Science topics: LinguisticsSyntax
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Syntax - Science topic

In linguistics, syntax is "the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages".
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Publications related to Syntax (10,000)
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The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the 2 500 km long Himalayan orogenic belt. At 22:09 on August 15, 1950, Beijing time, an MS8.6 earthquake occurred in Medog-Zayu area in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, which is the largest continental earthquake in the world ever recorded since the historical earthquake records have becom...
Article
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The syntax of 2 John 1: 5 is problematic. Six manuscripts, Ψ 5. 81. 642*. 1852 l, try to solve this difficulty by emending the participle ‘γράφων’ to the indicative verb ‘γράφω’. Culy and Leedy on Greek NT diagrams, on the other hand, understand the participle ‘γράφων’ to modify ‘ἐρωτάω’. In the latter approach, the participle ‘γράφων’ serves to mo...
Article
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Background Resting-state EEG microstates are thought to reflect brief activations of several interacting components of resting-state brain networks. Surprisingly, we still know little about the role of these microstates in migraine. In the present study, we attempted to address this issue by examining EEG microstates in patients with migraine witho...
Conference Paper
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Serious or educational games for learning mathematics have in common the representation of mathematical equations during the game. However, the tools available to represent an equation in the Unity platform are paid or proprietary. This work introduces L2T, a free and open-source tool capable of reading a LaTeX mathematical expression and generatin...
Conference Paper
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Identifier naming is one of the main sources of information in program comprehension, where a significant portion of software development time is spent. Previous research shows that similarity in identifier names could potentially hinder code comprehension, and subsequently code maintenance and evolution. In this paper, we present an open-source to...
Article
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In the context of the critical need to support children’s early language development, teacher knowledge may enhance children’s opportunities to build linguistic skills. In this study we explored how early childhood teachers’ (n = 86) pedagogical content knowledge for language and vocabulary, and their book-reading implementation across the school y...
Chapter
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This article explores foundational issues in the philosophy of time and space by comparing the phenomenological contributions of Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka and Peter Manchester. Each of these two philosophers have revived an ancient paradigm for thinking about problems of continuity in the philosophy of space and time. Peter Byrne Manchester's 2005 bo...
Research
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Die präsentierten Werte basieren auf den Daten der Europäischen Arbeitskräfteerhebung (European Union Labour Force Survey, kurz: EU LFS) aus den Jahren 2006 bis 2019 (Eurostat 2020). Der EU LFS ist eine jährliche Haushaltsbefragung in allen EUMitgliedsstaaten sowie den vier EU-Beitrittskandidatenländern und drei Ländern der Europäischen Freihandels...
Presentation
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All languages have structural features that present evidentiality, i.e., features that present the sources of knowledge supporting what we say. However, languages differ in the types of sources that are used, and in the linguistic features that are used to present such evidentiality and any genre-specific variations. Little is known of the types of...
Article
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The two studies presented in this paper concern the Italian epistemic marker mi sa [lit. to me it knows], which seems to have no equivalent in other European languages and has received very little attention in the literature. No analysis of the occurrences of mi sa in contemporary spoken corpora can be found (first gap) as well as no investigation...
Article
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In adversarial legal systems across the world, witnesses in criminal trials are subjected to cross-examination. The questions that cross-examiners pose to witnesses are often complex and confusing; they might include negatives, double negatives, leading questions, closed questions, either/or questions, or complex syntax and vocabulary. Few psychole...
Article
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Among the many lines of research that have been exploring how embodiment contributes to cognition, one focuses on how the neural substrates of language may be shared, or at least closely coupled, with those of action. This paper revisits a particular proposal that has received considerable attention—namely, that the forms of hierarchical sequencing...
Article
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Introduction Coronary atherosclerotic burden and SYNTAX Score (SS) are predictors of cardiovascular events. Objectives To investigate the value of SYNTAX scores (SS, SYNTAX Score II (SSII) and residual SYNTAX Score (rSS)) for predicting cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setti...
