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Questions related to Systematic Entomology
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    My research topic is to explore the biogeograpgic patterns of species richness of insects. I have the regional richness data of all insects and different orders from many locations. It's well known that insects include c. 30 orders with different numbers of species and phylogenies. I want to group different insect orders into several groups, and make a clear description of their diversity patterns. The problem is in grouping different insect orders into several groups.
    I'm also looking for someone interested in this project. Please contact me if you want to join me. 
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By taxonomic characters for example the order of Lepidoptera includes butterflies
The diptera order include flies
The hymenoptera order includes bees, wasps, hornets and ants
Coleoptera includes bettles
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I am looking for specimens of the family Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) for studies. Specimens from Poland are most wanted, but I will also welcome any from Europe. I will return them to you after studies.
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no - unfortunately I´ve no bethylids from Iran im my collection!
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I wonder what are the best ways to make arthropod collections (Collembola, Euscorpius, Diplopoda, Insects....)? What are your experiences? Do you have your own collection? What are you collecting and why?
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Also check please the following very good RG link:
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So I am working with Cytochrome oxidase I and using it to identify species within a genus. I built a tree with Mrbayes and retrieved a good tree with highly supported nodes.
However, I was advised against using identical sequences belonging to different specimens so I removed them and built the tree again only to retrieve nodes with very low values. The species form the same clusters but are not well supported (some nodes are as low as .32).
It's important to mention that I am not trying to build a phylogenetic tree, I only wish to see how the specimens cluster within a tree, so we can "count" the number of species present and later on review their morphology.
Any help is appreciated!
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Multiple, identical sequences produce polytomies in cladistic analyses, or spuriously resolved nodes in other methods. While it is true that one-gene phylogenetic hypotheses are rather minimal these days, that's what the Barcode of Life folks do every day. Remember, Bayesian inference is subjective - it is about how much you believe your results, not about how much I should!
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Low quality transcriptomes, contaminated data, publication restrictions, negative reviews on manuscript submissions that potentially compete with their work, suppression of other researchers... What are some criticisms of 1KITE, their business practices, and their dominance of the field? Who has negative experiences they would like to share?
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If you prefer to share anonymously, please send me a private message.
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I am looking into the assemblages of Silphidae between different habitats and within each habitat as well.
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I have about the same experience in this with Fabian. In my work ''Seasonal variation of the insect fauna in hedgerows and cereal fields in the area of Elassona, Larisa'' (in Greek), in pitfall traps with small dead mice and turtles (accidentally fallen into them), I caught hundreds of Silpha tristis (= granulata) and Aclypea undata (= Blitophaga undata), plus some Nicrophorus.
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Dear colleagues,
I have a Cerambycidae beetle that was killed in alcohol and I think that their original color was clearer... Can I dip it in benzene?
Thanks,
Italo.
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Alcohol should be avoided for killing beetles, as it makes them stiff as hell, and then very hard to spread the legs. It also makes them brittle quite quickly (a few days in alcohol are enough for this to happen), and often oily, too, as it dissolves the fat. If the beetle is oily, one or more gazoline baths will remove oil and recover the original color.
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During my field studies of water- and saproxylic- Coleoptera of Serbia I regularly use some non selective methods for attracting and collecting beetles (light traps, baited traps, pitfall traps…). Usually I separate all beetles from samples, including  the representatives of families that I am not interested. The separated material I conserve and pack; mainly in paper cylinders but also in 70% alcohol. Over time, a large number of individuals and species (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Aphodidae etc…) were accumulated.  I am ready to provide this material to interested researches for further study. In return, I am not asking for anything. Only the list of identified species for my database.
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Dear colleague
I'm interested in Silphidae, Agyrtidae. Leiodidae (Catopidae, Cholevidae), Dermestidae. If yoy have any specimens of those families please contact with me.
Best regards, Sergey
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In east china in found this hornworm like caterpillar on a small way near maize fields
Can you identify it with some of my linked pics?
May it be the armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda ?
My pics from the caterpillar on a small way near maize fields in east China.
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Johan:
There is something wrong with your last photo, it is not possible for a larva of Sphingidae to have 14 abdominal segments. This looks like a montage of two larvae in one. It is a poorly done montage with photoshop.
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Ogloblin, A.A., 1965. Los generos nuevos de la familia Diapriidae (Ambositrinae, Hymenoptera). - Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 27: 107-116.
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Thanks Victor!
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Hello researchers!
I'm currently undertaking a project that seeks to asses the distribution of a minute gall midge, Arthrocnodax fraxinellus, and its associated parasitoids (Aphanogmus spp.) in Europe.
