Science topic

Symbiosis - Science topic

The living together of organisms of different species.
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1
CYEN Edgel
ist
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1 # of nodes 171
2 # of ties 1279
3 Avg Degree 7.480
4 Indeg H-Index 16
5 K-core index 13
6 Deg Centralization 0.253
7 Out-Centralization 0.198
8 In-Centralization 0.139
9 Indeg Corr -0.013
10 Outdeg Corr 0.102
11 Density 0.044
12 Components 22
13 Component Ratio 0.124
14 Connectedness 0.837
15 Fragmentation 0.163
16 Closure 0.448
17 Avg Distance 3.442
18 Prop within 3 0.472
19 # w/in 3 13727
20 SD Distance 1.372
21 Diameter 12
22 Wiener Index 83730
23 Dependency Sum 59401
24 Breadth 0.707
25 Compactness 0.293
26 Small Worldness
27 Mutuals 0.021
28 Asymmetrics 0.047
29 Nulls 0.933
30 Arc Reciprocity 0.469
31 Dyad Reciprocity 0.306
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This is a matrix of edge lists that is generated by UCINET. It shows the edges that are present in the network, along with the weight of each edge. The matrix is composed of rows and columns that represent the nodes of the network, with each cell representing the connection between two nodes. The value in each cell indicates the weight of the connection between the two nodes, with higher values indicating a stronger connection.
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Could you please share any research on interaction, mutual understanding, relationships, etc., between people with mental disorders? I am interested whether there can be situations when a mentally ill person can understand another ill person better than a healthy one to some extent.
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Again, there is some research that suggests that people with mental disorders can have a better understanding and relationships with other people with mental disorders than with those without mental disorders. For example, a recent study conducted by the University of Arizona found that people with mental illnesses had greater empathy and understanding for those with similar mental health conditions. This study also found that people with mental illness tend to have better relationships with other people with mental illness than those without mental illness. Additionally, research published in the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing found that people with mental illness can have meaningful relationships with other people with mental illness, which can help reduce their sense of isolation and provide greater support. This research also suggests that people with mental illness can provide important insight into the experiences and challenges of living with a mental illness.
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Systems Engineering (SE), Digital Engineering (DE) and Mission Engineering (ME) are three distinct approaches to designing and developing complicated systems. We are just now seeing the three approaches starting to be employed simultaneously. They are mutually supportive and when used together, can dramatically shorten development schedules and shorten timelines. Intuitively, I believe 1+1=1+5. But I want to quantify the result. Are there any close parallels in other industries, where I can use an existing formula that takes into consideration how many areas of mutual support exist, how much time and money is saved by each engineering approach operating alone, etc. I have reviewed 20 years of research involving financial synergy in business mergers and acquisitions and the medical synergy of combining different drugs and the combined effects that can be achieved. But neither of these seems to be a close parallel to my engineering-triad challenge.
Has anyone studied this? If not, is there parallel research that I can draw from? I want to write a paper on this topic. Thanks, in advance.
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Could you please provide an example or two? Thanks.
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  • Symbiosis
  • plant & animal ecology
  • plant morphology
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I don't currently have any connections that are significant, but I haven't observed any Poaceae families that exhibit the same strong symbiotic traits as the Fabaceae families .Can we develop character in poaceae with the help of biotechnology? Phil Geis
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COVID19 and online mutual support groups
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I think so, I found the mindNP of our school to be highly helpful when the junior years of students have not yet established strong support network under this pandemic.
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Hello
if i have a receiving ULA antenna for example 8 elements and i want to calculate the mutual coupling matrix so i can take the mutual coupling between the elements into account.
what are the ways to calculate such matrix? and can i calculate it directly from CST microwave studio
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Hello Malcolm
thanks for your answer
if i did that and get the sperate s parameters how can i transform it to matrix in linear scale
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TOo measure mutual inductance and self inductance
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How much time does the spores needs to establish symbiosis in natural conditions ?
Lets asume, I put a Medicago seed in a 5 ml box, fill with sterile sand or vermiculite, pour some water drops, add 50 or 100 spores and wait the spore to germinate and establis a simbiosis with the seedling. The medicago seed wil germinate in 24 hrs, but what about the spores and establishment of symbiosis ?
How much time should I wait to have 50 % of my seedlings get mycorrhized. Of course, depends of the plant, the AMF species etc, but more or less ? 10 days ? 30 days ? 60 days ?
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Dear Dr. Louis,
We have grown wheat plants on growth media (pH 5.5) lacking vitamins and sucrose. the roots of the plant were inoculated with a sterilized mycorrhizal spore and the same was covered with aluminum foil to mimic the soil condition (darkness). before inoculation, the spores were stored at 4C to break the dormancy as mentioned in the various literature. this experiment is going on and still, after 10 days, our spores are not germinated. I think other than the temperature there are some factors which influence the dormancy of spores. As soon I receive any positive conclusion I will share with you all.
Thanks.
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Hello there,
I am designing an antenna array to be used ONLY IN RECEPTION for a geolocalisation sensor. So, i was wondering if coupling effects would have impacts on the rceived signal strength or phase.
Thank you!
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I would like to add to the colleague Sovan Mohanty , that you speak about near field coupling or the mutual coupling. In fact the antenna array must be built such that its elements are ideally isolated from each other so that the mutual coupling vanishes. It they are coupled with each other then there will be signal flow between each other specially from the neighboring elements.