Article
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In recent years, pre-trained language models, represented by the bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) model, have achieved remarkable success in machine reading comprehension (MRC). However, limited by the structure of BERT-based MRC models (for example, restrictions on word count), such models cannot effectively integrate...
Article
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There are a large number of natural gas shows in the Upper Paleozoic of the central Hunan Basin. However, the hydrocarbon accumulation process was complicated due to the strong tectonic reformation in this area. A study of the natural gas accumulation period is of significance for determining gas accumulation models. In this research, the fluid inc...
Preprint
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Background. The long road from pure type systems of AUTOMATH by de Bruijn to type checkers with homotopical core was made. This article touches only the formal Martin-Löf Type Theory (MLTT) core type system with Π and Σ types (that correspond to ∀ and ∃ quantifiers for mathematical reasoning) and identity type. Expressing the MLTT embedding in a ho...
Article
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The talk focuses on syntactic and semantico-syntactic properties of imperative forms in Russian, used as a main predicate in the complex clause. The main question is whether the special discourse and semantic properties interact with their syntax. Another problem, related to the first one, is whether the nonstandard imperative properties are inheri...
Article
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The construction of high-quality word embeddings is essential in natural language processing. In existing approaches using a large text corpus, the word embeddings learn only sequential patterns in the context; thus, accurate learning of the syntax and semantic relationships between words is limited. Several methods have been proposed for construct...
Preprint
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Conformance checking is a process mining technique that allows verifying the conformance of process instances to a given model. Thus, this technique is predestined to be used in the medical context for the comparison of treatment cases with clinical guidelines. However, medical processes are highly variable, highly dynamic, and complex. This makes...
Article
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Linguistic anti-patterns are recurring poor practices concerning inconsistencies in the naming, documentation, and implementation of an entity. They impede the readability, understandability, and maintainability of source code. This paper attempts to detect linguistic anti-patterns in Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) scripts used to provision and manag...
Preprint
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The aim of staged compilation is to enable metaprogramming in a way such that we have guarantees about the well-formedness of code output, and we can also mix together object-level and meta-level code in a concise and convenient manner. In this work, we observe that two-level type theory (2LTT), a system originally devised for the purpose of develo...
Article
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The past few years have witnessed the wide application of machine learning models to fix vulnerabilities automatically. However, existing approaches cannot capture the characteristics of vulnerabilities that are helpful to improve the effectiveness of automated vulnerability fixing. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically fixin...
Preprint
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Domain-specific heuristics are an essential technique for solving combinatorial problems efficiently. Current approaches to integrate domain-specific heuristics with Answer Set Programming (ASP) are unsatisfactory when dealing with heuristics that are specified non-monotonically on the basis of partial assignments. Such heuristics frequently occur...
Article
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Psychologists have investigated creativity for 70 years, and it is now seen as being an important construct, both scientifically and because of its practical value to society. However, several fundamental unresolved problems persist, including a suitable definition of creativity and the ability of psychometric tests to measure divergent thinking—an...
Article
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As orações subordinadas do karitiana exibem diversas características nominais, como uma série de afixos típicos destes sintagmas. Além disso, elas não dispõem de alguns núcleos funcionais específicos de orações, como tempo e modo (Storto, 1999). A formação de perguntas QU-também revela um comportamento próximo a sintagmas nominais: primeiro, as sub...
Preprint
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Parsing is a fundamental building block in modern compilers, and for industrial programming languages, it is a surprisingly involved task. There are known approaches to generate parsers automatically, but the prevailing consensus is that automatic parser generation is not practical for real programming languages: LR/LALR parsers are considered to b...
Presentation
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This is a presentation on existential constructions in Greek and some aspects of their syntax, particularly with respect to the status of the nominal. The comparison among them emphasizes (dis)similarities in a) the case marking and the verb-agreement pattern, b) the Definiteness effect, and c) the obligatoriness of an overt locative constituent. T...
