Science topic

# Symbolism - Science topic

A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Questions related to Symbolism
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Can I use the symbol % to explain the table in my Ph.D. thesis? Or I have to write in sentences...
Yes, if that fits your data.Regards
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I'm currently testing for the relationship between a dependent variable (reveal) and 3 different independent variables (SVO Angle, Internalization and Symbolization)
When I run a logistic regression in Stata for the dependent variable and the three independent variables I get that the SVO Angle is significant B = 0.14 , z = 3.28 , p = 0.001.
However when I run a simple pairwise correlation in Stata, I get a correlation value of 0.24 which is basically no correlation.
What do these results mean? Does anyone know?
Hi Angelica,
I have currently run into a comparable problem. In my case, a U-shaped correlation appeared to be the reason. Maybe try to fit another type of correlation?
Best
Boris
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My model uses Big Five personality data to estimate how likely people are to follow COVID-19 guidelines. Here is my R output. Please write out how to format the report with appropriate symbols if possible.
Check the APA formatting style. That one should be appropriate.
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I am somewhat confused regarding the use of - and / in the representation of materials. How does it define? For example, GO-Ni and GO/Ni, does that the same? It would be constructive and helpful if this question could be answered clearly. Thank you.
Ankit Agrawal Thank you for the answer
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I am having trouble searching for best software or site, platform which can help me create my own math exam questions ( undergraduate level), I don't want multiple choice type questions, in fact a platform where student can enter numerical and symbols and it does grading too but in a smart way, by this I mean, grading closer to instructor grading.
If anyone knows such a site/platform or software, please let me know
Thank you in advance for every help and comment
Fatima
You can use Socrates
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Hi everyone
I wanted to know how to generate the set of MQAM symbols in Matlab given a specific modulation order WITHOUT using Matlab's "qammod" function. I have tried researching the problem, but all I seem to get recommended is the qammod function. If someone could please, at the very least, explain the process of modulation and how the symbols are generated based on the modulation order so I can then translate that into Matlab code.
Thank you
Dear Yashil Morar:
As you know, the QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation combines amplitude & phase changes to give additional capacity & is widely used for data communications.
##################
The GeneralQAMModulator object modulates using quadrature amplitude modulation. The output is a baseband representation of the modulated signal.
To modulate a signal using quadrature amplitude modulation:
1- Define and set up your QAM modulator object. See Construction.
2- Call step to modulate a signal according to the properties of comm.GeneralQAMModulator. The behavior of step is specific to each object in the toolbox.
###########
Also these attached Exchange zip files ...
I hope it will be helpful....
Best regards....
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Dear fellow mathematicians,
Using a computational engine such as Wolfram Alpha, I am able to obtain a numerical expression. However, I need a symbol expression. How can I do that?
I need the expression of the coefficients of this series.
x^2*csc(x)*csch(x)
where csc: cosecant (1/sin), and csch: hyperbolic cosecant.
Today I spared time to get an accurate answer to this question, which is showed in the picture uploaded here.
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I want to give the meanings of the used symbols in the appendix, and those symbols consist of a variety of sources: English alphabets, Latin characters, Greek characters, and all of these consist of subscript and superscript. The mathematical symbols are implemented through a LaTeX command that is compatible with the MathType equation editor in Word, such as ${R_x^{y}}$, ${\gamma}$, $P_{0,0}$ (these symbols are given as an example).
The list of symbols is a quite long list.
Do you know anybody, how to handle sorting these types of symbols, preferably the genetic source (English/Latin/Greek symbols) are together?
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Yes, colors matter. For example, the red color often means activity and action, the blue color is gentleness and peaceful disposition, while the green color rests our eyes to the greatest degree.
What do you think are given specific colors and / or characteristics to colors? What is the symbolism of each color?
Are the embossed features and symbolism given to colors?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
The different colors of the beautiful nature of the National Parks of North America Best regards,
Dariusz
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I need to publish an article in APA 7. The reviewer says not to se the words "Mode, Skewness and Kurtosis" in tables, but to use symbols instead. I cannot fond these symbols.
Up to date skewness and kurtosis are not defined by the APA. In mathematics and statistics, symbols b1 to b4 are reserved for skewness coefficients (depending on the formula for calculating the coefficient). For kurtosis, it is usually the Greek letter K (kappa). See: Groeneveld, R. A., & Meeden, G. (1984). Measuring skewness and kurtosis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician), 33(4), 391-399. With regard to APA, this raises problems because the b coefficients are reserved for regression and structural models, and K for Cohen's coefficient of concordance.
In addition, it is not clear which formula is used to calculate both coefficients by subsequent statistical programs, because technical documentation is not for everything. This means that you do not know exactly which result you are reporting, and therefore which symbol you should use.
The publishing practice (journal scientific articles, dissertations) is that the measures of skewness and kurtosis are redundant (and really controversial in interpretation), because either the result of the normal distribution test (for most "standard" analyzes You report statistical significance of a normality of distribution test such as the Saphiro-Wilk test) or the result of the multivariate normal distribution in the form of CR (crtitical ratio) is reported. The rest is completely redundant, so the APA does not define it. So it seems suspicious that you need to report such a result. Are you sure the reviewer knows what he/she is doing?
So in practice, use any abbreviation (eg Skew, Kurt) and describe it in the table notes. This will follow the APA mechanics and not contradict the APA symbols rules.
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hello, we're currently doing some research regarding metaphors in the urban environment
and we need some studying regarding the following
1) we need a case study on some city or part of a city about the existence of metaphors and the use of metaphors there for some environmental, functional, social, symbolic or aesthetic end
2) generally any study on metaphors in the urban environment
3) a study categorizing metaphors based on their use (the end which they serve)
Dear Dr. Abbas Mohammed ,
I consider that it is not enough for us to find an analogy to say that "we are in a metaphor", we often do it through a statement of identity or category of an object or a relevant character. The metaphor continues to be simply the use of one of the many types of "loose language" whose process has always consisted in qualifying the objective that appears before our eyes or simply uses or uses metaphors through the same inferential mechanisms that we apply to any form of language.
In relation to a study categorizing metaphors based on their use [the end which they serve] ou can see my Academic Research Papers,
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A. Must begin with a letter and not a number
B. Must end in a full stop
C. Cannot exceed 64 characters
D. Cannot include symbols as ?, & and %
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symbolic solution
Julia
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Also on NCBI, these Ensembl IDs match to one gene only
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studies related to the characterization and symbolisms in olu obafemi's wheels and ngugi wa thiongo's a grain of wheat
Suggestion:
Key words: Ecosemiotic, Biosemiotic,
Im recommend you to follow Timo
Best regards, Oscar
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How the data stream ( QPSK or QAM symbols ) in the transmitter created for the MU- mimo in the massive mimo ? and how the symbols are multiplied by the precoding matrix? for example, we have 30 transmitting antennas in the Basestation, 10 active users so you have 10 streams per user and each stream contained 10 symbols so How can allocate the stream(data symbol ) to a specific user in the transmitter when using matlab? and how the multiplication by the precoding matrix accomplished to generated the transmitted signal?
is the transmitted signal fed to all basestion antennas?
