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Systems Design - Science topic

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Questions related to Systems Design
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Hi everyone, I would like to know what are guidelines/ manuals (regarding slope and surface design, drainage system design) the Singapore government refers to? Are they open source and where should I download them?
Thanks for letting me know!!! I really appreciate your information.
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Hi, are there any guidelines for the depth of placement of geocomposite layer useful for practitioners?
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What are the best publication outlets for short articles on geospatial computational methods?
Or publication outlets for short articles on system design?
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Hello dear teacher
I am in the last year of my master's degree. And I still haven't managed to send the ISI article.
In my opinion, Elsevier Journal is suitable for me
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I'm conducting a comparative study - by way of most similar systems design - between two countries on their decentralization implementation on a service delivery and attempting herein to understand why some states succeed while others fail in that. Though the literature review I've found three explanations that largely appear to explain for why some succeed or fail; elite capture, lack of a supportive and clear regulatory and legal framework; and central government intervention.
I have those explanations, but i am somewhat unclear on how to proceed with the theory - since I don't have any like e.g., realism. How would I go about writing a theoretical framework if I have some potential explanations but no clear theory to hang onto?
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A general methodological approach can be proposed. Here is the study map
The assumption must be logically consistent.
The assumption should not contradict the fundamental provisions of the science in which the hypothesis is put forward (the provision of this requirement is not absolute, since in some cases it is useful to question these provisions themselves; if the fundamental provisions of science, which the proposed assumption contradicts, cannot be refuted, an assumption is made).
The assumption must be fundamentally verifiable. If an assumption cannot be verified in principle (substantiated or refuted), it is not recognized as a hypothesis.
The assumption should not contradict previously established facts, for the explanation of which it is not intended (not related to the subject area of ​​the proposed hypothesis).
The assumption must be applicable to the widest possible range of phenomena. This requirement allows one to choose the simplest from several hypotheses explaining the same range of phenomena - therefore it is often called the principle of simplicity.
The assumption must be effective in cognitive or practical terms (in particular, allowing the development or concretization of a program for further research).
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hello everyone
1- what are the best book, materials, program to teaching "analysis system and design" subject for computer science students?
2- what are the main points that students must know in this subject?
3- how can I divide this subject to 10 weeks and achieve a good result from students?
4- how make teaching this subject is interest?
5- I want source for practical part of the subject to make student apply what they learned
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In the Arabic language, the book methodological patterns of the author d. Anwar Hussein Abdul Rahman and d. Adnan Haqqi Zangana Baghdad 2007 edition
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I'm looking for harbor and seaport surface water drainage system design manual and giudline.
could you help me please?
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In a refrigeration system, the thermophysical properties of the refrigerant play an important role in the system design and operation. Can someone guide or suggest any study which covers the effects of the specific heat ratio on the system performance or the operating parameters?
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Let's say you wanted to design a refrigeration system to keep the Pitzer vaccine at -25°C. You want this device to operate in the storage room of a hospital that is kept at +25°C. Traditionally, you would open the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, turn to the section containing a list of refrigerants sorted by optimum operating temperature, and pick the best one. The three logical choices would be: R502, R504, or R13b1. You would then choose one of these for various reasons, including: availability, cost, compatibility with lubricants and seal materials. Let's say you pick R13b1. The optimal cycle temperatures would be perhaps -50°C and +50°C, providing a ⌂T of 25°C on both sides. The operating pressures are fixed by these two saturation temperatures at: 144 kPa and 2750 kPa. You would then select a compressor that could handle these and has a compression ratio of at least 2750/144=19:1. What I'm saying is that you don't start with k. You start with the requirements, then the available fluids, then the equipment (compressor, heat exchangers, seals, etc.). I have attached a typical table from which you select a refrigerant for your specific purpose. It's on the "cycle" tab in the "refrigerants.xls" spreadsheet that comes with the property AddIn at this location http://dudleybenton.altervista.org/software/Refrig100.zip
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PNMSj is the enhanced element management system designed to provide operators with the tools necessary to administer, operate, control and provision their NEC network products. NEC PNMSj collects and displays real-time and historical performance metrics.
