Science topic

Systems Thinking - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Systems Thinking, and find Systems Thinking experts.
Questions related to Systems Thinking
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
I have a work on my 2th smester project in university so i really need more informations about this subject.
Relevant answer
Answer
thank Christopher Kelly glad to have you with us!
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
16 answers
As the world becomes more complex and interconnected, the importance of systems thinking is rising, with engineering being no exception to this trend. Should we as engineering educators aim to teach and train our students in systems thinking from the get-go (first year, first semester), or should we wait for later years when they're acquired more discipline-specific (electrical, mechanical, etc.) knowledge and skills? In other words, is there value in teaching systems thinking to novices, even in a basic way?
Relevant answer
Answer
Oleksandr Tarasov indeed, but I've heard arguments (like some have argued here) that we shouldn't teach systems thinking in the first year of engineering education, because the students don't have the required knowledge and skills to make sense of it or apply it.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Two widespread ways to characterise (or face) systems taking an SD perspective are:
  • The dynamic complexity characteristics (Sterman 2000, 2001), such as governed by feedback, history-dependent, adaptive, counterintuitive.
  • The open-loop vs. closed-loop view for system appreciation (Sterman 2000, 2001), where the second identifies systems as feedback-rich structures and accounts for the occurrence of side-effects and the actions of others to accommodate the potential outcomes of systems-change.
Nevertheless, there are some discussions in other areas (such as sustainability transitions) that I have not so far found a counterpart in the SD literature:
  • Level of analysis/aggregation fo the system (micro, meso, macro perspectives)
  • Boundary definitions in regard to the purpose of the system
  • Timeframe definition for system investigation
  • Any other way that might help analyse systems taking an SD perspective
Highly appreciate any thoughts shared.
References mentioned:
  • Sterman, J. D. (2000). Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World.
  • Sterman, J. D. (2001). System Dynamics Modeling: Tools for Learning in a Complex World. Reprinted from the California Management Review, 43(4), 8–25. https://doi.org/10.2307/41166098
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
The website, integratedreporting.org, states the following:
"The International <IR> Framework defines integrated reporting as ‘a process founded on integrated thinking that results in a periodic integrated report by an organization about value creation over time and related communications regarding aspects of value creation.’ Integrated reporting brings together material information about an organization’s strategy, governance, performance and prospects in a way that reflects the commercial, social and environmental context within which it operates. It provides a clear and concise representation of how the organization demonstrates stewardship and how it creates value, now and in the future.
But integrated reporting isn’t just a reporting process. It’s founded on integrated thinking, or systems thinking. Integrated thinking drives an improved understanding of how value is created and enhances decision-making by boards and management. The more integrated thinking is embedded in daily operations, the more naturally this information will be expressed in internal and external communications. On this basis, integrated thinking and integrated reporting are mutually reinforcing."
In relation to the aforementioned:
1. What should be the contents of an integrated report? Currently, the IIRC suggests 8 elements to be part of any IR. These are: organizational overview and external environment, governance, business model, risks and opportunities, strategy and resource allocation, performance, outlook, and finally the basis of preparation and presentation. Do you believe more elements should be added, or some of the aforementioned elements could be removed? On what basis do you make such a recommendation?
2. Do you believe that the contents of integrated reporting could possibly be a threat to an organization?
3. The IIRC defines capitals as "stocks of value that are increased, decreased or transformed through the activities and outputs of the organization. They are categorized as financial, manufactured, intellectual, human, social and relationship, and natural capital". Can improvements in one of the six capitals lead to a negative effect among them? For example, attempting to improve on the financial front might lead to a deterioration in the environment one. Or attempting to provide training to the company’s employees would lead to more expenses and thus a financial decline.
These are only some starting points for discussion, please feel free to add more ideas and raise further questions.
Relevant answer
Answer
IR is focused on showing the connectivity of strategic objectives, risk and performance to demonstrate how organisations create value. This means that organisations need to understand and report on all areas of performance and not just focus on short-term financial results.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
10 answers
Dear Colleagues from Research Gate:
Probably most of you know an author in systems thinking and management who´s name is "Russell L. Ackoff", he wrote many books about systems thinking and operational research. The last ones of them had many examples of how burocracies and somehow organizations helped create problems that had to be solved afterwards. Just to name one: "The Art of Problem Solving: Accompanied by Ackoff's Fables".
Unfortunately, many of this excepcional readings are from the 80´s or 90´s. The question is: ¿does anyone know of similar readings but more modern (let´s say Y2K on?. And linked to this: what books about problem solving in management would you recommend me and why?
Thank you very much
Regards
Gustavo Concari
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mr. Alzahawi:
Could you answer in english?
Thanks
Gustavo Concari
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Problem description:
In socio technical systems an idea of technological initiative can emerge and different groups can be organizing around it. Each groups little by litle are organizing sponaneously based on common interest, shared values including ethics, around of an idea of progress and potential benefits that sometimes is vague.
Sometimes those groups start to interact each other and at certain point of development a macro context start to be needed in order to reach the necessities of the society.
Lately despite of the potential social benefits of the new technological initiative, the political body do not create the institutional conditions for the development of a new regulation and public policy (this is what I call the macrosystem). So the socio-technological initiative do not thrive.
Some of the hypothesis about why this issue is happening are:
1) Politicians do not take care or interest of the posibilities of the new technology and initiative.
2) Politicians sees the new technology as a loss of self power threat.
3) Politicians want to take control of the different technical groups resources and assets but not the values and real purpose, because they want to have more power for themselves.
4)...
In consecuence the work done by different technical groups will never be enough organized and coordinated as well as is required by a common purpose that reach societal necesities.
What I want to do is describe the problem in terms of the interaction of technological working groups (the system) and the political and policy level (the macrosystem)
Do yo know if there are a systemic theoretical framework that can help me to analyse and describe this problem and dynamic?
Relevant answer
Answer
It is recommended to follow one quite useful part of complex systems modelling methodology: agent based modelling. There might be different types of agents, some in a few copies like politicians, other in larger numbers like society cliques. There might be defined engagement rules among different types of agents.
Dirk Helping is definitely having research on societal interactions. The seminal book on agent based modelling is by Illachinski: Artificial War. There is explained how to program agents to achieve their desired behavior.
Entropy measures can be used to classify the mode of behavior of the system. Each system undergoing a phase transition express it in changes of entropy even when globally there is nothing substantial to observe!
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
44 answers
This is a general philosophical question which isn't related to any particular study/paper I'm working on.
Do you think these two cognitive abilities are related? If so, in what way/s? If not, why?
Relevant answer
Answer
I don’t believe creativity in systems thinking is limited to new users. I say this because I think people aren’t always aware of all the possibilities inherent in a system, its ramifications, potential, application to other domains, generalizeability, nuances, or whatnot. In other words, people who employ a system, even ones that they were instrumental in devising, can be shortsighted and hidebound about it.
I think of the methodological approach to philosophy dubbed Ordinary Language Philosophy and its central idea of “meaning as use”. A lot of mileage was gotten from notions of what one would or wouldn’t say under certain circumstances and from what would be considered “deviant utterances”. It took creative minds to realize that a distinction between “truth conditions” and “assertion conditions” was consistent with the terms of reference of the methodological framework. Noncreative minds had adhered to the letter rather than the spirit of the methodology.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
What systems thinking analysis software do you recommend? We have been trying SMART-PLS
Relevant answer
Answer
Analysis, synthesis, systems thinking and the scientific method: Rediscovering the importance of open systems
DOI:10.1002/sres.816
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
I was just wondering how can we go about analysing water quality management issue using system thinking approach? are there any literature which looked at water quality management issues using the system thinking approach?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, under the integrated water management approach advocated in Dublin, it talks about the systems approach.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Dear Colleagues,
Any advice on a methodological framework I can use to review factors or variables that are associated with physical activity (outcome of interest)? I'm not necessarily interested in a meta-analysis on the strength of these associations, but rather interested in identifying the holistic "system" that has been associated with physical activity across various contexts. Almost like "systems thinking or concept mapping", but then based on literature rather than "interviews / workshops".
Thank you in advance
Martin
Relevant answer
Answer
Meta-analysis is done when there is a quantitative data in the papers you collect to find out and effect size.A systematic literature review but can be done for your type of research.Pls refer to the video https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCj38Topqj8yC3SdrV6HypIg
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Hello!
We are conducting a study that practically implemented a combination of different learning approaches to foster systems thinking competence in the context of sustainability and in a real-world setting. The learning approaches include mobile learning, collaborative learning, and field trips. What journals would you recommend for such a study?
Thanks in advance!
Yared
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
In fact, sustainability is not a single research topic, but a multi-disciplinary integration topic and the general research is to study sustainability in a certain field. The specific categories include energy, technology, environment, management, policy, agriculture, and so on. Please check the following journals:
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
Nature Sustainability:
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
Sustainable Energy & Fuels
Sustainability Science
Journal of Cleaner Production
Sustainable Cities and Society
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry
Advanced Sustainable Systems
Sustainable Materials and Technologies
Agronomy for Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
Journal of Sustainable Tourism
Sustainable Production and Consumption
Energy for Sustainable Development
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments
Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy
Sustainable Computing-Informatics & Systems
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Sustainability
Sustainable Energy Grids & Networks
Ecosystem Health and Sustainability
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability
Environment Development and Sustainability
Sustainability Accounting Management and Policy Journal
Hope it may help you.