There are several textbooks on the topic that I recommend you to read.
In short, all signals are transmitted from all base station antennas. That is the core thing with Massive MIMO. Let M be the number of antennas and K the number of users.
Precoding matrix: P has dimension M x K.
Signal vector (at one symbol time): s has dimension K x 1
You then generate the transmitted signal by the matrix-vector multiplication Ps. You repeat the same operation for every symbol time in your transmission block, where P is constant but s changes.
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The symbolic variables in the matrix are all greater than zero and are not equal to each other. So what conditions do the 30 symbolic variables in the diagram satisfy when the matrix is reversible, or full rank, or no zero eigenvalue? Thank you very much for your answer.
To find the rank of a matrix, you can transform that matrix into its echelon form. Then determine the rank by the number of non zero rows.
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Hello, everybody!
In a given study if the significant variable has a negative symbol, what it indicates in Coefficient?
pls, share your experience of how to Discuses and justify this kind of occurrence!
Thanks!
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given bit/symbol = 1
given,message length(number of bits) and symbol rate(sym/s) , how can I calculate the number of samples
Thanks
Population determines samples
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In many publications etc. when discussing about centrifuging parameters (in g) you can see the x before the unit g. When you want to say that some distance is for example 100 m, you don't have to say it is 100 times one meter so you don't put 100 x m. So why is the x put in front of g almost everywhere? Is it to do that it is not an SI-unit or something? I can't remember seeing such a way of writing it with an times symbol x in front of other non-SI-units. This might be a very minute issue, but I would like to understand this or then just start to write it without the x if it doesn't make sense.
Relative Centrifugal Force (RCF) or g-force (both are the same; RCF is reported in units of gravity) is a measurement of the gravitational force that a sample experiences. The ideal technique of measurement is RCF since it will remain constant even if you use a different centrifuge with a variable rotor size.
Best Regards
Dr. Fatemeh Khozaei
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Hello fellow researchers,
for my final thesis I want to examine if sustainability is a new status symbol and if yes, how strong it is and it's differences to luxury goods (and also if a luxury good is not "green" does this circumstance reduce it's symbolic power?).
Unfortunenately, I cannot find any studies in the past that examine status symbolism. More precisely, I need a scale or a model that measuers status perception or status symbolism (of any obejct).
Does someone has an idea where I can find such scale/model, or can someone post a study that uses or developed such scale/model?
I am thankful for every help.
Greetings from Germany :)
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The detection was of uv-vis thru a traditional double convex (glass) lens.
Can a parabolic reflecting lens focus and detect RF with this same coating, or stereoscopically 2 parabolics, with sufficient amplification ?
Detection of uv-vis with these metals of low work function is by the photoelectric effect.
But what was the phenomena of Marconi's transatlantic detection of RF (and its associated keyed Morse CODE) by the silver nickel powder "coherer" in the circuit?
Are there electrical component specifications for the coherer (V, I, R). The electrical schematic produced by Google searches shows a DC circuit with an Antenna symbol and other recognizable elements, but the "coherer" is not symbolized but is a 2D sketch of what it actually looked like.
Note: The lay word for parabolic is "dish".
hi,
The electrical parameter Resistance is the measurable quantity which undergoes changes as the ferrous particles of the coherer are exposed to the impinging electromagnetic field. Even though google may not show any particular details, one can just measure the DC resistance (DC circuit with an antenna) to detect RF signals using coherer. If you use metallic parabolic reflectors and place the coherer at its focal point, the signals will be highly concentrated on it. This will to see the changes in the resistance value relatively with an ease.
Regards
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I am working on some semicunductor devices, modeling them both symbolically and numerically to verify accuracy. Now, I want to choose my simulation path, but I am not confident about interpretaions since numerical results diminish insight perception while symbolic description is usually heavy in size, non linear and incomprehensible. So adding physical description to numrical methods or / and performing simplification on symbolic description may help to more solid result.
Any electronic device can be solved either analytically or numerically. The analytical solutions of the semicondcutor equations describing the behavior of the device are only possible under simplified conditions and approximations that is to say idealized devices. Such solutions are normally very approximate and describe the behavior of the devices under very limited operation conditions.
But they are very transparent and one can easily show how the device performance can be changed by its physical and technological parameters.
An example of such solution is Shockley pn junction diode equation giving the relation between the the current and the voltage of the diode.
In order to determine the performance of the diode under and operating condition one has to solve the device equations numerically.
Nowadays there are powerful numerical solvers for the electronic devices. They are called device simulators such as SILVACO and SENTAURUS.
Before the wide spread of the computers the scientists and engineers relied much on the analytical solutions. They are elegant, transparent and very compact but lacks generality.
Numerical solutions are complicated, needs a computing platform but accurate and of general use.
Best wishes
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I have blasted a long list of protein sequence queries coming from a non-model organism using BLAST+. The resulting output csv file contains Refseq id's from different species (depending on best match). I would like to eventually perform a differential analysis with another Mus musculus data set, so I need to convert these identifiers into protein symbols corresponding to the Mus musculus proteome, even if the best match is of a different species. Is there an automated way to do this?
G-Profiler should do the trick...
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To improve spectral efficiency (SE), how can we reduce pilot contamination in massive MIMO by making the pilot reuse factor proportional to the frame length symbols and suppressing inter-cell interference?
The answer is basically in your text. If the same pilots are only used in every 3rd, 4th, or 7th cell (assuming a hexagonal cell geometry), the distance between the users that interfere with each other can be made negligible.
Chapter 6 in the textbook "Fundamentals of Massive MIMO" describes this in detail.
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I am using DAVID (https://david.ncifcrf.gov/home.jsp) to cluster some genes I found upregulated in my RNAseq data. I am just using the official gene symbol without any quantitative data. However, the KEGG pathway results are giving me p-values which are extremely high. It does not make any sense to me. How the p-value can be calculated without any number? Can the p-value be significant?
DAVID adopts Fisher's Exact test to measure the gene-enrichment in annotation terms. It is just a matter of making a 2x2 contingency table, as in the example here: https://david.ncifcrf.gov/content.jsp?file=functional_annotation.html (section 2.2).
---------------------------------------
A Hypothetical Example In the human genome background (30,000 genes total; Population Total (PT)), 40 genes are involved in the p53 signaling pathway (Population Hits (PH)). A given gene list has found that three genes (List Hits (LH)) out of 300 total genes in the list (List Total (LT)) belong to the p53 signaling pathway. Then we ask if 3/300 is more than a random chance compared to the human background of 40/30000. A 2 x 2 contingency table is built based on the above numbers: List Hits (LH) = 3 List Total (LT) = 300 Population Hits (PH) = 40 Population Total (PT) = 30,000
Exact p-value = 0.007. Since p-value < 0.05, this user's gene list is specifically associated (enriched) in the p53 signaling pathway by more than random chance.