To reduce the coupling one has to keep the adjacent elements sufficiently faraway from each other. There are also other means to isolate the antennas from each other.
For more information you can follow the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Maxwell four Equations.
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The theory of electromagnetic fields is based on Maxwell's four equations in its integral or differential form which are expressed as follows,
1) Div E= Rho/∈
2) Div B= 0
3) Curl E = (partial) d (B/dt)
4) Curl B= μ J + (partial) d (D/dt)
In normal conventions.
As shown in equations 1 through 4, the set of four equations relate the electric field and the magnetic field to each other. In other words, E and H form a unit for the case of stationary and time-varying fields in the sense that they can be derived from each other.
Moreover, equation 4 alone ensures the orthogonality of E and H as follows [1,2],
Considering, for example, vacuum or any medium with no free charge (Rho = 0), then equation 4 reduces to,
μ. Curl H = ∈. (partial) d/dt E  . . . . (5)
Since the LHS of Eq 5 is a vector orthogonal to H and the RHS of Eq 5 is a vector in the direction of E since t is a scalar.
then E is perpendicular to H for the dependent fields coming from the same Rho source.
ref
I. Abbas, Why Poynting's Theorem P=Ex H Is quite Valid for DC Circuits, Researchgate March 2022 and IJISRT Review March 2022.
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I want simulate RLC network of transformer in EMTP for transient study but do not know how to model mutual inductance in RLC network. I think one way is BC Trans model but I do not how to use it. can you help me, please?
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Hello, although it is in Romanian, see if the attached material can help you... it is in doc format and can be easily translated into google translation...
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Arts and culture and creativity - both material and immaterial heritage, skills and competences - are resources that should be protected and promoted. They not only contribute to the realisation of the SDGs, but also make them possible to a special degree. Only culturally sensitive, creative, unconventional approaches to solutions ensure the success of measures to achieve the SDGS.
Why does art not appear explicitly in the SDGS? But purely as a cross-cutting issue?
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Rolf, I could not agree more. artistic thinking, not only as cultural heritage, should be part of our DNA when solving problems. not only in SDGs and climate change, but also intimes of war (see https://www.inplaceofwar.net/; https://theaterofwar.com/).
see also https://ageofartists.org/about-us/ and and older publication we did (see attached file).
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I'm using Mutual Information (MI) for Multivariate Time Series data as a feature selection method.
MI is nonnegative MI >= 0 where 0 indicates that both variables are strictly independent and above that means the variables share a useful amount of information.
After computing the MI between 8 features and the target variable I got the following values:
[0.19, 0.23, 0.34, 0.19, 0.19, 0.12, 0.21, 0.071]
and when computing MI between some of the Input features, and another input feature to search for redundancy, I got the following values:
[4.0056916 , 1.58167938, 1.20578024, 1.0273157 , 0.93991675,0.9711158 ]
The values are not between -1 and 1 or between 0 and 1 so that it's easy to compare and draw conclusions.
My question is:
Is there a way to set a threshold value (t for example) where if MI >= t, then the variables are sharing a good amount of information and if MI < t they are not? How to know if the MI is high enough?
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Thank you Shafagat Mahmudova Adnan Zahid Remal Al-Gounmeein for your valuable responses, I will review these articles and papers.
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In GP practice, a balance has to be found between limited time and enabling sufficient mutual understanding. One criterion could be the practitioner's feeling of having understood the subjective logic (world view) of the counterpart. What do we know about such a feeling of practitioners?
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Dear Julius,
Thank you for your answer and for asking me to clarify my question.
First of all, my question refers to the work of family doctors. I am collecting arguments and literature references for updating a recommendation for action by the German Society for General and Family Medicine on the initial interview. The previous version contains the recommendation that in addition to the exploration of the general physical condition, any current complaints, existing risk factors and already manifested chronic diseases as well as the diseases that have already occurred in the family, the current life situation (work, family, housing, etc.) and central aspects of the biography should also be found out. This should be done in order to exclude foreseeable dangerous courses and to develop an overall understanding of the patient, which can guide the development of the relationship and the joint treatment. On the part of the group of authors, we argue that it is worth investing in the beginning - the initial interview - whereas many practitioners argue that in the course of long-term treatment, the relevant life-world-related and biographical data can gradually emerge (" lived anamnesis") or gradually be recovered. In Germany, a maximum of about 20 minutes is available for initial interviews, so the question is when it is "enough". In my experience, information is often collected whose meaning remains unclear from the patient's point of view - does "living in family" mean having social support? Or, in the given case, does it mean quite the opposite, that there is constant tension? Therefore, we thought that "the practitioner's feeling of having understood the patient as a whole person" could be a central criterion. It is clear that this feeling depends on experience and the like, but we assume that it also becomes action-guiding when the practitioner is not aware of it.
Apart from the breadth of possible problem situations, the time frame available for the conversation and the possible long-term relationship as special features of general practice, I think the question can be transferred to other situations.
What do you mean?
All the best
Ottomar
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i have design antenna for reducing mutual coupling in compact mimo antennas for 5g applications. for this i choose self decoupling technique. now the result i get is good in case of isolation and S22 plot(antenna 2 is matched excellently). now i want to matched antenna 1 for this i have to make changes in which parameters? i have attached the S parameters plots.
antenna one is designed on vertical substrate and antenna 2 is designed on ground substrate.
