Science topics: LinguisticsSyntax
Science topic

Syntax - Science topic

In linguistics, syntax is "the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages".
Questions related to Syntax
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
Hi all,
I'm having trouble converting one particular variable in my dataset from string to numeric. I've tried manually transforming/recoding into a different variable and automatic recoding. I've also tried writing syntax (see below). The same syntax has worked for every other variable I needed to convert but this one. For all methods (manual recode, automatic recode, and writing a syntax), I end up with missing data.
recode variablename ('Occurred 0 times' = 0) ('Occurred 1 time' = 1) ('Occurred 2 times' = 2) ('Occurred 3+ times' = 3) into Nvariablename.
execute.
VALUE LABELS
Nvariablename
0 'Occurred 0 times'
1 'Occurred 1 time'
2 'Occurred 2 times'
3 'Occurred 3+ times'.
EXECUTE.
Thank you in advance for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Angela,
Which cases end up not being assigned a target numeric value (e.g., end up as system missing)? Could it be that there is an error in the string coding for such cases (for example, an extra blank space in the string)?
If nothing is obvious, perhaps you could post a small snippet of the cases (being sure to include at least a few which don't get converted as intended).
Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Hi everyone ,
I have a time series with a weekly seasonality (365 samples), and want to perform SARIMA in Eviews. Could anyone can help me to understand the estimate equation syntax for SARIMA(2,1,2)(1,1,0) with weekly seasonality?
Also should I have to use the differenced series or the actual series in the equation for the above SARIMA case.
ie, if my actual series is series 1, and the first difference is series 2 how can I write the equation for SARIMA(2,1,2)(1,1,0) with weekly seasonality
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
sophia.pwadam@stu.uccedu.gh @ Isaac mwinlaaru PHD
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I have a dataset of patients with ESRD and want to estimate GFR using the 2021 CKD-EPI formula.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dineo,
Are you trying this in excel or in stata?
Note that the divisor and power for the serum creatinine level varies by sex, so the equation needs to vary accordingly:
if (sex ==2),
eGRRcr = 142 * (scr / 0.7)^-0.241 * 0.9938^age * 1.012
else if (sex == 1)
eGFRcr = 142 * (scr / 0.9)^-0.302 * 0.9938^age
As I'm not a RedCap user, I can't be more specific.
Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Is there any easy to understand resource for network meta-analysis using Stata? I am looking for stata syntax for network meta-analysis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Part 6 in "Meta-Analysis in Stata: An Updated Collection from the Stata Journal" by T.M. Palmer and J.A.C. Sterne (2016) provides a good first step. The "help network" command in Stata is also useful. Cochrane also used to sponsor training at the University of Bristol for doing network meta-analysis using Stata but they may have switched to using R. That was a good course.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I would like to include 90% CI for the estimate instead of the p-value, but I used Mplus to generate the standardized model results and I see that the syntax does not report confidence intervals, but "Estimate / S.E. /Est./S.E. and p -value".
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
I have tried several times to input ma-def2svp basis set in Gaussian Software but received a syntax error. I tried : custom=madef2svp .
ma stands for minimally augmented.
I would be very grateful if anyone kindly inform me the procedure.
Relevant answer
Answer
When your basis set is not on G16, you need to write the "gen" keyword on your command line instead of the basis set. Then you write the coordinates and finally, you put the info of the basis set for every atom involved. The info for every atom must be separated with four asterisks.
I will show you the format that you should follow along
%chk=water.chk
%mem=4GB
%nprocs=4
#p opt freq b3lyp/gen
(leave a blank space here)
Title Card Required
(leave a blank space here)
0 1
H 2.75003900 -0.15335800 -0.68738400
O 2.15041200 -0.17165800 0.06153800
H 2.01471800 -1.09859400 0.27260600
(leave a blank space here)
H 0
S 5 1.00
3.387000D+01 6.068000D-03
5.095000D+00 4.530800D-02
1.159000D+00 2.028220D-01
3.258000D-01 5.039030D-01
1.027000D-01 3.834210D-01
S 1 1.00
3.258000D-01 1.000000D+00
S 1 1.00
1.027000D-01 1.000000D+00
S 1 1.00
0.0252600 1.0000000
P 1 1.00
1.407000D+00 1.000000D+00
P 1 1.00
3.880000D-01 1.000000D+00
P 1 1.00
0.1020000 1.0000000
D 1 1.00
1.057000D+00 1.0000000
D 1 1.00
0.2470000 1.0000000
****
O 0
S 10 1.00
1.533000D+04 5.080000D-04
2.299000D+03 3.929000D-03
5.224000D+02 2.024300D-02
1.473000D+02 7.918100D-02
4.755000D+01 2.306870D-01
1.676000D+01 4.331180D-01
6.207000D+00 3.502600D-01
1.752000D+00 4.272800D-02
6.882000D-01 -8.154000D-03
2.384000D-01 2.381000D-03
S 10 1.00
1.533000D+04 -1.150000D-04
2.299000D+03 -8.950000D-04
5.224000D+02 -4.636000D-03
1.473000D+02 -1.872400D-02
4.755000D+01 -5.846300D-02
1.676000D+01 -1.364630D-01
6.207000D+00 -1.757400D-01
1.752000D+00 1.609340D-01
6.882000D-01 6.034180D-01
2.384000D-01 3.787650D-01
S 1 1.00
1.752000D+00 1.000000D+00
S 1 1.00
2.384000D-01 1.000000D+00
S 1 1.00
0.0737600 1.0000000
P 5 1.00
3.446000D+01 1.592800D-02
7.749000D+00 9.974000D-02
2.280000D+00 3.104920D-01
7.156000D-01 4.910260D-01
2.140000D-01 3.363370D-01
P 1 1.00
7.156000D-01 1.000000D+00
P 1 1.00
2.140000D-01 1.000000D+00
P 1 1.00
0.0597400 1.0000000
D 1 1.00
2.314000D+00 1.000000D+00
D 1 1.00
6.450000D-01 1.000000D+00
D 1 1.00
0.2140000 1.0000000
F 1 1.00
1.428000D+00 1.0000000
F 1 1.00
0.5000000 1.0000000
****
(leave a blank space here)
Hope this helps!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
What is the matlab
Relevant answer
Answer
There are several sources for defining matlab and matlab code. Particularly, you can read the definition of the Matlab code below:
Also, I found new source about Matlab for you pdf file. You can look. Siddharth Kamila
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
Hello all,
I have a dataset which contains some couples and some single people. I want to keep all the singles and keep one person from each couple. Specifically, from the couples, I want to keep the person who has the highest score between the two partners on a specific variable.
I cannot figure out how to do this with syntax. Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Laurien Meijer. I think it is easier to tackle this with the data in the LONG format. E.g., suppose you have a variable called PairID that shows which pair each row belongs to. And suppose you want to keep for each pair the row with the higher age. This would do the trick:
* Save the max age for each pair as new variable age_max.
