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Hi! Trust this message meets you well. I am currently doing a research on the effect of tax amnesty on the tax compliance behavior of Nigerian taxpayers. As a result, I would require your help as you take some minutes to fill this online questionnaire. It is purely for research purpose and all information provided will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Please use the link below to proceed to the google form (use chrome preferably) Thank you for your time. https://forms.gle/J2kCRPXfsuzS4oReA
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If the state works to exempt taxpayers by reducing red tape, it will reduce tax evasion and increase compliance
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Tax cuts to the rich is the prefer idea on how to promote and expand economic growth in supply side economics despite knowing it does not work as expected. Yet, this policy is usually the first choice in supply side run democracies like in the USA or now the UK when supply side promoters are in power.
Any policy that worsens inequality should be expected in practice to negatively affect economic growth as under extreme inequality or worsening inequality the traditional trickle down should be expected to be mute or not to work as intended. And this raises the question, tax cuts to the rich and the embudo effect, is that why the trickled down effect does not work as intended?
What do you think?
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Stephen, good day.
I asked the question because I see the policy has been implemented in the UK and it is backfiring from the mainstream point of view, but what the critics of the tax cut policy appear not to realize that for exism movements/populism with a mask movements like Brexism or Trumpism or Brazilianism and so on implementing the policy is a win as they have the interest of the movement/the minority in mind, not of the interest of the country.... I guess a tax cut to the rich is in the works in Italy right now and it will materialize soon....
Hence, what looks like a failure of reaganomics it is a successful tool for Trumpconomics, but most people appear not to realize that even facing the majority backlash they would do it again if they can as the decision is based on ideology not on science.
Thank you for commenting!
Lucio
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I see several studies on optimal tax audit that assume the revelation principle (Myerson, 1981) on a tax game. The conventional tax game refers to a taxpayer who has a true income (private information) and reports a taxable income for a tax agency. The taxpayer has incentives to report a taxable income which is lower than the true income, so to pay less taxes. If the tax agency caches the taxpayer in a probable audit, the tax agency observes the true income, requires the payment of the full tax plus a fine over the evaded taxes. In this case, the taxpayer problem is to maximise the expected net income after taxes. The tax agency problem is to design a policy to maximise tax revenues subjected to costly audits, over the full population of taxpayers. Everything fine up to now.
Nonetheless, for the analysis of the tax agency problem, several studies declare that they assume the classical revelation principle by Myerson (1981), so to simplify the analysis. For example, on the study of Border and Sobel (1987) entitled Samurai Accountant: A Theory of Auditing and Plunder, they state (page 526 of the study):
"Without loss of generality we can restrict attention to incentive compatible direct revelation schemes, i.e. those in which the agent truthfully announces his wealth and makes a payment (which for convenience we will call a tax) based on his announcement to the principal and the principal chooses the probability of auditing based on reported wealth."
This whole sentence does not make so much sense for me: if the tax policy is equivalent to a direct revelation scheme that makes the taxpayer report truthfully, true income and reported income are the same (Nash equilibrium), so tax audits would be unnecessary. At the same time, we know that tax audits are necessary, for the taxpayers would have strong incentives to evade if there are no tax audits. In this case, I understand that the tax policy is not equivalent to a direct revelation scheme, so the revelation principle would not be applicable to this case.
So, what am I missing here?
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Yea, so I analysed this and reflected for some time. For one thing, it is true that the revelation principle is applicable only to a limited set of phenomena, under strong conditions.
On the other hand, according to the conditions required for the revelation principle to be applied, I found that there EXISTS an audit mechanism which compels all taxpayers to report truthfully. However, this equilibrium is sterile and mostly useless, for this mechanism refers to an audit scheme with an audit probability going towards zero, and a tax fine going towards infinity; this is the only Nash equilibrium I found.
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If yes or if you are interested in this question, I would like to have a chat.
I have been working on this question for a long time. Most of us already know that the first best solution to externalities revolving car driving does not involve registration taxes. Taxing cars instead of driving would thus have distortive effects.
I believe we might be undermining this distortion. I believe that when you take into account long run decision making often not accounted for in welfare models, the distortion is even bigger. Long run decision making such as people's decisions of where to live, firm's decisions on where to locate, and the resulting developmental decisions about where and how densely to build.
I have the hypothesis that if a government is given the choice between using registration (fixed cost) taxes and gas/kilometre (variable cost) taxes on driving, while holding revenue from these taxes constant, the variable cost choice would cause the city to be built more densely over time than the fixed cost choice. (Over time since rome wasn't built in a day).
First attempt was in my Master's thesis, where I used a monocentric city model with Cobb-Douglas utility and two travel modes. I was able to show that reducing the fixed tax and increasing the variable tax holding revenue constant indeed did make the city smaller. It also reduced the total amount of kilometers driven in cars (despite more people owning cars since they got cheaper) because people lived closer to the centre. I also showed that when you held the city shape constant in this proces, the total kilometers from the same change increased because the decisions didn't show in people's movement choices.
I have later come to realise that there are some flaws with my model, and have since worked on an improved model with log-linear demand utility with just the one mode (the car). It has proven to be a big technical challenge for me.
I have also tried empirical methods. I have a dataset of 100 cities worldwide and across developmental levels. This includes variables such as vehicle cost per kilometre, yearly capital cost per car, yearly driven kilometres in cars, commuting time, commuting distance, and 100 other variables. And have been looking at a model that measures the effect of variable costs and fixed costs on kilometres driven in cars (controling for gdp per capita for metropolitan areas) to see which has the biggest effect, but apart from obvious endogeneity issues, I also am not really able to show through which mechanism there might be an effect (whether it is indeed due to how the city is developed differently), but the model does indeed show that registration taxes are insignificant and that variable taxes are not.