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Welcome!
Are your antennas resonant ones? If they are resonant then you have to adjust the length of the antennas to make them resonant at the coupling minimum shown in the given figure. From the principle point of view you can change the input impedance of the antenna by changing its size as hinted before.
You can refer to the book electronic communications techniques by Young>
It can guide you in an easy way to adjust the parameters of your antenna.
Best wishes
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I am trying to estimate the mutual coupling between adjacent elements in a metasurface using the model as specified in the IEEE AP Magazine paper titled " Investigations of the Effects of Mutual Coupling in Reflectarray Antennas".
I find difficulty in placing the lumped element attached to the discrete port. Could someone help model the lumped element to the discrete port and hence estimate the mutual coupling?
The link to the referred paper is mentioned below
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I can give you a conceptual answer.
If the meta surfaces are provided by ports then you can calculate Sij as a coupling coefficient between the meta surfaces.
Best wishes
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Based on a resent question; what is the difference between a saprophyte and a saprotroph?
In Greek saprophyte would be saprós (“putrid; decayed; rotten”) and phyte ("plant") thus meaning a plant that will live of dead or decaying organic matter. Saprotroph on the other hand, would be saprós (“putrid; decayed; rotten”) and trophē (“food; nourishment”) and thus include all organism with this lifestyle.
It seems as if the term saprophyte would be incorrect as plants are in actuality not saprophytic. The same problem comes in with saprophytic vs saprotrophic. My concern is this, why were we taught that "saprophytic" or saprotrophic fungi are saprophytes as this would seem to be incorrect. Recent publications and textbooks still refer to saprophytes. Has the term saprophyte been abolished or regardless of the difference we now consider saprophyte and saprotroph as synonyms?
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Just now, both terms saprophyte and saprotrophic are be used in the field of fungi papers. So, both terms refer to fungi which feed and grow on dead things such as: plant debris, organic materials, dung etc.
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Good day! I would like to ask if you know of an organism with a commensal relationship with P. aeruginosa, ideally a nematode. I'm currently trying to conceptualize a project which investigates the mutation tendencies of an organism (P. aeruginosa) in two host species: (a.) a host which P. aeruginosa is pathogenic towards and (b.) a host species which P. aeruginosa has a commensal relationship with.
From what I have gathered so far, I found an interesting research article which investigated the mutation of P. aeruginosa in a metazoan host which it is pathogenic towards, Caenorhabditis elegans. I would like to test how P. aeruginosa will mutate in a host species which it initially has a commensal relationship with too, ideally in an organism closely related to C. elegans.
Thank you so much for taking time to read this query and best regards!
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@ Harvey, so far I know that P. aeruginosa has commensal relationship with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and fungi Candida albicans.
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Hello,
I am curious about the growth of bacterial consortia, namely pathogens among commnesals. I have found several publications reporting the experimental growth or the model of single bacteria (either commensal or pathogens) but not consortia.
Are there some publications showing how different bacteria grow together?
Thank you
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I also found this: DOI: 10.1128/jb.113.2.834-840.1973
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Are there any examples of positive mutual relationships between religion and technology? That is a relationship that shows a type of compatibility in them? Or maybe we need to go insofar as saying that technology and religion conflict? Or at least there is a point where they might become incompatible one with the other?
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With technologies, practicing religion/saying prayers are too easy as is available in the online platforms.
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The parasitism phase has the ability to avoid the entrapment at a local optimum region is said to have the exploitative capability. how?
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kindly see
Adaptive symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm for structural design optimization
and
A survey of symbiotic organisms search algorithms and applications
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Hello,
in the literature, the studies based on the next-generation sequencing analysis of microbes are called "microbiome studies". On Wikipedia, the microbiome is defined as: "the microorganisms found in a specific environment". Microbiota is instead: "ecological communities of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms found in and on all multicellular organisms".
If I study the species richness of microbes in the gut, for instance, what should be the correct title of the work? "Microbiome analysis of the gut" or "microbiota characterization of the gut"? Or are the two terms simply synonyms?
Since I am not studying the interactions between microbes but only their presence, I think "microbiome" is the correct term. Am I right?
Thank you
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Dear Luigi Marongiu Please, take a look at this paper:
Microbiome definition re-visited: old concepts and new challenges (Berg et al. 2020).
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dear friends from the rock mechanics field
Good day. I have what may seem a minor problem, but I cannot crack it somehow.
I have attached a page from Hoek & Brown (1997) paper, which gives elaborate spreadsheet formulas for simulation of triaxial data and conversion to Mohr-Coulomb parameters, in absence of actual triaxial tests. All the formulas are explained and mutually connected except one.
What is the formula for signt??
It is the normal stress which must be specified in order to calculate the tangent to the Mohr envelope. There is a myriad of formulas involved with the problem and I just don't see the answer. I would greatly appreciate assistance.
Cheers, Hrvoje Vučemilovič
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Hoek Brown criteria helps in determining rock failure conditions, while Mohr Coulomb criteria is related to plasticity of rocks and strength.