Best Regards,
Ning Zhang
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
6 answers
A cross cultural study for example.
Relevant answer
Answer
Uno de mis ámbitos de trabajo es el pensamiento estratégico, estudio de casos en ecuador. Puedo estar interesado.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
Hi All,
I am looking for some articles which have summarized the common attributes of the system thinking principles applied to safety management.
Relevant answer
Answer
The creation of different scenarios and the interactions. Look at some papers of mine hoping that these could help you
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
I need explanation for the two systems types mentioned above and a brief description of how scientists and engineers solve problems using hard systems thinking
Relevant answer
Answer
This is an interesting question that has the potential to elicit a variety of responses depending on the disciplinary context of your inquiry. For example, an economist will likely have a different perspective on systems thinking than that of an evolutionary biologist, and yet the systems thinking model is useful for both academicians, and many others.
Generally speaking, the broad transdisciplinary understanding of systems thinking can be found in the work of the late Donella Meadows, a Harvard biophysicist who went on to apply systems thinking to environmental science and conservation at MIT. Her work is very accessible for the advanced undergraduate, I believe, from a variety of disciplines. The Limits to Growth (1972) and Thinking in Systems: A Primer (2008) are still very relevant.
Soft systems thinking would include qualitative visual modeling approaches which can provide information about the dynamics of a system. Soft analyses can be drawn (at a high level) with pen and paper, even for real-world systems such as a municipal waste system, a natural ecosystem, a population of arctic foxes, or the system of dairy milk production.
The soft systems thinking approach is a schematic representation, not unlike a flow chart, concerned with the dynamics of finite resources and the stocks and flows of those resources through the different nodes of the system. By drawing a schematic, one can analyze causal relationships that can create quite complex behavior, such as feedback loops, and vicious or virtuous cycles. One of the commonalities that all complex systems share its this: the system as a whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Hard systems thinking includes mathematical models that either approximate or describe the dynamical nature of a system. A good example of the difference between the soft and the hard approach can be found in meteorological models, such as the ones used by NOAA to track (and predict) severe weather systems, such as hurricanes. The weather map that you might see on the news is a (perhaps somewhat simplistic) yet accurate schematic of the weather system that produces a hurricane, and yet NOAA scientists are using more sophisticated mathematical tools to understand such a system as it evolves, and make useful predictions about the system's behavior.
The mathematical approach includes both dynamical (numerical) and statistical models. One dynamical model is the deceptively simple-looking logistic difference equation (Lorentz and Feller), which is actually quite useful across disciplines for understanding real-world dynamical systems that produce stunningly complex behavior, including chaos. [There is a seminal paper that you can read if you are interested in chaos: "Period Three Implies Chaos" (Yorke, et al).]
Hurricanes, as I mentioned above, are a great example of a system that can be modeled with relatively simple system of ordinary differential equations (Lorentz/Fetter), and yet such a system is still notoriously difficult to make predictions about, precisely. A meteorologist will rely on both soft and hard systems approaches to model and understand the path and intensity of a hurricane, and even with the enormous computing power available today, the extreme sensitivity to initial conditions makes it nearly impossible to make exact predictions after relatively few iterations.
Please feel free to reach out if you need suggestions for further reading. Complex systems are all around us in the real world, from social networks; to workflows in manufacturing; to population dynamics and beyond, and there is still much to be discovered.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
8 answers
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) defines how a physical system integrates sensor, communication, computing, and control in a large scale cyber infrastructure. Digital Twin system has multiple definitions and each has a different perspective. From product designer perspective, product life cycle management (PLM) is the key platform to use product design model to monitor, test, control, and service the products in the field. From a user perspective, the design model often is not available. Users will use data from the usage to model the purpose (quality, efficiency, maintenance, etc). They will own the data and domain knowledge which often designers might not have or lacking. From a system integrator perspective, many different products will be used so the data analytics will be conducted through another platform which designers and users might not have. In summary, CPS is system thinking from networked products and operations. Digital twin is a engineering system that drive new abilities to design, operate, maintain, and create new services to maximize its value.
Relevant answer
Answer
To understand the similarities and differences between Digital Twin and CPPS, I would suggest the following description:
Cyber-Physical Systems are an integration of digital data and cyber methods with physical processes. Embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, usually with feedback loops, where physical processes affect computations and vice versa. The Digital Twin is a virtual representation of a physical asset in a Cyber-Physical Production System (CPPS), capable of mirroring its static and dynamic characteristics. It contains and maps various models of a physical asset, of which some are executable,called simulation models.But not all models are executable, therefore the Digital Twinis more than just a simulation of a physical asset. Within this context, an asset can be an entity that already exists in the real world or can be a representation of a future entity that will be constructed.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Especially with Artificial Intelligence and Big data tools which many environmental scientist lack adequate understanding
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
Less technologically developed countries build their economic development, among others, often by exploiting natural resources, exporting natural resources and low-processed products. This is not the best strategy for economic development, because it can quickly lead to the exploitation of natural resources of animate nature (e.g. deforestation of trees in forests) and resources of inanimate nature (extraction of energy and industrial raw materials contained in the earth's crust). Developing countries should gradually but as soon as possible limit the exploitation of natural resources of animate and inanimate nature and should remodel production processes by adding advanced technology and innovation to them. They should produce for export highly processed products with a high scale of added value by using technology as a key manufacturing factor. In addition, the reduction of energy extraction should be carried out with the simultaneous development of energy based on renewable energy sources, successively enriched with ecological innovations and technologies Industry 4.0.
In addition, the protection of biodiversity of natural biological ecosystems is one of the main challenges of sustainable ecological development to be implemented in the 21st century. However, the problem is the implementation of the principles of sustainable pro-ecological development into commercially implemented business processes. It is not easy to combine the green economy philosophy with the foundation of commercially operating business processes, i.e. classic economics. It is necessary for business communities to cooperate with other types of organizations, including pro-ecological social institutions and the world of science.
I believe that in the 21st century, in the 21st century, the policy of protecting nature and biodiversity of natural ecosystems should be improved due to the progressing global warming process and the increasing pollution of the environment. In connection with the reduction of green areas and forests, rehabilitation and greening of areas degraded by industrial development should be developed. Because the global warming process is accelerating, climate changes unfavorable for nature and biodiversity are deepening, so the issue of protecting natural resources and nature is a global problem. Therefore, the improvement of nature protection policy and biodiversity of natural ecosystems should also take place in the field of international cooperation.
Therefore, in developing countries, the goal of biodiversity protection should be to implement the principles of sustainable pro-ecological development in economic processes in the following years to a universal, aggregate, national and international level. The implementation of the principles of sustainable pro-ecological development should be carried out in accordance with the green economy philosophy and pro-ecological reforms should be financed from various sources, primarily from green finance and public finances of the state, and also the implementation of ecological innovations should finance enterprises whose production has a negative impact on the environment.
I wrote more about this in the comments, questions and answers on my Research Gate profile.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply.
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
I have read some articles about KPI's and found out KPIOnto. It is connected with KPI ontology. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Do we need programming language for philosophical study? What is the big idea about KPIOnto? What is its practical use?
Relevant answer
Answer
The KPIOnto - ontology serves as a schema to represent KPIs as a knowledge graph. The format is RDF a W3C standard coming from the Semantic Web, it helps when you want to link and integrate different data sources with the KPIs and run some graph analytics on top. We have used it already in some projects.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Integrated Management: How Sustainability Creates Value for Any Business, Emerald Press
A resource for Business School Sustainability Courses and curriculum. Endorsed by the CEO of Unilever Paul Polman, John Elkington, Scholars from Harvard, MIT, Boston College, American University, The Aspen Institute, The Living Futures Institute and industry consultants.
This book is an evidence based how-to resource. Faculty and students will find action learning activities and integration exercises in each chapter aimed at making the intangible tangible, while showcasing best practices by top ranked companies.
It’s easy to say sustainability is important, yet not so easy to understand how it is part of the decisions that are made every day and how it cuts across business functions, systems, and supply chains. The information within this book, the application of systems thinking to complex problems, development of a vision and action plan, your own research, and action learning activities are all designed to accelerate management action, value creation, and the goal of a sustainable future.
Each chapter includes applied learning, what’s your Integrated Enterprise (IntEnt) questions, along with templates for a customizable integrated management strategy statement; strategic sustainability assessment; use of the social cost of carbon dioxide in financial decision analysis; and the creation of a vision and action plan for any reader.