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oky thank you
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Some circuit or systems software packages either don't have components with properties that can be loaded plus and play or that that don't provide for simple mock-up sketches. Researching today I came across the software called: Fritzing. It looks like it costs about $10 to download but seems capable of creating a several images, e.g. the proto-typing Arduino wiring images seen in many DIY forums. Interested to know if others have used this software or it there is another program similar to it out there?
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Dear Cory Jensen,
Keeping Fritzing you can then program the Pi or Arduino to control the circuit and do some amazing things with it.
For this purpose I suggest you to see following links.
Best regards
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Hello!
I'm a design consultant with a background in Product Design from NID-Ahmedabad, based in Bangalore. I'm doing work and am keen to grow in these three directions. Is anyone in India channeling any efforts in these fields? It's difficult to find creatives working in these fields so I'm looking to connect, collaborate, and develop a community of folks with similar interests.
Behavior Science led Design
This could be applied Behavior Economics, or Design for Behavior Change, or applying BehavSci for Social Design - anything that entails designing and for and keeping in primary consideration human behavior.
Design for Digital Humanities
This could be working towards a healthier internet, Data Awareness, Humaneness of Tech, Ethics of AIML, Psycho-sociological impact of Tech, People+AI Research
Design for Climate Action
This entails designers and creatives expressly working for climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Thanks!
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Snehal Nagarsheth thank you, will read up about it!
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The objective of the system is to design a low cost and robust system, to monitor water quality problem for drinking water and online multisensory measurements at the local level are developed to assess the water contamination risk.
The overall functions of the system architecture are,
• A microcontroller is been used for collecting the data from the sensors.
• The system contains turbidity sensor, pH sensor, a temperature sensor which is interfaced with Arduino UNO R3 board.
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Try to Develop linear or non linear regression equation based on the pollutant sources and river discharges .But, this needs cross validation process and long samples of dataset.
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I am aiming to create a new security framework and applying it by doing some programming and modification on Linux open source operating system.
My question here, i don't know what to call this kind of research study, is it qualitative modeling, or qualitative simulation modeling or what is it exactly?
Please explain.
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That will be demonstrated by modifying the existed linux os and apply some kernel modification change build some codes to control the flow of process execution.. etc..
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hello
I work on renewable system designs in homer but im a begginer
I want to simulate air and water collector and PVT(photovoltaic thermal) in Homer software , so I would be thankfull if any one could help me.
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I am a graduate student looking for designs for laboratory research on attached growth systems for algae.
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I think you need to be a bit more specific. Is this microalgal adheasion or seaweed holdfast on farming lines?
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Dear all, on the topic of "electrical measurement system design for sensor unit/matrix/system", I only know 4 possible journals:
1, IEEE sensor journal (IF-2.617);
2, Journal of sensors (IF-2.057);
3, Journal of sensors and sensor systems (IF around 1);
4, Journal of sensor technology (IF around 1.5).
Except for the 4 journals listed above, if there are more other possible journals?
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I apologise, I find the term "electrical measurement system design for sensor unit" a little vague. Can you provide any more detail?
The following may be worth checking (2.31 and 5.67, respectively):
or if electrochemical:
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I asked about whether the low power typologies still hot research topics. Also, the most popular research topics in the field of digital and analog electronics engineering that belong to novelty in system design.
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Adding to Rasim in digital electronics there is the nanoelectronic devices structures, characterization and realization technology. Then the circuits based on them to build nanoelectronic systems. This is extension of the device down scaling to reduce the power, the area and increase the speed.
In the system level there is the system on chip and design for testing where one adds test functions for the self diagnosis.
In the analog circuits there is the wide band and the ultra wide band analog circuits for the application in the communication and instrumentation system.
In this context there are the front ends of the new communication wireless and wired communication standards operating at low power, large bandwidth, low noise and high frequency.