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I recall that, given two totally ordered sets (A,<) and (B,<), an embedding of the first one into the latter is an injective mapping f from A into B such that, for any x, y in A, if x < y then f(x) < f(y). I guess that this question has already been asked and answered long ago. I have looked for an answer in a few books of set theory, but I couldn't find any. Here is a motivation of this question:
consider the family of isomorphism classes of total orders that can be defined on a given set U. If the answer to my question is affirmative, then a partial ordering is naturally defined on this family and more questions can thus be asked. For instance: does it admit minimal elements? If it does, are these minimal elements necessarily (isomorphism classes of) well orderings?
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I also realize that my question was ill stated: I forgot to say that the two ordered sets to consider where supposed to be defined over the same set of elements, otherwise R and [0,1] immediately provide a counterexample. Nevertheless, that additional condition doesn't change things so much.
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Hello dear researchers. I have a panel data set where I regressed innovation on director tenure.
Though, I employed GMM and lag of the director tenure to address the endogeneity and reverse causality but the editor suggested me to use PSM to solve the mutual causality. In this situation I stuck that how to use PSM to address the editor concern. Therefore, I need your value guidance . Thank you so much.
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An excellent question
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Consider a polytomous categorical dependent variable Y, which can assume values equal to 0, 1, or 2.
If, for instance, the state 2 is conditioned to the occurrence of the state 1, the multinomial logistic regression remains an option, or am I forced to use the hierarchical/nested one?
The core of my question is: if one of the considered states is conditioned to another one, will the multinomial way be biased?
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The multinomial logit model assumes that one choice is independent of others ( independence of irrelevant alternatives IIA).
If this is violated, other alternative models should be applied. Think about Mixed Logistic regression that solves this problem to an extent. This is even better than nested logit models.
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I simulate an inductive wireless power transfer system in matlab. I set the primary and secondary mutual inductor resistance is 0.3ohm. So when i run the circuit it took high current at no load that's reduce my overall efficiency. But i see in the research paper they show small amount of current induce in primary side.
Anyone can help me?
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That may be at harmonics current. Although, inductors absorbs reactive power no at the same time generate the harmonics.
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Also it's effects on plants.
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I am totally in agreement with
Prava Kiran Dash
the new biofertilizer really need to be examined for testing its quality with standard methods, as mentioned completely by Prava.
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The new normal due to pandemic has shifted the work from offices to homes for few sectors which could be a blessing in disguise for qualified and experienced women to take up suitable jobs which they gave up or never tried as they were grounded due to various issues connected with family like bringing up children or looking after ailing parents/in-laws etc. As far as the organisations are concerned ,they could look at previous employees, experienced executives and so on whom they could engage productively for mutual benefit
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Dear Declan, appreciate your comments. In developing countries where women are making a mark, my question attracts due attention. Hope more gents as well as the ladies will participate in the discussion.
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Mycorrhizal symbiosis and genetic variability in cereals
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One way is to assess differences in symbiosis between varieties of the same crop. You'd likely have to do gene mapping of loci to determine any differences.
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Fidelity is a mutual trust between researchers and participants. How can this principle be followed in research?
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Good question , it is a self imposed subject , how much you are transparent to yourself and practice fidelity in science....
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I have some recordings of EEG signal that have gone through basic pre processing through EEG Lab. I am looking for a metric to examine whether the signals are good enough to use. I came across Mutual Information Reduction and Pairwise Mutual information but i am not sure how they correlate with my issue.
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Teaching Hardships during COVID-19 in 2020
Please highlight what type of hardships, difficulties you as a teacher going through during these trying times due to COVID-19 around the globe?
Even if you are doing virtual teaching, or following face to face instructional model in your school setting, do share please.
Lets collaborate and communicate as teaching community to find practical solutions mutually to overcome our teaching concerns. Thanks
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I agree with you Zorica Popović
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In many situations in practice, the explanatory variables (xi) may not remain independent due to various reasons. The situation where the explanatory variables are highly intercorrelated is referred to as multicollinearity.
When a dependent parameter (y) depends upon so many independent variables (x1, x2,...,xn) and y has a good correlation with x1, x2,...,xn . But some of them among x1, x2,...,xn are highly correlated with each other.
I just want to know is there any book or journal reference to support this exclusion of mutually correlated data? Please give me it. Thank you.
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Multicollinearity (MC) is when a set of independent variables have strong correlation between them.
Depending on what you are looking for understand phenomenon, MC will help or mess up. Multivariate Regression model hates and Factorial Analysis (Principal Components Analysis) loves it.
I like to use the example of valuation of used cars for sale in a regression model to explain effects of MC.
You believe that the sale value of a car depends of some factors like: size, power of engine, fuel consumption, weight, odometer value, tire status, paint quality, age.
You sample many cars in the market in order to build a model to rationalize the valuation. A Multivariate Regression Model.
Clearly you can note that you have 2 very significant groups of variables. They have, inside each group, high correlation.
Group 1: size, power of engine, fuel consumption, weigh are very correlated because large car has bigger motor that drinks more fuel and needs large chassis.
Group 2: odometer value, tire status, paint quality and age also are very correlated and reflects age/use.
Group 1 and 2 don’t have correlation or it is small.
MC in this model is very significant and the problem is, mathematic when define the coefficients of the variables in the regression model keeps confused to attribute the enough relevance in order to “push” the variance of dependent variable. At the end, is like to share all the influence to more than one independent variable. And you really don’t know what is going on. Crazy model ! Which way (intensity) the variance of a specific independent variable is affecting the Variance of dependent variable.