AGGREGATE
/OUTFILE=* MODE=ADDVARIABLES OVERWRITE=YES
/BREAK=PairID
/age_max=MAX(age).
* For each pair, keep the record with the higher age.
SELECT IF Age EQ age_max.
DESCRIPTIVES Age PairID.
Note that if both members of a pair have exactly the same age, both would be kept in the dataset. I don't know if that is possible for your data.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
I have ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data consisting of 3 daily assessments for 14 days. The 3 daily assessments are three individual 'items', for which taking a mean is appropriate.
At the row-level I can take the mean across the items, giving me 3 time-point specific means each day for each individual. If an individual is missing an item at any specific time point I can account for that using the "mean." syntax.
I want to aggregate all three within-day timepoints up to a daily mean using 'aggregate' in SPSS, but SPSS uses all the within-day timepoints to do so, even if one is missing. Does anybody know how to overcome this issue? I've tried the MISSING = COLUMNWISE command but that omits the entire day for anyone missing anything within day.
For example: (where TP = timepoint, and '.' = missing)
TP_MEAN TP_TOTAL AGGREGATED_VAR
T1 1 2 3 2 6 3.80
T2 3 2 4 3 9 3.80
T3 . . . . . 3.80
So for the daily mean I want (1+2+3+3+2+4)/6 (= 2.5)
but using AGGREATE (MEAN TP_TOTAL), SPSS is giving me 3.80, AND filling it in at the row level for T3 where there was no timepoint data.
Does anybody know how to fix this?
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi There David Morse
Thanks for your response, it is much appreciated! I think I realized from your reply that I need to restructure the data - it is in wide format in terms of the items but not in terms of the timepoints/days. After having banged my head against the wall for a while on this I am going to use R instead ;)
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
I was trying to optimize an organoaluminium compound using the PBE0-D3(BJ)/def2-SVP level of theory. I have not used this theory before for my work. But after reading the Gaussian documentation and googling, I came up with the input like below -
PBE1PBE/Def2SVP EmpiricalDispersion=GD3BJ Fopt Freq=NoRaman
But Gaussian is throwing a syntax error in the basis set input. Can anyone help me with this issue?
The gaussian output message is attached below.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Aritra Roy ,
I think GD3BJ empirical dispersion was included in later revisions of Gaussian 09, so you should move either to not-so-old versions of G09 or directly to G16.
Hope you find it helpful
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
We are recoding our data and transforming the data values into the values we won't according to the questionaries we have used and its scores.
The first couples of recodes went fine, and we can see the values in the Data view after we ran the syntax. But then all of a sudden after we ran a recode of the next variable in our syntax, the value did not show in the Data view, and instead of the value, the columns just have a dot; .
We don't have any missing values, and the original data, we are recoding, has values. So what are we doing wrong, can any body help us?
We have been checking the syntax over and over again, to see if we are doing something diffrent form the first couples of recodes, where nothing is wrong.. but we can't find any differences.
Relevant answer
Answer
I have been facing the same challenges , figured others out but some still giving me problems and i have checked over and over, but still get missing system when I analyse.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
A research was carried out on broiler chickens, which is divided into two phases (starter and finisher). However, during the finisher phase, the birds were not redistributed, thereby necessitating the application of analysis of covariance when analysing the performance parameters at finisher phase, whereby the initial weight (IW) will be the covriate variable. The analysis was carried out using SPSS in the past, and was quite straightforward. However using the proc syntax on SAS for this proves difficult. I used the;
Proc GLM;
Class Enzyme Level;
Model FW TWG Av_FI FCR DFI Survival = Enzyme Level IW;
LSMeans Enzyme Level / StdErr Pdiff Adjust = Tukey;
Run;
which makes use of LSMeans for mean adjustment, but the result obtained is same as that obtained without covariate, and also different from that obtained from SPSS.
Could anyone kindly help out on the correct syntax, and/or the interpretation for ANCOVA using SAS proc?
The result obtained from SAS proc is attached.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe your model is written incorrectly. The DV SHOULD BE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE = Sign. See the attached screenshot example.
Best wishes David Booth
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
8 answers
I am trying to do a transformation of a data set, while analyzing a certain data set, and I want to calculate the inverse of a certain variable set. Kindly let the know the syntax for calculating the inverse of a number in R
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on what you mean by inverse.
For E.g. it could also be inverse <- 1/x
or
inverse <- -x
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
Please help,
I ran a Battese and Coelli 1995 sfpanel model in Stata 12.1 of the following translog equation
sfpanel lny lnl lnm lne lnk lnksq lnlsq lnesq lnklnl lnmsq lnklne lnklnm lnllne lnllnm lnelnm year, model(bc95) dist(tn) emean( for for5 for10 for15 for20 for25 exp_firm firm_size) ort(o)
Aimed at establishing the effect of FDI on efficiency and productivity at firm level.
I wish to estimate TFP whose components are Technical Change(TC), Technical Efficiency Change (TEC) and Scale Efficiency Change (SEC).
  1. Can this be done directly in Stata?
  2. And what is the syntax considering the 4-input translog equation?
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
bonjour je voudrai connaitre la commande pour décomposer la productivité totale des facteurs en efficacité technique et progrès technologique
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
I have "QPErr --- A syntax error was detected in the input line" error in my gaussian. I am trying to use the model to see MO for a system containing C and Au.
I appreciate your guidance
Relevant answer
Answer
There are multiple problems in your gjf file:
1. The **** after lanl2mb for Au is missing. The **** should be present at the end of each set of basis set, even when it is the last one.
2. For Au, you must define both the basis set and the pseudopotential.
3. Never use 6-31G. Use 6-31G(d) instead. The d-functions are essential.
4. The molecule is two large (293 atoms). It is severely out of the scale of DFT calculations. Please reduce the size into less than 150 atoms.
5. There are a vast number of carbon atoms at the edge that do not have adequate valence bonds. Please saturate them with H.
6. In general, Au do not exhibit 1-coordination. Please carefully reconsider the reasons of making this molecular model.
7. LanL2MB is quite out of date. Please use LanL2DZ instead at least. The better choice is SDD.
The right way of defining the basis set is shown as below (comments are shown after !, and please remove them when you write an input file):
# b3lyp em=gd3bj genecp ! use genecp to set both the basis set and pseudopotential
(blabla)
-C -H 0
6-31G(d)
****
-Au 0
SDD ! set the basis set for the valence shell of Au
**** ! Don't forget this line
-Au 0 ! set the pseudopotential for the core electron of Au
SDD
! there is no more **** here in the pseudopotential part
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
I am looking for the scoring information for the JSE and the paper that is cited. Even better if you have SPSS syntax.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Fatal error: Syntax error - File CHL.itp, line 7 Last line read:'[ atomtypes ] '
Invalid order for directive atomtypes.