---------------------------------------
Hence, quantitative data are not considered in such enrichment analyses unless you don't want to calculate an additional activation/inhibition score, as computed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, for example.
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In journal paper 'Conduction Mechanisms of Leakage Currents in InGaN/GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes', the symbol Io in poole-frenkel equation is define as pre-exponential factor. However most paper wrote the symbol for pre-exponential factor as A. Is it the same? Does it have the same value?
this definition according to electron transfer processes and transition theory
but in your book due to carrier
thank you
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I'm analyzing transcription factor binding motifs and some of them appear with a double colon symbol "::". For example: Ahr::Arnt
I found explanations for transposons, fusion proteins and others, but not for transcription factors.
Hi Amaya,
The double colon in Ahr::Arnt means a dimer of Ahr and Arnt.
Hope this helps!
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What is really IAST ?
How it is implemented, what are the technologies used in it ?
Is it some thing different than dynamic taint analysis and dynamic symbolic execution ?
What does IAST stand for in security testing?
INTERACTIVE APPLICATION SECURITY TESTING. IAST (interactive application security testing) analyzes code for security vulnerabilities while the app is run by an automated test, human tester, or any activity “interacting” with the application functionality.
What is IAST? Interactive Application Security Testing | Veracode
How is IAST used in the development environment?
An IAST agent instruments solutions, performing all of the analysis in real time from within your application. This could be done in your integration development environment (IDE), in QA, or even while running in production. By doing the analysis from within the application itself, the agent has access to: All the code for the application
SAST, DAST, and IAST: Why the difference matters
What are the advantages of IAST as an application testing model?
As an application testing model, IAST has many advantages over other forms of testing. In this section we’re going to look at some of the main benefits of IAST: IAST can automatically scan through code to find vulnerabilities without false positives.
What is IAST? (Interactive Application Security Testing)
How does IAST report security vulnerabilities in real time?
IAST (interactive application security testing) analyzes code for security vulnerabilities while the app is run by an automated test, human tester, or any activity “interacting” with the application functionality. This technology reports vulnerabilities in real-time, which means it does not add any extra time to your CI/CD pipeline.
What is IAST? Interactive Application Security Testing | Veracode
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Hello,
I am encountering a bit of an issue in SPSS right now. I was recoding some variables in my dataset, after which I made a mistake in the calculations. I tried to reverse it by pressing CTRL+Z. That did not work, but eventually, I calculated the variable again. However, now I see that in my whole dataset, all the string variables, are showing symbols such as '@' in the cell instead of normal text (example in the picture below). Did I do something wrong and how can I fix it?
Le deseo pueda encontrar una opción para q no pierda la información. Logre guardar los datos en excel como una salva.
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Is it possible to accept the new symbol socially. ?
Hi dear Abbas Ali.
You asked an interesting question and discussion.
Symbolism plays an important role in the field of artistic creation; But it should not be forgotten that dealing with symbols makes the design more complex; But in the end, it makes the job more coherent and meaningful. Artistically, "symbolism" is the art of expressing facts; Or it is the invisible and unknown states with the help of which one can step into the invisible world and discover the mystery of existence. The world of symbols is not a world of limitations and continues to the infinite existence of man and existence; Because symbols are formed indefinitely in the artist's mental confrontation with objects, and in the general case, the symbol is a totality that has a semantic and intelligible spiritual meaning hidden in it; But its explanation depends on one's perception; Because each person has a specific meaning container and imagines it in his mind in relation to it, and various theories about this show various interpretations that everyone offers for himself.
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Reality is a social construction. A symbolic universe can be constructed by any individual but it is the effect of social influences that brings that universe to its full potential. A mutually acceptable construction is possible only because of the common foundation upon which the structure is based: DNA. DNA provides virtually identical symbolic objects for each subject and provides shared archetypes giving these objects fundamental meanings (Hunt, 1995, p.213). From there, the shared ability to manipulate symbols and use them for tools within a cooperative setting generates the reality, or realities, we all experience. As adults, we all forget we were not born with the reality we inhabit intact. We eventually reify that reality and use it as if it was absolute. Our success at the reification project, that takes much of our lives, is recognized socially as our competence.
Reality is the things in life that are commonly observed and verified to exist, things that are consistent and not random. Something that is perceived as real and is physically experienced by the senses.
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My dear friends,
I could see in some molecular chemical formula like SrTi0.93Co0.07O3-δ, CaTi1−xFexO3−δ, NdBaCo2−xMnxO5+δ, etc. But not in some cases like Nd3/2Bi3/2Fe5O12, CaCu3Ti4O12.
What herein mentioned the delta (3-δ, 5+δ) at the end of the chemical formula. Since I am an engineering background, I don't understand these symbols used in the stoichiometric formulation.
Denoted for change/varying values. See in the followings:
• DOI: 10.1007/s10832-004-5169-9
• DOI: 10.1007/BF02376076
• 10.1016/j.ssi.2013.09.061
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If I have massive MIMO works as a base station(BS) with Nt number of transmitting antennas and Mr single antennas users, by assuming that downlink mode, how the symbols transmitted in each antenna.
for simplicity choose
Nt=16
Mr=4
number of symbols (data) to be transmitted X1......X128 from BS
In the Mimo or the massive mimo transmission system it is assumed that there is only space division multiplexing. This means that every user uses the same frequency and time resources. One method is then is to apply all symbols to all antennas. Then one use precoding to steer specific symbols to their intended user.
An other method is to divide the antennas into groups and apply the symbols intended for one user on them. One make beam forming to focus the radiation of one group to its intended user.
Best wishes
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Hello there,
I am writing my Methodology part for my Master Thesis about how Political Communicators made sense of themselves and of the Covid-19 crisis during Italian Regional Elections.
I am using qualitative methods (individual semi-structured interviews) and in my Methodology chapter I briefly discuss about Mead theory with these words:
Do you think those words are accurate and correct about Mead works on roles enactment?
Alan McManus In the social sciences, I don't see a "dismissal" of ontology and epistemology. Instead, I still find a lack of critical thinking about classical notions of ontology and epistemology, and all too often an ingrained acceptance that this the only way to think about the philosophy of knowledge.
What makes it worse is a one-to-one identification of positivism (i.e., realism) with quantitative research and constructivism (i.e., idealism) with qualitative research.
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Why do you think some researchers avoid study limitations in their publications?
Perfectness in research is a myth. Therefore, showing a research limits and limitations are a sign of perfect imperfectness.
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I propose to name eleven names and surnames
Thanks Prof Volodymyr Naumchuk
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When i click the input variable option, a tab open listing all the variables but each variable has a yellow symbol next to it (Refer the image). Generally i should be able to click on the variable and move it to the respective construct but i am unable to do that.
Are you sure you want to select Measure Variables correctly?
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I use gaussian 03 for simple calculation of one molecule.