I could use some brainstorming with other researchers interested in the same question. If you're interested in having a discussion about it in any way, please let me know.
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A registration tax only increases the annual fixed cost of a vehicle, while fuel taxes account for a significant portion of variable costs. Therefore, it goes without saying that the amount of variable costs influences the decision on where to reside much more than fixed costs do. In order to recognize this, I do not need any empirical analysis!
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My understanding is that income taxes discourage earning. When income taxes are increased, people discourage to earn more, which negatively affects national income and finally social welfare. Reducing indirect tax therefore can increase national income and as a trickle-down effect will reduce poverty.
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I am also with you, but many argue another way because of poverty. I think with a certain modification, indirect taxes support economic growth faster than direct taxes on earnings, which may be sustainable and help poverty eliminate successfully.
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the website which i can be able to use and find the results
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Check with the Central Bank of Zimbabwe website.
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I am trying to run a regression in which one of the independent variables is the "corporate tax" rate, which is expressed in percentages. How should interpret any change of that variable? For instance, at the moment, the corporate tax rate in country X is 16%. How should verbalize if for example, the corporate tax decreases to 15%? Also, since i have percentages, should i transform my regression in a log-regression?
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Philipp Steinbrunner That's a good argument for not taking logs! It would be weird if you had to exclude some observations simply because they are negative!
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I am using Step One real-time instrument and the Green master mix with ROX.
Thank you all
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Vipul Batra thank you, I will check it.
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tax to democracy
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The documents may come from teaching and research institutions or from public or private research centers and NGOs.
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I am busy with my Masters and i am on a hold of of government tax data that i can use for building machine learning models . Any tax product is ok.
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I wish you much success; in most countries, due to tax secrecy, such data are not available at the individual or company level, at best in a clustered form, so that only average results for income brackets or company sectors are available, at best, in an anonymised form.
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We have conducted behavioural quasi-experiment on tax compliance in city of Prievidza (Slovakia, 50 thousand inhabitants) - sending reminders to debtors (one with social norm one with public good frame). Can you recommend any journal (WoS)? Thanks
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Hi Matus, you could also try the Journal of Economic Psychology or the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Good luck!
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I have annual data for the last 10 years on municipal revenues and expenditures for all Brazilian municipalities. My idea would be, for example, to show that there is no significant correlation between the increase in the collection of a certain tax and the increase in spending on education.
- Do I need to make a linear regression model even if I have no interest in predicting the future value of one of the variables?
- Would a simple dot plot containing the data for all these years be enough to prove it? (in which the axes would have the two variables analyzed).
- Can I include the values ​​for all years on the same chart and deflate them so that there are no distortions due to rising prices? (there would be no distortions in the correlation itself, but in the position of the points)
Thanks in advance!
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Its worth clarifying what you mean by "no significant correlation between the increase in the collection of a certain tax and the increase in spending on education." You can set up an appropriate significance test and this tells you whether you have detected a relationship in your data set or not. However not finding a relationship doesn't mean there isn't one. The effect may be too small to detect with your data for example. One option might be an equivalence test where you specify the smallest effect size of interest.
A second issue is that the data points aren't likely to be independent over time so you'd need to account for this in your model. A third challenge is to find the right level of aggregation. If as Marcio Lins suggested the tax rate and spend varies at a local level then aggregating the data at a higher regional or national level may cause problems. In particular its possible that spend locally might be related to tax but this effect disappears or reverses when aggregated to a regional/national level (or vice versa).
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I would like to know the Impact of expenditure relief to minimize the tax liability of an individual.
I expect your insightful views on this.
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Work on the optimal use of resources, focus on the economy, and increase output over input
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The green tax is one of the tools used in directing policies to preserve the environment and achieve sustainable development, but it faces some obstacles in practical application. In order to confront these obstacles, they must be correctly diagnosed to find ways to address
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The largest detraction to green taxation is the numerous and large information costs in setting and changing the tax, which are as follows: It also must try to equalize the MAC, which requires even more administrative costs.
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Recently, the issue of creating carbon polygons has been discussed on the climate agenda. Sometimes it is connected with political moments. Thus, Russia's "green" image suffers greatly due to the alleged large amount of greenhouse gas emissions by industrial enterprises, while the depositing capacity of local natural communities is underestimated. One of the tasks of carbon polygons is to show the objective state of affairs, to prove that our nature provides carbon sequestration in a larger volume than foreign colleagues believe.
A cross-border carbon tax is planned to be introduced in the European Union from 2023. It is assumed that enterprises exporting products and having a significant carbon footprint will be required to pay tax on their products. The amount of tax will be significant and may make the products of enterprises exporting products uncompetitive.
The creation of carbon polygons is a large, ambitious and serious project at the national level. Landfills should create methodological support for studying the carbon balance, calculate the volume and rate of carbon accumulation in various natural communities and develop technologies for monitoring runoff and greenhouse gas emissions on this methodological basis.
How is this problem solved around the globe?
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This is an interesting topic and requires further study.
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Once the Democrats in the U.S. won the Presidency, they increased corporate, personal income, and other taxes significantly. Is this because the Democrats as a left-wing did so because of their ideology, or they acted upon the circumstances where the Government more than ever before needs the resources to reorient economic development?
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They can't do every project they promised with government bonds. Because US debt burden is one of the most high state debt burden all over the world. So, they have to increase the tax rates.
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The Tobin tax is a tax on financial transactions, whether the sale of shares, currency transactions or financial derivatives, which was proposed with the purpose of avoiding speculative movements. The origin of this tax comes from 1971, when this rate, which receives the name of the Nobel Prize for Economics, James Tobin, was only intended to tax and control the speculative movements of foreign currency from a fiscalizing rather than a collection aspect.