I'm asking for material of ash cauliflower galls (Aceria fraxinivora) on ash (Fraxinus spp) as the gall midge feeds on the mite in the larval stage.
Material from the following countries are of interest:
Austria
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Estonia
Finland
Greece
Iran
Kosovo
Latvia
Lithuania
Macedonia
Moldova
Montenegro
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
Ukraine
I have attached a PDF with details about the project - please have a look.
Thanks in advance!
Simon Haarder
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Hello again!
Did anyone have luck with obtaining galls of Aceria fraxinivora?
Best regards,
Simon
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ID of this insect
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Hi Mehmet, since it is from E Anatolia, then it is P. koniae.
P. vulpes, proposed in various answers, is similar, but
- normally much less hairy (although quite hairy populations are known on Balkans)
- normally ochre to orange (unually reddish specimens may anyway occur)
- in Turkey, only known to occur in W Anatolia
P. monticola is also similar, but never so red and never so hairy and limited to Taurus rougly between Adalia and Mersin.
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Does anybody has experience with measuring the wing length of large living beetles? Of course without damaging them so they can be released and followed up? 
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After you anesthetized the beetles through cold shock (using fridge at 4 degrees) or CO2 gas, put the specimen under a digital microscope along with PC (USB microscope), make the image focus and then take the pic. Now then you can measure by using the image.
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Biodiversity of bees within an environment could serve as an indicator to the health of an ecosystem, as bees are sensitive to slight changes in any environment. But how do you measure these changes as they happen over time.
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It is also important to have controls so that you can compare the "health" of the ecosystem. You may also want to have baseline data for comparison. I guess this study may take time to see any significant changes, unless you create experiments that will alter the environment and reserves others for comparison.
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My MRes project will involve sampling saproxylic beetles from various dead wood substrate types within Scots Pine plantation stands.  I'm curious to know if there are any more efficient or cost effective methods besides standard emergence trapping. 
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Do you consider removing the insects from the stumps by chopping (gently) the wood? This method was very effective for me. Also, it allows to study in details the community of insects inhabiting the stump, enabling to sample all the species and all the developmental stages inhabiting dead wood at the same time (larvae of different age, pupae and adults).
During my studies I tried  covering pine stumps with various nets to catch emerging insects but this method was very ineffective.
P.S. according to my knowledge, you should find larger amounts of pupae and adults (also: emerging adults) in more decayed stumps (but not decayed too much!) and this should not be simple function of the wood age but rather of the wood decay stage. Less decayed stumps should be inhabited by young larvae in larger proportion.
You may find some inspiration here:
Kind regards!
Michał Filipiak
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I need to identify adult Bradysia, does anyone know of identification keys?
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Bradysia is most difficult, because most species rich genus of Sciaridae and is distributed worldwide. It is probably not wise to start with that genus in Brazil, where so little is known. You might however want to get in contact with Werner Mohrig, who has best studied the Neotropical Sciaridae and already prepared a lot of unpublished descriptions and drawings.
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I had read in an article this was the case, but have been unable to locate anything to refute or support this claim.  I am looking for application of N. germanicus biology to N. americanus
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Anita,
The fact that Nicrophorus species doesn't seem to be very specific regarding the kind of carrion the feed and breed on makes it very improbable that they would be specialized on dung beetles or another food source for the adults since that is only of a secondary importance. Now I know from literature and own observations that the adults of Nicrophorus do prey on insects and their larvae that they encounter on carrion (which I suppose is only an additional food source secondary to the carrion), I have to admit that I’ve never seen a paper which addresses on this specific topic in more detail. I guess that the mating and breeding behavior of Nicrophorinae is so interesting that no-one bothered to look at the feeding behavior of the adults. Maybe there is an interesting research topic in that … If I do come across a paper on this topic I’ll let you know.
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I'm a looking for a good dataset of european beetles that could be used for calibrate a method. Thank you
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Thank you very much Michal!
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Phytomiptera species (Diptera: Tachinidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Phytomiptera is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a Bolivian NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits if it turns out to be a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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HI Jenneke, do you still have the samples? There are a few Phytomyptera species reported for South America, Rasmussen et al. (2001) reports Phytomyptera sp. as parasitoid of Eurysacca in Peru. It probably is an undescribed species.
Best.
Juan Manuel
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I am sampling insects in La Malinche, Talxcala, Mexico. One of thous insects are de flies. 
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I am sampling insects in La Malinche, Talxcala, Mexico and need to identify to species some capies of Orthoptera for a ecology project. 
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Isaac:
Kindly see this link:
Best
Syed
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While doing the identification for the said insect i am facing problem for exact identification. So please anyone help me out.