Preprint
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During software development, developers need answers to queries about semantic aspects of code. Even though extractive question-answering using neural approaches has been studied widely in natural languages, the problem of answering semantic queries over code using neural networks has not yet been explored. This is mainly because there is no existi...
Conference Paper
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Social Media platforms have offered invaluable opportunities for linguistic research. The availability of up-to-date data, coming from any part in the world, and coming from natural contexts, has allowed researchers to study language in real time. One of the fields that has made great use of social media platforms is Corpus Linguistics. There is cu...
Article
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This study aims to improve students’ reading comprehension skills using the text summarization technique in the 5th grade of SDN Kasunyatan. The subjects of this classroom action research (CAR) involved forty students. The data was collected using learning observation, reading comprehension tests, and documentation. The analysis of these data uses...
Article
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This paper investigates additive links to discourse alternatives in picture comparison dialogues produced by adult native speakers of English and German. Additive relations are established across turns when participants are confirming the presence of matching objects on both pictures (A: “I have X”. B: “I also have X”). Speakers thereby describe th...
Article
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The study of natural language using a network approach has made it possible to characterize novel properties ranging from the level of individual words to phrases or sentences. A natural way to quantitatively evaluate similarities and differences between spoken and written language is by means of a multiplex network defined in terms of a similarity...
Article
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Since many years libraries, archives and museums, the institutions entrusted with the dissemination and conservation of cultural heritage, contributed to metada standards definition, meta-dating methodologies and metadata representation in different syntaxes, by partecipating to national projects and international initiatives.Management systems and...
Article
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The ubiquitous use of computational work for data generation, processing, and modeling increased the importance of digital documentation in improving research quality and impact. Computational notebooks are files that contain descriptive text, as well as code and its outputs, in a single, dynamic, and visually appealing file that is easier to under...
Poster
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In Spanish, several analogic instruments are currently available, like the adaptations of the Boston Diagnostic Examination (BDAE), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), PALPA, and BETA, which is the most recent tool available. However, these instruments face several validity issues. Here, we introduce Aphasia Cognitive Screening in Spanish (ACS.esp),...
Article
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Biophilic architecture is a design approach that enhances the connectedness of man and nature. Although Erbil city, Iraq is witnessing remarkable development, there is a lack of a comprehensive vision about adopting this design approach. This research attempts to find out the existence of biophilic design parameters and the proportion of naturalnes...
Article
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Background Some coronary artery angiography (CAG) scores are associated with the no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, quality evidence regarding the association between the CAG scores and microvascular injury is still needed. Our study...
Presentation
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All the previous analyses on the passive construction in Japanese crucially rely on two tacit assumptions; (i) (r)are is a single morpheme that uniquely derives passive construction, and (ii) passive involves movement. This work argues that these assumptions are unfounded and shows that (r)are consists of two parts: (r)ar and e. The former is a pur...
Article
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Einzelne Fachsprachen bzw. die ausgewählten Fachtexte werden gewöhnlich als Korpora verwendet, zum Zweck der Bearbeitung von verschiedenen linguistischen Themen. Oft werden auch Lehrwerke und kleinere Fachwörterbücher gebraucht, die sich besonders für Übersetzungszwecke eignen, wie z.B. Deutsch für Juristen, Geschäftsdeutsch, Deutsch für Ingenieure...
Article
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This paper deals with the distribution of the use of the accusative as an indirect object in two major dialect groups of Modern Greek, namely Northern Greek and Pontic Greek. The loss of the dative in Medieval Greek (c. 10th c. AD) resulted in the use of the genitive as an indirect object in the southern varieties and of the accusative in Northern...
Preprint
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Style is a significant component of natural language text, reflecting a change in the tone of text while keeping the underlying information the same. Even though programming languages have strict syntax rules, they also have style. Code can be written with the same functionality but using different language features. However, programming style is d...