The route section I wrote is => "# B3LYP/6-31G(d) opt" , which is just simple keyword for calculating b3lyp with basis set of 6-31g(D).
However, I use two computer and the result were different.
The one I try can make the termination of calculation within 5 min, but the other one stop with no response, like the below. There is no response after the last sentence below nevertheless I wait for 3 days long. Does anybody know why this is happened? There are big memory left, so I don't think this is the problem of insufficient memory.
*********************************************
Gaussian 03: x86-Win32-G03RevB.01 3-Mar-2003
19-Jan-2021
*********************************************
Default route: MaxDisk=2000MB
--------------------
# B3LYP/6-31G(d) opt
--------------------
1/14=-1,18=20,26=3,38=1/1,3;
2/9=110,17=6,18=5,40=1/2;
3/5=1,6=6,7=1,11=2,16=1,25=1,30=1,74=-5/1,2,3;
4//1;
5/5=2,38=5/2;
6/7=2,8=2,9=2,10=2,28=1/1;
7//1,2,3,16;
1/14=-1,18=20/3(1);
99//99;
2/9=110/2;
3/5=1,6=6,7=1,11=2,16=1,25=1,30=1,74=-5/1,2,3;
4/5=5,16=3/1;
5/5=2,38=5/2;
7//1,2,3,16;
1/14=-1,18=20/3(-5);
2/9=110/2;
6/7=2,8=2,9=2,10=2,19=2,28=1/1;
99/9=1/99;
--------------------
methyl F calculation
--------------------
Symbolic Z-matrix:
Charge = 0 Multiplicity = 1
6 1.198 1.99 0.
8 0.3 0.878 0.
6 -0.983 1.331 0.
8 -1.206 2.531 0.
9 -1.994 0.467 0.
1 2.226 1.627 0.
1 1.027 2.596 -0.89
1 1.027 2.596 0.89
Berny optimization.
Initialization pass.
----------------------------
! Initial Parameters !
! (Angstroms and Degrees) !
-------------------------- --------------------------
! Name Definition Value Derivative Info. !
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
! R1 R(1,2) 1.4293 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R2 R(1,6) 1.0902 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R3 R(1,7) 1.0902 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R4 R(1,8) 1.0902 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R5 R(2,3) 1.3606 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R6 R(3,4) 1.2205 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! R7 R(3,5) 1.3299 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A1 A(2,1,6) 109.474 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A2 A(2,1,7) 109.506 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A3 A(2,1,8) 109.506 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A4 A(6,1,7) 109.4496 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A5 A(6,1,8) 109.4496 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A6 A(7,1,8) 109.4421 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A7 A(1,2,3) 109.4757 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A8 A(2,3,4) 119.9744 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A9 A(2,3,5) 120.0358 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! A10 A(4,3,5) 119.9898 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! D1 D(6,1,2,3) 180.0 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! D2 D(7,1,2,3) -60.0035 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! D3 D(8,1,2,3) 60.0035 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! D4 D(1,2,3,4) 0.0 estimate D2E/DX2 !
! D5 D(1,2,3,5) 180.0 estimate D2E/DX2 !
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of steps in this run= 32 maximum allowed number of steps= 100.
Input orientation:
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Center Atomic Atomic Coordinates (Angstroms)
Number Number Type X Y Z
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 6 0 1.198000 1.990000 0.000000
2 8 0 0.300000 0.878000 0.000000
3 6 0 -0.983000 1.331000 0.000000
4 8 0 -1.206000 2.531000 0.000000
5 9 0 -1.994000 0.467000 0.000000
6 1 0 2.226000 1.627000 0.000000
7 1 0 1.027000 2.596000 -0.890000
8 1 0 1.027000 2.596000 0.890000
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Distance matrix (angstroms):
1 2 3 4 5
1 C 0.000000
2 O 1.429317 0.000000
3 C 2.278386 1.360624 0.000000
4 O 2.464122 2.236167 1.220545 0.000000
5 F 3.536721 2.330527 1.329894 2.209308 0.000000
6 H 1.090208 2.066513 3.222623 3.549062 4.376528
7 H 1.090219 2.066919 2.536223 2.404707 3.801471
8 H 1.090219 2.066919 2.536223 2.404707 3.801471
6 7 8
6 H 0.000000
7 H 1.780074 0.000000
8 H 1.780074 1.780000 0.000000
Stoichiometry C2H3FO2
Framework group CS[SG(C2HFO2),X(H2)]
Deg. of freedom 12
Full point group CS NOp 2
Largest Abelian subgroup CS NOp 2
Largest concise Abelian subgroup CS NOp 2
Standard orientation:
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Center Atomic Atomic Coordinates (Angstroms)
Number Number Type X Y Z
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 6 0 -0.104268 -1.768103 0.000000
2 8 0 0.753680 -0.624917 0.000000
3 6 0 0.000000 0.507896 0.000000
4 8 0 -1.218052 0.429937 0.000000
5 9 0 0.589814 1.699842 0.000000
6 1 0 0.499650 -2.675757 0.000000
7 1 0 -0.733696 -1.750868 0.890000
8 1 0 -0.733696 -1.750868 -0.890000
---------------------------------------------------------------------
Rotational constants (GHZ): 12.0556570 4.2308135 3.1949764
Standard basis: 6-31G(d) (6D, 7F)
There are 59 symmetry adapted basis functions of A' symmetry.
There are 22 symmetry adapted basis functions of A" symmetry.
Integral buffers will be 262144 words long.
Raffenetti 2 integral format.
Two-electron integral symmetry is turned on.
81 basis functions, 152 primitive gaussians, 81 cartesian basis functions
20 alpha electrons 20 beta electrons
nuclear repulsion energy 181.7962316504 Hartrees.
NAtoms= 8 NActive= 8 NUniq= 7 SFac= 1.40D+00 NAtFMM= 60 Big=F
Dear Lee Jieun
Several reasons may leads to such kind of (technical) errors.
I highly recommend you to compare and check the hardware of both the PCs including, in particular, CPUs, RAMs, disks, besides making sure that the operation systems are working normally.
Also, you can upload your input files here and then I can perform the calculation for you and check whether if there is any error might cause the problem.
Best regards,
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I have developed matlab code of OFDM index modulation based on look up table but not getting the desired curve...i want curve as shown in link given below on page 5544....somebody plz help me with the coding part...there are many mistakes in my code..plz help me to rectify the code...
clear all;
close all;
clc;
nsym=10^2;
%nbitspersym=12
bits=(1:12)
n=4
g=2;
%g1=bits(1:6) % division of 16 FFT size into 8 FFT subcarriers.
