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Tanzania - Science topic

A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
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Publications related to Tanzania (10,000)
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Background: The majority of adolescents are currently becoming sexually active before their 18th birthday having to battle with unsafe sexual behaviors, teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and school dropouts. The study designed and tested the effect of integrated reproductive health lesson materials in a Problem-Based pedagogy (...
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Background In this paper, we investigate facial sexual dimorphism and its’ association with body dimorphism in Maasai, the traditional seminomadic population of Tanzania. We discuss findings on other human populations and possible factors affecting the developmental processes in Maasai. Methods Full-face anthropological photographs were obtained f...
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Background Trauma is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among pediatric and adolescent populations worldwide, with over ninety percent of childhood injuries occurring in low-income and middle-income countries. Lack of region-specific data on pediatric injuries is among the major challenges limiting the ability of health systems to...
Article
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Understanding what factors predict whether an urban migrant will end up in a deprived neighbourhood or not could help prevent the exploitation of vulnerable individuals. This study leveraged pseudonymized mobile money interactions combined with cell phone data to shed light on urban migration patterns and deprivation in Tanzania. Call detail record...
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Background Approximately 69% of population in Tanzania lacks better sanitation, while 45.6% lacks access to clean and safe water. To leverage this shortage, several technologies have been used for purifying water from various sources; however, there is still persistence of waterborne diseases. Main body This article reviewed the efficiency of comm...
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Background: Retention in clinical care is important for people living with HIV (PLWH). Evidence suggests that missed clinic visits are associated with interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART), lower CD4 counts, virologic failure, and overlooked coinfections. We identified factors associated with missed routine clinic visits in the African Coh...
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Background Many species inhabiting Kihansi gorge ecosystem in Southern Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania are threatened with extinction due to habitat loss caused by constructed hydropower plant that diverted over 90% the water off the Kihansi River. Understanding ecological correlates and structure of an animal community in perturbed ecosystems is an i...
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Background Tuberculosis (TB) control is threatened by an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly in endemic countries. Screening for DM is not routinely implemented in Tanzania; therefore, we aimed to screen for DM at TB diagnosis using clinical-demographic markers. Methods Our cross-sectional study recruited TB patients who...
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Publicly available toolkits for cost calculation in renewable energy projects were reviewed, and their main characteristics, strengths and weaknesses identified. An original Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) modelling toolkit was developed to address some of the identified shortcomings, and to facilitate the calculation of costs of electrical and thermal energ...
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In this paper, we empirically examine the potential impact of commodity price fluctuations on the nutritional status of children in the 0–5 age category. This is important as adverse shocks that children experience at the time of birth will have an irreversible long-term impact that can adversely affect subsequent human capital formation. Unlike th...
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Street artists around the world have been prominent in depicting issues concerning COVID-19, but the role of street art in public-making during the pandemic is unexplored. Despite burgeoning street art scenes in many African countries since the early 2000s, African street art is relatively neglected in critical street art scholarship. In response,...
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Objective: To evaluate the suitability of minjingu N10P18K24 top-dressed with minjingu CAN27% N fertilizer blends for tobacco yield and quality. Methods: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in 3 sites during the 2020-2021 farming season at Mtanila (Chunya), Tumbi (Tabora) and Songambele (Urambo). The experiment was...
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Introduction Pediatric injuries in low- and middle-income countries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Implementing hospital-based trauma registries can reduce the knowledge gap in both hospital care and patient outcomes and lead to quality improvement initiatives. The goal of this study was to create a pediatric trauma regis...
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Women and low-income households experience a disproportionate burden of energy poverty and have different capabilities to utilize access to energy. Despite this, many electrification plans insufficiently address gender and low-income households. Off-grid solar has and will continue to play a role in expanding access to electricity in rural Sub-Saha...
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Small scale fishers experience high variability in daily catches within a resource space limited in extent by operational constraints, and biophysical factors affect daily choices in spatial effort allocation. We focus on the management consequences of the extent of the individual fisher’s resource space and his options to handle risk arising from...
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Background Immune activation is a significant contributor to HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. In virally-suppressed individuals on ART, low-level immune activation has been linked to several non-infectious comorbid diseases. However, studies have not been systematically performed in sub-Saharan Africa and thus the impact of demographics, A...
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Many low‐income countries are in the process of scaling up health insurance with the goal of achieving universal coverage. However, little is known about the usage and financial sustainability of mandatory health insurance. This study analyzes 26 million claims submitted to the Tanzanian National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF), which covers two milli...
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This study assesses the adequacy of the existing legislation for the implementation of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes in Tanzania. It is moved by the fact that The Environmental Management (Control and Management of Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste) Regulations, 2021 [9] ; The Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Contr...