I welcome any comments, suggestions for improving the book and can provide a syllabus to use in conjunction with this book. sroufer@duq.edu
Relevant answer
Answer
Integrated Management
How Sustainability Creates Value for Any Business
Available at Emerald Press, AMAZON and other on-line platforms including Amazon Kindle, Google eBooks, Proquest, DawsonEra, Ebooks.com, MyiLibrary, EBSCOHost
Table of Contents
SECTION I
A DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE FRONTIER – BEYOND SUSTAINABILITY
Chapter 1 The Integration Opportunity
We Need Decision Makers with a Vision for a Sustainable Future
Why Now
A Dynamic Performance Frontier
Integration Operationalized
Trends – Evidence of the Inevitable
Chapter 2 Critical Dimensions of Integration – Enablers
Complex Problems
Systems Thinking
Value Creation
Change Management
Integrated Reporting
Chapter 3 A Customized Approach for Any Enterprise
Take an Action Learning Approach
Collaborative Action
Facilitating the Strategic Planning Process
Strategic Sustainable Development (SSD)
Enabling Integration Opportunities – ABCD Planning Process
Informed Decision Making
Integration and Change Management
SECTION II
BUILD SHARED UNDERSTANDING
Chapter 4 Integration Across Disciplines
Value Multiple Perspectives
Overcoming Obstacles - Functional Integration
Accounting,
Finance,
Human Resources,
IS/IT,
Marketing,
Operations,
Public Relations
Enabling Integration Opportunities
Get the System in the Room – The Role of Boundary Spanning Individuals
Chapter 5 Value Creation for Stakeholders and Shareholders
More on Materiality
Shareholder Value
Revenue Growth
Operating Margins
Asset Efficiency
Expectations
Making the Business Case
SECTION III
ASSESSING THE CURRENT REALITY (As Is)
Chapter 6 Design Thinking – Life Cycle Assessment
Invent – Test – Bring to Life
What’s Your Net Zero Strategy?
Life Cycle Assessment – A Tool Supporting Design and Goals of Zero
Problem Based Learning Application
Why & How LCA/Design Thinking Enable Integration - Outcomes
Your Ecological Footprint
Chapter 7 Enterprise Systems – Operational & Strategic Assessment
Management Systems
Drivers, Barriers and Enablers
Strategic Planning: Integration Tools and Assessment Frameworks
SWOT, PESTEL, GE-McKinsey 9 Cell Matrix, Boston Consulting Group Growth Share Matrix, Ansoff Matrix, Porter’s 5 Forces, Product
Adoption Curve
Standards
4 Cs – Company, Customers, Competition, and Collaborators
Section IV
BRAINSTORMING ACTIONS TO CLOSE THE GAP (To Be)
Chapter 8 The Changing Performance Frontier – Evolution & Trends
Changing Performance Frontier – Materiality Map
Natural capitalism
Cradle to Cradle
Industrial ecology
Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and Living Products
High performance buildings
USGBC LEED, Energy Star, EUI, IFLI, Passive Haus, Well Standard, Green Globes
Chapter 9 Crossing the Chasm – Evidence & Opportunity
How Firms Integrate: Crossing the Chasm toward Sustainability
Social Cost of Carbon
CDP and GHG Protocol
GRI
Integrated Reporting, IIRC <IR>
Impact Investing
Benefits Corporations
Chapter 10 Propositions – Integration and Innovation
Integration and Innovation – Pushing the Performance Frontier
Propositions (1-4)
1-We rely on an unbalanced approach to financial analysis and reporting
2-We can account for environmental and social value
3-An Integrated Bottom Line offers a more complete picture of enterprise value
4- We can integrate environmental and social performance measurement into decision making
5- We should stress test investments with a new integrated approach
IBL, IntFV, IntRR, ROInt,
Tools to Help Assess and Prioritize
Multi-criterion Decision Analysis (MCDA)
Modeling for an Uncertain Future @Risk
Section V
PRIORITIZATION – ACTION
Chapter 11 The Strategic Integrated Enterprises We Have Been Waiting For
Strategic Integrated Systems
Impacts of Corporations – Change Agents
High Level Measurement and Alignment Options
Turn Options into Priorities and Actions
UN Sustainable Development Goals
Chapter 12 The Future – What Could Be (Beyond Sustainability)?
A No Compromises Approach
Revisiting the Performance Frontier
Challenges
Innovative Solutions
Strategies, Functions, Systems, Value Chains, and Cities Offer Innovative Solutions
A Call to Integrated Management Action
Your Vision and Action Plan
Optimism
Appendices
Integrated Management Resource Guide
Integrated Management Strategy Statement Appendices (actions you can take)
· Appendix 1 Examples of economic topics to review
· Appendix 2 Examples of social topics to review
· Appendix 3 Examples of societal topics to review
· Appendix 4 Examples of environmental topics to review
· Appendix 5 Examples of Sustainability Standards/Initiatives
References
Available at Emerald Press, AMAZON and other on-line platforms including Amazon Kindle, Google eBooks, Proquest, DawsonEra, Ebooks.com, MyiLibrary, EBSCOHost
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
14 answers
I am working on this question for my research. I would like to have views and opinion from different people on the question if the systems thinking tools can help increase productivity in construction sector.
Relevant answer
Answer
There can be no doubt that systems thinking complements reductionism and that the world and our lives would be poorer without it. But, try as one might, systems thinking is not the be-all and end-all of approaches to problem solving because it:
  • encourages binary (or black-and-white) solutions, even though real-life is about paradox (or gray areas), and so may prevent creative types from contributing because such personalities are entirely intuitive;
  • underrates the inestimable value of experiencing, something that happens in social organizations but not in natural systems;
  • may be more suited to circumstances of apparent complexity (that some might instead term complicated)—where the interaction of components seems complex at first glance but demonstrate s relatively simpler order below the surface—and may have limitations in instances of truly complex systems, such as social systems; and
  • needs to be followed by "systems doing" since one must by then deal with real people instead of models. Perhaps because of this, systems thinking in business life is yet to demonstrate unalloyed success in the formulation of, say, policy, strategy, or investments or—put plainly—performance that is unequivocally superior to that of other approaches to thinking about the world, which systems thinking seems intrinsically wont to crowd out.
may be of broader, tangential interest.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Yesterday's risk management practices are no longer adequate to deal with today's High Hazard threats and they need to evolve.
The revised version of ISO 31000 is focused on the effect of incomplete knowledge of events or circumstances on organizations decision making, producing "Knowledge Gaps". The resulting standard is not just a new version of ISO 31000. Reaching beyond a simple revision, it gives new meaning to the way that Safety Practitioners manage the risk of tomorrow.
The psychology of risk management by Katherine Heires / September 1, 2017 www.rmmagazine.com deals with how humans respond to high-risk and crisis situations. This research has highlights how the lack of pre-crisis training and preparation may exacerbate risk and cause unnecessary errors during times of stress and uncertainty.
The good news begins with a understanding that each workplace has a “Controlled Condition” or "Scope of Work", with it's own unique chain of command or hierarchy. Thus Managing the Hazardous Hierarchy (MTHH) ensures each that employee complies with healthy and safe work-related practices, which may include disciplinary action.
This phenomena which safety practitioners have begun to understand better than ever before, is that each project has its’ own unique hazardous conditions that exist within the Hierarchy of Hazard Controls. Safety practitioners must consider the scope of work including the basic task or tools required to complete each job safely.
This gives Safety Managers, EHS Professionals and Competent persons the flexibility to document Near Miss and First Aid Events in a way that satisfy the needs and objectives of organizations wishing to learn from pass mistakes.
An article in The University of Sunshine Coast Journal of Theoretical Issue in Ergonomics Science by “Brian Thoroman M.S.” a researcher within the Center for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems that merge applications of systems thinking with a daily analysis of near miss/close incidents.
A review of industry-wide Learning from Near Miss events is an important component of maintaining safe work systems. Within safety science it is widely accepted that a systems approach is the most appropriate for analyzing incidents in sociotechnical systems. 
Relevant answer
Answer
It is very important that, within an organisation, there is a Safety Management System which operates from top to bottom. At senior management meetings, there always needs to be a 'Safety' item on the agenda.
The concept of logging 'near misses' and 'first aid' is crucial to obtaining a comprehensive asessment of risk.
The next stage is to relate this data to varying working environments and also to the working hours of those employed. This can be organised into a computer program covering 24 hour days [where necessary] and seven days per week.
This will highlight any peaks in incidents.
I have used the above to monitor over 100,000 employees.
It highlighted that key times of risk occurred:
after 5 hours work without a break,
working more than 13 hours in a shift,
between the hours of 2am and 5am,
those staff returning to work after leave or illness.
Another area of risk to the company is where supervisory staff are required to monitor information continually [e.g. in control room in atomic reactors]. The average 'span-on-concentration' declines dramatically after 2 hours. The answer is to introduce short shifts with rest breaks.
I hope this is useful.
David
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Senge (1994) posits that the learning organization includes Personal Mastery, Shared Vision, Team Learning, Mental Models and Systems Thinking. Individualized Education Plan consists of a team of school teachers, administrators, psychologists, social workers, and parent teams (Guardians, Parents, Parent Educator, Grandparents, etc). I am seeking to investigate whether There is a strong correlation between a learning organization as constructed by Senge (1994), and successful Individualized Education Plans.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good Day and good question, Karen.
Although Senge places purposes and reasonings within contexts of where humanity is coming from, where it is heading, and where an undertaking may be understood “as a vehicle for bringing learning and change into society” and as a source for providing “a single integrating set of [meaningful and potentially transformational] ideas” (Senge, 2004, p,321), there is still a remarkable neglect to tap into the synergies between organizational and personal learning.