%g2=bits(7:12) % division of 16 FFT size into 8 FFT subcarriers
ipbits = randi([0,1], 1, 600) % generation of random bits
M=4;
Z=reshape(ipbits,100,6)
k=log2(M)
%n=nFFT/g;
EbN0=1:10
for i1=1:10
EbN0dB=i1
BER=[];
for i=1:100
p1=Z(i,:)
% p1=ipbits(1:6) % it will take first 8 bits
%p1=[1 1 0 1 1 0];
%p2 = ipbits(7:12) ;
s1 = p1(1:2)
s2= p1(3:6)
% s3=p1(5:6);
% s4= p1(7:8);
% s33=s2
s22=reshape(s2,2,2).'
s222=bi2de(s22, 'left-msb')
ipMod = (1/sqrt(2))*qammod(s222 , M)
F=zeros(4,1);
if s1==[0 0]
F(1,1)=ipMod(1)
F(2,1)=ipMod(2)
F(3,1)=0
F(4,1)=0
elseif s1==[0 1]
F(1,1)=0
F(2,1)=ipMod(1)
F(3,1)=ipMod(2)
F(4,1)=0
elseif s1==[1 0]
F(1,1)=0
F(2,1)=ipMod(1)
F(3,1)=0
F(4,1)=ipMod(2)
elseif s1==[1 1]
F(1,1)=ipMod(1)
F(2,1)=0
F(3,1)=0
F(4,1)=ipMod(2)
end
F.'
%=ifft(Sq1,N)*sqrt(N)%
xt=ifft(F).'
%xt=xt.'
xt=[xt(4) xt]
%xt=(nFFT/sqrt(nDSC))*ifft(fftshift(xF.')).';
%x_with_cp = [x(4) x]; % cp addition
nt = (randn + j*randn)./sqrt(2)
yt = xt +( (10.^(-EbN0dB/10)).*nt)
yyt=yt(2:5)
yyt1=fft(yyt)
[temp, idx] = sort( yyt1, 'descend' )
n = temp(1:2)
idx = idx(1:2)
%zzt=(abs(yyt1))
zzt1=(abs(yyt1).^2)
[max1, ind1] = max(zzt1)
zzt1(ind1) = -Inf;
[max2, ind2] = max(zzt1)
zzt1(ind2) = -Inf;
rec=[(ind1) (ind2)]
a1=1;
while(a1==1)
if rec== [1 2]|rec== [2 1]
bitts=[0 0]
a1=0;
elseif rec== [2 3]|rec== [3 2]
bitts=[0 1]
a1=0;
elseif rec== [2 4]| rec== [4 2]
bitts =[1 0]
a1=0;
elseif rec==[4 1]|rec==[1 4]
bitts=[1 1]
a1=0;
elseif rec==[3 1]|rec==[1 3]
BER12=0
break
% bitts=[1 1]
elseif rec==[4 3]|rec==[3 4]
BER12=0
break
% bitts=[0 0]
end
% finding the minimum distance between received vector and original symbols
% original symbols
orig=[0 0]
conv=bi2de(orig, 'left-msb')
ipMod = (1/sqrt(2))*qammod(conv , M)
orig1=[0 1]
conv1=bi2de(orig1, 'left-msb')
ipMod1 = (1/sqrt(2))*qammod(conv1 , M)
orig2=[1 0]
conv2=bi2de(orig2, 'left-msb')
ipMod2 = (1/sqrt(2))*qammod(conv2 , M)
orig3=[1 1]
conv3=bi2de(orig3, 'left-msb')
ipMod3 = (1/sqrt(2))*qammod(conv3 , M)
xxt=[ipMod ipMod1 ipMod2 ipMod3]
D1 =norm(n(1) - xxt(1))
D2 = norm(n(1) - xxt(2))
D3 = norm(n(1) - xxt(3))
D4 = norm(n(1) - xxt(4))
D=[D1 D2 D3 D4]
D5=min(D)
result = find(D==min(D))
DD1 = norm(n(2) - xxt(1))
DD2 = norm(n(2) - xxt(2))
DD3 = norm(n(2) - xxt(3))
DD4 = norm(n(2) - xxt(4))
DD=[DD1 DD2 DD3 DD4]
DD5=min(DD)
result1 = find(DD==min(DD))
G=[DD5 D5]
[tempp, idxx] = sort( G, 'descend' )
nn = tempp(1:2)
idxx = idxx(1:2)
idx1=sort(idxx) % sort according to tempp;
% idx1=[result result1]
%
% reeesult=[result result1 result2 result3]
% [temp1, idx1] = sort( F, 'ascend' )
% n = temp1(1:2)
% idx1 = idx1(1:2)
% [min1, ind1] = min(F)
% F(ind1) = Inf;
% [min2, ind2] = min(F)
% F(ind2) = Inf;
% rec1=[(ind1) (ind2)]
if idx1== [1 2]
biitts=[0 0 0 1]
elseif idx1==[2 1]
message('i m here')
biitts=[ 0 1 0 0]
elseif idx1== [2 3]
message('i m here')
biitts=[0 1 1 0 ]
elseif idx1==[3 2]
message('i m here')
biitts=[ 1 0 0 1 ]
elseif idx1== [2 4]
message('i m here')
biitts =[0 1 1 1]
elseif idx1==[4 2]
message('i m here')
biitts =[1 1 0 1]
elseif idx1==[4 1]
message('i m here')
biitts=[1 1 0 0]
elseif idx1==[1 4]
message('i m here')
biitts=[ 0 0 1 1]
elseif idx1==[3 1]
message('i m here')
biitts=[1 0 0 0]
elseif idx1==[1 3]
message('i m here')
biitts=[0 0 1 0]
elseif G1==[1 1]
biitts=[0 0 0 0]
elseif G1==[2 2]
biitts=[0 1 0 1]
elseif G1==[3 3]
biitts=[1 0 1 0]
elseif G1==[4 4]
biitts=[1 1 1 1]
end
S=[bitts biitts]
% A2 = sort(F(:))
% out=A2(1)
% out1 = A2(2)
% result33 = find(DDDD==min(DDDD))
BER12=sum(abs(p1-S))/6
end
BER=[BER BER12];
end
T_BER(i1)=sum(BER)/100
end
semilogy(EbN0,smooth(abs(T_BER)),'*-');
xlabel('SNR');
ylabel('EbN0dB');
legend('BER curve for OFDM index modulation');
Hi, Samriti , I'm new in the field of NOMA aided spatial modulation, can you share your code with me. I would appreciate it a lot.
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I need to perform ligand-receptor interactions map for the data of bulk RNA sequencing (mouse). In all methods which I found they want to have matrix with columns of gene symbol and mean expression values for each cell type. I have only tsv files with metadata and counts. Do you know how to get this from the data I have. Is there any R library/protocol/tutorial for that? Which method you suggest for obtaining receptor-ligand Interactome for bulk RNA?
Here is how my metadata looks like:
id nCount_RNA nFeature_RNA PercentMito ERCCCounts PercentERCC Animal Plate
X11_E1 569589 11505 0.00331115945006 20 3.51E-05 11 11 X11A10
.......
Birthdate Gender Organ CellType RowID ColID
old Female BM GMP E 1
.......