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Seems there’s some correlation between the Tobin Tax and basil II. Maybe some form of adoption in IFRC would merit uniformity
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Why do we need to file Tax returns while all financial transactions are available to the Authorities? Now with digitalization and low cash-based transactions, the time has come to move on Transactional level taxation with different tax rates?
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agree with u, tax authorities do indeed have a great deal more data about taxpayers than was the case one or two decades ago.
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OFFER TAX INCENTIVES FOR INVESTMENT BY FOREIGN FIRMS
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foreign investment leads to increased economic activity and thus creation of capital. but transforming such investment and growth into rise in living standards needs exceptional public policy response form the home governments. Investors are concerned with their profits while it is the duty of states to convert and infiltrate the benefits to its citizens by devising pro-people policies. It indeed is an enormous task and an inclusive exercise. But apart from all this the will of states to transform the lives of its citizens is the main thing. Policy makers should prioritize as to where should they direct the benefit of such investments. I think education nd health should be the first priority, the rest should follow. Only investment will never improve the living standards of a people. Rather experience and empirical evidence has shown that it has led to increase in poverty by making the richer more richer and the poor more more poorer in many Asian and African countries.
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The Nigerian Value Added Tax Rate had been increased from 5% to 7.5%. The rate of inflation in the country had also increased. Do you think that increment in the VAT rate in Nigeria will enhance economic growth in the country?
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No because the GDP will still be accounted for inflation. Increase in VAT its a way of the GOVT to boost revenue collection. It will have a negative impact especially on the price of commodities but a positive corresponding impact on GOVT revenue collection without affecting the GDP growth.
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Value Added Tax, in many countries, is the first source of tax revenue for government. But on the other hand, constitutes a burden for the consumer. Based on this, what do you think would be an efficient VAT rate that can ensure revenues for the government while at the same time will not heart the consumption and the economy?
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It depends country-wise
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How many countries have implemented GST-Goods Service Tax ,it is indirect tax
So please type your country name and mention implemented/ not implemented
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Thank you @Robert van Brederode
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Good day to all Prof and Dr.
I am seeking papers, articles, journals, or a thesis related to this topic/area.
"Corporate governance and tax compliance."
Thank you.
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Corporate governance is the combination of rules, processes or laws by which businesses are operated, regulated or controlled. The term encompasses the internal and external factors that affect the interests of a company's stakeholders, including shareholders, customers, suppliers, government regulators and management.
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For a long time, in order to provide justice, it was considered that income tax should be collected over net income. However, companies operating internationally have unfairly reduced their net income by using tax havens. In micro terms, individuals can reduce their net income by using fake bills. This situation causes that net income taxation which applying for justice produces injustice. Because those who declare their earnings honestly pay more taxes than others.
Recently, it is planned to make low-rate taxation on net income in the Digital Service Tax, which is tried to be applied in the EU. Because companies subject to digital service are companies that reduce their net income by using tax havens. The EU rightly considers taxing gross earnings on these companies, because they undeservesly reduces its net income through transfer pricing.
My question is, would it be fairer to tax all income taxes on gross earnings? Because unfair reduction of net income is not only a method applied by international companies. Every taxpayer who does not act honestly wants to unfairly reduce his net income by using fake bills or other methods. Consequently, wouldn't it be more correct for everyone to pay lower tax on their gross earnings?
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net income
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Hi, I would like to confirm on something. Is the theory for tax compliance similar between individual and corporate tax?
Because I saw TRA and TPB are the theories to be used to measure behaviour of individual taxpayer.
Can anyone give me some advice on this.
Thank you for your kind help.
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Dear Scholars,
I am using tax revenue (in the percentage of GDP) as an independent variable and institutional variables are the dependent variable. Can you please suggest a good/valid IV for my independent variable?
Thanks
Zeeshan Hashim
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Dear Zeeshan,
I think you can come up with an approximate IV by fiddling with the following equation:
Y= (wage income + capital income)(1-tax rate).
see A. Atkinson and J. Stiglitz, book, “Lecture on Public Economics.” Princeton, 2015.
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How can the social security system and the tax burden of business activities affect entrepreneurship and innovation on a national basis?
In my opinion, entrepreneurship develops effectively and becomes more and more competitive if the state creates the right conditions for entrepreneurs. First of all, low tax burden and low costs of contributions to the social insurance system. Contributions to the social security system should be adapted to the situation of running a business and the level of income.
On the other hand, there are countries in which the very fact of establishing a business entails the need to pay taxes and high premiums for the social security system even when real economic activity is not carried out and / or does not bring any or very low income and no profits. Such unfriendly tax and business activity systems operate in some countries.
Paradoxically, in some countries, taxes and contributions to the social security system, mainly micro-enterprises, are most heavily burdened with taxes. Paradoxically, micro-enterprises are often the source of new business solutions, innovations, start-up startups, and they are the source of entrepreneurship.
In some countries, the contributions paid by entrepreneurs to micro-enterprises for the social insurance system are fully voluntary and this has not led to a collapse and crisis in the state's public finance system in these countries. Some of the countries in which these contributions are voluntary are rich, developed countries in which entrepreneurship and innovation are effectively developing.
On the other hand, those countries in which these contributions to the social insurance system are compulsory and regardless of the economic situation, regardless of the generated profits, earnings and whether they actually conduct business activity in real terms, the public finance situation is not the best. What do you think about it? What is your opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How can the social security system and the tax burden of business activities affect entrepreneurship and innovation on a national basis?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic in 2020 caused an economic recession in many countries. The scale of unemployment increased, the level of economic activity in many companies decreased, mainly in companies from the service sectors. Therefore, the governments of individual countries have used interventionist anti-crisis programs. As part of anti-crisis, interventionist and pro-development programs of socio-economic policy, including fiscal policy in individual countries, in order to limit the scale of unemployment growth, activate entrepreneurship, pull the economy out of the recession and the economic crisis caused in 2020 by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Covid- 19) fiscal systems are modified, including the reduction of some types of taxes.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The traditional Tax Systems have a wide potential of externality´s corrections directed to make possible the development of circular economy and green markets. Which circumstances make optimum the impact point of taxes inside green business? What kind of elements is sufficient condition to use the extra fiscal dimension of taxes? The last questions explain, in part, the main objective of this paper: support the selective incentives as favorable category for the develop of circular economy and green markets, all of them starting on the Tax System postulates, this allows find the equilibria point for the implementation of an optimums theoretical proposal.