The applications on biomedical and the internet of thingsand others require also new devices and building blocks.So, new applications are required that may be many fold more complicated than the state of the art.
You can revise the review papers in analog, digital and rf electronics an the journal of solid sate circuits, ieee transaction in electronic devices, the consumer electronics and the ieee transactions on circuits and systems.
Best wishes
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What are the advantages of having closed-form solution of a performance matrix than its integral representation for a wireless communication system design engineer?
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A closed-form expression can potentially give you better understanding of how different design variables affect the performance. Does the performance grow linearly with the SNR, or logarithmically, or neither?
Closed-form expressions are also more useful for performance optimization since one can then easily compute the first and second order derivatives, which are often used in numerical optimization methods.
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The most common type of hybrid system contains a gas or diesel powered engine generator. Another hybrid approach is a PV/Wind system. Adding a wind turbine to a PV system provides complementary power generation. The diesel generator is used to constantly fill in the gap between the present load and the actual generated power by the PV system. In areas where the grid is unstable, it is advisable to have a diesel generator that makes network functions to provide sufficient energy demanded by consumers with the addition of batteries that provide the kit for energy independence, either from the mains or diesel generator, depending on the battery capacity, in addition to improving the quality of the grid electric supply.
Paper(s):
1) J.L. Kirtley, “Electric Power Principles - Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use”, Wiley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, 2010.
2) M.R. Patel, “Wind and Solar Power Systems - Design, Analysis, and Operation Second Edition”, Taylor & Francis, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy Kings Point, New York, U.S.A., March 1999.
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For 5G Millimeter-wave based outdoor communications, the expected frequency bands are in-between 38~40 GHz. Can anyone provide the standards set by the regulatory bodies for front-end design, such as, base-station large -scale antenna system design.
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You can find plenty of standard documents at 3GPP's website, but these are generally very hard to understand. I recommend you to read one of the books that have been written about 5G NR, for example:
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We are preparing for contextual inquiry and persona generation for a systems design to empower people to use data as a part of their job.
We are looking to gather information about how people use data for analysis, use that analysis for decision making, and automate that decision and action process.
First step is to get a broad set of behaviors around behavior in this area so that we can semi-structure deep inquiries.
Are there any references for studied survey questions in this area?
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I suggest you to increase your readings which help you to find good and most relevant questions for survey.
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How debris can be filtered while keeping CNT's in the dielectric?
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When WEDM must expect two factors. Due to the dielectrics for very high electrical conductivity occur electrochemical side effects that influence the surface structure. The oxygen content can increasingly take place oxidation of tungsten.
EDM fluids should have a flash point above 180°F. Usually the higher the flash point, the higher the viscosity.Higher electrical conductivity of water yields a higher removal rate but poorer surface smoothness.
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Hi! I'm working on designing some multicistronic vectors. What are your experiences with various 2a peptide systems? There's more and more out there these days (t2a, p2a, e2a, f2a). What works best? What should I consider about each system when selecting one to use? Thanks!
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I am looking for a good reference design for DC-DC converter with a battery as a load in PV system ..the design purpose is to choose the proper value of inductors and capacitors for buck-boost , boost and buck converters ..many references which I found on internet is talking about Resistance as a load not battery !
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Dear Tareq,
welcome!
You invited me to give an answer to your question.
As for the answer, one uses a battery charge controller which is a specific type of DC to DC converters. This why you did not find a DC/DC converter loaded by a battery. For the battery charging controller please find the recent paper: Enhancing the design of battery charging controllers for photovoltaic systems . The paper contains literature review on battery charge controller and novel charge controller and you can get it from the link:
Best wishes
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Hello Zemax/ASAP users
I have old files of optical system designed in ASAP 2012 V1R1 version.
I plan to rebuild this system in NSC Zemax and wonder if it is possible to import all or some info, like geometry, into NSC Zemax.