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This paper highlights the importance of sunflower, and its current status, giving the prospects of improving its production through intercropping it with sunn hemp legume. The review focuses on Tanzania, where smallholder farmers mainly produce sunflower as a cash crop and a source of vegetable oil. The crop’s production is threatened by decreased...
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On 5th July 2022, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health (MoH) announced the re-emergence of leptospirosis after reporting 20 confirmed symptomatic cases and 3 mortalities. Leptospirosis is caused by a spirochete bacterium that lives in an animal's renal tubule and spreads to individuals through contact with contaminated animal urine. Unsupervised agricu...
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Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental fear and its related factors among patients managed in a pediatric dental clinic of a university hospital in Tanzania. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at the pediatric dental clinic of the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS)...
Conference Paper
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The adoption of intensive management allows achieving high productivity with financial and environmental advantages. This study evaluated the effects of intensification and integration in animal production systems on the average daily weight gain (ADG) of beef cattle. The experiment was carried out from September 2019 to September 2020 at Embrapa S...
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The fourteenth-to-sixteenth-century AD site of Songo Mnara, in the Kilwa archipelago in southern Tanzania, is a stone town with many standing coral buildings. Extensive excavations at the site have produced over 9,000 beads, 7,444 of which are glass. A subset of 140 of these was chemically analyzed using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-ma...
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The Yawo people of Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania first had linguistic texts produced about their language in the latter half of the nineteenth century. At around the same time, and often by the same individuals, Bible translations into Ciyawo also first surfaced. Some of the earliest translations of the four Gospels were known as Utenga Wambone-...
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Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents several lineages each with distinct characteristics of evolutionary status, transmissibility, drug resistance, host interaction, latency, and vaccine efficacy. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a new diagnostic tool to reliably inform the occurrence of phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium...
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This study aimed at examining attributes influencing the effectiveness of employees’ innovation in telecommunication industry in Tanzania using Tigo as a reference. Specifically, the study focused on the assessment of the influence of personal competence, leadership styles, technology and financial resources on employees’ innovation in terms of the...
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Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral childhood disorder. Children with ADHD are difficult to handle due to the symptoms causing great impairments such as inattention, hyperactivity compared to other childhood mental disorders. Having a child with ADHD is a stressful situation as it impacts th...
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Poverty and food insecurity persist in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a secondary analysis of nationally representative data from three sub-Saharan Africa countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda) to investigate how both proximity to and engagement with small-scale fisheries are associated with household poverty and food insecurity. Results from t...
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The study aimed at finding out the effects of sociocultural practices contributing to inhibiting female students from completing primary education. Descriptive survey research design and mixed method approach were employed. The sample comprised of 15 female primary school students, 8 head teachers 3 Ward Executive Officers (WEOs), 3 community tradi...
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Reconciling conflicts between wildlife conservation and other human activities is a pervasive, multifaceted issue. Large carnivores, such as the African lion Panthera leo are often the focus of such conflicts as they have significant ecological and cultural value but impose severe social and financial costs on the communities that live alongside th...
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This study examined the obstacles to the efficient implementation of the Financial Management Information System (FMIS) by Tanzanian local government authorities. To formulate and test the dependency of variables, the researchers used both descriptive and inferential statistics, including a chi-square test. According to the findings, FMIS deploymen...
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The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater poses a threat to public health and has significant effects on the ecosystem. Since most wastewater treatment plants are ineffective at removing molecules efficiently, some pharmaceuticals enter aquatic ecosystems, thus creating issues such as antibiotic resistance and toxicity. This r...
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Spectral gamma ray log (SGRL) data has been widely employed to derive subsurface lithological information and to perform well correlation when the core is not available. Previous studies mainly targeted homogenous facies whereas few attempts addressed heterolithic successions. The SGRL investigation here aimed at deriving lithofacies and further co...
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Improving agricultural productivity is a foundational sustainability challenge in the 21st century. Large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) have important effects on both well-being and the environment in the Global South. Their impacts on agricultural productivity and subsequent effects on farm incomes, food-security and the distribution of these ou...
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Solid waste management is a global challenge, especially in developing countries due to the rapid increase in population and urbanization where the availability of sanitary landfills is inevitable. Determining suitable landfill sites is a fundamental aspect for new and rapidly growing cities. The current study is aimed at selecting potential landfi...
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Introduction Research on the associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance among adults in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is limited. We assessed the association of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with β-cell function, insulin resistance and diabetes among people living with...
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Coccidiosis, Salmonella, and Newcastle are the common poultry diseases that curtail poultry production if they are not detected early. In Tanzania, these diseases are not detected early due to limited access to agricultural support services by poultry farmers. Deep learning techniques have the potential for early diagnosis of these poultry diseases...