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Dear Reynier Limonta Montero,
Yes, designing and introducing a tax system that would promote pro-environmental business ventures, green finance, green investments, support companies and enterprises that pursue sustainable development goals, produce pro-environmental products and services, zero-emission business ventures, etc. is an interesting issue that could significantly support the process of pro-environmental transformation of the classic brown economy to a sustainable, green circular economy. However, in order for such a pro-environmental tax system to be introduced, it is necessary to significantly increase the scale of the pro-environmental, general social awareness of citizens, and also fuller cooperation of the scientific, business and political circles in the matter of making the necessary pro-environmental changes and amendments to legal norms regarding various aspects of pro-environmental policy, fiscal policy, socio-economic policy and other areas of the economy.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I am currently preparing for my MSc dissertation in Marketing and looking for help in choosing my research topic as I don't know where to begin. There are some ideas around like the impact of sudden increases of value-added tax on consumer behaviour. However, I feel that this topic is 'dull' . Any recommendation is highly appreciated.
Regards,
Hussam
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First, you have to specify your area of interest (consumer behaviour, international marketing, strategic management, Advertising, ...etc.). Second, you will need to identify one variable or an issue (may be from the topics that you have studied before or through brainstorming). Then, Check the latest research papers that discussed that issue or variable that you have addressed. The most importsnt part here is that you have to notice the linkages/connections or the relations between your chosen variable and the other variables suggested by different authors through your reading. And from here, you can get new idea.
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thankss in advance
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The three most frequently used strategies , methods , and tools to measure and evaluate tax evasion are listed below :
1. Self-reports
2. Tax officers classification
3. Experimental method
However , declaration of income by amnesty participants are used as an exact measure of tax evasion.
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I am trying to analyze cost of desalinated water (LCOW) collectively for a few regions in California using a solar desalination technology. Treating this as a system to be actually producing water for real consumption, I would like to apply all possible incentives such as rebates, tax credits or tax deductions and any other incentive available at state and federal level, as a public utility (small scale desalination plant <100 m3/day).
I found 20% rebates for solar thermal technology and solar PV but nothing on solar / renewable desalination plant. Can anyone please share available materials that I can add to cost models for more accurate picture of cost of water produced?
Thank you.
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All the best
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Is it possible to get quantitative data related to tax disputes (excise, custom, other taxes) for firms in India.
Tax Dispute = tax payable as per the Return of Income of the Assessee - Tax liability as computed by the Assessing officer in the Assessment order passed
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You would probably need to check the websites of the Tax Department (i.e., the Internal Revenue service "IRS") of India.
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Unethical practices in business constitute a negative aspect of business processes and often generate additional costs for contractors and consumers. On the other hand, the scale of the gray market in the national economy is often correlated with the level of fiscal burdens and the quality of legal regulations regarding the commencement of business activities.
The high share of shadow economy in various branches of the national economy is also lower income from taxes and fees to the central state budget and to local budgets of local government units.
High fiscal burdens and imprecisely formulated legal regulations regarding running a business activity apart from generating a high level of gray economy in the economy may also be a source of unethical practices used in business between contractors or between producers and suppliers of products and services and consumers.
The large scale of the shadow economy in the national economy and the applied unethical practices in business is one of the key factors in the imperfections of the country's economic system.
According to the above, the current question is: Does the scale of occurrence of unethical practices in business correlate with the size of the shadow economy in national economies?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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In my opinion, the use of unethical practices in business, failure to apply the principles of business ethics, failure to apply the principles of corporate social responsibility may be significantly correlated with the scale of the development of the shadow economy in individual industries and sectors of the economy.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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We are finding a lot of debate in that topic and we would like to hear you out from the perspective of an emerging economy or developed one.
As we see, it looks more like a turnover tax which is on the verge of being direct/indirect.
Thanks!
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You are very welcome, Gabriela Trigo .
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Hello, if you can suggest me a research idea in the emirical part of my doctoral thesis, with the FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM - AN ESSENTIAL SOURCE IN DETECTING AND COMBATING TAX FRAUD. Thank you very much!
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HI. I suggested that you take a field sample of one of the departments concerned with collecting taxes and study the method of collecting those taxes and the system used in them and the extent of its effectiveness in collecting taxes and the methods used by them to prevent tax evasion
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Good morning, I'm doing a scientific article on tax planning strategies to optimize the payment of tax taxes in an industrial company that processes a fruit called Mortiño, and transforms it into Wine
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The following two papers may help you out:
Do beer and wine respond to price and tax changes in Vietnam? Evidence from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey‏
G Chelwa, PN Toan, NTT Hien, PTH Anh, H Ross - BMJ open, 2019‏ - bmjopen.bmj.com‏
MEASURING THE TAX CHARGE INCIDENTS ON NATIONAL WINE: IMPACT ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF BIO-INDUSTRIE‏
K Farinon, EG Junior, NR Rogoski… - Anais eletrônicos do …, 2017‏ - unoesc.emnuvens.com.br‏
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I need to show how school fees as tax, when the parents support the education of they children's and the power public keep silent in this situation.