As exemplified in the case of an ongoing Design Science Research (DSR) project aiming for a novel personal and generative Knowledge Management (KM) system (see latest references currently in press below), current wanting KM practices are a case in point: Aiming to explicate individuals' tacit knowledge for merely organizational utility, they are often failing to enthuse a skeptical workforce. To re-frame this cultural and technological paradigm, the DSR project alluded to aims to decentralize KM and to strengthen the autonomous role of an individual (and his/her personal learning environment) as contributor to and beneficiary of organizational and societal performances. Appealing to knowledge workers' self-interest in this way is expected to effectively foster a fruitful co-evolution between novel individualized and traditional institutionalized KM Systems.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
6 answers
What do you think are most important foci of an ecosystem approach (following James J. Kay and others; see attached!) to integrate production, supply and consumption in the context of global sustainability?
Is it e.g. scale-based spatial considerations, demography, urbanization dynamics, stakeholder (value) governance, or some distinct levers in production, supply, or consumption (LCA, SOM, Responsible Consumerism?), or something else?
If anything, where do you see priorities or research gaps?
The question is deliberately "open" and broad, as not to prejudice answers.
Thanks in advance for a discussion.
K.
Relevant answer
Answer
Such integration is often complex and needs to consider a nested system of multiple scales and strategies. A Multiscale Ecosystem Framework can be used to achieve such a deliberate design. Here is a link to my article:
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
The studies carried out by different scholars show that, in both Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), innovation processes, in their scientific and technological context, are ineffective. Therefore, it is difficult to create an appropriate environment for the development of new and better products and services in such a way that the whole helps the social and economic growth of these countries (de la Torre, 2014; Lederman et.al. 2014, CAF, 2013, World Bank, 2014). Despite some scholars describe the problem as systemic, is Wicked Problem (Rittel, 1973) an adequate framework to formulate these difficulties?
Relevant answer
Answer
Perhaps could be useful to read the following paper: Scientific systems in Latin America: performance, networks, and collaborations with industry https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10961-017-9631-7
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Do you know the concept? What does it mean to you locally? Do you use other concepts instead? What can design and designers do to foster more sustainable Distributed-Economies-type product-service systems?
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe that the concept of distributed economies (DE) is closely linked to some of the aspects of Appropriate Technology (AT) popularised by economist E.F. Schumacher in his 1973 book "Small is Beautiful". Ian Smillie (2008, p. 91) defines AT as follows:
• It meets the needs of the majority, not a small minority, of a community;
• It employs natural resources, capital and labour in proportion to their long-term availability;
• It is ownable, controllable, operable and maintainable within the community it serves;
• It enhances the skills and dignity of those employed by it;
• It is non-violent both to the environment and to the people;
• It is socially, economically and environmentally sustainable.
Although AT lost a fair bit of academic steam as it became equated to a 'hippie' approach to Development, it nonetheless provides a very localised and situated perspective of DE and S.PSS prior to these terms becoming mainstream. In their expansive exploration of AT, Hazeltine and Bull, note that the “usefulness or value of a technology must be consolidated by the social, cultural, economic and political milieu in which it is to be used” (2003, p. 4). Coming from and working in the Global South, such a philosophical approach to design is really important for appropriate outcomes.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Using systems thinking lens can advance understanding of the complexity in health systems problems.
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a significant literature on the use of system dynamics modeling in analyzing complex systems and testing policies. John Sterman argues that it is only through modeling, validation, and calibration that one can comment on complex systems, whereas, Peter Senge believes that systems thinking, as far as coming up with causal loop diagrams, can actually improve understanding and insight for complex systems. I think it depends on your way of viewing systems thinking. I believe Systems Thinking is an unconscious mental paradigm, a way of looking at the world that fundamentally changes our understanding of complex systems. In this context, Systems thinking is much more than only drawing causal loop diagrams.
Amin Dehdarian
Kiumars Dorani
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
To elucidate the complexity of a health system problem, factors identified in individual literature while conducting a systematic review can be used to build a causal loop diagram. This can provide more information about the "how" of the problem that can then be tested in subsequent research.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would have thought the situation you describe too complex for one, single causal loop to be illuminating. How are you defining the terms of your literature search? How is the problem defined?
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
24 answers
-Reality is known to everyone.
-System is a whole consisting of components and their relationships with oneanother and with the whole.
-Matter, space, and time is just reality according to quantum physicists and astrophysicists (see e.g. E. Wigner).
-My question regards whether there is any reality in but beyond this material system; think for instance, the problems of cognitive science or consciousness studies.
Thanks for your answers. Marc
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Michael,
Thank you for the answer you give to Kazuo. However, what do you mean exactly by the <'barbaric' dark ages of man>? Please explain it to me. Thank you again! Marc.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
17 answers
Dear all, I am going to ask a difficult question. I am writing about governance of social systems. Particularly, I am looking at the structure of governance (ie actors, power relations rules). I conceive governance as the `management´ or regulating structure. Namely, the governance structure is what regulates and shapes the processes within specific social-ecological systems (e.g. bioenergy systems, food systems etc.). I would like to explore the literature on systems thinking for management which is the literature where the methodology I use has been mostly used. I know that the management literature focuses on organizations. However, what I need is some inspiration/knowledge of the micro to expand to the macro level (i.e. systems governance).
I am not sure whether I have been clear enough. If you need clarifications please ask and if you have any suggestion, thank you. Very much appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
In view of your reply, was thinking some recent work we engaged with innovation ecosystems thinking in which we also relate to the ecological and material, maybe relevant, see
and see this one from Domenico:
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
39 answers
Hi,
I am looking for key literature (mostly significant books) regarding complex systems and complex adaptive systems in social sciences. Just for reference, I use systems thinking and system dynamics and I would like to expand my theoretical knowledge on complex systems.
Thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend this one particularly if you are looking at environmental aspects of systems thinking in the social sciences:
Capra, F. and Luisi, P.L., 2014. The systems view of life: A unifying vision. Cambridge University Press.
You can find the first chapter online:
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
Hi,
I'm preparing a PhD proposal to study an egocentric network in primary health care setting in a low-middle income country feed with a name-generator survey. I have 2 questions:
1. Any suggestion to the minimum sampling size to keep the validity?
2. What is the estimated time to do an (egocentric) social network analysis of a sample size of X?
Any suggestions, references?
Many thanks!
Virginia
Relevant answer
Thanks Víctor, will try to check it in the future.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
29 answers
Hi everyone, I might be approaching the field of socio-ecological systems to write the final paper of my PhD. I would like to get an idea of a super MUST-READ literature to get an overview of the approach and ideally a couple of case studies.
To narrow down the search, I am a political and social scientist (somewhere in between ;) ) and I study bioenergy development from a triple bottom line perspective (socio, economic and environmental sustainability). I have been using qualitative system dynamics (i.e. causal mapping) and systems thinking in my previous papers and I am now into the CAS literature. I have been advised to look into socio-ecological systems as a good example of CAS and quite related to my theoretical and methodological framework.
Thanks for any help you can provide
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
I am writing a book chapter on the integration of STEM with the Arts to create STEAM. I am trying to describe the specificities of technological-scientific thinking, on the one hand, artistic thinking, on the other, and the new affordances of the synthesis of both domains.
In my view, STEM disciplines entail the following mental activities:
- make questions
- imagine
- observe
- classify
- measure
- calculate
- communicate
- infer
- predict
- reason
- explain
And the following thinking skills or thinking modes:
- critical thinking
- problem-solving (in the sense of computational thinking: developing routines for most efficient problem solving)
- spatial reasoning (not sure. acting as a gatekeeper)
The arts, on the other hand, contribute these thinking skills:
- creativity + innovation
The combination of the two domains allows for the arousal of:
- systemic thinking
- problem-solving (in creative ways + global perspective)
- learn (or any of the activities above) by doing
- communication of facts, findings, ideas
Is there anything else you would include? Something you find redundant or out of place?
Relevant answer
Much of the STEM thinking you’ve listed is also present in the VisHal Arts. It seems the more a course relies on Project Based Learning, the more those domains cross and intersect. I would also add convergent thinking vs. divergent thinking. Best wishes!
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
After completing some research on systems thinking across various medical and health professions education programs, colleagues and I decided to develop a monograph to help educators teach and assess systems thinking. We have found it a bit more challenging to publish a monograph as opposed to a research article -- journals want brief manuscripts; book publishers want full textbooks. Some colleagues have suggested self-publishing but I am concerned that this might not be a credible/respected route to pursue as a researcher and academic. Would love to hear what others think.
Relevant answer
Answer
Maybe, it's work-- I think you should contact me and see if we can collaborate and create a better path. ann.stalter@wright.edu
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Brian Wilson and I have been using SSM derived conceptual models (issue-based and primary task) to structure and explore programmatic aspects of infrastructure and organisational capability focused programmes and projects (see Soft systems thinking, methodology and management of change). An SSM perspective could help unearth conceptual information and measures of performance relevant to the root definition(s) / purpose of the programme. By mapping the identified 'failures' to the measures and model activities it would enable identification of potential areas of impact on realising the stated programme purpose (outcomes) as defined in the root definition(s).