During the energy minimization step, I've obtained this error when I'm running protein-ligand Simulation in Gromacs. I've prepared the ligand topology through CHARMM27 using the SwissParam web server. However, I've tried to solve this error using the following link
Still, I've not found any way to solve this. Kindly help me to fix the above error
Relevant answer
Answer
Did you find a solution to this error?
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I want to perform a protein-DNA-ligand complex simulation by gromacs. but my system contain two ligands named PTR and LIG. but when ever i am going to perform the energy minimization.
This is the content of the topology file:
;
; File 'Protein.top' was generated
; By user: arindam (1000)
; On host: localhost.localdomain
; At date: Mon Dec 24 16:49:35 2018
;
; This is a standalone topology file
;
; It was generated using program:
; pdb2gmx - VERSION 4.6.2
;
; Command line was:
; ./pdb2gmx -ff amber99sb -f duplex.pdb -o Protein2.pdb -p Protein.top -water tip3p -ignh
;
; Force field was read from the standard Gromacs share directory.
;
; Include forcefield parameters
#include "amber99sb.ff/forcefield.itp"
#include "PTR.itp"
#include "ligand.itp"
; Include chain topologies
#include "Protein_Protein_chain_A.itp"
#include "Protein_DNA_chain_B.itp"
#include "Protein_DNA_chain_C.itp"
#include "Protein_DNA_chain_D.itp"
; Include water topology
#include "amber99sb.ff/tip3p.itp"
#ifdef POSRES_WATER
; Position restraint for each water oxygen
[ position_restraints ]
; i funct fcx fcy fcz
1 1 1000 1000 1000
#endif
; Include topology for ions
#include "amber99sb.ff/ions.itp"
[ system ]
; Name
Grunge ROck MAChoS in water
[ molecules ]
; Compound #mols
Protein_chain_A 1
DNA_chain_B 1
DNA_chain_C 1
DNA_chain_D 1
PTR 1
LIG 1
SOL 46535
can anyone tell me the way out?
Best regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Sourav Pal
The directives in the .top and .itp files have rules about the order in which they can appear, and this error is seen when the order is violated. The include file mechanism cannot be used to  #include a file in just any old location, because they contain directives and these have to be properly placed.
In particular, "Invalid order for directive defaults" is a result of defaults being set in the topology or force field files in the inappropriate location; the [defaults] section can only appear once and must be the first directive in the topology.  The [defaults] directive is typically present in the force field file (forcefield.itp), and is added to the topology when you #include this file in the system topology.
If the directive in question is atomtypes (which is the most common source of this error) or any other bonded or nonbonded [*types] directive, typically the user is adding some non-standard species (ligand, solvent, etc) that introduces new atom types or parameters into the system. As indicated above, these new types and parameters must appear before any [moleculetype] directive. The force field has to be fully constructed before any molecules can be defined.
Hope it helps.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
comsol syntax for the velocity of a rotating cylinder.
Relevant answer
Answer
I wish you success
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I've studied for how to run 2 mediation and 2 moderators ( 1 for first stage, 1 for second stage) SEW in Mplus. However, the first stage moderator is a congruence variable which is consist of two variables (and each with four items to measure). Cheung (2009) suggested the way in LISERAL syntax, but I've only learned Mplus. Could anyone prove how the syntax of putting congruence variable as first stage moderator?
Relevant answer
Answer
You might want to check out Stride et al.'s (2015) excellent and very comprehensive Mplus syntax collection for various mediation & moderation models to see if you can find the syntax that you need:
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I am fairly new to syntax writing/coding and need to merge many excel files (with the same set of variables) into one SPSS dataset but it must be done with syntax. So far, all of the loops for completing this that I have found online require the Python Essentials extension which I cannot use as it will not download on a work computer. I assume I will need to use the CONCAT function to merge the files one on top of the other but how do I get SPSS to call on all the files in a folder and then merge them (as it would time consuming and not automated enough to use GET DATA for each individual file before merging)? Any ideas/solutions would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
Hi, all! I have recently used the AutoDockTools sofware. But it said that "added gasteiger charges found 44 aromatic carbons detected 0 rotatable bonds set TORSDOF to 0". And when I were doing the docking, the sofware mentioned " ATOM syntax incorrect: "As" is not a valid AutoDock type. Note that AutoDock atom types are case-sensitive." How could I figure it out? If someone else knows? Thank you very much!!!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for all of you and I have tried many many ways like the answer provided, but don't figure it out. Still wait for the right way.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
I want the syntax.
Relevant answer
Answer
Here's an example (simple mediation model with one mediator m and two groups):
TITLE: multigroup path analysis
DATA: data.dat;
VARIABLE: NAMES ARE x m y;
GROUPING IS g (1=male 2=female);
MODEL: y on x m;
m on x;
OUTPUT: SAMPSTAT STDYX;
In this example, all 3 paths would be estimated separately/freely between groups. If you wanted the paths to be constrained equal across groups, you would have to change the MODEL statement as follows:
MODEL: y on x (c)
m (b);
m on x (a);
The labels (a), (b), and (c) tell Mplus to hold the path coefficients equal across groups.
If you wanted to obtain the direct, indirect, and total effects from x to y, you would add the statement
MODEL INDIRECT: y ind x;
to the MODEL command.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
Can we use endogenous switching regression model in analyzing impact of any intervention using R-software? if so, can any one tell me the syntax?
Relevant answer
Answer
BTW I forgot to say to be sure that you have the intervention coded on the RHS. Best wishes David Booth
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
Can someone share their syntax for how to set the nested fixed effect in SPSS for the repeated measure MANOVA?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Hannah,
Can you be a bit more specific as to what your variables include (between, and within on the IV side; the DVs as well)?
Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
My assignment is a space marching solution of the potential flow around a cylinder, using a code in Matlab. Once I have the grid generated using the meshgrid function, I need to apply the boundary conditions of the streamfunction psi to the boundaries of the grid, but I'm not sure how to code this.
However, I'm not sure the meshgrid function is necessarily the best method to use. Are there any other methods of generating a mesh type grid in Matlab?
I understand the theory behind it, bit its the syntax and coding which I am stuck with.
Any advice on how to code this would be appreciated.
Jack
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Saeb AmirAhmadi Chomachar for the reply, it has helped significantly.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Hello,
I'm having some problems running PROCESS v 4.0 on my Mac, for SPSS v27.0.
I can get to the stage where I run the Syntax and it looks like it works. But then the PROCESS tab isn't actually available.
There aren't error signs that appear at any stage, so I was wondering if anyone else was having this issue, and whether there are any solutions to this problem?
Any help would be much appreciated.