How to minimize this effect? Smart selection of variables, basic correlation analysis (or better, Multicollinearity analyse when you have software to help you. I use SPSS and works fine). Sometimes it hurts because you will sacrifice some variables you really believe would contribute most to reproduce the phenomenon in your model.
Keep in mind: Good quality regression model has high correlation between dependent and independent variables AND low correlation between pairs of independent variable.
But how much MC would be acceptable? The same criteria of keep or remove outlier, because eliminating some colateral effects in a sample will result in model overfitting and the model seems to be unreal because is simply perfect just for the present sample and you want to estimate the behavior of the population.
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Recently published an article discussing the fundamental possibility of committing
journey to the past without breaking the "paradox of killing grandpa" or paradox
the mutual relationship of the past event and the subsequent one.
This article by Germain Tobar and Fabio Costa is called "Reversible dynamics with
closed time-like curves and freedom of choice."
I will remind you that the paradox of the murdered grandfather is a time paradox
related to travel
in time, first described by science fiction writer Rene Barjavel in a 1943 book
"Careless traveler" (French Le voyageur imprudent). A man with a time machine went back
to the past, where he killed his biological grandfather before the latter met the
traveler's grandmother. The result suggests that one of the traveler's parents, and, as
a result, the traveler himself, would never have been born.
Tobarg and his disciple Dr. Costa, in the above-mentioned article, considered the
possibility of fundamentally not violating the principle of mutual communication when
traveling to the past.
Fundamentally new in their theoretical research, in my opinion, is that they
recalibration of events is allowed when travelling to the past.
That is, when affecting events in the past, the events are rebuilt or
are recalibrated in such a way that the final situation in subsequent events will not be
broken.
The conclusions of their work in particular say, "As a result, we have demonstrated that there are a number of scenarios in which numerous observers can communicate without causation within the classical framework."
This means, for example, if a person is in the past and wants to stop any epidemic. For example, to prevent the virus from spreading from a zero patient, then changes in subsequent events should occur.
In the paradox with Grandpa, I understand that Grandpa should never be eliminated. And the event chain of events, following the fact of the possible elimination of grandfather, should be directed towards countering the upcoming event.
I am not a specialist in the field of classical and quantum gravity, but some works on the topic "closed time-like curves" I was interested in and were read.
I have a question about those who have been or are interested in such problems.
Do I understand this question?
Is the evidence (authors Germain Tobar and Fabio Costa in their article) sufficient to not violate the grandfather paradox. And are the authors correct in asserting in their article the following:
"The most important outcome of our work is the discovery of various non-trivial quadripartite process functions that are compatible with the presence of CTC. This demonstrates that when several local regions interact with each other in the presence of the CTC, there are a wide range of communication scenarios that still allow free choice for observers in each region without developing logical inconsistencies, such as the grandfather paradox. "
Is it possible to create a time locator? or whether recalibration of events avoids
violations of the paradox of mutual communication?
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Me be.. If You have good abilities and adapptang jointly with others
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How does culture influence food choices? I am interested in studying the mutual influence of countries in food traditions, and if geographical context can influence the consumers attitude.
Can traditional foods be common / close to peoples of common ethnic origin? How food patterns develop
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In Bangladesh: Rice, fish and pulse are major representative food.
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Hello,
I would like to cultivate fecal bacteria, not for diagnostic purposes but for an ecological study. Thus, I am not interested so much in the pathogenic species but the normal commensal ones.
What media are best for the job?
Thank you
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@Luigi, the attached files may be helpful to you.
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what is the difference between correlation coefficient(CC) and mutual information(MI)?
what is the range of both methods (CC and MI)??
I want to evaluate image registration through these two methods.
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What are the mechanisms that prevent immune
responses against commensal microbes
and fetuses?
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Perhaps, in our uncertainty time, the importance of the concept of "information" in any area of human activity is obvious. For many decades, publications on the theory of information and its application in science and technology have indicated two mutually exclusive approaches to assessing the nature of information entropy. Who is right?
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This is not the topic for one answer. This requires at least a paper or book. Very briefly there are existing three distinct streams of thought about entropy.
* Thermodynamics. Clausius.
* Kinetic theory of gasses. Boltzmann.
* Information theory. Shannon.
Those three approaches developed in different periods of time, for different reasons, and using different mathematical tools. We must know all of them in order to understand fully.
The richest approach is the last one. Under certain assumptions, information entropy is the umbrella to all other entropies.
With respect to the abstractness of entropy. Entropy is a measure of missing information about the system. More specifically, how many microstates that we cannot measure are associated with the given, measurable macrostate.
Obviously when the system is uniform entropy is zero because there is just one state. When there is many, hidden, impossible to discern microstates to given macrostate, entropy is high. This is the missing information.
Such a concept of entropy is applicable to all disciplines.
Hopefully, it elucidated the concept a bit.
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an attempt is being made to investigate the possibility that there are 7000 dialects rather than languages spoken today and that they may be mutually intelligible because ,contrary to the commonly held belief,they seem to be genetically related .
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For me the gap in the language and dialect of human widen with the increasing distance in the place of living. Even in the same state language differences are clearly visible.