Appreciate any suggestions
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Dear Dr. Fedor,
unfortunately ZEMAX cannot open .inr files.
However, it can open IGES files, and ASAP can export in such format.
The best way to manage these files in ZEMAX will be to open them in ASAP export them as IGES and open them in ZEMAX.
I hope this was helpful
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develop a VB.NET program to store police information. it will serve as data recording and storing data of the police station.
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Hello,
I have a dissenting opinion that VB.Net is old technology. It has limitations but it is still a living programming language. That said, I agree that VB.Net may be unsuited for the development you have in mind. It may be easier but it will be buggy under conditions with high data throughput.
An easier approach would be a Postgres (database) back-end interfaced with a suitable front end (gui) to interact with the database. Interface options may be developed in customized code (php, python, java, etc). These suggestions take cost into consideration but may require programming expertise in the front end language. Another less costly method is to use MS Access (as a customized gui) linked to a Postgres database. However license fees will apply for commercial use of MS Access.
StackExchange is an extensive resource that may help regardless of the choice decided.
Best regards.
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I'm currently running a project on ellipsometry system design, but now we're still looking for its potential application. I tried to look for the usage of ellipsometer in plating thickness detection, but the alternatives seldom offer ellipsometer.
Does anyone knows why? Thanks
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Simply because ellipsometry can reveal only thickness of materials which are transparent enough to light penetration. Most ellipsometers use UV to NIR light which does not penetrate metals above approximately 50 nm.
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to design a peer-to-peer cloud approach or model, what is the main issues which should consider?
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I would see the following criteria:
-trust between the peers
-the value of information exchanged
-the volume of information exchanged
-the diagnosis of when a common P2P Cloud adds value versus P2P Edge (i.e. Cloud Computing vs Edge Computing)
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I want analyse the stability of chaotic systems and design a controller for such systems. 
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A book which deal with more general nonlinearities is the one written by Drainkov and Hellendorn: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783540606918.
With all respect, but although LMI approach is very nice, it has some drawbacks. I actually like it but you may wish to see the book I told you about,
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This research is being done on in the developing town area. Since the current drainage system was designed around 18 years ago, without any proper maps or drain size informations.
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Sir We r currently working on the literature review and we were hoping if u have any particular paper in mind. And thank u  for your time sir
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Antenna -Microwave- Wireless- Propagation- Telecommunication- Electronics
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Power consumption, complexity, and cost are among the main reasons.
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Electron energy loss spectroscopy is a interesting technique that I would like to try, I have a fairly large hemisphere I can use and all the equipment necessary(UHV chamber, voltage supply, extra). Is it a terrible idea to try to take a typical flood gun and try to amp in up to due EELS with a system that was designed for XPS?
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Dear Sir,
concerning the remark by J.L. you should think of spending a few $ for a LaB6 cathode with small work function, resulting in enhanced energy resolution and electron yield.
Sincerely, FM
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Please i need some information and possibly supportive publication on the dimensions of service system design and how to mearsure or operationalize them. Your contributions are highly welcomed. Thanks.
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Thanks so much. The article is auite helpful.
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Actually, what happen in Indian Universities most of the institutes teach Semi Custom VLSI design (VHDL) for the name sake of VLSI design. They  don't have fabrication facility  even for demo. Due to which students have only theoretical knowledge which i think, insufficient for engineering UG or PG students
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Thanks to all for your Views 
I am agreeing to all of you ...
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generaly the so called seperation principle is not true for nonlinear systems. I have recently read an article that says it is possible to use seperation principle for nonlinear systems if the designed observer is finite time convergent (not asymptotic convergent). Is it true? And if it is true is there any example or references?
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Hi Ali,
What you seem to have gathered is not true universally.
If the observation error is significant over part of the time, to the extent that it can make control action ineffective and that can in turn drive the system unstable within the same time, then control designed by separation principle may not work.
But for specific cases of nonlinear systems, high gain observers may help (several examples as already cited in earlier replies).
-Sanjay
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Are Direct Electrical heating systems designed based on the priciple of Impedance heating?