Adam
Relevant answer
Answer
I work with SPSS ver. 25 (MAC) and SPSS ver. 28 (Windows) and have not detected any problems with the macro. As an alternative PROCESS you can use the free statistical package JASP, which has a specific module for mediation (https://jasp-stats.org/) or JAMOVI (another free software alternative available at https://www.jamovi.org/). If you have worked with R, PROCESS macro works correctly in this environment.
Best Regards
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
10 answers
I am carrying out a research on patients with sarcopenia related to fracture rate, using SF-12 version 2 as the QoL tool.
I was wondering if anyone is using the same questionnaire and calculate the scores using SPSS syntax? Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
Could someone send me the syntax of the sf12v2 for SPSS?
I try to get a license of SF12 version 2 scoring is very expensive. I would greatly appreciate it. Thank you very much. My email: sumikao@icn.usyd.edu.au
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
6 answers
I have executed a research to assess the performance among diagnostics kits. I could determine the statistical components except Cohen's kappa coefficient. Here I compiled my data in binary values [1=positive, 0=negative]. To check the agreements among data I am in a need of calculating kappa coefficient. If anyone could provide me with syntax to calculate kappa coefficient using either Python or R I would be much obliged and feel grateful.
Regards....
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
In the current biolinguistics studies, the human language mechanism, viz., I-language ('i' stands for 'internal, individual and intensional') is regarded as the unique mental faculty of human being, hence, the language faculty. It can generate expressions for the internal abstract thinking activities, and the externalization of the generated expressions can be used for human communication. As a result, the distinction between I-language and externalization turns out to be more significant than had been realized until recently, as Chomsky recently points out. As for the design of computer, a laptop runs with an operative system, and is connected to other devices, such as a printer. That is to say, the message from the laptop can also be externalized as instructions for other systems. In this case, what are the similarities and differences in the designs of human language and a laptop?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that you already pointed out an important similarity: laptops can somehow communicate with other devices, such as printers.
For me, the most important difference is that the laptop and printer can only exchange a limited set of 'communications', whereas human language can communicate an infinite number of different messages. Maybe you can say that for human communication you need intelligence, in order to understand and produce messages that have not been foreseen in advance.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
21 answers
Referential and model-theoretic semantics has wide applications in linguistics, cognitive science, philosophy and many other areas. These formal systems incorporate the notion - first introduced by the father of analytic philosophy Gottlob Frege more than a century ago - that words correspond to things. The term ‘2’ denotes or refers to the number two. The name ‘Peter’ refers to Peter, the general term ‘water’ refers to H2O and so on. This simple idea later enabled Alfred Tarski to reintroduce the notion of ‘Truth’ into formal logic in a precise way, after it had been driven out by the logical positivist. Willard van Orman Quine, one of the most important analytic philosophers of the last century devoted most of his carer to understanding this notion. Reference is central to the work of people such as Saul Kripke, David Lewis and Hilary Putnam and many others.
Furthermore, the idea of a correspondence between whole expressions between, sentences or propositions and states of the world or facts drive the recent developments in philosophy of language and metaphysics under the label of ‘Grounding’ and ‘Truthmaking’ where a state of the world or a fact is taken to “make true” a sentence or a proposition. For example, the sentence “Snow is white.” is made true (or is grounded in) the fact that snow is white obtains. [1]
Given that this humble notion is of such importance to contemporary analytic philosophy, one may wonder why the father of modern linguistics - and a driving force in the field ever since the (second) cognitive revolution in the nineteen fifties - has argued for decades that natural language has no reference. Sure, we use words to refer to things, but usage is an action. Actions involve things like intentions, believes, desires etc. And thus, actions are vastly more complicated then the semantic notion of reference suggests. On Chomsky’s view then, natural language (might) not have semantics, but only syntax and pragmatics.
On Chomsky’s account, syntax is a formal representation of physically realized processes in the mind-brain of an organism. Which allows him to explain why semantics yields such robust results (a fact that he now acknowledges). What we call ‘semantics’ is in fact a formal representation of physically realized processes in the mind-brain of an organism – us. [2]
Chomsky has argued for this for a very long time and, according to him, to no avail. In fact, I only found discussion about this by philosophers long after I learned about his work. No one in a department that sides heavily on philosophy of language, metaphysics and logic ever mentioned Chomsky’s views on this core notion to us students. To be fair, some in the field seem to begin to pay attention. For instance, Kit Fine, one of the leading figures in contemporary metaphysics, addresses Chomsky’s view in a recent article (and rejects it). [3]
The main reason why I open this thread is that I came recently across an article that provides strong independent support to Chomsky’s position. In their article Fitness Beats Truth in the Evolution of Perception, Chetan Parakash et al. use evolutionary game theory to show that the likelihood for higher organisms to have evolved to see the world as it is (to have veridical perception) is exceedingly small. [4]
Evolutionary game theory applies the formalism originally developed by John von Neumann to analyze economic behavior and applies it in the context of natural selection. Thus, an evolutionary game is a game where at least two types of organisms compete over the same resources. By comparing different possible strategies, one can compute the likelihood for a stable equilibrium. [5]
Parakash et al. apply this concept to the evolution of perception. Simplifying a bit, we can take a veridical perception to be a perceptual state x of an organism such that x corresponds to some world state w. Suppose there are two strategies. One where the organism estimates the world state that is most likely to be the true state of the world. And another where the organism estimates which perceptual state yields the highest fitness. Then, the first strategy is consistently driven into extinction.
Now, compare this with reference: Some word (here taken to be a mental state) refers to a thing or a state of the world such that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the word and the world. It seems that this is an analogous situation. And thus, it should be equally unlikely that we have evolved to have reference in natural language. Any such claim needs empirical evidence and this is what Chomsky provides.
Chomsky’s main evidence comes from a test. I frame the test in terms of truthmaking. Consider the basic idea again:
  • The sentence A is made true (or grounded in) the fact that A obtains.
Now, if this is true, then one would expect that the meaning of A changes because the world changes. We take a fact to be something that our best scientific theories can identify. In other words we take the objective reality to be whatever science tells us it is. Then we systematically vary physically identifiable aspects of the world and see how the meaning of a term that is supposed to pic out these aspects changes. The hypothesis is that if there is reference or correspondence, then the changes on one side should be correlated with changes on the other side. If this is not the case, then there is no one-to-one correspondence between words and things, and thus, natural language is not related to the physical world.
I give three examples, often discussed by Chomsky, to illustrate how this works: Consider the term ‘water’, embedded in the sentence “The water flows in the river.” Then, what flows in the river should be H2O. Suppose there is a chemical plant upstream and suppose there is an accident. There may be very few H2O molecules left, but it is still a river, it’s still water. So, we have enormous change in the world, but no change in meaning.
Or suppose you put a teabag into a cup of water. The chemical change may be undetectable small, but if you order tea and you get water, you wouldn’t be amused. So, virtually no change in the physical world and clear change in meaning.