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Hi Soni,
please have a look for the link below may useful for you . Good luck
Sienaa
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Meteorus species (Braconidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Meteorus is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits for discovering a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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Confirmed by Helmuth Aguirre Fernandez! This is Meteorus eurysaccovorus.
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In some cases this borders are bold with clearly separate characters. But in other cases overlapping characters are exist. Between Onychogomphus forcipatus And Onychogomphus lefebvrii differentiation are less than from O. lefebvrii and O. flexuosus. 
Differentiation in higher taxa accepted names such as Genera in various references is another problem. in one reference taxon name is Rhodischnura nursei and in another is ischnura nursei. or Anax ephippiger - Heminax ephippiger?
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The question about what exactly is a sub-species and when do populations qualify to be separate species is a very old one. 
Current state of taxonomy of odonates is such that we still lack detailed morphological data on majority of species, which creates a huge problem. Hence, a priori I must admit many problematic groups exist where the relationships between species/sub-species remain ambiguous.
"Between Onychogomphus forcipatus And Onychogomphus lefebvrii differentiation are less than from O. lefebvrii and O. flexuosus."
 I think what you are asking here is if we cannot define a 'unit of difference' between two species then how do we know if they are not just sub-species? 
It's a complex question which cannot be answered quickly. As Kiran mentioned above sub-species are geographically isolated populations which if allowed CAN interbreed. Now this definition is not practiced for every species is it'll be impossible to test viability of off-springs between different species.
Instead taxonomists working on specific groups create their own un-written guidelines which are to be followed.
As a case study, I am here's one of my own papers which deals with a sub-species of a damselfly Aciagrion approximans krishna. This population was previously described under the species Aciagrion hisopa but in our paper we show that it actually belongs to A. approximans. If you go through the paper we compare both the sub-species of A. approximans in detail (one sub-species occurs in North-eastern India and Indo-china while the other in the Peninsular India, so these two sub-species are geographically separated perhaps with some region of 'overlap' in Eastern India).
The differences between these two 'sub-species' are much smaller than differences between other species of the same genera. 
Several prominent scientists do not consider sub-species as scientifically useful, as with molecular studies and phylogenetics the concept of subspecies is being challenged. So we still do not have full-proof answers for your questions in the literature :)
"From our experience in the literature we are convinced that the subspecies concept is the most critical and disorderly area of modern systematic theory-more so than taxonomists have realized or theo-rists have admitted."
The Subspecies Concept and Its Taxonomic Application, E. O. WILSON and W. L. BROWN, JR. 1953.
"Differentiation in higher taxa accepted names such as Genera in various references is another problem. in one reference taxon name is Rhodischnura nursei and in another is ischnura nursei. or Anax ephippiger - Heminax ephippiger?"
This has actually nothing at all to do with species or sub-species but instead comes under the phenomenon of Taxonomic revisions. 
Both species which you mention had been previously described under a different genus but later analysis, either morphological or phylogentic revelade they belonged to some other genus hence they were transferred and two names exist for these species.
This is the reason why species which have been 'revised' are always written as,
e.g., Ischnura nursei (Morton,1907): note the author name and year in parenthesis.
Whereas a species never been revised will be written as e.g., Ischnura rubilio Selys,1876
In case of Rhodischnura/Ischnura nursei, a phylogenetic analysis done by Dijsktra et al. 2013 (see: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12035/abstract) revealed that this species belongs to the Ischnura 'clade' and hence is con-generic with other Ischnura species. This led the authors to transfer the species to the genus Ischnura and is now widely used; (e.g., see: http://www.indianodonata.org/#!/sp/379/Ischnura-nursei)
Hope this answers your question at least partly, Cheers :)
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Geographical range for subspecies in Biosystematics is limited or exist in local zones. Subspecies in Odonata create for better describe the local species or small morphological variation without gene flow even if isolation is thousand of kilometers between two populations?
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Thisis a legend that subspecies cannot overlapp and cannot exchange gene. Subspecies appear generally through isolation driven by climate oscillations or tectonic drift, or migration and settlement of an isolated population (founder effect). When climate oscillation lead to the appearance of a subspecies having only a small genertic difference, reverse of climate trend can promote new contact between the disjunct subspecies with possibility of hybridation as reproducive isolation is weak. This should be the case of Orthetrum corerulescens coerulescens (European) and Orthetrum coerulescens anceps, (from Pakistan  to Morocco) which presently overlapp and produce an outnumberable amount of intermediates structures in part of the Mediterranean and the near-whole Balkans.