I am writing my MSc dissertation on DEH of Subsea pipelines and I think the underlying principle there might be impedance heating where heat is generated due to I2R loses. (but I am not too sure if this is correct or if there are other underlying principles).
And finally, if it is based on impedance heating, how can it be related to temparature generation in a pipeline.
Thank you.
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See the attached paper for one example. There are many other papers on this subject. Search in OnePetro.org: Your search for Direct Electrical heating has returned 1,636 results. Also search for such papers in ASME journals and conferences.
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VLSI system design
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Hi Nikita, 
Lets' start with Planar MOSFET. 
Planar MOSFET was very good and we all benefited from it, until we scaled it too much.
SCE and DIBL came in to picture which is dependent many parameters all of which are fixed for a particular technology except the body thickness. Hence we needed to reduce the body thickness, because there is a depletion region formed before the channel is inverted. 
Therefore we scaled the body thickness resulting in partially depleted SOI and eventually fully-depleted SOI.
Then we needed a better gate control which led us to double gate and finally tri-gate by wrapping the width of the planer, also called FinFETs.
This has made us happy because DIBL and SCE reduced. SS (sub-threshold swing) also reduced considerably making the FETs faster and power efficient.
TFETs are different type of devices which works on the separate principle, it is just a gated PIN structure. The main advantage of TFETs is that they have promising SS. Many of the recent research has shown TFETs to have sub-60mv/dec SS. (60mV/dec being the theoretical limit of the SS for planar MOSFETs)
To get more info on these, please refer to:
1) Taur and Ning - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices
2) J.P. Colinge - FinFETs and Other Multigate Transistors
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Hi I am working on some project where I have to complete the basic design of a multi-column distillation unit and pure steam generation system for water for injection systems. Please help me with basic design guidelines for the design of same.
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Dear Sriramakrishna,
Boiler design may be based upon:
1.  Production of a maximum quantity of steam with minimal fuel consumption
2.  Economic feasibility of installation
3.  Minimal operator attention required during operation
4. Capability for quick starting
5.Conformity to safety regulations
6. Quality of raw water: how hard or soft the water is will determine the material of the boiler.
7. Heat source - the fuel to be burned and its ash properties[1] or the process material from which the heat is to be recovered.
8. Capacity/steam output required, usually measured in tonnes per hour or kg/s.
9. Steam condition - pressure, temperature, etc.
10. Safety considerations
11.   Mechanical constraints
12. Cost restrictions
13.  Monetary cost
Tensile strength of material must be considered while using any joining processes.
Accessories and mountings are devices which form an integral part of boiler but are not mounted on it. They include economizers, super heaters, feed pumps and air pre-heaters. Accessories help in controlling and running the boiler efficiently. Certain common mountings (specifically those required by the Boiler Act) as per country to country include:
1. Feed check valve - regulates the flow of water into the boiler and prevents the back flow of water in case of failure of the feed pump.
2. Steam stop valve - regulates the flow of steam that is produced in the boiler to the steam pipe, and may also be used to stop the supply of steam from the boiler
3. Fusible plug - placed at the lowest level of water and above the combustion chamber, its function is to extinguish the fire as soon as the water level in the shell of the boiler falls below a certain marked level.
4   Blow-off cock - removes water from the shell at regular intervals to remove the various impurities that may be settled at the bottom of the shell.
5 .Safety valves - automatically prevent the steam pressure from exceeding safe levels
 6.Water-level indicators - indicate the level of water in the shell
The multiple effect stills consist of a series of pressure vessels in the form of columns, called distillation columns or effects, that are interconnected, communicating vessels. Each column is divided into two parts: a double tube sheet (DTS) heat exchanger that acts as an evaporator, and an upper chamber used to separate pyrogens preventing the drops carrying impurities from reaching the end of the column. The group is supplied as a compact unit on a skid with all components readily accessible. 