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It varies from a country to another depending on the relevant laws of the respective country. Generally speaking, school fees can be considered as expenses to the parents and deducted from the parents' annual income; therefore won't be taxed, especially if the parents use Itemized Deductions, not the Standard Deductions, option in their Income Declaration.
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Daily stock price data. Daily trading volume. Annual Dividends. Tax rates on capital gains and dividend. Ex dividend dates.
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You may want to check DATASTREAM or BLOOMBERG websites for such data.
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Good afternoon, my dear friends and colleagues.
As part of my research, I want to ask you a question: what state support for small business is the most important?
-Financial (state subsidies for starting a business, providing soft loans, state guarantees for creating and developing an enterprise, financing investment, innovative projects, etc.)
-Property (state and local governments create modern business incubators and techno-parks in which small enterprises can develop, the state transfers its property, premises, land, equipment for temporary or permanent use to entrepreneurs, leasing is offered on favorable terms)
-Information (the state creates resources (sites or information stands) for the exchange of business information, general information distribution systems, organizes information seminars and advertising stands, industry and intersectoral exhibitions, at which potential partners can find suppliers and buyers)
-Educational (the state develops special educational programs aimed at developing entrepreneurship skills for various segments of the population, creates conditions and programs for improving professional knowledge in the field of conducting and managing a business, and organizes training seminars and lectures)
-Consulting (the state creates and maintains centers providing consulting services on organizing, promoting development and particularities of doing business, and also compensates entrepreneurs for the costs of services of such organizations)
Legislative (the state simplifies legislation and reduces the number of procedures for registering an enterprise, reduces and simplifies the tax and administrative burden (reduces the number of forms and types of reporting), introduces preferential tax treatment for small and medium-sized enterprises).
Below is a link to my research. If it's not difficult for you, fill it out, please, it's very important!
Thank you!
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very good question
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Business in informality can be caused by factors such as the facilitating business environment, tax rates, forms of consumption by buyers, lack of administrative knowledge, complexity of the business, among others.
What other factors or which of these do you consider more relevant to carry out an investigation?
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One of them are the condition in developing countries
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The question is not my expertise but relevant to our society. To bring down the vehicle crowding on the roads, is it good to keep a taxing system which taxes the person according to the surface area of the vehicle he uses everyday? if so, it will bring down the vehicle crowding on the road which will pave way for emergencies like ambulance etc.
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In major industrialized countries, you find that they use public transport, such as the metro and others, more than they use personal cars, and this is primarily due to the cost of private transportation and secondly to traffic congestion, as well as there are fees for using some bridging roads as well .This may be due to the health and environmental awareness of the community, as well as the importance of time and cost reduction. We hope, at least, that there will be a system to control the import of cars with what the country can absorb. This is what was followed in my country, Iraq before 2003.
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GDP Vs Taxation
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Search in the elsevier, emerald, taylor and francis, and Wiley, you can get your desired papers.
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I am looking for any opportunity to explore any tax issues/matters relating to the gig economy. Perhaps, some of you might be giving some thoughts here. Thanks in advance.
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Hi Nurul,
This is a great topic to research that is of growing importance. I suggest you start by reading some papers on the topic, from which some ideas may emerge that you can investigate further. You could start with work by the OECD, for example, (OECD Observer, 2020, Gig workers and the tax web). There are useful articles, for example, by Adams et al, "Rethinking legal taxonomies for the gig economy" (2018) 34(3) Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 475–494; and Black, "The Future of Work: The Gig Economy and Pressures on the Tax System" (2020) 68(1) Canadian Tax Journal 69-97.
I wish you well with your research.
Adrian
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Aussie Ltd has decided to sell a new line of golf clubs. The club will sell for $700 per set and have a variable cost of $340 per set. The company has spent $150,000 for a marketing study that determined the company will sell 46,000 sets per year for seven years. The marketing study also determined that the company will lose sales of 12,000 sets of its high-priced clubs. The high-priced clubs sell at $1100 and have variable costs of $550. The company will also increase sales of its cheap clubs by 20,000 sets. The cheap clubs will sell for $300 and have variable costs of $100 per set. The fixed costs each year will be $8,000,000. The company has also spent $1,000,000 on research and development for the new clubs. The plant and equipment required will cost $16,100,000 and will be depreciated on a straight line basis. The new clubs will also require an increase in net working capital of $900,000 and that will be returned at the end of the project. The tax rate is 30%, and the cost of capital is 14%. Required Calculate the Payback Period and Net Present Value followed by your recommendations.
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Hi Arbie,
In the absence of adequate information, I have taken 5 years. If you have better information on the useful life of the asset, you can change it. It is only an assumption.
Was this a college assignment?
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Existing tax havens, to which many companies from different countries transfer their fictitious or real offices to avoid tax system functioning in a given country is now a seriously global problem. Internationally operating large companies that achieve high profits thus avoid paying taxes and then governments to balance the budgets of countries raise taxes for the population, which usually earns little. In this way, in many countries, the middle class since the 1960s was significantly deprived while 1 percent. The most-earning citizens in developed and developing countries have the majority of goods that modern economies are equipped with. The liberalization and deregulation in economic and financial systems since the 1970s, instead of generating a diversification in income, has increased this diversity. Even the last global financial crisis of 2008, generated mainly by violations of investment banking procedures, significantly contributed to the diversification of income between the middle class and the highest earners class. Unfortunately, instead of improving the functioning of investment banking, it was possible to continue the development of these entities according to the standards from before the global financial crisis.
In view of the above, the current question is: Is the escape of large companies to tax havens a problem for public finances of the state?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Thank you sir for your response. Absolutely well stated. Its impact on the country finance is enormous. Tighten the tax system is the answer and rendering appropriate punishment to individual and firm participant in order to deter future occurrence.
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A friend seeking to get the article was surprised by the financial disclosure but, as with me, did not know how to remove that part. Ted Marmor
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I have just seen it, there is a sort of bill. It seems that you have uploaded it by mistake...