The basic question for subspecies instead of species is that they cannot be defined objectively but are created according to the personnal preference of their descriptor. Some show a small genetic chnage when compared to the original population (nominotypical subspecies), other not according to known studies. There is no theoretical range span for subspecies, Some may have a minute range, other a wide range, this depends of the past geographic and genetic history of the group, linked to climate, geology and behaviour.
Have a nice 2017 year full of nice discoveries
JPB
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does it make sense to investigate the systematics of a specific region, for instance the systematics of stag beetles of Japan, or the systematics of weevils of the Landkreis Hinterratzenreute?
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If one sees taxonomy and systematics as different things, then my answer would be no. On the other hand, a taxonomic revision of the species living in Australia would certainly be a useful thing to have. It all depends on the aim of the work.
However, in the cases I am aware of, the Australian fauna is very deceptive and phylogenetically important. With this I mean that there are formerly unrecognized world-wide groups and relict types that have contacts to many directions. A phylogenetic analysis of these without previous (or simultanious) knowledge of the world fauna is not that great an idea.
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Morphological characteristic of leaf beetles subfamilies
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Division of this group of flea beetles into separate subfamilies Galerucinae and Alticinae is now historical problem only. In recent classification of Chrysomelidae both groups are joined in a single subfamily (similar like Hispinae and Cassidinae are now joined in a single subfamily Cassidinae). Many genera are difficult to place in former Alticinae or Galerucinae and no single character can be use to identify both groups.
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Looking material from Mexican leafhoppers in private collections or academic institutes
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Yes I have many from Mexico
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Can someone identify this mealy bugs? I reported it on Hibicus mulabilis
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The best way to ID an specimen is to compare with a type material. If your males are not similar, you could mail some slides (including immatures and females), with the data and well protected to the Scale National collection of the Smithsonian. 
Other way would be to take good Phase contrast photos with a microscope of the females and males, and send them to an specialist.  However, voucher specimens should be a key in your research.  May a series, label them, and in that way you can mail couple of slides, all with the same collection voucher number.
The Smithsonian Scale collection is curated by Dr. Schneider (the past Curator Dr. Doug Miller retired, but he still working and visiting the collection).
Scott A. Schneider, Ph.D.
Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA-ARS
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Bldg. 005, Room 004
10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
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Please help identify this species. 
Captured from an island of South-Central Bangladesh located in the Meghna-Bay of Bengal confluence. 
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I agree with Vincent and Tharindu. It is definitely Olios lamarcki (Latreille, 1806). 
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Sampled in Greece, Athens, Tatoi
07.05.2016
plant: Quercus coccifera
caterpillar: Lymantria dispar
primary parasitoid: Cotesia melanoscela
Thanks a lot in advance
Vladimir
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With photos is difficult to ID at species and genus level, however  try to see if your specimen follow this characteristics of Gelis.
Characteristics of Gelis include: 1. Body size (mm) (excluding antennae and ovipositor):<10mm; 2. Position of spiracle on Tergite 1 (T1 of metasoma):clearly behind the centre; 3. Shape of aerolet in forewing:other; 4. Colour of face:only black; 5. Metasoma compressed:dorsal-ventrally; 6. Size of Ocelli:small; 7. Length of antennae:shorter than body; 8. Length of ovipositor:not longer than body; 9. Wings:present; 10. Colour of wings:mostly clear but with dark patches/spots; 11. Sternaulus (on mesopleuron):short; less than 0.5x length mesopleuron; 11. Sternaulus (on mesopleuron):long; more than 0.5x length mesopleuron; 12. Shape of face in lateral view:flat or only weakly bulging; 13. Sternite on T1(viewed laterally):sternite not extending past spiracle; 14. Shape of T1(viewed laterally):evenly curved; 15. Number of teeth in mandibles:1 or 2; 16. Patterns on metasoma:same colour throughout; 17. Length of T1 vs T2:subequal in length; 18. Sculpture on mesoscutum:finely pitted, many hairs; 19. Width of T1 (viewed dorsally):gradually widening from anterior to posterior; 20. Glymma on T1:absent; 21. Sculpture on metasoma:smooth with a semi-glossy or satin appearance at least on T2; 22. Propodeum length:Propodeum very short (not reaching beyond coxal insertion).
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All the materials were collected from the same location, Shirui National Park, Manipur during July 2016.
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 No, they belong to Cricula sumatrensis Jordan, 1939 (Family Saturnidae) 1 female and  4 males. C. trifenestrata has an additional subapical spot in the postmedial area between veins M1 and R5 in the forewing, not present in C. sumatrensis. It is posible that you have a new subspecies of  C. sumatrensis from India. Please check the type species of Cricula in the following links.
