topol...
Article
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Based on the coexpression of the transcription factors Foxg1 and Otp, we recently identified in the mouse a new radial embryonic division named the telencephalon-opto-hypothalamic (TOH) domain that produces the vast majority of glutamatergic neurons found in the medial extended amygdala. To know whether a similar division exists in other amniotes,...
Thesis
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ABSTRACT REPUBLIC OF TURKEY NECMETTİN ERBAKAN UNIVERSITY HEALTH SCIENCES INSTITUTE Morpometric Analysis Of Limbic System Subcortical Structures On MR Images Of Alzheimer Patients Meryem Esma DÜZ Department of Anatomy Master Thesis / Konya-2022 Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects more than 35 million people around the worldwide and its incidence is...
Article
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Hippocampal formation (HF) plays a key role in cognitive and emotional processing in mammals. In HF neural circuits, serotonin receptors (5-HTRs) modulate functions related to cognition and emotion. To understand the phylogenetic continuity of the neural basis for cognition and emotion, it is important to identify the neural circuits that regulate...
Preprint
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La aplicación de las diferentes técnicas moleculares para el diagnóstico de los gliomas según la clasificación de la OMS, sigue sin estar al alcance de todos en nuestro país. Nuestro objetivo fue describir el protocolo diagnóstico desarrollado en función de los recursos disponibles, conforme con la clasificación vigente (2021). También, describir e...
Article
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The squirrelfish, which live in visually complex coral reefs, have very large eyes and a special dual-system “day and night vision” retina. They also have atypical expansions of brain areas involved in processing visual information. The midbrain tectum sends information via diencephalic relay to two enlarged dorsal telencephalic regions. The latter...
Article
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Forebrain development in vertebrates is regulated by transcription factors encoded by homeobox, bHLH and forkhead gene families throughout the progressive and overlapping stages of neural induction and patterning, regional specification and generation of neurons and glia from central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells. Moreover, cell fate decisi...
Article
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Anadromous Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are known for their homing behavior based on olfactory imprinting, which is formed during their seaward migration. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE/Snare) complex is a minimum unit of vesicle exocytosis from the pre-synaptic membrane. Its component genes (syn...
Article
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The nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), an integration centre in the telencephalon of birds, plays a crucial role in representing and maintaining abstract categories and concepts. However, the computational principles allowing pallial microcircuits consisting of excitatory and inhibitory neurons to shape the tuning to abstract categories remain elusiv...
Article
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Our recent studies uncovered a novel GABA signaling pathway in embryonic forebrain endothelial cells that works independently from neuronal GABA signaling and revealed that disruptions in endothelial GABAA receptor-GABA signaling from early embryonic stages can directly contribute to the origin of psychiatric disorders. In the GABAA receptor β3 sub...
Article
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Significance The evolution of brain processing capacity has traditionally been inferred from data on brain size. However, similarly sized brains of distantly related species can differ in the number and distribution of neurons, their basic computational units. Therefore, a finer-grained approach is needed to reveal the evolutionary paths to increas...
Article
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The X-linked gene encoding aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) is a bi-functional transcription factor capable of activating or repressing gene transcription, whose mutations have been found in a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs); these include cortical malformations, paediatric epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and autism. In...
Article
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Evolutionary mutations in primate-specific genes drove primate cortex expansion. However, whether conserved genes with previously unidentified functions also play a key role in primate brain expansion remains unknown. Here, we focus on BRN2 ( POU3F2 ), a gene encoding a neural transcription factor commonly expressed in both primates and mice. Compa...
Article
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (Hif1α) plays a crucial role in brain development. To study the function of Hif1α in early brain development, we generated neuroepithelial cell-specific Hif1α-knockout mice. Hif1α-knockout mice died soon after birth; these mice exhibited an abnormal head shape, indicating the presence of brain defects. Morphological ana...
Article
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We hypothesize that opioids are involved in the regulation of food intake in fish through homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) hypothalamus and telencephalon changes in precursors, endogenous ligands and receptors of the opioid system under different situations aimed to induce changes...
Article
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In fish, as observed in mammals, any stressful event affects the immune system to a larger or shorter extent. The neuroendocrine-immune axis is a bi-directional network of mobile compounds and their receptors that are shared between both systems (neuroendocrine and immune) and that regulate their respective responses. However, how and to what exten...
Article
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In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish display an extraordinary capacity to heal injuries and repair damage in the central nervous system. Pivotal for the regenerative capacity of the zebrafish brain at adult stages is the precise control of neural stem cell (NSC) behavior and the maintenance of the stem cell pool. The gene mdka, a member of a sma...
Article
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Gliomas are the most frequent type of brain cancers and characterized by continuous proliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion and dedifferentiation, which are also among the initiator and sustaining factors of brain regeneration during restoration of tissue integrity and function. Thus, brain regeneration and brain cancer should share mor...
Article
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The choroid plexus secretes cerebrospinal fluid and is critical for the development and function of the brain. In the telencephalon, the choroid plexus epithelium arises from the Wnt- expressing cortical hem. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway molecules such as nuclear β-CATENIN are expressed in the mouse and human embryonic choroid plexus epithelium...
Article
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It has been suggested that a trade‐off between cognitive capacity and developmental costs may drive brain size and morphology across fish species, but this pattern is less well explored at the intraspecific level. Physical habitat complexity has been proposed as a key selection pressure on cognitive capacity that shapes brain morphology of fishes....
Article
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Fetalization associated with a delay in development and the preservation of the features of the embryonic structure of the brain dominates the ontogeny of salmonids. The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze the distribution of the glial-type aNSC markers such as vimentin and glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and the migratory n...
Article
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In the brain of teleost fish, radial glial cells are the major type of astroglial cells. To answer the question as to how radial glia structures adapt to the continuous growth of the brain, which is characteristic of salmonids, it is necessary to study various types of cells (neuronal precursors, astroglial cells, and cells in a state of neuronal d...
Article
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Hepcidins are cysteine-rich peptides, which participate in iron metabolism regulation, the inflammatory and antimicrobial response. This study characterizes the hepcidin-1 (HAMP1) gene, its transcript expression in different tissues, as well as its regulation in a model of brain injury in Piaractus brachypomus. Bioinformatic analysis was carried ou...
Article
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Fate and behavior of neural progenitor cells are tightly regulated during mammalian brain development. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, that are required for supplying energy and providing molecular building blocks to generate cells govern progenitor function. However, the role of de novo lipogenesis, which is t...
Article
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The posterior pallial amygdala (PoA) is located on the basolateral caudal telencephalon, including the basal division of PoA (PoAb) and the compact division of PoA (PoAc). PoA plays a vital role in emotion regulation and is considered a part of the amygdala in birds. However, the regulatory functions responsible for motor behaviors and emotions bet...
Article
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Scribble (Scrib) is a conserved polarity protein acting as a scaffold involved in multiple cellular and developmental processes. Recent evidence from our group indicates that is also essential for brain development as early global deletion of in the dorsal telencephalon induced cortical thickness reduction and alteration of interhemispheric connect...