Accessories
1.   Inlet water conductivity monitoring
2.  Point to obtain pure steam from the first column
3.  Condenser for higher WFI
4. Hot stand-by mode
5. Sanitization/Sterilization of the different columns and WFI condensers Protection panels
  Regards,
Prem Baboo
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For my mechanical system design project, i need to run 5 grass cutter engines simultaneously using an arduino and stepper motor. what is the torque needed to run the engines? herewith i attached the photo of my project.
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hi Omar
As per Olof you should calculate this.
There are many method to calculate the torque requires.
 and it will depends on the use of machine, working conditions and the shear strength of the material which you want to cut with your machine.
Find out the shear strength of material, then find out the force needed to cut the material. put this force at the end point of blade and calculate the desired torque accordingly.  
hope it will help you.
else please comment 
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Dear Everyone, I am presently Working on WDM system Design Using Optisystem V13 Simulation platform. I am finding some kind of unusual Eye Diagram. Can anyone tell me What may be the probable reason of not clear Eye diagram as in the attached image. Thanking you.
Regads,
Dhiman
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Thank you so much sir for your kind support, taking consideration of you question Now I got the output. I am attaching herewith the snapshot, I think this is acceptable.
With Regards,
Dhiman Kakati
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They are supported in some diagram editors. Please provide a link/publication that will help me to find more details about this.
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With the continually increasing pressure on organizations to secure and protect data, DFD has never been more important.  Effective - and auditable - data stewardship are essential.  One must be able to demonstrate how data is being collected, where it goes, where it's stored, who has access to it (and for what purpose), and how/when it is destroyed.  The simplest way to trace the data life cycle is through a higher level tool such as a DFD where the focus is on the data rather than on presentation and processing. 
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Space Power Systems: Design of a power system for small satellites - where to start and what are the essentials?
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This paper might be useful. It is the power system design document of our satellite.
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I need to konw how to consider the augmented reality properties in designing collaborative software architecture.
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 Hello Samir . Maybe device like this (https://www.myo.com/) will be helpfull in your researches. This equipment allows for monitoring kinectic activity of usre's arm and can be integrated with mobile and desktop applications.
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I and my team has fabricate a test rig for wear testing analysis on the cylinder head valve for the mechanical system design course. From the experiences, can you give your opinion about this test rig on how to get a better result? 
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What kind of wear are you studying?
Adhesive wear , Abrasive wear, Erosive wear......
Accordingly you have to carry out the wear test...
There are several wear equipment already available... and different ASTM standards for two-body, three-body wear tests.... Is there a need to fabricate a separate lab setup?
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Currently, I have fabricate a V-blender machine with mine group member for mechanical system design course. The V-blender machine is used to mixing the metal powder. The fabrication is done . But what is safety feature need to include when user operate the machine . Appreciate any comment and suggestion. 
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First of all , I would like to thank for your suggestion about the safety feature . Currently we have include a push button switch in the electrical circuit which enable the machine rotate/operate when the user is closed the cover and stop operate when the cover of machine is lift up.Lastly , we will reconsider about your suggestion when conduct the FMEA or FTA analysis in our product. Thank again for your comment.
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HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. What is the backbone to the HVAC design?
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Syazwan,
Do not forget the V in the term HVAC. Indoor climate may be modified by proper ventilation, which is mandatory in order to provide a good working ambience in a room. Clean, fresh air in proper q'ties is as important as controlling the temperature.
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In mechanical system design,if you were to design and developing a heating panel system for compression molding machine,it is possible to use thermocouple as the sensor to detect the temperature and what type of thermocouple ?
Currently, I'm developing a heating panel system for compression molding machine.As I know, thermocouple is a sensor that can detect temperature.
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I think thermocouple is the suitable temperature measure for the heating system.Here I found the reference regarding to your question.In this reference it contains the characteristic of thermocouple and etc.Hope  it will help you to complete your task.
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In mechanical system design, if you were to design a quadruped robot , what point of view must you consider to get stability in motion and speed use?