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Can anyone help me to get a a computer program used in the study of phenotypic characteristics of the insects. I would be grateful to him.
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There is a lot of free software for morphometric analyses.  Some programs are more useful for analyzing size measurements, others for shape. Some are point-and-click programs, others are packages for morphometrics that run in R; R gives you much greater flexibility and it is far easier to repeat the same kind of analysis many times, as well as to keep a complete record of what you did, but it does take time to learn enough about R before it is easy to use. I have written a general overview of free software for geometric morphometrics, but it is seriously outdated in the sections on doing morphometrics in R (it can be downloaded from ResearchGate). If you want to use measurements of size instead, you could do your analyses in R anyway, but as mentioned above, PAST is a reasonable alternative. It does the standard analyses and it is not that difficult to learn. If you plan to analyze shape, I would strongly recommend doing your analyses in R because the most comprehensive program for shape analysis is the R package geomorph. It has an excellent manual and a very complete Users Guide. It is also excellent for graphics. The first step in any morphometric analysis is collecting the data, and the tps program, tpsDig remains my favorite for that (it is for collecting data from photographs by clicking on landmarks and outlining curves). I've digitizing several thousand photographs using it and although I've experimented with other programs I have not found one as easy to use or as complete. That one you can get at www.life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/. That is the Stony Brook morphometrics website and it has links to many programs (just follow the link to software). 
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Deleboea species (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Deleboea is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a Bolivian NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific if it turns out to be a new species are yours!
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Hi Jenneke
I'm a taxonomist specialized in Ichneumonidae. I'm not familiar with Banchinae from South America, but I can compare it with the so far 5 species described in that genus and occuring in the area.
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I collect entomological species in a wetland, I do not know how to evaluate or estimate the entomological biodiversity by statistical methods, how do I do it ?
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also, see my answers for the same question on researchgate placed on 26October2016.
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We are doing research with this insect. We would like to konw if anyone can identify this insect at species level?
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Hello Jose:
For identification at species level you should contact  a specialist like Yves Alarie yalarie@nickel.laurentian.ca in Canada. He is doing the revision of Gyretes spp. (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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By using Shanon-Wiener Diversity Index, how do we explain insect diversity based on the calculated value? Is it the higher the value, that means the arthropod community in the plot is diverse?
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For biological data, values of Shannon’s diversity index range generally from 1.5 (low species richness and evenness) to 3.5 (high species evenness and richness).
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Hello,
I am looking for a good ID key for nymphs of North American Pentatomidae. I found great keys for adults and even eggs, but nothing really satisfying regarding nymphal instars. Could you suggest good papers and/or websites or attach any related key to your answer?
I really appreciate any help you can provide!
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See
Herbert et al.  Field Guide to Stink Bugs of Agricultural Importance in the United States and
Paiero et al. 2013- Stink bugs of Ontario (Can Journ Arthropod Identif),
both free on the Internet.
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I have feeling, that half of carabidologists consider Amara pulpani as a separate species, but other half - as a synonym of A. communis. Can anybody explain this issue in detail?
Thank You for answers!
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I read carefully the papers on Amara pulpani (by W.Paill) and pulpani + makolskii (By Mueller -Kroehling.and i'm sure that the morphological characters they found are clear and acceptable. Nevertheless, many authors are doubtful about the existence of a three species communis group. The pulpani-makolskii existence poses a fundamental question: has somebody found the two/three forms syntopic, i. e. co-existing in the same habitat or pitfall trap? I don't know. But I know that also in Carabid species some ecomorphotypes (ecological forms, ecotypes) are known, even if not so well studied. For example, I collected a population of Trechus quadristriatus in a doline of the Karst near Trieste, where all specimens where brachypterous. This population was highly isolated from all other living in the same area. Dr. Deb Boer in the Netherlands found that in more wet habitats Pterostichus oblongopunctatus had a trychobothrium more on each elytra, and he distinguished between "High and low pitters". In my lab 40 years ago I reared Carabus creutzeri and were able to produce blue/black forms at higher temperatures (20°C or more) and copper brilliant specimens at lower temperatures (research interrupted because of money shortage...).
To solve the question, I suggest that people interested in it try to find coexisting populations of the two forms or to begin with genetic analyses.
Whatever anybody thinks, the question of those forms or species is of great importance for a deeper insight in the problems of carabid adaptation and speciation processes.