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Introduction and importance Soft tissue sarcoma is an uncommon form of cancer with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are vital for improving the treatment outcomes. Case presentation We report a series of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the lower extremity with delayed diagnosis to gain insight into the presentation, treatments and...
Conference Paper
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Thanks to its preservation through times, pottery is a major source of information for archaeologists regarding its use as a marker of cultural identity and often, as a dating tool, being often considered a barometer of changes. Variations in shapes, decoration patterns and/or techniques used to be alternatively interpreted as an internal evolution...
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Pastoralist communities worldwide face complex challenges regarding food and feed productivity. Primary production systems are under stress, nutritional choices are changing and the relationship between development and agriculture is undergoing profound transformation. Under increasing pressure from climate and land use change, East African agro-pa...
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Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has caused social–economic burden in remote rural communities mostly in sub-Saharan Africa for over a century. The World Health Organization had targeted the year 2020 for the elimination of HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is mainly endemic in Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Significant...
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Energetics are widely recognized to influence timing of birth in humans and other eutherian mammals, yet considerable variation exists in the relationship between energetic constraints and gestation length. In humans, poor nutrition and short inter‐gestational intervals (IGIs) are associated with shorter gestations. In other mammals, lower energy a...
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Millions of people rely on nature-rich farming systems for their subsistence and income. The contributions of nature to these systems are varied and key to their sustainability in the long term. Yet, agricultural stakeholders are often unaware or undervalue the relevance of those contributions, which can affect decisions concerning land management....
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Purpose of Review The objective of this study was to describe the increasing incidence and risk of cardiovascular disease among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Sub-Saharan Africa. We also used data to compare hypertension (a common NCD among PLWH) outcomes between PLWH and HIV–uninfected individuals among older adults in Northwestern Tanzania. R...
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This paper focuses on examining the link that exists between microfinance institutions (MFIs) and poverty eradication efforts in developing countries, specifically focusing on the East African member states of Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. The study was driven by the varying interpret...
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In Tanzania, limited mental health service availability and structural flaws in child protection reporting and justice processes lead to significant underreporting of child victimization. A better understanding of help-seeking behaviors for trauma-affected youth and sociocultural barriers to help-seeking will inform screening, triage, and intervent...
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Aims: The study sought to triangulate climate-related place names and quantitative evidence of climate change from meteorological data from 1960 to 2021 so as to establish the extent of climate change in Same District. Triangulating the two was important in ascertaining the strategies developed to adapt to climate change. Study Design: The study de...
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Background: Misuse of antibiotics has been associated with poor knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP). Therefore, this study aimed to assess if KAP of prescribers and dispensers could drive irrational use of antibiotics among children in Tanzania. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed-methods study design that employed quantitative and qualitati...
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Introduction and importance: HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features currently known as HPV-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma (HMSC) is a rare distinct head and neck high-risk HPV-related carcinoma. The high-risk HPV subtypes implicated are particularly type 33,35 and 56. So far this is the first reported rare ca...
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Rubella virus (RV) infection in susceptible women during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS). In countries where a vaccination program is implemented, active case surveillance is emphasized. This report documents the magnitude of active cases before and after vaccine implementation in Tanzania. A to...
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Treatments for HIV and other STIs are not readily available in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas, where the prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. In the absence of treatment and laboratory infrastructure to monitor treatment efficacy, increasing awareness of STIs and STI screening are crucial components of STI prevention progr...
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Introduction Antenatal depression in low-and middle-income countries is under-diagnosed and leads to poorer outcomes in the pregnancy and postpartum periods. The aim of this study was to quantify depressive symptoms among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania, and identify factors associated with probable depression. Methods Between March and December...
Technical Report
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Abstract This is a review of policies, strategies, and frameworks related to climate change, agriculture, food, and nutrition security in Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. The five focus countries have made tremendous efforts to strengthen the enabling environment for addressing climate change and improving agricultural productivity an...
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The distribution of the nominate subspecies of Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus chrysoconus has long been thought to extend throughout Uganda south into NW Tanzania, with extoni replacing it from SW Tanzania southwards. But little or no evidence has been available from S Uganda or W Tanzania to confirm this. We performed fieldwork in Uganda and...
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Using synthetic pesticides to manage pests can threaten pollination services, affecting the productivity of pollination-dependent crops such as avocado. The need to mitigate this negative externality has led to the emergence of the concept of integrated pest and pollinator management (IPPM) to achieve both pest and pollinator management, leading to...
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Abstract The world continents including Africa are experiencing water scarcity. Rural water supply has been a problem in most parts of Tanzania especially in Central Zone regions due to little amount of rainfall. Kondoa District is one among the district in the Dodoma region that experience acute water supply problems. The current study intended to...