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The most difficult scientific advances become possible when you ask the right question. In the case of COVID-19, I understand that the right question is: why do some people become seriously infected when exposed to low viral load, while others are not sick even when exposed to high viral loads? The situation resembles the film The Andromeda Strain, which I used for many years as an example of scientific research in my Philosophy of Science classes. There is a deathly virus that came in a spaceship, which kills the vast majority of people. However, a baby and a drunk are immune to the action of this virus. A scientist then asks the right question: why are these two people immune? When investigating the physiology of these people, he discovers that both have their PH in certain ranges, the baby alkaline due to excessive crying, and the drunk acid from the ingested drink. In the case of Corona, we have indicators that its action occurs mainly in the mitochondria (see Castalia Francon´s insights below), which has an evolutionary origin due to endosymbiosis (when the eukaryotic cell incorporates bacteria that help it perform certain functions). Mitochondrial DNA is exclusively maternal in origin. Some factors that affect the mitochondria, such as nicotine and metformin, may predispose to the action of the virus. All this indicates that it is necessary to research the affinity of the virus with certain segments of the mitochondrial DNA, to verify if there is a segment present in the mitochondrial DNA of susceptible people, which is not found in the DNA of people not susceptible to the disease. After this discovery CRISPR technology may be used succssfully.
The mechanisms of action of Metformin against Diabetes, boosting mitochondria and reducing the stress caused by excess glucose, may be useful for the fight against the new Coronavirus. I have discussed with experts the action of Metformin and its relation to cancer tumor genesis in another RG question (https://www.researchgate.net/post/Does_the_use_of_metformin_against_type_2_diabetes_increase_or_decrease_the_probability_of_appearance_of_cancer_tumors).
To answer the above question, it is necessary to take into account recent data on the mechanism of action of the virus and empirical statistical (positive or negative) correlation between use of Metformin and the lethality of the virus. Is there any data on this correlation?
According to comments by Castalia Francon, "Neutrophils are known as the core of the 'innate immune systems". They are our 'first responders" to any imminent medical holocaust...NETS, 'Neutrophilic Extracellular Traps" as the battlefield. These powerful products of our neutrophils are essentially a nuclear option against the pathogens. As such they do whatever they can to prevent that explosive death of the neutrophil that will ensnare them...
For bacteria and viruses, their goal of survival entails first avoiding, by whatever means they have, the phagocytosis efforts and then countering the next move of the neutrophils, their death by NETosis.
To attempt this, they seek to manipulate the communications between mitochondria and the cell so as to stall the Neutrophil in a limbo known as "autophagy" while the microbe can continue to reproduce and spread.
The term "autophagy" came into use to denote a systematic, almost "thoughtful" process by means of which the neutrophils, just like macrophages, could move sequentially through a series of considerations pertaining to how to deal with their situation in terms of life and death. But by its very nature as an extremely complex process entailing many dimensional considerations, it is also readily exploitable by pathogens, and in particular by viruses
Many pathogens have been shown to evade or exploit autophagy in macrophages, aiming to establish an intracellular niche for long-term survival and replication Subversion of autophagy by microbes in neutrophils is far less studied but the Corona situation seems to point to it...Our best analogy to it is how when we with to delete", 'our computers ask us, "Are you sure'?" It appears most likely that autophagy is the manifestation of a process that almost always goes on, and eventuates in some adaptive response....unless, of course, the communications between mitochondria and cell are distorted or diminished by pathogen actions.
Viruses and bacteria have evolved over millions of years as each others nemeses, long before we were on the scene, thus the virus is naturally inclined to maniupulate the mitochrondira and by means of that to in turn manipulate the entire cell which is driven by the mitochondria and their needs...
Unfortunately the current 'expert' narrative speaks dichotomously of either "promoting" or 'inhibiting" autophagy instead of coming to terms that there is an ongoing and complex battle going on where any one aspect can shift the nature of the complex decision making.one way or the other. The pathogen, however, is most happy when no clear decisions at all is reached.
The essential treatment for Corona Virus infection is to assure that once the phagocytosis fails....which it often does...that the neutrophils are not stalled from their productive and special death with its Neutrophilic Extracellular Trap creation...which releases the remarkable power of their own DNA to act as a potent immune system weapon against microbes.
We would not be surprised if the CRISPR technology which is now surfacing with so much promise is not an aspect of the manner in which DNA/chromatin sections can be used productively to kill viruses...as they have been used for millennia, apparently, by bacteria.
In summary
• Previous smoking habit is highly associated with the dire effects of Corona Infection....and it also leads to a maladaptive tendency towards' "autophagy" which renders those persons' neutrophils unable to engage in "NETosis " and create "NETS""t
• Smokers neutrophils seem to have phenotypically altered over the course of their previous smoking habit so that they are unable to properly engage in their intense first line of defense, phagocytosis (via NADPH mechanisms).
We only need to observe that in Italy, where the death rates from Corona are soaring, they differ in the terms of their 'lockdown" from ours. Whereas, in the US, pharmacies and groceries and other vital retailers are excluded, in Italy, stunningly, tobacconists and vapes shops join pharmacies as essential and are exempted from lockdown.
Normally, the generation of the ROS products via phagocytosis is a prerequisite for the subsequent death via NETosis.. This is unsurprising since that a failure to be able to engage in phagocytosis would already connote some abnormality or deficit.