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kees,
First of all, thank you for your interesting question!
You know that the issue of MOPs is mainly discussed in literature of systems engineering. Probably, you are well aware of this point that there are a wide variety of methods and approaches to address the issue of MOPs and assess/measure the system performance. However, based on recent findings in systems engineering, any system can be characterized in terms of functional requirements (this point is particularly stated in Axiomatic Design (AD) theory. Due to your specific question, it is not necessary to mention that the system of interest can be characterized in terms of customer attributes in customer domain of the system, functional requirements in functional domain of the system, physical or design parameters in physical domain of the system, and process variables in process domain of the system). Functional requirements should be measurable and quantitative. Regarding each functional requirement, a respective target value with a specific tolerance interval is defined. Functional requirements are often random variable and, hence, there is some degree of uncertainties to these variables. For this reason, we need to utilize the probability theory to quantitatively measure the success level to meet the target value specified for each functional requirement within its respective designed tolerance interval. The value of these probabilities are reported as measure of performance for the system under consideration. Concerning this discussion, I have attached a paper to this answer as well.
Hops this helps!
Good luck!
Ali
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
An interesting and important matter in relation to the Australian society (its struggle to handle high population growth) put forth in a compelling manner. Another example highlighting the lack of systems thinking on the part of decision makers. It shouldn’t be narrowly focused everything is the economy only perspective. There is a whole system out there. High migration rate keeps the economic figures in a good shape. But infrastructure building must be on par with the population growth – better transport plans and infrastructure, more school and hospitals. Otherwise, the overall productivity of operation will continue to decline and causing major economic and other problems in the longer run.
Relevant answer
Answer
Development of infrastructure, better city planning, increased investment in research etc are all appreciated by the society. But, without putting a check into population growth, or mass migration into urban Central Business District (CBD) areas, all these efforts are like filling a pot with a hole in the bottom. Besides investing in infrastructure building and R&D projects, people need to be educated regarding ill effects of population explosion and strict regulations need to be enacted. Cities need to be decentralized so that population density is evenly distributed throughout the city. Only then we can expect sustainable development in our society.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
differences of dynamic systems with system thinking
Relevant answer
Answer
One is a fraud, the other isn't. Systems thinking, unless you went to MIT, is a cognitive paradigm and useful in virtually any endeavor. If you went to MIT or read Forrester, Sengé, Richmond, et al. then systems thinking is system dynamics. Meadows wrote some useful concepts, but she was the exception in that crowd. The thing they don't tell you in their books is that system dynamics is a very limited, almost useless modelling tool that looks really cool, but can't be modified easily to reflect change or non-linearity. In other words, both the bias and the variance of the model are very high. The verification may be reasonable, but the validity tends to be bad.
Some examples of this failure: Jay Forrester's World Dynamics. I encourage you to read the reviews such as "Measurement without data." Peak oil. This was a system dynamics model crafted at great expense by some really smart economists and petrol-heads and predicted world oil production would peak about 15 years ago. Didn't happen. In fact production is up far beyond the simulation. So, what good was the system dynamics simulation? not much.
For a good insight on what systems thinking really is and how it is useful, check the work of Russell Ackoff. He has some good lectures online. C. West Churchman was his graduate advisor I believe, also worth reading.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
8 answers
relationship between knowledge management and system thinking
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Ali. Knowledge Management (KM) seems to be in need of a decentralizing revolution for empowering individuals and self-organized groups to be based on networked autonomous personal KM devices and a personal discipline for collection, filtering and creative connection (among data, among people, and between people and data flows) (Levy, 2012). Although the mounting urgency for such a solution is apparent (Wiig, 2011; Gratton, 2012; Nielsen, 2012; Frey & Osborne, 2013; Bowles, 2014), the inherent complexities for devising it constitute ‘wicked’ problems (ill-defined; incomplete, contradictory, changing requirements; complex interdependencies) where the information needed to understand the challenges depends upon one’s idea or concept for solving them (Rylander, 2009).
System thinking and Design Science Research (DSR) guidelines (Hevner et al., 2004) aimed are essential to address knowledge assets and their dynamic relationships/processes as well as to integrate a varied scope of KM concepts and practices, such as associative indexing (Bush, 1945), cumulative synthesis (Usher, 1954), attention management (Simon, 1971), personal autonomy (Nonaka, 2000), aggregatable ‘nano’ performances (Wiig, 2011), or creative conversations (Levy, 2012).
The aim of a current DSR project is to develop such a novel KM concept supported by an innovative IT prototype system (that extend human and social capabilities and meet desired outcomes) and to validate the underlying system thinking and design science research processes (as evidence of their relevance, utility, rigor, resonance, and publishability). The continued non-availability of such personal KM systems and tools inhibits organizations (Pasher & Ronen, 2011), academia (Bedford, 2012), and the creative class (Florida, 2012) due to non-effective tools (Kahle, 2009; Davies, 2011), lacking work force acceptance of traditional KM system generations (Wilson, 2002; Schuett, 2003; Malhotra, 2004; Pollard, 2008; Frost, 2013), and escalating opportunity divides (Drori, 2010; Giebel, 2013).
The full references and further details are accessible via a series of recent multi-disciplinary publications and presentations on my reserchgate page. Related to the initial context of KM and System Thinking, I suggest the article below as a starting point:
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
If you are interested to know more on service innovation as aresult of systems thinking theories, please help yourself access the latest research I authord on this:
Relevant answer
Answer
very interesting
good luck
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
I see it cited in-text, yet not in the reference list, in "The relationship between systems thinking and the new ecological paradigm" (2015) and would love to read that paper. I am currently working on a project related to decision-making and systems thinking, and I have found your work very interesting. Thank you for your assistance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Ashley, I am not sure if this is the text you are but the citations is below:
Davis, A. C., & Stroink, M. L. (2016). The relationship between systems thinking and the new ecological paradigm. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 33(4), 575-586.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
Dear experts,
im hanging on my bachelor thesis right now. I want to exclude missing data cases with the if-function (data -> select cases). I have about 8 questionnaires with many lacking some variables.
To deal with it I created the variable"missingdata" ( compute variable: nmiss( my questionnaires) ...which shows a number from 1 -8 -> one for each sum/mean score ( I made sure that these scores were only computed if no variables are missing) of a questionnaire representing how many variables are missing.
Then I wanted to exclude data with the if function missingdata = "0" . In my mind this should select only the case with 0 missing variables and therefore exclude the others. Now my programm shows me this
message
"A relational operator may have two numeric operands or two character string operands. To compare a character string to a numeric quantity, consider using the STRING or NUMBER function."
When I go into variables view my "missingdata" variable is numeric though...but its shown as a nominal "measure"... I dont know what to do. I tried recoding it into a new variable and automatic recode but its still showing the same message.
I also just changed the nominal measure into a scale one but as I thought that didnt help either. As long as the system thinks its a string variable I cant continue my analysis.
I have to use the if function as I already used it for other criteria in my thesis. It is crucial for my thesis to get this part done right.
also two other side questions:
- if I used the if function for something like ...variable >= "1" . It should contain only data that is 1 or bigger shouldnt it? . But I saw one of the variables with a value of 0,75 that wasnt excluded !? what did i do wrong? can I manually exclude it or is this illegal data manipulation?
and the other one is that my data is not normally distributed ( at least thats what the k-s-test says) but I want to do a regressionanalysis. Is this a problem with a sample of 170 people?
I hope you guys can help me
sincerly,
Schwarzer
Relevant answer
Answer
Missing data must be pointed out for accuracy of results . Actually missing data is of two types 1. system missing 2. User defined
For Non string variables any empty cell will be considered as missing data you dont need to declare
in case of user defined it needs to be declared go to data view column 7 missing and select the discrete missing values and enter the number of variable missing ,press ok . You will see them in variable view window now.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
10 answers
In my book "Public Participation as a Tool for Integration Local Knowledge into Spatial Planning" (Springer, 2017) I claim that Local Knowledge in urban and regional planning refers to the knowledge of people who could be affected by plans, and that it is "a large, complex epistemological system related to a broad conceptual scope that includes perceptions, desires, grievances, opinions, ideas, beliefs, thoughts, speculations, preferences, common sense, feelings and sensations; it also addresses needs, cultural codes, spatial conducts, social relations, societal norms, and everyday life scenarios and practices, all of which are rooted in the locals' everyday reality". 
Relevant answer
Answer
Local knowledge can be seen from different perspectives and embedded in different discourses. The word 'local' puts it in the immediate space for which plans are drafted. As such a local Urban Planner, who lives since long time in the respective city has such local knowledge, at least more of it than an urban planner who has been hired from far away. However, and some of the contributions argue in this direction, local can also mean people's knowledge in comparison to scientific knowledge.
Other expressions that at times appear in the discourses are 'traditional knowledge' and 'indigenous knowledge'. Of course there are slight, but very meaningful differences between all of these expressions, but what they might have in common is the assumption that beyond the scientific way of conceptualizing things there are also other qualities, which can add perspectives to the scientific view that are essential.