It seems that one cannot removed the file uploaded. Therefore,I would go to the research section, enter the item and do one of the following two things:
a) Remove the entire publication (using the menu available in the arrow next to the "share" button) and enter the publication in researchgate again from scratch.
b) In the same menu, use "add file" to upload the true full text.
If you do not have or do not want to share the full text, use a).
I hope it helps,
José-Ignacio
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ICT has affected almost each and every area of business world. It has also assisted Govt. to curb tax evasion to a large extent. In manual records, it was not very easy to track the records,it is not so that manual record keeping was not efficient, but when we compare it with digital record keeping, then really manual record keeping seems to be less efficient,as far as retrieval of data is concerned. Moreover, various modes like eTDS, eTCS,e Filing of Income Tax Returns have really made tax payment by assessees, and in that way,Govt has also been able to expand its tax base by creating a large pool of satisfied tax payers. Let us share the experiences, benefits,issues,challenges the taxation has faced in ICT Environment.
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Here in this part of the world I.e. Nigeria, introduction of ICT tax system has been a subject of debate in the public domain especially the ones that directly affect personal income tax of the salary earners at the federal and state levels. The recent launched of the integrated payroll system IPPIS has been substantially faulted and criticized than being encouraged. The aggrieved side I.e. the earners have argued that the system is characterized with extortion and defraud. Others said the policy n implementation of the system is inappropriate n not sensitive to economic challenges facing the country. Although ICT driven tax system should be a welcome development because of its enormous advantages, however it introduction in Nigeria has generate strong critics especially among the academicians I.e. IPPIS
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Under modern economies, the tax plays a vital role in financing the general budget of the State and there are many indicators that can be used to direct policies through the State budget to achieve reform in the tax system to achieve budgetary objectives in finance and achieve economic and social goals
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Thanks for your answer Dr Jan h jansen
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Tax reform is a crucial step in mobilizing revenue in developing countries. However, it is not a easy agenda to be implemented because of political and social challenges.
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The topic is a complex one and related to the political economy rather than state finance or macroeconomics. Relying on the developing or underdeveloped countries' experience, I would recall the "domestic political will" as a key determinant to the success of tax reforms. I clearly remember a quote from the president of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili: "the most difficult thing to do was to force the citizens to pay the taxes". Tax is a concept that is usually associated with political and institutional endowments of a country. The rulers of the country might not be interested in the collection of taxes for several reasons: maybe they made a deal with certain shadow interest groups that are involved in big "games"; maybe there is a huge revenue stream into the country and nobody is interested in the alternative revenue sources, simply their marginal utility is low. The measurement of the success of tax reforms is simple. If the tax revenues of the state budget are increasing and the government expenditures towards the social needs are in an increasing trend, then we might have an initial stepping stone to argue about the certain measurement of it.
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The Problem Statement that may solve issues like land disputes, poor sanitary and water services (in general, utility services), and low tax collection by local councils in the small Trading Centers
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Rating of the municipality territory.
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What do we mean by tax savings and how can it be taxed? Possible sources?
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Tax savings are in sources of income because there are some sources of income have tax exemptions
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What are the theories ( or theory) underlying the issue of income shifting as a means of tax avoidance?
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OECD has important works on this subject. You can find a lot of content here:
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I Need papers of pionier authors on my field of research: Tax policy and growth in west african countries
- These papers will help me to presente thoretical framework of my research;
- To presente pionier authors in the thesis
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Dear Carlos, please share the link to get those papers. Thanks
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Many people think that a progressive tax system is unfair and encourages parasitism, if it is true than why almost all developed countries have one?
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A standard positive answer is that most developed economies are also democracies and in a democracy the poor outnumber the rich when it comes to voting for a fiscal system.
A standard normative answer is the utilitarian one: the pain of losing a dollar is less for a rich person compared to a poor person. Thus, to minimize the pain associated from raising a revenue target, more money should be taken from the rich.
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Turkey has enacted Law No. 7194 with the DST. This Tax aiming digital business like Alphabet, Facebook and online retailers. The Tax rate ise 7.5 over revenue. So actual rate of Tax much more higher. Because revenue basis taxes cannot deduct expenses from revenue. Is this rate too high? European Council also proposes DST (which eventually digital advertising tax) which rate %3 over revenue. Notwithstanding this rate criticised because of excess rating. So Turkey's DST also criticised much more for excess rating.
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This article might be useful for you! Coria, J. (2009). Taxes, permits, and the diffusion of a new technology. Resource and Energy Economics, 31(4), 249-271.
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Will the voters, landowners, tax payers be citizens of India? Lots of illiterate public have no documents, some people lost their documents due to fire, flood, and other issues. Existing rules are also very difficult to prove citizenship. Suppose a baby born on 1990 in India will not be a citizen of India by birth if his parents failed to prove their citizenship.
Discuss difficulties to determine citizens of India,
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Change in the aggressive policy of Modi can only solve the problem and help secure the integrity of India.
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I would like to have access to the data values of the various tax policies, that is, corporate income tax, VAT tax, income tax, property tax, excise tax and goods and services tax.
Also, the data values of the GDP to represent the economic growth of the various Sub - Saharan African Countries, all the data should be preferably for at least the last five (5) years.
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OECD database as pointed earlier has a breakdown of those taxes by sources that you need, but you need to subscribe. It is also defined differently from the IMF so you need to quote the source and know what they are referring to.