Last, consider a standard plot of a fairy tale. The evil witch turns the handsome prince into a frog, the story continuous and at the end, the beautiful princess kisses the frog and turns him back into the prince. Any child knows that the frog was the princess all along. All physical properties have changed, but no child has any difficulty to track the prince. What this suggests is that object permanence does not depend on the physical world, but on our mind-internal processes.
This test has been carried out for a large number of simple concepts, in all cases, there is no correlation between physically identifiable aspects of the world and words. Notice that the test utilizes a dynamic approach. Only if we look at changes we see what is going on.
So, counterintuitive as this may seem, the evidence from the test supports the argument from evolutionary biology that developing concepts that correspond to the world is no advantage at all. And so, we shouldn’t be surprised that this is what we find, once we look closely.
On the other hand, does this conclusively prove that there is no relation between our concepts and the physical world? Not really, after all, the logical structure of language is there, but it suggests that we should look at the mind for a connection between words and the world. If we want to show that language has reference in the technical sense.
Sven Beecken
  1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338557376_Ground_and_Truthmaker_Semantics
  2. Chomsky, Noam (2016). What Kind of Creatures are We? Columbia Themes in Philosophy. Columbia University Press.
  3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338549555_The_Identity_of_Social_Groups
  4. http://cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/FitnessBeatsTruth_apa_PBR
  5. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-evolutionary/
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm sorry I can't say anything about Chomsky's claims, but I'd like to try to add a few things to the discussion. Frege did not establish that words correspond to things but that it is possible to differentiate, within the meaning, between sense and reference; that is, "the morning star" and "the evening star" are two expressions that have different meanings (for example, because one alludes to morning situations and the other does not) but name, designate or refer to the same object or referent (the planet Venus). It must be said, however, that in order to metalinguistically affirm that these two expressions designate the same object, it is necessary to assume an ontology according to which what is seen in the morning and in the afternoon is the same thing; that is, when Cicero wrote De natura deorum, alluding to the morning star (Phosphorus, Lucero or Lucifer) and the evening star (Vesperus or Hespero) as two different entities, the Fregean distinction could have been made but not with these examples. What Tarski does - which to me has little to do with this semantic distinction - is to provide a criterion for any definition of truth in the "material" correspondence sense (in the sense of correspondence to extralinguistic reality), using a formula for expressions different level linguistic sentences (for a metalinguistic sentence and an object sentence): "X is true if and only if p", which is typically exemplified by the famous sentence "'Snow is white' is a true sentence if and only if snow is white". However, in the text itself, where he states that "truth" is a semantic term, he refers to "the truth" as if it were some kind of substance or entity and -fundamentally- as if it were the same as speaking of a term or a definition, which in my opinion rather obscures his claims. But, furthermore, since it can also be said " 'Nothing nothings' is a true sentence if and only if nothing nothings", it seems to me that the formula has much the aspect of a circular or tautological logical device and that, most importantly, which is to explain why a "material" sentence is true and what exactly it means to correspond to a fact precisely remains unexplained.
Also -and despite Chomsky's affirmations-, one must not confuse the thesis that natural language has no reference with the one that it does not describe in the material sense (that it does not describe facts that actually exist), because these affirmations are not equivalents. To speak of reference is to speak of language, and only of language. It can be said that a term or a sentence refers and that does not commit one to the affirmation that this referent exists beyond language, that it can be sustained or not. On the other hand, when it is affirmed that a thing exists or that an event occurs, we are not talking about language, but about a part of the extralinguistic reality that is assumed to exist. For example, and given the Fregean distinction, it can be said that the phlogiston theory refers, because the phlogiston theory is language and the reference is a semantic relation: the phlogiston is the object to which it alludes (its referent), and that in her the term "phlogiston" has a certain meaning, and to say at the same time that her affirmations do not describe any fact or any entity of the world (that phlogiston does not exist), and in the first case, from our metalanguage something is affirmed about a language object (the phlogiston theory) but when it is said that there is no entity in the world that is phlogiston, one is not talking about language and, therefore, nothing is being said about semantic relations. Now, the thesis that natural language does not have a descriptive function, or does not describe extralinguistic facts or entities and properties, has been confuted in various ways, fundamentally assuming different assumptions about its nature, for example, by pragmatist, neopragmatist arguments, by those who maintain that languages ​​are acts or actions, etc. In an article on the beginnings of the Vienna Circle, Carl Hempel says that the thesis that there could be a correspondence between language and facts was already rejected because they were things of a different nature between which there was an "abyss". Perhaps a quick way to express it is to say that there will always be an insurmountable metaphysical difference between the word table, with its meaning, and table, and for some authors that means that "correspondence" is impossible. If you want to complicate things further, a Kantian or neo-Kantian might say that correspondence with facts is impossible because at best there may be a correspondence with what appears to us as facts in the mind.
If we are talking about language, reference and correspondence with facts, it can be problematic to offer arguments that speak of perceptions or words as mental states, since there are several arguments that have opposed the thesis of the mental or internal nature of language natural, from the sciences considering that it is a system of (physical) signs that responds to certain rules and is intended for communication between speakers, and from philosophy authors such as Reichenbach or Carnap have considered that it is not mental, and even Karl Popper has been emphatic about it, considering that it is abstract in nature. Another way of understanding it is by thinking that natural language is a collective evolutionary product of a species of animals, that words and meanings existed before any of us, that we have simply learned to reproduce it in consciousness and use it. That is, is this a philosophy of language debate or a philosophy of mind debate? Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Is there anyone who can provide me a mixed ANOVA model syntax for analysis of genotype X location X year data of RCBD and suggest to me which parameters are assumed to be fixed and random?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Gecho,
I dont have sorry.
Best,
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
I have a database referring to a customer satisfaction survey with 500 respondents and 23 variables based on a linkert scale. I understand that the Rating Scale Model can be a good tool for evaluating research, I would like to know if anyone could recommend an R package or syntax to process this data.
Relevant answer
Answer
I need it too, Please if you get let me know
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
Does anybody know where to obtain the SPSS syntax for WHODAS 2.0? I recall reading about it several years ago, but can't find it now.
Thanks
John
Relevant answer
Answer
There is code starting on p. 59 of the manual you can download here:
Unfortunately, copy-paste does not seem to work on it--I get a bunch of add characters when I try that.
Note too that you can almost certainly make the code a lot more efficient than it is. For example, several of the RECODE commands simply create a new variable that is equal to the old variable minus 1. Instead of a RECODE command for each one, you could just use a simple DO-REPEAT structure like this:
DO REPEAT
old = D1_1 D1_2 D1_3 D1_4 etc /
new = D11 D12 D13 D14 etc.
COMPUTE new = old-1.
END REPEAT.
