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Technical Drawing - Science topic

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What are the differences between shop drawings and builder works drawings, and what are the differences between them?
As their name clearly states; shop drawings are drawings produced by the shop; ie. as an example when a client buys an equipment for installation the shop produces drawings; called shop drawings; for the subcontractor to implement.
Builder works drawings; as their name implements also; are drawings produced by the builder or subcontractor who is responsible for executing works. Builders use builder work drawings on site.
The shop drawings; produced and used by the by contractor engineers based on design drawings; details are based on standard specifications and tender requirements. On the other hand builder works drawings are produced by the subcontractor based on shop drawings, and used by his engineers and builders, builder works drawings are based on the details of equipment the subcontractor is planning to install; and must with shop drawings details.
The consultant compares shop drawings with approved design drawings, and work on site with shop drawings for final approval.
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A builder work drawings will provide in detail the component representation and client communication of what the engineer designed. Contrarily, shop drawings is for fabricators and technician use only and it is basically for determining how components will be produced and placed during the construction process.
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Could someone suggest a software able to make me realize illustrations for books or research papers? Something easy and intuitive as paint (so, not complex as a CAD), but with more features such as figures inclination, geometrical relationships among painted lines.
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I was drawing plots using ODV software, but I couldn't mask the bottom bathymetry. Can anyone tell how to mask the bottom bathymetry?
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Isobaths: To highlight isobaths on a map at 100m, 500m, 1000m, 2000m, 4000m and 5000m: Go to View->Window Properties->Map->Layers, then unclick Automatic selection. You want to plot ‘Ocean Bathymetry’, then click “Compose”, highlight the isobaths (listed above in the “available” tab), then click the “<<” button and tick “draw colourbar” to see the corresponding isobaths on the map
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There are quite a few good plotting software and packages available to draw professional graphs and visualize data. Some of them are paid, some are free; some are language-based, some are independent. Which one do you prefer and why?
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R provides very nice graph but it involves some commands/programming to do it. You can use a template of what others have done. R can be downloaded for free.
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I cannot find a serious technical drawing of any microfluidic device, which could specify the design requirements for manufacturer. I would appreciate if someone, who is skilled in this art, could brief me on the items (or link me on a relevant paper):
1) What is the required width, depth and shape of the channel?
2) What are the required values of surface roughness parameters?
3) what are the requirements for holes and channels accuracy (tollerance for cylindrycity, uniformity, edge radiuos, etc.)?
4) What are the trend for design? The smaller the better? What are the limits?
5) Which problems exist in nowadays manufacturing of microfluidics?
Regards.
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Shape of the channel highly depends on the fabrication method. Most of the microfluidics designed for bio/chemical applications are somehow 2.5 D rather than 3-D. Fabrication using PDMS allows more flexibility for the geometry besides that it is much cheaper. However, for the main mold, usually microfabrication is used.
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By the late 19th century, cylindrical (panoramic) perspective was well known. It was taught in perspective books and used for immersive anamorphoses in the popular "panorama" displays. But what is its origin/earliest formal treatment in the literature? I'd be thankful to be told about the earliest informal treatment as well as the earliest formal ones (as a perspective proper, with calculation of vanishing points and classification of line projections as sinusoids, and understanding of its relationship with its associated cartographic map).
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Thank you, Mátyás! I don't think it answers the question exactly (the earliest reference seems to be to the 19th century panoramas) but it seems a very interesting reference which I will certainly look into.
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I produced the following diagram using PowerPoint but I want it in LaTex. I know tikz can help but can't figure it out yet.
Is there any better way to create diagram like this?
Thank you in advance for your help.
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Solution is to learn tikz. Here is a good minimum working example:
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usetikzlibrary{fit,shapes.geometric}
\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}
\node[shape=circle, draw=black] (eh) at (-2,0) {$E_H$};
\node[shape=circle, draw=black] (ha) at (0,1) {$I_{Ha}$};
\node[shape=circle, draw=black] (hs) at (0,-1) {$I_{Hs}$};
\node[shape=circle, draw=black] (h) at (2,0) {$R_H$};
\node (mu) at (2,-0.75) {$\mu_H$};
\node (bl) at (-2,-1.0) {};
\path[thick,->] (eh) edge node[below,swap] {\small{$(1-\phi)\lambda_H$}} (ha);
\path[thick,->] (eh) edge node[below,swap] {\small{$\phi\lambda_H$}} (hs);
\path[thick,->] (ha) edge (h);
\path[thick,->] (hs) edge (h);
\path[dashed,->] (eh) edge node[right] {$\mu_H$} (bl);
\node[fit=(ha)(hs), ellipse, fill=blue, opacity=0.2] {};
\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}
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Also I want to know the time for which nano particles will be dispersed in oil without using surfactants.
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Take a look at these webinars and then rephrase your question:
Nov 11th, 2008. Dispersion and nanotechnology  http://tinyurl.com/hpywsge
November 3rd, 2015 Adhesion and cohesion  http://tinyurl.com/zwb2wlh
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I need a magnetboard with specific brushsizes and a specific rubber of the magnetpencil.
Magnetboards do not blur, save paper and are much more exact. 
I case this is an inverntion - please leave your message and hints about that.
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boring - but thankyou
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I wish to create the illustrative diagrams in my thesis report to represent the twist and wrench systems of parallel manipulators. I will also be importing isometric figures from CATIA on which I wish to add some text and vectors. What is a suitable software for this purose?
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The best is going to this link (there you can see many examples of what you can build with it):
Regards
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It is related to the importance of the dimension
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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I want to install verctorworks 9.5 But couldn't proceed as above error is coming.Can anybody suggest me some solution to overcome it?
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Use Revit