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Anopheles gambiae s.s and Anopheles gambiae s.l
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Anopheles gambiae senso lato is a group of sibling species which are closely similar morphologically. they are eight members belong to anopheles gambiae senso lato (Anopheles gambiae s.l.).  Anopheles gambiae senso stricto is one among the 8 members of An.gambiae s.l.
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I am collecting bumblebees in the Brazilian savanna. I collected 37 individuals which seem to belong to two species.
I would like to kow who can help with the identification of these bumblebees.     
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Dear Taylan,
Thanks for your message.
It is really helpfull.
Regards,
José Zanuncio
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This species could be 
1. Bombus barbutellus (Kirby, 1802) sensu Lecocq et. al. 2011
2. or Bombus equestris (Fabricius, 1783) (now Bombus veterianus F., 1793)  sensu Warncke, 1986. 
Which one is Bombus monacha Christ,1791?   1791!!! see the date
The description is here, in page 131
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Sorry, I cannot.
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Insect classification of A. D. Imms / Gullan and Cranston or any other? Some classify insects into 29 orders, some into 30 orders some 33 orders, some excludes protura, diplura and collembola.
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I am not formally a teacher now, but have done some teaching as well in school as in university or in the frames of e.g. DEST, so must have developed some opinion. My suggestion is: present to students in detail this classification which in your opinion best reflects the systematic relationships (this you can best explain and justify), but emphatically, repeatedly accentuate that no classification is a Holy Scripture, that there are many variants differing in basic philosophy (e.g. cladistic and synthetic) or criteria (e.g. morphology vs. molecules), that systematics is a living and evolving branch of science and so its results are being constantly improved and modified, &c.!
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Hello!
Can anybody help me with the species identification of these two ticks please?
I think they are probably from migratory birds...
Mónica
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Hello,
first, they are not nymphs, i saw one, on the panel A (on the right) where the genital aperuture is visible, so it can not be a nymph. then for the identification of engorged specimens i can say that morphogical features is impossible to reveal and other ways are proposed to identify ticks as molecular identification (12S or other), MALDI Tof and other methods.
best regards
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please anyone help me 
Thank You.
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All European Geometridae you can also look up on:
There are a lot of turkish species included, but maybe not all of them. You will find no key, but a lot of descriptions, pictures, mostly the Original description, caterpillars, pupae, eggs and so on!
I use this webside nearly every day!
Best wishes
Rudolf Ritt
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We are looking for an entomologist / taxonomist who is willing to identify this Cotesia species (Braconidae) that we encounter in the Bolivian Altiplano.
This Cotesia is an endemic parasitoid of Eurysacca quinoae (Gelechiidae). Eurysacca larvae cause damage in quinoa crop cultivation.
Since PROINPA is a NGO, we are not able to pay you for this job. But of course the scientific credits for discovering a new species are yours!
(Dead samples send upon request)
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Hi,
This is not a species of Cotesia as Cotesia spp. does not have areolet (closed cell) in the fore wing. This could be a Venanus sp. as there is only one microgastrine parasitoid is reported so far from this host. The images of propodeum and metasoma (in dorsal view) helps to identify it into generic level.
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My student brought this Myriapod picture he snapped in Southwestern Nigeria, West Africa. The area is Tropical rainforest region. Unfortunately the resolution of the phone camera he used is bad. A student who touched it developed blisters on his skin.
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It is definitely not a myriapod but an insect. I would say it is a lepidopteran. Last instar caterpillars normally wander around to find a suitable place to pupate. 
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Recently I took some photos of this spider in a cave in the northern Peruvian Andes. Can anyone identify the Species, Genus or Family?
Thank you very much !
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Hello dear Stefan Ziemendorff  the specimen of pictures is not a spider, this specimen is a harvestmen an arachnid that belongs to Opiliones Order.
Best regards
Cristian Martínez
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this insect was corrected from Loleza Mountain in Mbeya, Tanzania
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Dear Fredrick,
I think the most resemble insect to your photo is the numph of Abisares viridpennis. Please see the attached photo. In fact, I could not know why your photo is brown and not green?
 I agree with Mehmet that its speculative that, tell something about its species  via only a photo..
Regards,
Wafaa
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Insect from Loleza mountain in Mbeya 
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Family Coreidae
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These species were collected from Loleza Mountain forest in Mbeya, Tanzania. 
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Dear Colleague,
identification of insect to species level is not an easy task. it requires lot of skills, experience, understanding and (often) anatomical work to dissect and study internal organs. 
Number of characters used for identification of a species may reach 20-30. To make sure your examination is correct, you have to have specimen on your hands / under the microscope. 
Low quality & resolution / single position (view angle) photographs are useless for identification of insects.
Even common and widespread species usually have twin-species only possible to recognize with direct contact.