Counts:
gene X11_E1 X11A10 X11A12 X11A3 X11A5 ........
Gnai3 23 4 22 25 94 ..........
.......
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Hi supreme hive-mind of the internet,
we have some old *.MTS files that are supposed to contain spectroscopic data, probably some coordinates and a long list of single line spectra. Basically, they are maps composed of different spectra. Problem is, the software (Horiba? Maybe an Horiba sub-contractor) was a prototype and died with the PC (windows ME) it was installed in. When opened using notepad, I can see that there is an XY array inside, but it's converted to strange symbols that have no meaning.
Is there any way to recover this data?
Here's an example:
Thanks so much, this is incredibly useful!
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Hi,
I was doing NBO calculation using GEN basis in gaussian. I got an error like
Unrecognized atomic symbol $NBO Error termination via Lnk1e in /opt/apps/gaussian/g16/l301.exe I am also attaching the input file below Thanks and regards Deepu George Relevant answer Answer My guess is that you are using "pseudo=read" in addition to "gen" in the route section but not providing a pseudopotential after your "gen" section. Normally the input would be: (in your route) #p m062x/gen pseudo=read {...etc...} exampleName 0 1 {geom} {your gen section} C O N H 0 6-31+G* **** Cu 0 lanl2dz **** {pseudopotential} Cu 0 lanl2dz ****${NBO section}
You can try to add the pseudopotential section for your Br, in this case, and see if that fixes the issue. I've added blank lines, above, as well as block descriptions which should be omitted.
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Lately the study of rituals has focused on the study of symbols. So based on the study is there a theoretical framework that facilitates the analysis of this study
Immerse oneself in the culture and find the necessity of the ritual. Try to attach oral history to a relative event following that thread to a concise conclusion.
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Ellipses:-
What is an ellipsis?
An ellipsis is a series of three consecutive periods known as ellipsis points ( . . . ) used to indicate where words have been omitted from quoted text, or (informally) to represent a pause, hesitation, or trailing-off in thought or speech.
Forming an ellipsis:
There are two different styles for how an ellipsis is formed, and each is equally common. The more conventional way to form an ellipsis is to put a space between each of the three ellipsis points, as in: “There are many things . . . that you must learn.”In modern writing, the spaces between these are often left out, leaving three ellipsis points right in a row: “There are many things … that you must learn.” The advantage of this form is that it can be hard-coded as a single symbol in most word processors, meaning it will not be broken if it hits the margin of the page.To create this second form on a computer running Windows, hold Control + Alt and press the “period” key. To create it on a Mac computer, hold Option and press the “semicolon” key. Some word processors will also create the symbol automatically when you type three periods in a row.This guide has opted to use the first of these two versions. If your school’s or employer’s style guide does not require one over the other, use whichever style you prefer, but be consistent.
Dear all, thanks so much for the valuable information you added to the discussion, as usual!
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I want to evaluate the numerical inverse Laplace transform of a Function,
F(s, p) = exp(-s*p)*erfc(-s^0.4)..........................(1)
p is just a symbolic constant having a fixed value.
Can anyone share a idea mentioning the methodology for performing the inverse Laplace transform.
Tareg Alsoudani Thank you for the answer.
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I downloaded the expression matrix data "GSE143416_Brain_data_TPM.txt.gz" of GSE143416 from Gene expression omnibus ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi). However, the first column of the data is the Transcripts looking like "ENSDART00000171617.1, ENSDART00000093609.3 .etc". How do I transform it into the "Gene symbol" so that I can carry out the downstream analysis such as GO enrichment?
GSE143416 used GPL14875 Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Danio rerio) platform, but I can't find any useful information on this platform.
You can use any of the Bioconductor annotation resources to obtain the GO terms for your genes. Alternatively, you can map the genes to other IDs/symbols, if you have a database of GO terms linked to those IDs. I would go for a general annotation resource like 'biomaRt' (https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/biomaRt.html) or an organism-specific annotation package (http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/data/annotation/html/org.Dr.eg.db.html)
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hi to all
by using Matlab and Mathematice, I have tried to make symbolic integration for the equation in the attachment below, the Matlab answer was explicit integration could not be found.
For symbolic calculations, I recommend you to use Maple software.
In fact, Matlab works efficiently with numeric based calculations.
Also, It would be better if you share your code so I can take a look and see what is wrong with it..
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Is there any package or code that can give a high accuracy for a solution to Non-linear equations or Eigen-problems, with let us say 500 digits?
I tried the "so called" (vpa function) which is a variable-precision floating-point arithmetic, but it deals with input symbolically, and in somehow goes incorrectly.
Any suggestions are appreciated.
Thank you for answering my question. In fact, (vpa) is involved with both links you sent.
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In Shannon capacity, the LHS, is it (number of binary input bits)/(number of complex symbols after channel coding and modulation), of which the units will be bits per symbols ? In this case, is it correct to say that unit is bits per channel uses ? Does 'channel use' mean one complex symbol as a result of modulation (QPSK) ? When it moves to OFDM modulation, each of these channel uses will be loaded to resource elements, is this understanding correct ? Or channel use means one OFDM symbol (which itself comprises of many sub carriers) ?
The Shanon formula concerns the channel capacity C which is the maximum bit rate to be transmitted among the channel as a function of the bandwidth of the channel B and the signal to noise ratio (S/N)at the receiver site.
This relation can be written as:
C= B log2 (1+ S/N)
The units of C is bits/s,
B is Hertz
S in watt
N in watt.
The binary symbols contains one bit per symbol.
Bits are used to measure the quantity of information.
Symbols are the electrical form for transmitting the information.
Symbols cab be binary or M-ary where M is the order of the symbol which may be 4, 8,16,32,... , 2^n
N is the number of bits contained in the symbols.
So, symbols contains M ary states and n bits such that n=log2 M.
The symbols are constructed by the process of digital modulation. And so a digital modulator takes symbols at its input and delivers symbols at its output.
As an example it takes two bits and delivers QPSK or 4=QAM symbols and etc.
Best wishes
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I have created a scatter graph in Prism under -> multivariable analyses -> extract and re-arrange, to display relationship between 2 variables, the 3 subgroups within the group are represented with different symbols.
I wish to display the regression line for the group as a whole - is this possible?
You have to create an XY data table in Prism. Run linear regression for this data table.
Data columns: X variable; Y variable listed as a whole group, and duplicate Y variable for each subgroup in separate columns, ensuring to line up with correct X value.
Then double click on graph to edit, display subgroups as data points (no regression line), remove single data point display for the whole group, display regression line for whole group only.
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Hi everyone, I have a transcription dateset in the format HG-U133_Plus_2 affymatrix and I want to convert it into official gene symbols. I have tried bioconductor "hgu133a.db" library but it doesn't work. Can somebody help me out understanding how to do it? I put here some of the probes I'm unable to convert. Thanks in advance!