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In my opinion such a system should react fast. The masses (heavy motors, ....) should be located as near as possible to the torso in order to design the fast accelerating distal part of the extremities as light as possible.
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I'm building a framework to analyse and evaluate the level of peacefulness of theoretical political economic systems.
I'm concerned about which methodology to use in order to come up with the criteria of reference I will use to evaluate the different systems.
I've been researching system methodologies and design methodologies extensively but couldn't satisfy my specific need.
So far I'm using a design methodology (use case): goal, functions, requirements (= criteria). I could use an evaluation methodology: variables, dimensions, indicators.
Any other idea?
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Hi Numa
I designed a scientific tool to help answer questions such as these in a systems manner. Please refer to this white paper I'm attaching here. It is not for reproduction, but for your personal use only. Contact me if you have any, further questions. 
Regards,
Robert
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i m looking forward to trends and challenges in SoC testing, so if anyone had any idea or any material regarding this then please carry forward to me
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Most production testing seems to be done unsing multiple parallel scan chains and test pattern compression (off-chip) with de-compression (on-chip). What seems to get importance for testing "in the field" is software-based self test (SBST) for embedded processors.
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From a design and operational systems perspective: Is complexity always a "bad thing"? and, should simplicity be always preferred over complexity? To what extent the complexity vs simplicity debate influences systems design? Support your answer/comments with examples.
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Dear Francisco et Al:
I see other answers to the issue posed above, that in my view relate more to the system than to the model for assessing the system. So let me provide another alternative/complementary explanation to the one suggested above, which focus more on the complexity of the system, and not the complexity of the model.
From a physical POV, complexity is many times understood as the quality that enables building systems away from thermal equilibrium. Since thermal equilibrium is the state of maximum entropy [or disorder], complexity is many times considered to be equivalent to neguentropy [Bertalanffy, Foerster,...].
Neguentropy is a concept that relates mainly to organization. Any organization implies an expenditure in energy to be built [Lovelock] and creates a difference in information [which allows to understand why Shannon uses Entropy formula for measuring information].
But structures can be stable or instable; can tend to steady states or to critical points. In fact some authors question whether there are any steady states or all real systems tend to Self Organized Critical States [SOC, Bak], where collapse happens as an endogenous feature [i.e., collapse is generated by the usual dynamics that explain the system].
SOC theory is interesting and the economic system has been put as an example of a SOC system.
And relating to this issues, I am finishing a review of the economy of UE-28 countries that may shed some light to the above question from an empirical basis, which we can relate to two issues:
When we review countries’ evolution from classical economic indicators like GDP, employment,… SOC dynamics are clearly present. It seems like the economic cycle tends always to critical states and from time to time a collapse [crisis] is necessary [i.e, cannot be avoided] to adjust the system state [an easy eplanation is understanding that when too fragile structures are built too large, they necessarily collapse]. But…
When we use different variables, SOC dynamics do not appear, and the countries that best perform under classical economic indicators show steady equilibrium states using this other variables…
This is highly interesting. It relates to something many times discussed: the importance of the oberver as whom choses the variables to be reviewed. It also allows us to understand that a sustainability indicator shall be that which value can be stationary in an economic crisis, not which show SOC behaviour.
Of course, those two issues are very important, but they are not related to the issue discussed here, So.. which is the interest? Ok, let me explain it now... 
Any economic activity implies creating structures [i.e., departure from thermal equilibrium], or in other words, implies neguentropy or Entropy reduction. 
And any collapse [as SOC critical episode] implies a neguentropy destruction; a reduction in activity [hence approach to thermal equilibrium].
From a physical point of view, the first is equivalent to what the majority of scientists would consider an increase of the complexity of the system and the second to a reduction in the complexity of the system.
So, if we assess countries using classical economic indicators, we are indirectly measuring sort of their complexity [of course, not all their complexity]. But some of such complexity may be essentially fragile; the next economic crisis it will collapse with high probability [this could be consider as an example of what many people dessignates as 'bad complexity'].