As an expert with over 25 years of experience in insect taxonomy, I would never ever put my name (as det.) under any of the photographs like those you have provided.
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I found this in a meadow in the Austrian Alps at about 1000 m above sea level. It is fixed on the stem of a plant of Compositae. The grub is approximately as big as the figures (eggs?) in the accumulation.
Is this a clutch of eggs? Which animal?
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Hi, I confirm. It is a grap of eggs of Horse flies. Their arrive white and rapidly turn to brown and dark after some hours. You can see animal in action and comparison between white and black eggs on this nice images: https://1000-pattes.blogspot.fr/2010/08/le-temps-dun-taon.html. Bravo to Mr Rasnitsyn
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The team has collected data from Nov 2015 to present which will serve as a baseline data and will continue for another year. They have already done calculating Shannon, Simpson and Evenness of these locations and month wise of the same at all locations. I am not able to think outside the box on to what more could be done to this data set. Since the transects per location varies between 2 and 6 of 500m in length and 3m in width, I am not able to find the suitable formula or method to calculate any indices since it is only in selective sites within the city (which does not represent the entire city, but is at the green spaces within the city which can record for maximum species of the butterfly). Distance analysis is not a possibility as there is no record of the distance or angle. Has someone worked on similar data set and if so how did you go about the analysis? Also these locations vary from 1 sq km  to 5 sq km in size
Regards
Roshan
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Thank you very much Mr Constantino. Will surely got through it and get back to you if i have doubts. By any chance is there an English version on the same? Appreciate your help.
Kind Regards
Roshan
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I am dipterist working on acalyptrate Diptera, recently mainly on Anthomyzidae. These flies can only rarely carry mites so that I was surprissed to find last week 3 specimens of Anthomyza gracilis with mites although I have (up to now) never seen them on this species. Attached here you will find my photos of these flies: a male with 2 red mites on abdomen and a female with 1 similar red mite and 1 yellow long-legged mite on its neck.
Could you identify these at least mites to family and genus level? If not, could you recommend me a specialist who can determine them?
I have the voucher anthomyzid specimens dry-mounted and mites remain attached to them (although one of the two red mites on the male was lost during killing process].
Best wishes, J Roháček
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 Dear Jindřich,
These mites look like larvae of a species of Trombidioidea. It is hard to tell from your photos. Kosta Mumcouglu has recently published on parasitic mites on Diptera and may be able to help further. http://www.entomology.org.il/sites/default/files/pdfs/Mumcuoglu.pdf
Cheers,
Matt
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We found this mantis and ootheca during a herpetology expedition this spring in eastern/central part of Kyrgyzstan (Naryn region). Unfortunately we have a problem with determination. Any suggestions are welcome. Any tip for papers engaged in distribution data of Mantodea in Central Asia would be also very appreciated.
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Allright, thank you. I found out that it is on the Red List of Kazakhstan which surprised me. Still can not find any relevant info about KG though. Do you know any russian-written papers?
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Dear All Agriculturists,
enclosed are some clicks of maize plants which is severely attacked/affected by insect (Shown in Picture which is very soft and small in size) captured here at my village. All the leaves of the crop are perforated and seems whitish in color. Crop is now at 6-8 leaf stage. Almost all the farmers are facing this problem in their field. Any one to identify it ? What are the causes? suggestions or strategies for control or management?
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Dear Nawab Ali,
it seems to be the Cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus L.) . You can get more information about this insect on http://www.pflanzenkrankheiten.ch/de/schaedlinge/ackerbau/getreidehaehnchen-ackerbau
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I have one picture of my aphid? Can you identify this? It attack Yardlong beans.
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Dear Dammini
Could be A. craccivora based on the length of the Cauda and Cornicle (Cornicles longer than Cauda). Please check on this link i found it could be useful to a limited extent.
Regards,
Subramanian
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Identification
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Libellulidae. Antennae diferents in Gomphidae.
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About 5 years ago,I found one Gomphus species that had a intermediate position between some other described Gomphus species. Some characters of this species are resemble to Gomphus simillimus, G. schneideri, G. kinzelbachi, or even G. vulgatissimus.
If anyone have a idea about this species or is a expert person can help me. Compare plate with resemble species is attached.
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As Roy has pointed out, we need to know, how your specimen looks like to help you with identification. There are no intermediate / hybrid specimens known from Gomphus, but neither ubadschii nor davidi is mentioned by our. Can you provide pictures of your specimens?
Greetings Arne
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The larva was found on Quercus, and I took an image of it.
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Thanks a lot Dear Rudolf! Any idea what species it could be?