Also, when you do need to use RECODE, bear in mind that it can take a LIST of variables. E.g., D1_5 and D1_6 both get recoded the same way, so you can use one command like this:
RECODE D1_5 D1_6
(1=0) (2 3 = 1) (4 5 = 2)
INTO D15 D16.
Finally, in the bit where the author adds a bunch of items, you may (or may not) want to use the SUM() or SUM.n() function rather than using a bunch of + signs. For more info about SUM() and SUM.n() see the Universals section of the Command Syntax Reference manual. Or for a really quick explanation, see this page:
HTH.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Fatal error: Syntax error - File ligand.itp, line 6 Last line read: '[ atomtypes ]' Invalid order for directive atomtypes
Best Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
Actually the problem is on the the presence of two topology files. when no ligand is there the system is nicely simulated.
When the ligand is shown on the topology by #include , that time problem is coming.
It's possible that your topology (ITP file of the ligand?) has been included twice.
Assuming it to be a gromacs error, try getting your hands on these tutorials:
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
13 answers
I want to use a neural network classifier to separate patients and healthy persons by some parameters. and then test validation of the classifier. Is svm a proper tool? And how can I test the validation? Which Syntaxs should I use?
Relevant answer
Answer
There are 22 algorithm of Matlab when you decide to analyze your data, from all Tree training on Classification window. Then, you can choose best of Classifier for your data.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Anyone have a SAS program to process data from the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ)? The MRC lists a STATA syntax (https://www.mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk/physical-activity-downloads/), but I do not use STATA.
Relevant answer
Answer
Convert Stata to SAS.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
Hi,
I need someone to help me to plot interpolated wind speed from wrfout using ncl script.
Using the attached ncl script, I am getting this error:
fatal:syntax error: line 122 in file windspeed4.ncl before or near \n
end
-------^
fatal:error in statement
free(): invalid pointer
Aborted (core dumped).
I need your help, please.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
9 answers
can anyone help me to find out the solution.
Relevant answer
Answer
An outstanding guide about "How to solve the error message in Gaussian", please refer to the useful link: https://docs.computecanada.ca/wiki/Gaussian_error_messages
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
I have performed a QM/MM protein-ligand simulation in Qsite. I would like to calculate the binding energy using the qsite_binding_energies.py script
Can anyone help me with the proper syntax of the command.
I tried "$SCHRODINGER/run qsite_binding_energies.py -h" to know the syntax but could not figure out how to specify the input files.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
I already solved the problem, add the solution if it works for you:
$SCHRODINGER/run qsite_binding_energies.py qsite_7.01.mae 'complexes' -ligmolnum -singlepoint
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
22 answers
Hi everyone
Language editing is a major concern for authors who do not have English as their primary language. Problems with grammar, language, and syntax can result in the rejection of manuscripts from international biomedical Journals. The editors and experts often recommend professional editing which can sometimes cost hundreds of dollars. This is not feasible nor affordable for the majority of authors and researchers based in developing countries who do not have sufficient funds or institutional support.
Many online language editing softwares are now available but the better ones have limited functionality for the free version for example Grammarly.
Please share your experience of using online language editing software with their and strengths and shortcomings. I have been Trinka for 4 months now with excellent results and would highly recommend it
It is the world’s first grammar and language enhancement tool is custom-built for academic & technical writing. Its standout features are that it works with the author and goes beyond the grammar and spellcheck to ensure holistic language enhancement.
If you have not tried it yet, Sign up for a free account from this link
Share your experience of other software too
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use grammarly
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Hello everyone, I'm trying to calculate the number of events between 2 dates in Stata, eg from birth to 1st vaccination date, etc.
Can someone please help me with syntax?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Anyone with a solution for this?
  • asked a question related to Syntax
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
We are using the SF12 in our master thesis.
We would like to know what the exact difference is between SF12 v1 and v2?
We already found a syntax for v1, but we have used the second version and could'nt find a syntax for v2.
Is it possible that anyone can send us this syntax for the second version for SPSS (/excel)?
Thanks in advance!!
Relevant answer
Answer
Would you please let me know how to score the SF-12? I'm in doubt about the weights too and how to use them to calculate the SF-12. How to do it in microsoft excel?
Thanks in advance. Mayara, mayara_amenezes@hotmail.com
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
I am using the PROCESS Macro to conduct a moderation analysis. To visualise the significant interaction, I copied and pasted the necessary text and created a new syntax. The scatterplot was produced but I am unable to add fit lines at the subgroups (please see screenshot of error message attached).
Does anyone know why this might be? I have had a browse online and have seen a lot of mention about re-coding categorical variables when faced with this problem. However, in my case, the variables included in the creation of the scatterplot are all continuous.
Relevant answer
Answer
You may wish to look at the material from the attached search. The plots in R should be fairly easy if that's all you need to do. Best wishes, David Booth
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Hi,
Does anyone may have suggestions to compute constrained maximum likelihood estimate (CMLE) instead of ML estimate in a Wald Test In Mplus using MODEL TEST COMMAND? My latent class are unequal in terms of sample size and some have small sample size, and this method seems to be more adapted for this type of design.
Here is an example of my syntax for Wald test:
Model Constraint:
New(P1vs2 P1vs3 P2vs3);
P1vs2 = P1 - P2;
P1vs3 = P1 - P3;
P2vs3 = P2 - P3;
Model Test:
0 = P1vs2 - P1vs3;
0 = P1vs2 - P2vs3;
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
This is really difficult I think
to get a start you might want to look at Wald test construction in the attached paper. Best wishes, David Booth
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
7 answers
The syntax is needed for MATLAB 2007.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can export the workspace data. Use tikz package along with pgfplots package to generate the figure.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
The Multivariate Linear Regression from IBM's GLM syntax provides the results:
1. Multivariate Test: having 4 test results: Pillai's trace, Wilk's Lambda, Hotelling's trace and Roy's largest roots.
2. Test of Between-Subjects Effects; providing the results of Sum Squares, Means Squares, F and Sig.
3. Parameter Test
4. Contrast Results (K-Matrix).
I am running multivariate test for 2 model :
1st Model : 1 IV with 2DV
2nd Model: 7 IV with 2 DV
Sub-question 1: If I want to reject the null hypothesis; which table should I look into?
Sub-question 2: Which figure to use for hypothesis testing of the relationship between each predictor and two variables?
Sub-question 3: As per in the headline questions, where can I look into the beta values of each predictor and each dependent variable in the multivariate regression analysis.
Thank you very much for your kind suggestion.
Regards,
Sitthimet
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much David Eugene Booth.
I think what I need is in the Parameter Estimates table.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
Hello, I have a question for researchers who have tried running a replication code of a graph syntax.
When I try to replicate using the syntax files, I often found out the commands usually like this (example from Mostly Harmless Econometrics).
But to run the syntax, I had to delete those /// in each line and type the syntax in a single row of the command line. (The do file editors could not read the replication code).