•It has however been found that even when the initial phagocytosis does not occur, that, if system can be induced downstream to generate ROS, then NETosis and the creation of those 'traps' is still possible.
• Chloroquine is known to be an "autophagy preventer" in that it can serve to rescue the neutrophil system and thus precipitate the creation of 'NETS. It seems to achieve a mobilization of the NET trap system even though phagocytosis has not succeeded. Exactly what it does is still not clear.
It appears that it is optimal to administer chloroquine early, but only after the first phagocytosis efforts of the neutrophil system but before the virus has seized the opportunity, by manipulating the communications between mitochondria and the cell, to spread and do maximum damage".
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Dear, Mr. Pereira,
The metformin do not boost mitochondria. The main effect is to kill the mitochondria of the liver responsible to process and transport the glycogen to the blood stream given the glucagon signal is there. Thus the glucose is confined in the liver and can not be released in the blood and the blood sugar level seems normal. It's very doubtful if this helps with infection, when the need of fast supply of energy is higher.
Linked with quinine group, the metformin is a binary poison. It reacts chemically, and can kill by itself. And if ACE inhibitors or similar are added, their side effects (most of them identical with COVID will pop up), and the chloroquine will just destroy the pancreas due to the excess of glucagon and Alpha cells activation that can not provide energy to the cells due to the O2 deficiency, when mainly anaerobic cycle is available.
Especially in very old males, the metformin deteriorates the energy cell balance and the outcome will be fatal.
I suppose, it will be better when treating COVID-19 to stop any diabetic medication and use insulins only with continuous blood glucose level tracing, keeping it higher.
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Dear colleagues
I need the location of houses for agent-based modeling. in this regard, Open Street Map (OSM) is very useful. But OSM in our region is not very accurate and I am thinking to use GIS.
Do Matsim and GIS have an mutual interface? or any suggestion for modeling house locations in Matsim?
Thanks
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You can take the locations of houses as coordinates from GIS and convert the file to xml to be used in MATSim
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In general, plants host endophytes (bacteria and fungi) depending on phenological conditions.
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been widely recognized to be associated with endophytes and especially fungal species.
I am wondering if there are nettle leaves without any endophytic colonization?
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we've alreday isolated endophytes from diverse spontaneaous plant species, we found very interesting bacterial endophytes from Urtica urens. See (Krimi et al., 2016). Good luck!
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How can we calculate the mutual coupling effects of antenna arrays with single port in CST? The array consists of 4 element slots which is fed simultaneously using a corporate feed. What all parameters are to be find out for determining the mutual coupling effects of the antenna elements?
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You need to give each antenna a separate feed to find out the mutual coupling effects. You can feed each one and see what signal appears at the feed to each of the others, and what the radiation pattern is, and also feed all at once to see how it adds together - you can also do this mathematically once you have the 4 separate results. If it is symmetrical you may only need one or two results, depending on the symmetry. Then, if needed, you can adjust the design so that the mutual coupling does not harm the match or radiation pattern. Then put the common feed back.
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I am doing a wave modelling where there are 2 bodies undergoing multimotions. I want to apply damping in between the 2 bodies. Is there any way to do that?
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Hi
You can use damping coefficient k2 in contact properties of body coupling.
See the attached file.
Regards
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Universities impact the society in many ways. Training , research and service functions are amongst others. However, I am interested to find a theory or a model that best explains the two way impact of the service function of universities. By two way I am referring to the mutual benefits of the service functions.
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Nigusse Weldemariam Reda thinking about the pathways of impact - how the university would be expected to impact the community, such as academic, economic and social impact https://www.ukri.org/innovation/excellence-with-impact/pathways-to-impact/
With that information, it is possible to measure or explain the impact.
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Hello everyone :)
I'm doing a project on the symbiosis between Symbiodinium and Scleractinian corals, but I've been having a hard time trying to find information on the cellular / molecular mechanisms involved (especially the specific recognition process and the how the phagocytosis process is stopped)
Can someone help me?
Thanks!
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Please take a look at this useful PDF attachment.
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Parents are struggling a lot by joining them in good school, giving them proper education and making them to do one of the best courses available to make them settle. Sometimes children are stubborn to do a certain course and impose their ideas on the parents on the other hand some children follow the path what parents decide and do and lastly on the other hand based on mutual discussion children may select the course. In order to give a good life and to make them settle properly, what guidance and help can be given or extended to our children?
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What a nice question dear Professor Dr. Pisipaty Srinivas Kishore. As far as I know there are hardly courses for parents and educators. We have to rely on our own experience. Educators and parents are often surprised. In the Netherlands we got an expression: "the apple does not fall far from the tree". In other words, our education style is more or less a copy of that of our parents. It is furthermore my opinion that providing support children should be based on non-violence principles and positive feedback. We should also recruit support for our children in network of our extended family and friends. They might coach US in stead of our children. If necessary they might take over. This is the beginning of an asnwer. All the best, Carl
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mutual information usage in EEG
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Information Technology: Impacts, Policies and Future Perspectives: Promotion of Mutual Understanding Between Europe and Japan
Hans Günter Danielmeyer (auth.), Dr. Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, Dr. Jürgen Müller, Dr. Brigitte Preißl (eds.)