Gy
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Dear Orthopterologists,
Being in Burma I made a photo of katydid Tettigoniidea, seems from the family Phaneropterinae. I know that identification till the species level is practically impossible. May be into Genera? It is practically the same long like European Tettigonia cantans. If lucky will catch some as I'm now in Indochina.
Andrey
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That's similar genus Holochlora to me.
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What is the current status of Pompilus lateritius Mocsáry 1879
valid or synonym?
Pompilus lateritius Taschenberg, 1880 also exists but not identical with P. lateritius Mocsáry 1879
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Hi Attila.
As I've very few knowledge about Pompilidae I forwarded your question to Raymond Wahis. The short answer is that P.lateritius Mocsary 1879 (nec Taschenberg, 1880) is a synonym of Arachnotheutes rufithorax (Costa, 1887). The full, detailed and translated answer is in the attached file.
Raymond would be very pleased to know why you need these data. What can I forward back to him?
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Would appreciate responses that speak to your own experiences, what you've done, and what the results were, thanks!
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Dear Carly. Samples in ethanol can't be stored for a long time, because it tends to deteriorate. Besides, insect samples can't be morphologically analyzed ahead. I suggest stocking dry with silica gel at 20*C for optimal preservation of DNA. I don't know about benzene. But, chemical components in the sample, usually inhibit PCR. Good luck ;)
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I have an estimate of 1.5 million cicadas per acre (3.7 million per ha) by Dybas and Davis (1962, Ecology 43:432-444). This is the most commonly cited density estimate for cicadas in the popular media.
I have estimates ranging from 6.9 million per ha to 60 million per ha for monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. Citations are Calvert, W.H. 2004. Two methods estimating overwintering monarch population size in Mexico. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation (ed. by Oberhauser, K.S., & Solensky, M.J.), pp. 121–127. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
and 
Brower, L.P., Kust, D.R., Rendón Salinas, E., García-Serrano, E., Kust, K.R., Miller, J., Fernandez del Rey, C., & Pape, K. 2004. Catastrophic winter storm mortality of monarch butterflies in Mexico during January 2002. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation (ed. by Oberhauser, K.S., & Solensky, M.J.), pp. 151–166. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.
I have roughly 600,000 grasshoppers per ha, which appears to be outbreak levels reported by Kemp and Davis (1993: Oecologia 96:1-8).
I found that Australian plague locusts can reach 2 million per ha, though I don't have a good source for it. Zha et al. (2008: Photogr Eng & RS 74:619-624) indicated Oriental migratory locusts could reach 60 million per ha density.
Unfortunately, I'm having a difficult time finding published estimates of density for insect species; I simply do not know the literature well enough. Can anyone point me to credible sources describing the densities of a wide array of insect species? Are there reviews in the entomological literature on this topic?
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Then, How about Hymenopterans? We have an unpublished data of honey bees ranging 40,000 / 10 meter square. Is it the correct estimate if converted to population per hectare or so? Pl. see a part of the tree with many number of honey combs with bees.... More than 20 such combs are found during summer season in a single tree in Southern Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. 
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My aim is to identify phenotypic variation in T. castaneum. Therefor i will take fotos and want to measure for example quantitative traits. Like the eye size and antennae length in larvae.
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Hello my friend, hope you have a nice day.
In my opinion and experience the photos for this type of measurements is necessary that you have a standarization of make each photo. 1) your insects correctly mounted. 2) Something very important is that you take the photos at the same height from the insect (i.e. using a tripod), 3) you need a legible metric scale near to the specimen (to use as reference in the measurement software), and 4) preferably with the use of macrophoto  of reflex camera with a macro objective or helped with a stereoscopic microscope (if you have a compact camera the microscope is the best option). 
For measurements there are free access programs that serve to you make morphometry, for example MorphoJ (I have used with good results) which is very easy and intuitive to use, and have the great advantage of you could export all of your measured data to a *.xls file.
Here is the link attached, if you want to use this program.
I hope this information will be useful.
If you have any questions feel free to ask.
Best regards
Cristian Martínez
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For compare this really close species, i need more and more material and data. about Coenagrion persicum, Lohman, 1993. I take various images from appendages for comparison. some odonatologist believe that C. persicum is the same of C. pulchellum. for more description this images is necessary.
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Hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
Rediscovery?????
This word is really ridiculous for scientific work
about 2 year ago and also yesteryear i found both male and female of this species from 3 separate area from Iran.
my unpublished paper nipped in the bud and with my idea this manner is not scientific moral.
in my opinion C. persicum clearly separated species and Lohman, 1993 described a valid taxon.