But then why do the researchers upload the syntax using /// and separate each option?
And can I get a quick way to replicate the graph using the commands by not deleting all the ///?
I googled a lot but could not figure it out...
Thank you all in advance!
graph twoway (line lwklywge yqob, lcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob == 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(S) mcolor(black)) /// (scatter lwklywge yqob if qob != 1, /// mlabel(qob) msize(small) msymbol(Sh) mcolor(black)), /// xlabel(, format(%tqY)) /// title("B. Average weekly wage by quarter of birth (reduced form)") /// ytitle("Log weekly earnings") /// xtitle("Year of birth") /// legend(off) /// name(lwklywge) /// scheme(s1mono)
Relevant answer
Answer
You're welcome Gisk Pyeon and thanks for recommendation!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
I have six non-linear independent continuous variables that I would like to include in my logistic regression to estimated adjusted ORs.
I performed the logistic regression using this syntax code:
__
LOGISTIC REGRESSION VARIABLES VariableX
/METHOD=ENTER Factor1 Factor2 Factor3 Factor4 Factor5 Factor6
/PRINT=GOODFIT CI(95)
/CRITERIA=PIN(0.05) POUT(0.10) ITERATE(20) CUT(0.5).
____
But the output results look messed up, I get numbers like "7937E.+12" and zeros for Exp(B) for the different indepedent factors.
Any solution? What is the right way to perform multivariable regression analysis for such dataset?
Relevant answer
Answer
hi Salma.
Chapter 4 of categorical data analysis book written by Alen Agresti (third edition) is about Logestic Regression. You can study more about that and also it has some codes with R software maybe helps you . Good luck
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
6 answers
How to conduct multilevel mediation with level two outcomes and between IV and mediator there is level 2 moderator? anyone can help me with mplus syntax? thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Very interesting question. I am interested in knowing about it
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
I suddenly experience a problem with SPSS27. If i want to open an existing data set, nothing happens. Also if I try to import data or create a new data set. If I open an existing Output file or Syntax file, this is done successfully. My license is current. Can anyone suggest a solution?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks. However, there is a problem. I installed a temporary version of SPSS, "IBM SPSS Subscription", (free for a month) and it behaved in exactly the same way, refusing to open, import or create data files.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
how to add syntax for model 7 in AMOS
Relevant answer
Answer
Imran Anwar how does this help with a syntax in AMOS?
Ishfaq Shoukat do you have latent variables or only manifest variables? If the latter, the implementation is straight forward, where is the problem?
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
Hi there,
I was looking for a scoring guide or SPSS/Stata/R syntax for scoring SF 12 version-2. Can anyone help me in this regard? My email address is m.alimam@cqu.edu.au
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Sven Greving ,
Its a different version of SF-12 v2 called 'SOEP-version of SF12v2'. And the questions used in the SOEP2004 are NOT IDENTICAL to the original SF12v2! The author explcitely said that ***This syntax works only for surveys using the SOEP Version of SF12v2.
Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
6 answers
Dear colleagues, there are many commands in R that makes available to the researcher to make simulations using some Rasch models. However, I do not know any command or syntax in R that is suitable to the researcher he/she performs simulations of an individual, using dynamic Rasch models. I would be very grateful if anyone can show me any command or syntax suitable for simulations of a single person using dynamic Rasch models.
Best regards,
Cristiano.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Cristiano,
I am not familiar with dynamic Rasch models, but in univariate time series, we can have, in the simplest scenario, AR, MA, ARMA, or ARIMA models. Each make different assumptions about how the value in the present affects the value of the same variable in the future. Using any of these models to, first, calculate the dependencies of theta in time, then you can set the item parameters as fixed for all time points, and then apply the Rasch model for simulating the responses for each time points.
In terms of estimating the parameters of this model, I believe a dynamic Rasch model can be derived from Hidden Markov Models and then any ML or Bayesian method can be applied. Hit me up if I can give any specific help regarding the cited procedures/methods.
Best!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
Dear Collegaues,
I hope all is well.
Thank you very much for your help
I am used to STATA and very new to using R package.
STATA has lasso inference for linear and logistic regression. However, it doesnt have LASSO features for cox regression.
I wonder if I can use R to do LASSO inference for cox regression model?
I am literally very new to R and would appreciate if you can help me do syntax in R for my model.
I am sorry that I am very Naive in R
If I am using STATA, I would do the following to produce the cox model:
1)stset PTIME, failure(PSTATUS)
2)stcox i.sex BMI_TCR COLD_ISCH_KI SERUM_CREAT END_CPRA i.ETHCAT AGE AMIS BMIS i.STEROIDS_MAINT AGE_DON i.DIAB i.dgf
3)estat phtest (to test proportional hazard assumptions)
I wonder what is the syntax to do the same in R ?
Also, what are the syntaxes to use this model to perform LASSO inference for cox harazrd regression?
Finally how to do the post-estimation tests after fitting in the LASSO inference for cox harard regression?
Thank you vey much for your help
Looking forward to hearing back from you
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
5 answers
I would like to create a variable, taking into account the person's income, number of children, and the total number of people living in one household.
The idea would be that if the respondent has not directly reported his income (sd13a), but has answered the question on the income categories (sd13b), the information should be taken from there. In Stata, this would look like this:
* Substitute sd13a with categories replace sd13a = sd13b if sd13a == . & sd13b != .
Does anyone know what the syntax in SPSS might look like? Thanks a lot for your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
Very interesting topic.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
SAGE publication requires the following information about the data of our paper. May I ask if anyone knows how to get a "syntax file" for SmartPls?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Fatemeh,
Some journal editorial policies do ask for setup/syntax information, with the idea that an interested reader could attempt a replication of the analysis (or, at least understand how the analysis you're reporting was elicited). Sometimes, manuscript reviewers want such files for these reasons as well.
There is a simple way to export the set-up for your analysis in SmartPLS; see this link: https://www.smartpls.com/documentation/functionalities/export-project
Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
MA thesis is going to be conducted on the syntax and semantics of food/fruit idioms in English.
Any source and previous studies will be highly appreciated
thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Here is a PowerPoint about "Plant and Food Metaphors." Best of luck with your research.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I believe the "sentence processing" is a topic discussed in Psycholinguistics (I am not a Linguist, so please bear with me) .
In Psycholinguistics, what are the general steps in how a sentence is processed by human?
For example, from what I gather from google search, the general procedures in human sentence processing seem to be in the following order:
1. Syntactic analysis of a sentence
2. Shallow semantic processing of the sentence
3. Deep (?) semantic processing of the sentence
....
Is there any paper that talks about such procedures?
Thank you,
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much, Mr.Nilsen, I just had an overview, it perturbs the logic succinctly.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
In a daily diary survey, I have collected data for 10 days regarding 1 independent variable (IV), 1 mediator (Med), and 4 dependent variables (DV). I have also collected some more data before conducting the diary survey to use as moderators or control variables, for example, demographics-related (observed), motivation-related (latent variable).