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I'm doing an ICE combustion tutorial module following the guide of developers. I set everything same with the guide. But somehow, i met this problem many times when fluent run into some impotant time steps like injecting time. i'm wonderring about the quality of mesh, is it good enough? i created the mesh by workbench's meshing automatically (following the guide). Please give me a solution for this problem
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Negative cell volumes are in ICE combustion engine simulations usually produced, if the mesh is gettign too much compressed/deformed, so that the mesh quality deteriorates even to a point, where cells turn into negative cell volume. A more frequent remeshing step might be an applicable solution, before the mesh quality is becoming that bad. Another solution can be to increase the mesh stiffness close to any solid walls in the simulation in order to prevent the strong deformation of boundary layers or near-wall mesh cells, but to address mesh deformation rather to larger mesh cells in the open space volume of the fluid domain.
Regards,
Dr. Th. Frank.
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How effective is the tax regime implementation in developing nations? Do the above tax only benefit capitalism people and business? Which of the above tax most effective in sharing economy for household income between the line of the poverty level? Which of the above tax regime effective in combating corrupt government? To what extent, the tax regime has genuinely prospered the nation's economy and reducing poverty by zero per cent in a developed or in the developing nation? Is there any government in this world survive without enforcing the tax regime. Last but not least, what kind of questions most used by the researchers to conduct a study on the economic impact on household income, spending, quality of life due to tax regime enforcement by the government?
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Thank you very much for the generous help and answers from fellow researchers and academicians Robert van Brederode Xiuming Yuan Christopher C Kelly Len Leonid Mizrah Jaroslav Dvorak Aissaoui Nasreddine
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Logically, in life we heard statement in TV, Radio or Social Media that claimed the human economic status (income, savings, price and etc) made people to behave unethically (buying illegal goods, involve in illegal consumption and etc).
Theoretically, economic influence in this discussion refer to all factors that influence individual purchase/use decision for example disposable income (Chen et.al, 2010), product price and tax (Martinez et. al, 2018).
But are there any researches investigate this connection?
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It is not the harm of Economics - It is the criminal mind of people .
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The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Monday approved a payout of Rs 1.76 lakh crore to the government from its surplus and reserves, after an expert committee chaired by former Governor Bimal Jalan made its recommendations to the central bank. The record transfer, including a surplus of Rs 1.23 lakh crore for 2018-19, will boost the government's finances at a time it strives to tackle a nearly five-year low economic growth with lakhs of estimated job cuts across sectors, and defend its ambitious target of containing fiscal deficit at 3.3 per cent of the GDP. Economists say the payout will likely help the government meet its tax revenue shortfall and fund higher spending.
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I don't think it really helps to economic growth. it's just a jumla before the common peoples. The individual spending capacity has gone down and uncertainty is going with common people regarding economic slowdown and all. in another hand, situations like PMC bank, India Bulls, LIC, etc adding oil to the flame, common man wishes to hold his hard-earned money with him. Then the point of economic progress is meaningless without the spending capacity of the common man. The govt should assure the common man for his spending and earning this really help to grow the economy.
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Am trying to build on a concept of computable general equilibrium with regard to assessing the impact of a newly proposed excise tax on wealth distribution.
However, being a new study area for me I do seek guidance and views to build up the concept.
Does anyone have an idea on how to go about measuring or evaluating the impact of a newly proposed excise tax on income inequality?
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In my opinion, a proposed tax should increase GDP per capita.
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My question asks does it make sense to collect tax and allow three month stays from most countries for women who want to engage in Sex Work and not ever or (periodically) test them for sexually transmitted disease? Even still if they did, many workers are working after their permits have expired and do their best to avoid getting caught by the "Sex Police" which is what they are in fact.
I understand that we don't want to force people and all testing should be done by choice or anonymously because stigma, even among the population in question is alive and well, but in this particular circumstance what are your thoughts?
A second question is if they are indeed "slightly positive" or rather generally undetectable levels of virus should they be allowed to work?
Lastly, it is criminal to pass an infectious disease in this particular jurisdiction, responsibility lies on both parties meaning an investigation of who did what ensues, the law can not be avoided with consent or knowing waived. Does this sever any beneficial outcome? It's my opinion that it doesn't but I would be interested to hear other people's views.
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Hi, John,
You are asking for opinions, so I will weigh in on the tax portion of your questions. Yes, I think it makes sense to collect tax, because to not do so presents a horizontal equity problem. If "sex workers" are, legitimately, workers, then why would they not be subject to the same general societal rules as other, non-sex workers? That is, to not tax them the same as other workers is to provide an indirect government subsidy to that industry, and you've not made the case that we should subsidize that work. (I don't have a case for that subsidy either.) There are times perhaps when their income will be too low for tax, and that's ok because income level is what exempts them from tax instead of industry, but my point is, if you're a legal worker and abide by the general tax code. You might review Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations work on how a good tax is a fair tax for support of my position.
Best of luck on your research.
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Is economic cooperation and trade between the world's largest economies developing or is this cooperation diminishing due to the current trade wars?
Does the current policy of limiting trade by imposing new prohibitive tariffs and other protectionism instruments of current trade wars may lead to such a serious slowdown in economic growth that it may lead to a global economic crisis?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Most probably
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I wanted to assess the effect of recent GST reform on state revenue of Karnataka in India. I have a time series (annual) data of tax revenue from 1960 to 2017-18. The New GST has been implemented in the state in the month of July 2017. Implementation of GST was a a historical tax reform that replaced VAT with reference to indirect taxation in India. Data on tax revenue before implementation of GST has the reference to different tax regimes. Now the problem is, I wanted to forecast the potential impact of implementation of GST on state's revenue for another 5 years (at least) i.e. from 2020-21 to 2024-25. Suggestions/guidance in this regard highly appreciated.
Ramanjini
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Thank you very much Sacchidanada Mukharjee sir.
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Is there any correlates between minimisation of global carbon tax and maximisation of US carbon emission tax: Why?
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@ Nagalakshmi, the argument is not clear.