Yet, if we assess countries using sustainability indicators, we are indirectly measuring ‘the part of their complexity’ that can be sustained over time; i.e., the part that can stand a crisis without collapsing [it somehow would be equivalent to what many people considers 'good complexity']
Hope this example provides some ‘empirical content’ to the issue asked above and I am sure that Francisco [a Spaniard as me] is convinced of the important of the above nowadays that Spain is struggling to overcome a devastating economic crisis, largely due to building too unstable structures [sort of 'bad complexity'...]
Regards.
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I am doing a study on monitoring and evaluation system and am trying how the system is designed using a a case study in Kenya. Are there any publications and journals in this area. Kindly share any useful information.
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The assessment tool will depend on your objective but the 12 components framework will good to use considering the system thinking approach principle associated with it.  In addition, the stakeholders engagement which usually lack in most situation is a plus regarding the buy-in of end users.
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In designing tuned vibration absorber I need to decide spring stiffness of the primary system for designed absorber stiffness value. So is there any relation between stiffness of absorber and stiffness of primary system to relate with each other ?
Thanking you,
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Design of tuned mass absorbers can typically be carried out on two levels: when mounted on an idealized SDOF structure, or when mounted on a flexible structure with a view to attain increased modal damping - typically of the lowest mode.
Both problems are treated, and closed form design formulas are obtained, in 'Tuned mass absorber on a flexible structure', Journal of Sound and Vibration, 333 (2014) 1577–1595.
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I am simulating a RF mixer.
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Hello,
this warning seems to indicate that either your configuration violates "good design" in such a way that (fosc - fin) and (fosc + fin) overlap.
(fin to be interpreted as the frequency (spectrum) of the input, fosc freqency/spectrum of the overlay input.
The solution: limit either input such that the overlap vanishes :)
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How can one design a gating system for thin waled ductile iron differential case casting?
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Hi Sir. Attach you can find a paper from Norberto Rizzo, an internacional expert in ductile iron. Especifically, thin walls have lowest cooling module, like the automotive pieces, area of your work. If you want you can read the part 3 of the paper that talks about gating systmes.
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An effort to maximize the number of people involved in a participatory system designed to make the decision.
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Public involvement in decision -making is possible if
1. Awareness and transparency
2. Use of the language understandable to the public at large
2. Highlighting the benefits of such decision making to the public 
3. Ease with which the decisions can be communicated by the public
4. the follow-up of the decisions and how it would be communicated back to the public are equally important.
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Service systems consist of a network of people and technologies that provide services to people.
For example, two highly cited paper that lays out a framework for Service Systems is:
Spohrer, J., Maglio, P. P., Bailey, J., & Gruhl, D. (2007). Steps toward a science of service systems. Computer, 40(1), 71-77.
&
Henry Chesbrough and Jim Spohrer. 2006. A research manifesto for services science. Commun. ACM 49, 7. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1139922.1139945
I would like to know what people who work on "service systems" consider to be other key papers on service systems. Especially related to analyzing how multiple actors interact to create services, for example cell phone producers, app producers, consumers, & telcos.
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Garry, the Springer series of "Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy" at http://www.springer.com/series/8080?detailsPage=titles is a good source to reference, with many of the key contemporary authors. In particular, "The Science of Service Systems" at http://dx.doi/org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8270-4 provides some foundational chapters. (The "Service Systems Implementation" book mentioned in this thread is also in the same series).
The newer (i.e. post-2003) research may or may not be aligned with the writings of Richard Normann and Rafael Ramirez. Some of your question may be answered with a blog post on "Science of service systems, service sector, service economy" at http://coevolving.com/blogs/index.php/archive/science-of-service-systems-service-sector-service-economy/
Crossing over Service Systems and Natural Systems, articles centered around the ISSS San Jose 2012 meeting will soon be surfacing in "Systems Research and Behavioral Sciences" volume 30, issue 5 at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1743a/issues?activeYear=2013 .