This means the IV, Med and DVs are all Level 1 continuous variables, and moderators are Level 2 continuous and categorical variables.
In the beginning, I utilized MLmed macro for SPSS by Hayes and Rockwood (2020) to conduct multilevel moderated mediation analyses. However, I found many diary studies report the utilization of multi-level structural equational modeling (MSEM) in MPLUS. So I want to conduct MSEM/DSEM in Mplus because we can also check the model fit of our data, but I am not sure which example in the Mplus guide or which model and syntax would be the most appropriate for our data. The example of Mplus syntax provided in the Mplus guide regarding DSEM in chapter 9 (http://www.statmodel.com/ugexcerpts.shtml) in my understanding does not contain any example of, 1-1-1 mediation analyses moderated by level 2 variable. If anyone could kindly share any idea regarding Mplus syntax or resources for conducting 1-1-1 analyses moderated by level 2 variables that would be very helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
You may find the following two papers helpful in your work. In the appendix of the papers, you will find specific syntax examples that might help you. However, Mplus does not provide fit indices when TYPE=TWOLEVEL RANDOM is used.
Preacher, K. J., Zhang, Z., & Zyphur, M. J. (2011). Alternative methods for assessing mediation in multilevel data: The advantages of multilevel SEM. Structural Equation Modeling, 18(2), 161-182.
Preacher, K. J., Zhang, Z., & Zyphur, M. J. (2016). Multilevel structural equation models for assessing moderation within and across levels of analysis. Psychological Methods, 21(2), 189-205.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
1 answer
Hi,
I'm running BARON on an AMPL instance that I uploaded on the NEOS server. Unfortunately, it times out after a few minutes. It is possible to pass an option file to set the time limit (maxtime), but I struggle to find the right syntax.
I've tried:
option maxtime 10000
maxtime 10000
MAXTIME=10000
Either it is not recognized, or it has no effect.
Can you help me out?
Thanks,
Charlie
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Hi everyone,
I am new to the field of industrial engineering. I need to formulate a gams model for a permutation flowshop scheduling problem. I will appreciate if someone can send me a code example with interpretation of how to extract the sequence of jobs that optimize certain objective from the gams output.
Thanks in advance.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Hi,
We have developed a digitally delivered behavioral change intervention with personalized feedback for college students making use of illicit drugs (see our protocol published here:
(JMIR Res Protoc 2020;9(8):e17829) doi: 10.2196/17829)
We are now in the process of examining the different components of the intervention in an RCT study, using a fractional factorial design.
Does anyone have access to SAS Factex (full version) to run the syntax for us and help us to estimate the number of experimental arms? I do not have access/knowledge on SAS.
The syntax has been defined using the tutorial paper of Collin's et al (Psychol Methods. 2009 September ; 14(3): 202–224. doi:10.1037/a0015826.) and we only want the template SAS generates to define the experimental arms.
All the details can be provided, please email me v.vasiliou@ucc.ie
*Further collaboration will be discussed and of course acknowledgment on the paper will be secured.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Medhat, this is what I finally did. I asked some colleagues from the Mathematics department who helped me with this. Thank you
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
3 answers
How can I use several lines of "with at least one of the words" in google scholar? How is the equivalent syntax? Additionally, Do you know some automatic post-process method to filter the google scholar results? For example, by h index or by the number of citations?
I am trying to define a literature review scheme as automatic as possible to reduce the number of results and limit the manual review (abstracts, introductions and conclusions) to the smallest possible number (obviously, refining the criteria to try not to leave relevant results out) ) Is this a good strategy?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
Hi, does anyone have a script for SPSS that helps separating the scales from the SCL-90R syptom checklist?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Tom, did you ever work out the syntax for the SCL90 subscales in SPSS? I need them too! Kind regards, Rhia.
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
I am working mainly with SAS and processed my data all steps in SAS. A user needed the data files in SPSS, but at the same time need all variable attributes to be included (formats, missing, var labels, etc.). I prepared an SPSS syntax for that and it is working if I run it in an additional step. In other words, after done with processing the data in SAS, I run the SPSS syntax using SPSS. What I need is how to include (%include ... doesn't work) the SPSS syntax to run automatically when I run my SAS programs!
Thanks dear friends, YA
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks again Peter, I will read the text, even though from the first glance I can say, there is no specific SAS --> Python --> SPSS include! But maybe this can help somehow. Thanks again!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
4 answers
We are developing a test for ad-hoc (ad-hoc) and scalar implicatures (SI) and are showing 3 images (of similar nature) to the participants: image, image with 1 item, image with 2 items.
Eg. Plate with pasta, a plate with pasta and sauce, a plate with pasta, sauce and meatballs.
A question for an ad-hoc is: My pasta has meatballs, which is my pasta?
Q. for an SI is: My pasta has sauce or meatballs, which is my pasta? (pasta with sauce is the target item since we are testing pragmatic implicatures, where 'or' means 'not both'.
The item that causes many difficulties in making up questions is the image without any items, ie. plate with pasta. How do we phrase the question so that it elicits this image as a target response, without using too complex syntax?
Negation; "My plate has no sauce or meatballs", "My plate has only pasta, no sauce and no meatballs", seems like a complex structure to introduce as a counterbalance to the other type of items.
Has anyone tested something similar, without negation? We would be grateful for any kind of tips and hints.
Relevant answer
Answer
Could you just say: my plate has plain plasta?
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
2 answers
We are developing a test for ad-hoc (ad-hoc) and scalar implicatures (SI) and are showing 3 images (of similar nature) to the participants: image, image with 1 item, image with 2 items.
E.g. Plate with pasta, a plate with pasta and sauce, a plate with pasta, sauce and meatballs.
A question for an ad-hoc is: My pasta has meatballs, which is my pasta?
Q. for an SI is: My pasta has sauce or meatballs, which is my pasta? (pasta with sauce is the target item since we are testing pragmatic implicatures, where 'or' means 'not both'.)
The item that causes many difficulties in making up questions is the image without any items, ie. plate with pasta. How do we phrase the question so that it elicits this image as a target response, without using too complex syntax?
Negation; "My plate has no sauce or meatballs", "My plate has only pasta, no sauce and no meatballs", seems like a complex structure to introduce as a counterbalance to the other type of items.
Has anyone tested something similar, without negation? We would be grateful for any kind of tips and hints.
Relevant answer
Answer
Chris Dixon Thank you for the contribution! We thought about it and actually we will go with it for now, as 'empty' could be the ad hoc implicature. Only the plate then is the subject, not the pasta. But we will give 'empty' a shot!
  • asked a question related to Syntax
Question
9 answers
I am writing a piece of code in the Syntax of SPSSstatistics. The code is the following.