I just came back two week ago from doing research about 'traditional cyclone shelters in Vanuatu'. These shelters, which have survived the strongest cyclones ever are the result of 'local' knowledge. Aren't they? E.G. an important way o9f putting wooden logs together is by tying them together with wild vines instead of using nails. This flexibility provides stability as logs fixed by nails would disconnect soon when the power of heavy winds would slowly but surely loosen the connection.
Indeed I came across a similar principle many years ago in South India, where fishermen built boats by stitching the wooden planks together with coir. Also here the flexibility enhanced the stability when the boat went through the surf of the ocean.
‘Local knowledge’ here might be the knowledge which is built from experience, from being practically attached to something instead of reflecting and researching things.
Stein, D. S. (2002). Creating local knowledge through learning in community: A case study. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2002(95), 27-40.
Bishop, B. W. (2011). Location‐based questions and local knowledge. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1594-1603.
Aveling, E. L. (2011). Mediating between international knowledge and local knowledge: the critical role of local field officers in an HIV prevention intervention. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21(2), 95-110.
Mammo, T. (1999). The paradox of Africa's poverty: the role of indigenous knowledge, traditional practices and local institutions--the case of Ethiopia. The Red Sea Press.
Sekhar, N. U. (2004). Local versus expert knowledge in forest management in a semi‐arid part of India. Land Degradation & Development, 15(2), 133-142.
Thomas, D. S. G., & Twyman, C. (2004). Good or bad rangeland? Hybrid knowledge, science, and local understandings of vegetation dynamics in the Kalahari. Land Degradation & Development, 15(3), 215-231.
Gerhardinger, L. C., Godoy, E. A., & Jones, P. J. (2009). Local ecological knowledge and the management of marine protected areas in Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management, 52(3), 154-165.
Šūmane, S., Kunda, I., Knickel, K., Strauss, A., Tisenkopfs, T., des Ios Rios, I., ... & Ashkenazy, A. (2017). Local and farmers' knowledge matters! How integrating informal and formal knowledge enhances sustainable and resilient agriculture. Journal of Rural Studies.
Benham, C. F. (2017). Aligning public participation with local environmental knowledge in complex marine social-ecological systems. Marine Policy, 82, 16-24.
Shearmur, R., & Doloreux, D. (2008). Urban hierarchy or local buzz? High-order producer service and (or) knowledge-intensive business service location in Canada, 1991–2001. The Professional Geographer, 60(3), 333-355.
Yigitcanlar, T., O’connor, K., & Westerman, C. (2008). The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s knowledge-based urban development experience. Cities, 25(2), 63-72.
Yigitcanlar, T., & Velibeyoglu, K. (2008). Knowledge-based urban development: The local economic development path of Brisbane, Australia. Local Economy, 23(3), 195-207.
Skytt-Larsen, C. B., & Winther, L. (2015). Knowledge production, urban locations and the importance of local networks. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1895-1917.
Pineda-Zumaran, J. (2016). Learning and knowledge generation in local decision making in the South: The case of urban infrastructure provision in Arequipa, Peru. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 36(1), 60-75.
Lau, U., & Seedat, M. (2015). The community story, relationality and process: Bridging tools for researching local knowledge in a peri‐urban township. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25(5), 369-383.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
62 answers
Design Thinking seems to be the flavor of the season. How is it different from Systems Thinking? Both have feedback loop in their core. What is it that Design thinking can accomplish which Systems Thinking can not?
Relevant answer
Answer
The scopes of Design Thinking and Systems Thinking have expanded so much that they largely overlap now. The most concise answer is that Design Thinking focuses on synthesis, building up a solution to a problem, and Systems Thinking focuses on large-scale analysis, understanding a problem's many facets and dependencies, from technology to economics to people. Of course to do proper synthesis, you should have a system-wide understanding of the problem, so the two are firmly intertwined.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
I've been wondering whether a mathematical-based model exists for Systems Thinking which could be used on complex systems.  Maybe, this idea is not even feasible?  Any thoughts and ideas are most welcome.
Relevant answer
Answer
if you check the work of JC willems e.g IEEE Transactions on Automatic ControlVolume 36, Issue 3, March 1991, Pages 259-294 "Paradigms and Puzzles in the Theory of Dynamical Systems" or IEEE Control SystemsVolume 27, Issue 6, December 2007, Pages 46-99 "The Behavioral Approach to Open and Interconnected Systems"
it may give you an idea of the body of work available in this area. These are but a few, in deed Willems and team has done a lot of work in this....(esp the topic you asked on)
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
We plan to use bottom-up collected quantitative and qualitative data as an addition to the already established statistical database, and use these for developing the network and input-output models. Do you have any similar experience in any parts of the above? I would like to talk about your experience and understand what kind of difficulties we have to face off.
Relevant answer
Answer
 Dear Ms. Wynne,
Thank you for your contribution!
Robert
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Grounded theory as developed by Anselm Strauss is rooted in information received from ordinary citizens which it is argued provides useful insights into issues in societies. This perspective is also supported by the Brazilian educator and sociologist Paulo Friere, Karl Polanyi and the Interpretivist approaches of Max Webers Social Action Theory, Husserl's Phenomenology and Schultz' Ethnomethodological Perspective. I would not mind contributing an article/chapter for the proposed book.  
Relevant answer
Answer
Russell, I apologise for the lateness of my response - for some reason, I did not get any notification about your question. I am afraid Grounded Theory has a history of application in the field of education and technology.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
2 answers
No single factor/s whether molecular or morphological is/are important in a sustainable maintenance of any system, is an indication of failure in reductionist approach or otherwise successful in an integral interpretation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Intelligent question Dr Senapati. I  feel , species diversity , either it is functional, compositional  or metabolic nature , they compliment each other at different levels of ecosystem functioning with varied implications , and always successful in better interpretation ....all a part of sustainable system..
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
6 answers
The concept of transdisciplinarity is becoming very popular with the increased complexity of problems and solutions that require strong collaboration and expertise across different sciences and disciplines. We can see strong integration trends between various areas of science, arts, technology, and humanities, building up new areas of research and practice in the process...
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
As an Administrative Specialist I believe it is necessity indeed in finding proper solutions. Ofcourse it is found that the management is as a transdisciplinary study which tries to solve organizational problems.
By looking at the matrix issued by BCG, it is obvious that a transdisciplinary is conducted to offer the solutions.
It is very interesting that the Financial Balance is also existed in culture, policy, economy and society which was pointed in the book "Organizational Behavior" written by Robbins.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
Although philosophically analytics without reasoning seems wrong, in machine learning solutions it is commonly found. Recently DataScienceCentral had a related webinar regarding this issue -  http://www.datasciencecentral.com/video/the-myth-of-the-machine-learning-black-box
Without disputing the deep learning model, I'd like to mention again the Occam's razor principle (leaner is better) regarding very complex matters. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Callaway,
I find your notion very intriguing and I would say that current trends in ML do tend to do so, but in my opinion, I would debate the generalization to all ML. Reasoning systems (which I consider also part of ML, but that is also debatable) can derive knowledge that could be considered outside of the given knowledge base through application of logical rules. While derivable from the knowledge base it does a transformation via logical rules deriving new rules from which other rules could further be derived.
Just a thought
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Based on what computational mechanisms can a smart cyber-physical system operationalize abductive reasoning in its overall operation? This knowledge-intensive computational reasoning mechanism is supposed to reflect the logical workings of abductive inferencing pertinent to scientific explanation.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that such systems are not all that uncommon. For instance, there are systems that monitor the noise level of bearings, not because anyone might care about noise, but because bearing noise is easier to monitor than is bearing wear. So when a certain noise level and/or noise spectrum is reached, the monitoring system raises an alarm.
So, "If the specified threshold noise level/spectrum is measured, it must mean that bearing wear has reached x and must be replaced."
I suppose one could say the same thing about, say, monitoring the weather, or many other things. If the air pressure is x, and it is falling at a rate of y, then it must be true that we have a severe weather front approaching.
If this condition is true, then it must follow that this cause is true, going from effect to cause. Which may just be the easier direction to go, for practical reasons.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
Why do you think that the creator is a modular designer and a modular creator? And what are the consequences for intelligent species.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting and nice question, dear professor Hans van Leunen
 A simple but probably naive answer would be immediate: the seven days of creation ... every day creates other "modules" ... every day is a ctegory of modules ... but I admit it is a simplistic vision and motivation, naive ...
Why phases, modules in creation ...? Is a question I can not answer satisfactorily for now ...
I think evolution is "written" or "composed" (maybe better say, "thought") by God in RECURRENT style. This means that everything that appears later depends on what was created earlier ... like recurring functions in mathematics ... so it is important for the creation entities to know their history as accurately and for as long as possible. ...In nature, many processes and entity, are characterised de recurrent phenomena...
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Dear all,
I have seen that state-space models are a flexible framework to model various processes and data dependencies, in ecological models. I would like to deepen my knowledge about them, as I mostly rely on Buckland's "State-space models for the dynamics of wild animal populations". Is there any more recent text about them?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think so , but I need to control any works  in progress  in Canada .
Best wishes!
Riccardo
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
5 answers
What could be the core changes today that enforce the belief of a new industrial revolution?