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As from theoretical construct and empirical literature, i have found that tax base is defined as - tax revenue divided by tax rates. if the standard data on tax rates are not readily available, than how we can estimate tax base for central and state level ?? What could be the other suitable proxies for measurement of tax base ??
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Hi, Yadawananda Neog. I usually consult these following webpages in studying effective tax rates:
I hope they would be helpful for you.
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The notion “smart statistics” is a by-product of the exponentially growing amount of data in our world: A large part of this growing amount of data is attributed to changes in styles of communication due to the rise of technology and the increasing use of the internet, resulting in data which have the potential to be used for the production of official statistics. “Smart” refers here to the involved “smart technologies”, the real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimise the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices. Given all the new and alternative data, competitors to official statistics may provide the smart statistics faster, with more details, perhaps less reliable. Smart inflation rate based on retail scanner data, smart unemployment based on mobil positioning data, smart GDP based on tax data are already in an experimental stage; linking all the new and alternative data will allow the cunning data analyst many more smart statistics. What role can play official statistic in such a future?
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Official Statistics should be managed by smart and knowledgeable Statisticians.
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The issues that we all know, and most have tried for years to resolve, the employability and skills shortage. Individuals and businesses lose money, but how does it affect the economy? Certainly, it has impact on the individuals and businesses.
This feasibility study is to present the issue, which can be seen differently from each party either as a business, an educational institution, an employee or the government. However, the main message is to support people getting the job they are educated to do, the business get the labour they need, then tax will be paid and the educational institutions will get fund to do their jobs.
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sir,
i did employee satisfaction analysis in private concern( particular areas)
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Remedies to solve these issues.
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Non payment of taxes or non tax compliance is a general phenomenon around the world. People don't want to pay tax based on the following:
1. Poor tax policy and Bad implementation.
2. Lack of tax fairness and inability to receive benefit in lieu of the tax payment
3. Complexities of the tax laws.
4. People did not see tax payment as their moral obligation and responsibility to fulfil
5. Misappropriation and embezzlement of tax revenue on the part of relevant tax authorities.
How to resolve this issue, can be through enforcement drivers e.g. Tax audit and Fines.
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Both economies have a rough time wanting to decide the future of their unborn children.
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Paul: Yes, both countries will survive, but it will require higher taxes and cuts in the national budget in the future.
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This general background suggests a simultaneous increase in minimum wages and tax increase has severe implication on citizen welfare. Colleagues what is your thought on this argument.
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@ Professor Paul dont you think is an unnecessary complication. Trying to manufacture crises within the fiscal multiplier.
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Hi there! I'm looking for someone who can help me better understand nonprofits and how they file their taxes. It's for an ongoing research. Preferably someone who is nationally known on this topic through research or practice, and someone who knows how nonprofit taxes are filed, common reporting errors, common fraud, etc. Could be more than one person. Thanks!
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Can I nominate someone from Sri Lanka?
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MY specific objective is to make comparative analysis on the effect of tax revenue on GDP of country A and country B
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Hi, Silvia Onyekachi. If you like to keep things simple, just like in an experimental research design, you might want to try Difference in Differences (DID).
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-what strategy does nestle apply?
-have enough fund to make further investment if they pay of its profit as dividend?
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The question is based on an incorrect premise. Nestle does not pay all its profits after tax as dividends to shareholders. The financial statements are available on Nestle's global website at the link below.
For the year ended 31 Dec 2018 Nestle made profit after tax of CHF10 billion of which they paid CHF7 billion as dividends. For 2017 the figures were closer to your premise, with CHF7 billion in profit after tax similar to the CHF7 billion dividend. But that was unusual and only for 2017. Over the company's history it has retained CHF84 billion as "Retained earnings", which you can see on the balance sheet.
So it is untrue to say Nestle pays out all its profits after tax as dividends. If that were true, the company would have zero retained earnings on the balance sheet.
Here is the link to the financial statements:
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I am currently working on an exhibit on the truth behind the Upper Peninsula(U.P.) gaining its own statehood. I have found information on taxes from each county in the U.P. but I am looking for any other information. Specifically tax distribution per county in Michigan at least. Any information/ resources would be fantastic!
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have you considered a futures study where you look at the possible scenarios emerging from this?
are you simply looking for data?
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I am particularly interested in indirect taxation mainly focused on developing countries. Any suggestion will be highly welcomed.
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In some developing countries, indirect taxes, including VAT, are one of the main sources of tax revenue for the state budget. Taxes of this kind are sometimes raised if the state budget revenues fall, for example, due to a decrease in the efficiency of the fiscal system, in the situation of a growing tax system leak in the area of direct taxes or falling state budget revenues from another title.
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Hi,
Our master's thesis attempts to tackle the (financial) transfer pricing issues which multinational corporations face.
To be more precise our starting point of the research is the already known issues within transfer pricing, but on top of that we are attempting to map the differences in answers that might occur between businesses, tax experts and tax authorities about certain topics. These topics currently are: issues concerning the rules and guidelines, valuation differences between the parties involved, future perspectives, restrictions (freedom, establishments, the least taxable way) and any ethical issues that might arise throughout the whole transfer pricing process.
We have set up a questionnaire which we think covers a lot of ground, but any feedback would already help us out.
Kind regards,
Peter
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Hello dear I am very happy to read the questions and find the answers
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In some countries, for several years, computerized systems using new information technologies have been developed that help in sealing tax systems. Thanks to these improved analytical systems, crimes consisting of non-payment of due tax are detected more precisely and effectively. In this way, technological development can significantly help in healing public finances of the state.
In the field of these new information technologies, some innovative, currently developing technologies are used, typical of the current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
First and foremost, artificial intelligence, data processing in the cloud computing and advanced data analytics are used on the basis of the large data sets that have been overcome in Big Data database systems.
Do you agree with me on the matter?
I invite you to the discussion