1552256_a_at 1552257_a_at 1552258_at 1552261_at 1552263_at 1552264_a_at 1552266_at 21552269_at 1552271_at 1552272_a_at 1552274_at 1552275_s_at 1552276_a_at 1552277_a_at 1552278_a_at 1552279_a_at 1552280_at 1552281_at 1552283_s_at 1552286_at 1552287_s_at 1552288_at
Dear Riccardo;
A) the database of DAVID can convert the affy IDs.
B) If you are not skilled in programming:
1) download the latest annotation file for HG-U133_Plus_2 from the company website:
find the file named
HG-U133_Plus_2 Annotations, CSV format, Release 36 (36 MB, 7/12/16)
2) unzip the file
3) open the file in MS excel
4) use "vlookup" function of excel to find the symbols. If you have a handful IDs you may search within the file.
If familiar with coding in R, then use annotationDbi (Bioconductor package)
Best
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Both abstraction and symbolism are psychological constructs used for their study. However, its use as independent cognitive abilities can make it difficult to understand its origin. One hypothesis could be that both capacities correspond to the same cognitive process with two different but united manifestations.
Perdona si te escribo en español, pues es mi lengua materna y es como mejor puedo expresar estas complejas ideas. Para traducirlo mediante un traductor informático, prefiero que, si no entiendes bien el español, lo realices personalmente.
Cuando hablo de constructos lo hago siguiendo a Bunge (1973), quién lo define como un concepto no observacional, en contraposición con los conceptos observacionales o empíricos, ya que los constructos son no empíricos, es decir tanto la abstracción y el simbolismo cumplen perfectamente las directrices de esta definición. Es más, son manifestaciones conductuales observadas externamente, pero de las que no se conocen casi nada sobre su origen y evolución. Tengo cierta tendencia a considerar al ser humano como un componente del género Homo, dando importancia a sus características filogenéticas.
La definición de la abstracción me parece totalmente correcta: “Es la traducción en una idea o la expresión en un concepto de una realidad”. Aunque presenta otra pregunta que es “traduction”. Igualmente, todo proceso intelectual es una manifestación claramente cultural, pero promovida por la funcionalidad cognitiva. Creo que toda manifestación conductual tiene una base psicobiológica que la crea y manifiesta.
Cuando dices que “no puede haber abstracción sin un referente del pensamiento consciente”, estoy de acuerdo contigo. Sin embargo, ¿quieres indicar que si puede existir en el subconsciente?
Mi tendencia psicobiológica y filogenética me indican que hay muchos matices que se escapan si no se utilizan estos conceptos. Pensar que el inconsciente puede procesar la información ambiental y realizar procesos cognitivos (p. e. crear abstracciones) que no afloran al consciente, entra dentro de lo posible, pero sin poder aportar ninguna base psicobiológica que lo confirme. Además, desde nuestra estructuración psiconeurológica actual es fácil realizar experimentos cognitivos sin usar el “lenguaje interno”, lo que no fue posible hasta el desarrollo de la conciencia reflexiva.
Cordial saludo
Ángel Rivera
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I want to calculate the carrier concentration of a compound for the density of states. To find the carrier concentration is it only need to know the effective mass of electron or hole and the band gap value? is the following formula enough for intrinsic semiconductor?
ni = n = p = (NCNV)1/2 exp(-EG/2kT)
NC = 2(2π m*C kT/h²]3/2 NV = 2(2π m*V kT/h²]3/2 Where the symbols have their usual meaning.
Winkelmann, J. "The liquid-vapour interface of pure fluids and mixtures: application of computer simulation and density functional theory." Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 13, no. 21 (2001): 4739.
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Celtic mythology tells of Eochaid Ollathair (“Father of All”), also known as the Dagda, the “Good God”.  The Dagda's cauldron, one of the four sacred objects brought to Ireland by the Tuatha De Danaan, provided unlimited food and sustenance:  "No company ever went from it unthankful".
But this is not a simple corncopia.  The Dagda's cauldron is a central symbol of reconciliation, at the heart of good governance. It is the Coire Aisic -- the Cauldron of Restitution -- positioned in the Great Hall in the Rites of Tara and around which everybody must gather when a divisive problem has arisen.  All persons who participate in the gathering, contribute what they have to the cauldron, so that it holds every form of sustenance used by the Irish.  All those present (including lords and poets -- the knowledge holders and the 'stakeholders', as it were) must speak to the cauldron, instilling it with the knowledge and the purposes that they bring.  Then each in turn is brought to the cauldron, and receives a fork thrust out of it; and, in this way, through the magical power of the cauldron, the proper portion comes out to each.

The Rites of Tara engaged people to renounce their prior claims, to contribute sources of nourishment and understanding into the common pool, so as to permit -- somewhat mysteriously -- the emergence of a just and respectful solution to the conflict.   In what ways can these symbols be useful for orientating current challenges of reconciliation and conflict resolution?
Your research perspective is very important and makes a lot of sense nowadays. The concrete references that I have in my library are the following:
- DOWLIN, Gerard. "The Liminal Boundary: An Analysis of the Sacral Potency of the Ditch at Ráith na Ríg, Tara. Co. Meath", in: The Journal of Irish Archaeology, Vol. 15 (2006), pp. 15-37.
- MACALISTER, R.A.S. "Temair Breg: A Study of the Remains and Traditions of Tara", in: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature, Vol. 34 (1917 - 1919), pp. 231-399.
- MACALISTER, R.A.S. Tara: A Pagan Sanctuary of Ancient Ireland. London: Scribners, 1931.
- MICHAEL J. ENRIGHT, Michael J. "lona, Tara and Soissons: The Origin of the Royal Anointing Ritual. (Arbeiten zur Fruhmittelalterforschung, 17.) Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1985.
- PETRIE, Georges. "On the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill", in: The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. 18 (1839).
I also remember that in the movie Gone With the Wind the name of the plantation was Tara, and the family probably was from Irish origins. I am not sure, but probably can be an interesting clue for contemporary representations of rituals of repentance and reconciliation.
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Considering the context of the COVID-19 pandemic that requires remote teaching activities. In the case of Chemical Education, which requires a high degree of abstraction and the use of visualizations can effectively contribute to the student's learning process, how does the teacher deal with the relationship of macro, micro and symbolic representations, in online teaching?
I think that the teacher can use some applications that are online intended for learning the nomenclature, elaboration and spatial representation of molecules. There are also reaction simulators and laboratory practices where through color change you can explain and discuss with students the causes of a color change or a gas release. Also the teacher and students can make representations through animation programs that are useful to represent (model) some change or transformation of the matter.
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Good day everyone
I would like to know the literature reference to the derivation of the M-QAM complex symbol average power general expression that is 2/3*(M-1)? I would like to cite this reference and read it too? I have already searched Google Scholar and failed to find a paper or book that derives this expression.
Any assistance will be greatly appreciated.
Digital Communications and Signal Processing, an online book by K. Vasudevan of the India Institute of Technology gives an expression in Equation 2.30 (Section 2.1.4, Page 16) which reduces to 2/3*(M-1) for any value of M. Please Google by Title and Author.