Article
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‘Documenta Antiquorum’ ou ‘Ammaestramenti degli Antichi’ (Ensinamentos dos Antigos) é um compêndio de filosofia moral elaborado e autotraduzido, ca. 1305, pelo frade dominicano Bartolomeo da San Concordio (ca. 1262-1347), em formato bilíngue latim/toscano. As 11 sentenças citadas na seção ‘Di curare più dello ’ntendimento che delle parole’ defendem...
Presentation
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We report on successfully porting and making available online TARSKI, a system for computing with Tarski formulas (Boolean combinations of polynomial sign conditions over the real numbers). TARSKI provides operations like formula simplification and quantifier elimination, and is able to read and write SMT-LIB syntax. The web version of TARSKI was c...
Article
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Gerard Manley Hopkins sought a stronger rhetorical style in verse-sprung rhythm for the shape, sound, and sense of Carrion Comfort. The poet shows a sense of desolation produced partly by spiritual aridity and partly by a feeling of artistic frustration. The poem reveals strong tensions between his delight in the sensuous world, his urge to express...
Article
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In this paper, it is proposed on the basis of data from German that some of the information-structural features encoded by the projections located in the clause-internal Split-CP domain in the Rizzian (1997) model are replicated in the so-called "outer left periphery", i. e. in the area situated above ForceP. In doing this, I pursue a cartographic...
Preprint
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Despite recent advances in communication and automation, regulations are still written in natural-language prose, subject to ambiguity, inconsistency, and incompleteness. How can we craft regulations with precision? Our solution is embodied in Eiger, a domain-specific programming language embedded in Haskell. A domain expert pairs with a software e...
Article
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This study is about the poloids that are obtained by the formation of a new algebraic structure obtained by adding the condition (G4) obtained from the solution of the equation XA = B and B|A to the definition of monoid. The (G4) property is based on the factorial property of a noncommutative matrix. The (G4) property is based on the factorial prop...
Article
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Language is the main means of communication in human life in this world, both in the form of writing, verbally, or only in the form of certain symbols. Without language, humans cannot communicate because humans are social creatures who must interact with each other. In the interaction there must be communication which in the communication itself th...
Article
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Some recent work has argued that agreement and case-assignment dependencies between a functional head and a nearby NP are not part of the syntactic derivation proper, but take place in the postsyntactic, morphological component of the grammar. I argue that this view is correct, by showing that one of its largely unexplored predictions has real empi...
Article
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Opium is one of the most abused substances in the Middle East. The efects of opium use on coronary artery disease (CAD) are a matter of debate. This study aimed to assess the association between opium use and angiographic fndings as well as the complexity of CAD in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnosis. In this case–control study, a...
Article
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The world's languages draw on different reference frames to encode spatial relationships between people, objects or places. We address how subtle differences in reference frame preferences across Spanish and English affect Spanish-English bilinguals' interpretations of spatial descriptions involving the terms left and right. Bilinguals saw an entit...
Article
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The general objective of this research is to examine the relevance of the rules of assimilation in Arabic with religious, social values. This study uses a qualitative approach with an ethnolinguistic approach. The data were collected through indepth and repeated reading of the Arabic language's assimilation rules, which allegedly contained social r...
Article
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The Cambrian Miaolingian in the North China Platform is characterized by wide-stretched deposition of oolitic grainstones within the Xuzhuang, Zhangxia and Gushan formations. Appraisal of ooid fabric and diagenesis provides signifcant information about the depositional environment and post-depositional features of the oolitic limestone in the Miaol...
Article
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A common framing has it that any adequate treatment of quotation has to abandon one of the following three principles: (i) The quoted expression is a syntactic constituent of the quote phrase; (ii) If two expressions are derived by applying the same syntactic rule to a sequence of synonymous expressions, then they are synonymous; (iii) The language...