Relevant answer
Answer
 “4 Industrial Revolution” appears like a continuity of the Copernican Revolution. With the Copernican Revolution we learn we were not at the center of the Universe, now we are going to learn what could be the consciousness, what could be a human being with regard to that of animals and so on. The result is that we put ourselves at distance, not exactly like an object, but at distance. Would that mean we are going to be able to establish the laws for life systems as we did with the laws of nature? At least, we know drastic changes are coming that will force us to think about ourselves in a different way.
Trying to put in perspective the huge development described in the Klaus Schwab’ article, it is worth recalling that we have to keep in mind human and animals need water and energy to stay alive. It is a question of priority, whatever the capability of the Big Data, AI or whatsoever, to save energy, it is a reasonable guess to suppose that the need of energy will steadily increase if we use the same economical reasoning that has dominated over the last 2 centuries.
Because, we now know that resources are not infinite, we now know that in our finite earth we have the capability to impact the future much beyond our finite lifespan, we must change our mind. We need to develop other practices that are not uniquely focus on solving questions at the local scale. We need to be much more than an augmented animal, if we are unable to do that we will not be able to develop strategies with long-term vision. For what we understand of human and animal metabolism, we are everything except a machine. We have a very poor yield, of about 5% if it makes sense to do such an evaluation, however we are still the most amazing achievement we know. A mystery we don’t know much about but are in situation to strongly modify.
At the end we refocus on people. We need to develop human networks, much more than virtual ones. We need to permanently build and rebuild human networks, the most efficient way to detect talented peoples and to reinforce their skillfulness. Improving the human relationship is at the heart of the creativity and the basic ingredient to enforce trust between peoples.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
The CRISPR-Cas9 method allows one to edit genomic sequences and have these changes permanently established in the organism. It is easy to imagine this technology resulting in biological disasters when in the wrong hands. 
Relevant answer
Answer
CRISPR Cas9 is part of a new instrumentation providing new strategies to question what could be information in life systems and how this information is processed. Unlike DNA computing, DNA origami platforms and others that aim at finding the fundamental rules that govern information based on a network of chemical reactions, CRISPR Cas9 is able to edit the genome. In other words, with CRISPR Cas9 we are able to process information in a life system without knowing what it is.
This is a usual way to go in research, the key issue with CRISPR Cas9 is that it addresses immediately the Animal and Human identities. It is going fast, we only start to understand what is the complexity at any scale that we are already in situation to modify the whole process at a large scale.
This is a complete new Ethical Question, because it is hard to envision the consequence at any level. Any Human actions contain implicitly the ability to correct and regulate wrong moves, even if the regulation might become expensive. It is not clear we could do a reverse move if needed. Indeed, we never do a reverse move but biased the orientation when we are doing wrong, therefore we need to find ways to keep this biased skill. This is very demanding and requires improving our human being and social organization. The key issue is trust, there are many possibilities to reinforce trust between people and to improve our human relationship capacity.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
I am developing a new construct. I am keen to understand conceptually, what should the new construct include? Should it have elements of cause and effects? In my view, this will make the definition of the new construct very comprehensive.
Relevant answer
Answer
Just look at the existing overlapping constructs, identify the gaps and introduce yours. I have just investigated Social norm and its underlying internal/external dimensions. They both cannot serve as underlying dimensions yet they exist in the extant literature only to realise after long hustling and bustling. 
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Working on developing Life Cycle Assessment tools for graduate students in a Process Design class. One student uses store bought samples, and a custom rig, but seems uncertain as to how the setup/analysis is interatively improved upon. Wondering what criteria SEM/STM analysis relies on that can be quantified for comparison, or qualitative factors which may be addressed. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Have they done the CFA yet?
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
8 answers
Hello!
As a part of my research on urban transportation, I am using System Dynamics as a tool. If anyone has experience in System Dynamics / Systems Thinking, software tools for System Dynamics or its application on transportation systems, please get in touch with me.
Main Purpose -
1. Make friends from same working background :)
2. I want to engage in discussions with a peer
3. Get some inputs on selecting suitable software package
Thanks,
Madhur Jain
Relevant answer
Answer
@Babak Bashirzadeh - Hi Bashir. Thanks for your offer. I see that you use Vensim. Could you please suggest on if Vensim can accept Python or Matlab coding ?
Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
I am researching on a stilt community on a lake and looking at how the knowledge of construction of the building is transferred. I also plan to document the knowledge by filming the knowledge in action (During construction). All contributions are important at this stage. Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Christine for the list of articles, i cant waiting to start reading them. They will surely be of many help to me. I appreciate it.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
In my most recent investigation, I'm exploring the different forms of conversations in design using Gordon Pask's Conversation Theory. The main references I use are the works of Gordon Pask, Ranulph Glanville, Paul Pangaro and Ben Sweeting.  What I would like to ask is if someone would be so helpful to share references of projects which use the concepts of P-individuals and M-individuals to understand or enhance the conversational process between an observer and his environment (architectural space).
Relevant answer
Answer
One reference to add would be Nicholas Negroponte 's Soft architecture machines. I think Pask's contribution to this is where he first sets out P-Ind and M-Ind - its originally written around 1972 and so before the main conversation theory publications, although it only comes out in 1975. Negroponte's work would be a good example, even if he doesn't pick up all Pask's terminology, its within the same spirit (Pask was a consultant to Negroponte's lab).
I think its also worth looking back at Pask's devices before he came up with the P-Ind and M-Ind terminology. I think most of conversation theory is in Musicolour waiting to come out, and this might give you more flexibility on what you can cite.
*Negroponte, Nicholas. 1975. Soft architecture machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
1 answer
Can systems dynamics (e.g. Braun, 2001) and Fisher’s account of temperament (Fisher et al., 2015; Brown et al., 2013), be used to explore the "emergence" of values? For example, a child developing in a setting which rewards and reinforces curiosity and creativity might become increasingly sensitised to feelings associated with their dopamine system (Fisher, below), and subsequently seek experiences which offer that particular feeling of reward. This might establish a reinforcing cycle (Braun, 2001), through which the child’s temperament becomes predominantly expressive of the dopamine system. From Schwartz’ human values perspective would this child’s goal choices tend to consistently express openness to change, independence and self-direction values? Would the child’s choices be values-based insofar as they are infused with feelings, refer to desired goals, and exhibit consistency that transcends specific situations (Schwartz, 2012)?   
Might Fisher’s Explorers express Schwartz’ Openness To Change values, Builders express Conservation values, Directors express Self-enhancement values, and Negotiators express Self-transcendence values?
Might accounts connecting neurochemical systems with values and feelings (e.g. Lövheim, 2012) improve the utility of the worthwhile, satisfied, happy, anxious and social trust dimensions in the subjective wellbeing literature (e.g. Michaelson et al., 2012) and enrich the goal choice (e.g. Knafo and Sagiv, 2004) and productivity literatures (e.g. Parks and Guay, 2009)?
Fisher Four broad temperament dimensions:
·         Explorers expressive of the dopamine system linked with traits including: being curious, creative, spontaneous, energetic, risk-taking, novelty-seeking, mentally flexible.
·         Builders expressive of the serotonin system linked with traits including being: traditional, conventional, following the rules, respecting authority.
·         Directors expressive of the testosterone system linked with traits including being: analytical, logical, direct, decisive.
·         Negotiators expressive of the oestrogen system linked with traits including: being empathetic, emotionally expressive, good with people.
Schwartz (2012) values super groups:
·         Openness to change values: emphasise independence of thought, action, and feelings and readiness for change (self-direction, stimulation)
·         Conservation values: emphasise order, self-restriction, preservation of the past, and resistance to change (security, conformity, tradition)
·         Self-enhancement: emphasise pursuit of one's own interests and relative success and dominance over others (power, achievement).
·         Self-transcendence: emphasise concern for the welfare and interests of others (universalism, benevolence)
References
Braun, W., 2001. The Systems Modelling Workbook. Berlin: Springer, 2001. [Online]. [Accessed 19 January 2017]. Available at http://www.albany.edu/faculty/gpr/PAD724/724WebArticles/sys_archetypes.pdf
Brown, L.L., Acevedo, B. and Fisher, H.E., 2013. Neural correlates of four broad temperament dimensions: testing predictions for a novel construct of personality. PloS one, 8(11), p.e78734.
Fisher, H.E., Island, H.D., Rich, J., Marchalik, D. and Brown, L.L., 2015. Four broad temperament dimensions: description, convergent validation correlations, and comparison with the Big Five. Frontiers in psychology, 6.
Lövheim, H., 2012. A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters. Medical hypotheses, 78(2), pp.341-348.
Knafo, A. and Sagiv, L. 2004. Values and work environment: Mapping 32 occupations, European Journal Of Psychology Of Education, 19 (3).
Michaelson J., Mahony, S. and Schifferes, J. 2012 Measuring Well-being: A guide for practitioners, London: New Economics Foundation.
Parks, L.,and  Guay R. 2009. Personality, values, and motivation, Personality and Individual Differences, 47, pp. 675–684
Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Glen, sorry that I missed your question.
Thank you for this thoughtful and thought provoking proposal.