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In finite element method, especially when developing new elements, we often need integration techniques. Generally, numerical integration is used, however, in order to enhance the accuracy of our computations, we might be interested in performing integration over the continuum using symbols. In your opinion, what is the best programming language that can not only perform this kind of integration but also work with large symbolic arrays (where a single element is several lines of text long)? Of course, being in academia, cost effectiveness is also a factor.
I suggest you use the most powerful software "python".
SymPy is an open-source Python library for symbolic computation. It provides computer algebra capabilities either as a standalone application, as a library to other applications, or live on the web as SymPy Live or SymPy Gamma.
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We don't know the source of letters and numbers on which these symbols are constructed . Although human used the guts feelings at the time of using because our ancestors developed these symbols the machines don't have .
We are agree that statistics and meaning of different phrases of words used by machine but machine would depend on human for meaning and statistics of words due to lack of knowledge of construction of words by letters and many unsolved problem of mathematics like the Ferma theorem was unsolved up tp 1995.
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Hi everyone!
(I'm hoping you're all safe and healthy)
I could really use some help figuring out how to remove the bad nucleotide symbol "???" in my Geneious sequence. (See attached photo)
Before the apocalypse began, my lab had just finished finding the WGS of all 72 ECOR Library strains. My Lab Manager assembled them using a local supercomputer (de novo), but the FASTA file of the assembled sequences all contain long stretches of "????????" where there were bad reads. When you try and search within these files, they'll bring you to a stream of "????" and when you push the "Next" button on the search menu, it will bring you down the stream of "?????" marks, one "?" at a time. Brutal...
Any idea of to completely delete these "?" marks? I have a Mac laptop, but I tried to replace "?" with "N" but when imported, it turns the marks back to "?". Any suggestions?
Thank you very much,
Emma Farquharson
Nugen Lab
Cornell University
Hey Emma! Do you need only to remove these "?" from your fasta file? If so open it in some text editor e.g. Notepad++ and there ctrl+f -> replace... and there you fill what you need to replace and with what (could be blank) and press replace all.
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I'm currently developing a project looking at instances of cultural and symbolic violence towards nature, whether this creates/contributes to stigma, and how it compares to, or causes, physical violence (i.e farming of livestock, crushing insects due to fear). Particularly interested in snakes and spiders as used to symbolise an evil, violent, or manipulative trait in a human, or other sentient antagonistic force in a piece of fiction.
Seeking to answer questions such as:
Is our use of certain creatures to represent these things in any way unethical?
What does symbolic violence towards 'strange' creatures indicate about our tendencies to do this with differential prejudice towards humans? And is challenging symbolic violence towards living creatures necessary on all levels to combat it between human groups?
So, does anyone have recommendations for reading on this? And, are there any available studies analysing the impact of nature representation on societal approach to specific animals?
Thanks,
Connor
Interesting that in the film based on Hermann Hesse's novel, Siddhartha, it is a cobra which kills Siddhartha's beloved wife, though snakes were considered holy and wise in some versions of theology. Also interesting is that the Rod of Asclepius- Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού - emblem of healing for medicine is a snake (not to be confused with the caduceus which also has a positive connotation as the staff of Hermes). The myth of Tiresias has him changing genders when he strikes and wounds snakes as they are mating, and then switches back with the when he witnesses them again seven years later-- all this leading to him being blinded by Hera when he reports on which gender more enjoys sexual pleasure. Snakes were autochthonous- "sprung from the earth" - much as Athena sprang from Zeus's thigh. They had wisdom. Obviously also snakes and dragons as well as rats are somewhat revered or at least respected in Chinese astrology, since all 3 creatures have zodiacal years. The moral of all this may be that it is an ill wind that blows no good and that, as with humans, there are powerfully positive and negative individuals in all species. Cross-cultural influences shared by ancient Hindu, Greek and Egyptian mythology (Hermes Trismegistus) may have many antecedents in earlier Mesopotamian mythology as well- the caduceus may have originated with the Sumerian god Ningishzida, god of the underworld and the autochthonous vegetation which sprang.therefrom. By the way, lest anyone be under the delusion that I knew all this before I started writing, I owe huge thanks to Wikipedia for all but Hesse's novel and the myth of Tiresias. I confused the caduceus with the rod of Ascepius like many others in the USA, including health organizations who use the caduceus with its two snakes rather than the rod with its single snake and is entwined around a more primitive staff.
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Dear all,
I would like to ask if there is anyone who can analyze the MOF framework based on a cif file. I need to analyze four MOF compounds using Schlafli symbol (the point symbol of the crystal architectures).
Thank you in advance for the response.
You may also try our free online service at https://topcryst.com. Just upload your cif and get the structure topology.
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hi all
i am currently working with TinyGP which is a simple implementation of genetic programming for symbolic regression problems.
so I am testing it with simple problems like sin(x) symbolic regression but my problem is I get some big spikes in the numbers of Avg Fitness for the entire population however the mean best fitness is always decreasing steadily with no problems.
Hi,
My best guess is that you get these spikes because sometimes symbolic expressions are produced that have a very bad fitness (i.e., a very large number, as I guess you are minimizing), and they pass the selection process.
Try to take the median instead of the avg, and the spikes should disappear.
MOREOVER:
Sometimes, you can also get spikes at test time, and that's typically caused by some operators that are not continuous (e.g., protected division DIV(a,b) that returns 1 when b=0). They work well while you are training, but do not lead to good generalization. This was more or less known IMHO, but they recently really put this black on white in a publication (Nicolau, Miguel, and Alexandros Agapitos. "Choosing function sets with better generalisation performance for symbolic regression models." GENETIC PROGRAMMING AND EVOLVABLE MACHINES (2020)).
If you see that, I advice you either use the Analytic Quotient operator (beautifully smooth but can create expressions that are not that interpretable, see Ni, Ji, Russ H. Drieberg, and Peter I. Rockett. "The use of an analytic quotient operator in genetic programming." IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 17.1 (2012): 146-152), or a less naive version of protected division (I don't have a refernece publication for that, but I used it in my latest works). I have implemented both here: https://github.com/marcovirgolin/SimpleGP/blob/master/simplegp/Nodes/SymbolicRegressionNodes.py
Ciao,
Marco
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There is a function in matlab R2020 called "idualtree" that receives final level approx. coefficients and cell array of wavelet coefficients. I send the OFDM symbol as a cell array in the wavelet coefficients but the performance wasn't good.
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It's possible to obtain in Wolfram Mathematica the eigenvalues of a 3x3 non-numeric matrix (i.e. a symbolic, expressions only matrix). However, scaling it to a 4x4 matrix does not seem possible, as the operation takes forever to finish. Does anyone know if finding the eigenvalues of a 4x4 symbolic matrix is impossible or just computationally infeasible?
Is it possible to find the eigenvalues of a 4x4 symbolic matrix?