Article
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An Old Hungarian Runic inscription from the Altai Mountains with 40 signs has posed some special challenges for decipherment due to several letter mix-ups and the use of a tamga sign, which is the first reported use of a tamga within this type of script. This paper gives a complete and correct translation and draws some lessons that can be learned...
Article
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Motivation is still one of the factors that affected the teaching and learning of the English language. This study would like to investigate the students’ confidence level in syntax learning via media-based elements and to identify the factors that contribute to the level of students’ satisfaction in syntax learning via media-based elements. This s...
Preprint
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Understanding the intention of the users and recognizing the semantic entities from their sentences, aka natural language understanding (NLU), is the upstream task of many natural language processing tasks. One of the main challenges is to collect a sufficient amount of annotated data to train a model. Existing research about text augmentation does...
Preprint
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ing over well-known properties of De Bruijn's representation with nameless dummies, we design a new theory of syntax with variable binding and capture-avoiding substitution. We propose it as a simpler alternative to Fiore, Plotkin, and Turi's approach, with which we establish a strong formal link. We also show that our theory easily incorporates si...
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We present Concurrent GV (CGV), a functional calculus with message-passing concurrency governed by session types. With respect to prior calculi, CGV has increased support for concurrent evaluation and for cyclic network topologies. The design of CGV draws on APCP, a session-typed asynchronous pi-calculus developed in prior work. Technical contribut...
Article
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In this work, we investigate a special type of CS below word level, which is observed in mixed compound words. In particular, we discuss mixed Italian–German compounds; this combination is particularly interesting since, in the two languages, the process of compounding follows different rules for what concerns the position of the head, as well as g...
Preprint
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This project was centered on the electronic voting system. The current process of registration and the actual voting process is being operated manually and due to this procedure numerous problems are been encountered. A design was taken to computerized the manual process in order to check this problem. The problems were identified after series of i...
Book
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This book seeks to address a manifest urgency of public accountants around the world to have a fund accounting manual. The natural accounting system of Social and Solidary Economy Enterprises is fund accounting. The accounting of funds consists of a model for registering the resources that have been limited by law, donors, government boards set up...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the syntax of alignment, which defines a fundamental divide in the morphosyntax of natural languages. There are essentially two approaches to the typology of alignment. One body of work considers the phenomenon from a functional perspective, with reference to the classic notions of subject and direct object. Another line of...
Article
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In this study, it is aimed to examine the differences in written expressions of Turkish learners as a second language from Turkey Turkish in terms of typological features of Turkish. It is aimed to examine Turkish in terms of typological features. The data sources of the research consist of the written expression studies of at least B2 or C1 level...
Article
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The Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score (SS) hassignificantly improved angiographic risk stratification. By analyzing angiographic variables, this score characterizescoronary artery disease qualitatively and quantitatively. To date, combining this score with other non-angiographic clinica...
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Aim A nomenclature for the naming of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) notified to the EMCDDA was developed. The harmonized names shall convey the structural features of SCs accurately and consistently without the need for a complex systematic name. SCs are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the EMCDDA and are heterogeneous in...
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Background The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is essential for maintaining microvascular homeostasis. However, the relationship between the EG and coronary microcirculation remains to be elucidated. One of the main components of EG is syndecan-1, and its shedding has been claimed to represent the state of the EG. In this study, we aimed to analyze the...
Article
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Published in: Trumah: Zeitschrift der Hochschule für Jüdische Studien Heidelberg 25 (2022), pp. 33-72. This study deals with the not very popular subject of the Masoretic accentuation. It discusses the threefold classification of the function of the Masoretic accents, namely stress, syntax, and the musical recitation, with regard to their original...
Article
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South-eastern Tibet rotates clockwise around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis due to the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan lithosphere and it attracts much attention as a window for studying the dynamics of continental collision between India and Eurasia. Competing geodynamic models to describe the deformation of the eastern Tibet have been t...