Yes, i think that temperament should provide a basis to some of the variation in values. I will update as we progress with this part of the project.
Ariel
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
30 answers
Many educational approaches in contemporary primary, secondary and tertiary systems embed design features organised around the individual. Indeed, the personalisation agenda in these systems is accentuating this way of organising. There are of course consequences of this way of organising (see attached).
But what do we know about alternative educational approaches in tertiary education systems which focus on 'the collective', whether as a primary organising concept, or in an aspect of the system? And what do we know of the consequences of organising in this way? I have attached some possibilities in the links related to this question.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Tony:
Thank you so much for sharing your opinion and this important document!
I could not agree more with you when you say, “a wider vision of education should respect and reward the practical as well as the academic, informal and experiential as well as formal learning, and should draw upon the wide range of expertise within the community.”
In this regard, I believe that for this to be effective every educational institution, which develops its instructive tasks in every one of both schools and Universities, should develop an action based on the following educational principles:
  • Take into consideration students’ level of cognitive competence (development level), that is to say, their development level in which they are, and  their knowledge on which they have built previously (previous knowledge).
  • Facilitate the construction of meaningful learning.
  • Promote functional learning.
  • Make it possible learn to learn.
  • Focus on student-centered learning process.
  • Encourage interaction in the teaching-learning process.
  • Construct motivational learning situations.
These principles have been put forward by various current psycho-pedagogical currents (social learning: A. Bandura and cognitivism -constructivism: J. Piaget, D. Ausubel., L. S. Vygotski and J. Bruner).
Kind regards,
Javier.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
Give model with Reasons for adding subject at specific layers..
It will helps to understand overall correlation between art, religion, spirituality, philosophy, physics -  & other scientific branches.. Model should establish / shows unity / correlation between different subject, helps to understand nature of universe & how physics, math, arts etc influence - connected with each other..
Relevant answer
Answer
If you like to organise different subject into layer, then like 7 layer OSS Model in Computer network, what will be analogous model of it ?
Think you are referring to 7 layers of OSI model.  One analogous example equivalent to 7 layers of OSI model that I can recall quickly in social science / psychology / organizational behavior is Maslow Hierarchy of Needs which consists of 5 layers i.e. from Physiological (Layer1), Safety, Love / Belonging, Esteem to Self-Actualization (Layer5).  Reason being Maslow Hierarchy of Needs resemble to OSI model functionally i.e. from bottom up (Layer1-7) & top down (Layer7-1), lower layers are more physical vs higher layers which are more virtual / abstract at application layer.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
I am writting an article relating experiments in adapting small-group problem solving protocols (social psychology) to large-group methods (organizational development), but I lack theoretical support linking both approaches. Since Kurt Lewin both approaches seem to have evolved in different directions, as if they had nothing to do with each other.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for the suggestion but, at a first glance, cannot find links to large groups (<30)
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Phenomenological approach is criticized for "lack of science" in the knowledge generated. How can we best justify the knowledge generated using phenomenography? What would be the counter argument particularly useful for use of phenomenographic research in entrepreneurship and learning?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Rafael Duarte Oliveira Venancio and Gabriel Zanotti for your helpful answers. Kenneth Lui-ming Ngie I am specially grateful for enlightening and comprehensive reply.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
3 answers
I'm doing a critical analysis of District Education strategic plan. I wan to understand how that plan can be traced in its theoretical foundations. In other words, what are the theoretical underpinnings of a strategic plan. What theories can be traced in strategic planning. I traced a couple of them such as Social Cognitive theory. I want to look at some more to situate my analysis with theoretical foundations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sher Ahmed,
The best book on theoretical foundations of strategic planning/strategic management is "Strategy synthesis" by B. de Wit and R. Meyer. There are several editions of that book,  I am enclosing the key chapter from the second edition (2010).
Success with your plan!
Igor Gurkov
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
8 answers
How to test the reliability and validity of DELPHI Technique? What are the various drawbacks of DELPHI technique?
Relevant answer
Answer
There seems to be a confusion here. The Delphi technique should not be used to develop ideas. It might be used to evaluate them. Also, there is no requirement that the Delphi technique be used with experts from a given field. Actually, a diverse group is recommended.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
I'd trying to get a handle on the relationship and interdependency between system dynamics and systems thinking.
Having read, amongst others, Forrester (1994) and Richmond (1994) my take is that System dynamics is a "measurement" (my term) of a social or physical system bearing in mind its "complexity, nonlinearity, and feedback loop structures" (Forrester 1994), while systems thinking may be a tool(s) used to provide a holistic solution(s) for the issues/outliers/potential problematic areas within those social or physical systems? I'd appreciate peoples thoughts/ideas. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
To my knowledge, « System thinking » is mainly related to an holistic approach of problems. It started in the decades following the 2nd World War with among others works by L. von Bertalanffy :
L. von Bertalanffy. General System Theory. Ed. Georges Braziller, Inc., New York, 1968
This approach was then disseminated in a lot of fields going from physical to sociological systems sometimes with abuse. With interesting but sometimes also poor results which reflected discredit on it.
People like J. W. Forrester , developed more mathematical methods combining feedback loops, nonlinearity, … to assess the dynamics of systems and applied them successfully to problems in economy, road traffic, …, see for instance :
J.W. Forrester. Principles of Systems. Ed. Wright-Allen Press, 1968.
With Forrester, one may define a system as a ”group of elements operating together with a common goal”. A more descriptive definition could also be ”a collection of interlocked subparts that is in a state such that it operates as a whole at an higher scale than that (those) of its subparts ”.
This leads a.o. to complex systems and there is also a topic on « Complex Adaptive Systems » on RG.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
The integrated thinking concept is linked to integrated reporting and is defined as an organization’s active consideration of the relationships between its various operating and functional units and the capitals (financial, manufactured, intellectual, human, social and natural) the organization uses and affects (IIRC, 2013). 
Besides, the notion of integrated thinking is akin to a system thinking perspective in accounting, which suggests that it is necessary to look within the business for evidence of interactively developed strategies and control.
So, what is the nature of integrated thinking in a real life or a real organization system ? 
Relevant answer
Answer
There are many articles or papers on Integrated thinking on the IIRC website as well as other websites, but it all boils down to how an organisation's management uses the concept of integrated thinking - which is not really new - as one would expect management has a broad view of what impacts on a business/risks/opportunities or what is deemed material on the organisation's viability/sustainability going forward - and how this then impacts on all spheres of the organisation - yes, systems thinking, agile thinking all just semantics in that context in my view - but ultimate how does a company use the various capitals (6) to either destroy and create value - given the interrelationship of these capitals within and outside the organisation - using the capitals as the framework is but one approach - HOWEVER, what typically happens in these reports is that the financial capital element is the primary focus with little or no focus on exactly how the other capitals influence the EACH OTHER.
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
13 answers
I'm in a good old methodological dilemma stage of my 1st year Ph.D. work. Interaction between members of the clinical team are complex, and I thought this combination of methodologies were mutually compatible for a exploratory piece of work.
Relevant answer
Answer
I know nothing about Actor Network Theory beyond scanning WIkipedia, but I do know a lot about systems thinking, having published four books on the subject.  I would support the other comments that what constitutes 'systems thinking' is a much disputed and muddled concept.  It also looks like Actor Network Theory shares similar dynamics.  In which case linking the two could be similar to nailing jello to jello with string.  So what I'd need to know is what you understand by 'systems thinking' (and in my book it's a heck of a lot more than just being aware of inter-relationships).  But perhaps more importantly would be to understand much more about what it is you are actually trying to do.
Feel free to contact me by email - bob@bobwilliams.co.nz
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
4 answers
Dear Colleagues,
In our presentation "21st Century Critical Literacy: Pedagogical and Ideological Intersections" my partner and I explored the question: What is critical literacy and how does it 'look' in the 21st century? This webinar highlights how and why systems thinking and action/activity theories inform an understanding of the pedagogical and ideological intersections of 21st century critical literacy teaching and learning. The intended audience is expert and novice educational researchers, teachers, and teacher educators in brick and mortar, hybrid, and online settings. The topic of 21st century critical literacy is relevant to early childhood, primary, secondary, and tertiary learning environments.
We look forward to your feedback. Please visit the following link for a video archive of this webinar presentation:
Relevant answer
Answer
for me critical literacy for 21st century should be slowing down the growth and development so that sustainable development be the reality. We need to re-establish the human values and aesthetics so that education should not loose the human face. People need to learn diversity, tolerance and peace and leave the culture focused around money and material.  
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
17 answers
What are the necessary books for understanding, Perceiving and then execution of system thinking in people’s attitude and improvement of their lives by better Decision Making Process, And also for increase quality of policies and decisions in organizations?
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is (somebody else's) list of favourites:
I've used Peter Senge's 'The Fifth Discipline' (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Discipline) quite a bit
  • asked a question related to Systems Thinking
Question
6 answers
Your research design and data collection.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am impressed by the work of K. E. Boulding that I did not know and that Jennifer Wilby describes so well. I am very much attracted by the concept of gestalt of theories that Boulding proposed in 1956.  I believe that his work is a challenge for theoretical physicists that my group is trying to address. However,