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I have recently done a Survey where respondents were able to choose which funding methods they had used in the past. After choosing all the funding methods they had done, the next step was to choose multiple reasons as to why they had chosen each funding type.
For example, for someone who had done a Venture Capital round and a Business Angel round, they would choose the reasons that apply for why they chose these funding methods from a list of multiple options, like "to increase professional network", "simplicity", etc.
The summary of this data would be a table with rows being the funding type and columns being the percentage of respondents that chose that reason for funding.
If you read one cell of the table you would say "out of all the companies that have done a venture capital round, 86% mentioned "simplicity" as a reason, and 74% mentioned "to increase professional network" as a reason, etc."
Now I would like to test if the reasoning varies significantly between different funding methods. The issue is that the funding methods are not mutually exclusive (one company could have done many different types of funding), and neither are the reasons for doing each funding (a company can have many reasons for having done a venture capital round).
I have seen mentioned that a Cochran Q test might be valid, however I have only been able to find examples where you use the answer of each respondent separately, but I have not found a method of doing it for my case.
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Yes, Cochran's Q test seems perfect :)
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Candida albicans is a dimorphic organism, a common commensal of oral cavity. It exists harmlessly in oral cavity, GIT, nose and many other sites of the body. In some situations it changes its nature and transforms into pathogens capable of causing infections. Why these transformations occur? Is it due to a change in micro-environment or due to a change in organism itself?
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Candida albicans is often harmless, kept in balance with other members of the local microbiota, However, many factors can change the status of C.albicans from harmless microorganism to serious pathogen, such factors are:-
-alteration in host-microbiota due to prolong uptake of antibiotics.
-Changes in host immune response during stress, infection by another pathogen, or immunosuppressant therapy.
-Variation in the local environment such as a shift in pH or nutrition content.
Best Regard
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For example: Acacia dealbata, Dichrostachys cinerea, Acacia melanoxylon, Genista monspessulana, among others. In these species no nodule induction is observed in the roots.
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Of course No, it's specific for a defined subfamily (Agreed with Dr Arvind Singh ). In a previous study, I've found that Gleditsia traiacanthos doesn't fix atmospheric nitrogen (No Rhizobia symbiosis were observed) and several authors confirmed thi results.
Regards
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The maximum value for Mutual information between two genes is 5.12 (No. of gene are 45000 genes) , Is this result correct , I am used the concatenation between two vectors (genes time series) to compute the joint entropy of (x, y).
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maximum MI(x,y) = min(entropy(x), entropy(y)). If x is discretized into N different category then entropy(x) = log(N, _base), where _base is the base that you used when computing your entropy. Normally, _base = 2.
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According to the famous Pythagorean Theorem, a Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) consists of positive integers a, b and c such that
a2 + b2 = c2. An irreducible Pythagorean triple is a Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) such that a, b and c are mutually relatively prime integers. We say that (a, b, c) is an irreducible super Pythagorean triple if
a2 + b2 = c2 and a3 + b3 + c3 is a perfect cube (i.e., a cube of a positive integer). For example, (3, 4, 5) is an irreducible super Pythagorean triple because of 32 + 42 = 52 and
33 + 43 + 53 = 216 = 63.
It is well known that there exist infinitely many irreducible Pythagorean triples.
Do there exist some other irreducible super Pythagorean triples?
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Solve for a, b, c, d :
a² + b² = c²....(1)
a³ + b³ + c³ = d³.....(2)
The general solution for (1) is well known:
a = s² - t² , b = 2st, c = s²+t² where gcd(s,t)=1.
Now, substitute in(2), we obtain :
(s²-t²)³ + (2st)³+ (s²+t²)³ - d³ = 0,
simplify: 2s²(s²-2st+3t²)(s+t)² = d³
hence, d is an even number, let d= 2kD , k > 0, and D is odd, we get
s²(s²-2st+3t²)(s+t)² = 23k-1D³ ......(3)
Consider the 3 accepted cases:
(I) s = 2m+1, t = 2n, we have,
(4m-4n-8mn+4m²+12n²+1)(2m+2n+1)² (2m+1)² = 23k-1D³ contradiction.
(II) s = 2m+1, t = 2n+1
8(4n-4mn+2m²+6n²+1)(m+n+1)²(2m+1)² =23k-1
implies 23k-1 = 8 = 23 , therefore 3k-1= 3 contradiction.
The only possible case is :
(III) s = 2m, t = 2n+1,
4(12n-4m-8mn+4m²+12n²+3)(2m+2n+1) m²=23k-1
hence, k=1 and m should be odd, m = 2r+1 and d=2D with odd D.
The work is in progress. To handle the last case.
Best regards
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I was wondering if anyone has some suggestions on extracting RNA from C. albicans. I have tried these two methods from literature:
Method 1:
Method 2:
Candida albicans Morphogenesis Programs Control the Balance between Gut Commensalism and Invasive Infection
Method 2 has worked best-- RNA concentration is high, but 260/280 is falling around 1.50.
Our lab is using fecal samples from mice, adding 1XPBS to the samples, centrifuging, and collecting supernatant. We then incubate the samples with C. albicans and begin extraction for RNA. I appreciate any inputs!!! Thank you!
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I would check with Mark Swanson. This is usually a problem with cracking the cells efficiently. My lab has gotten good results in filamentous fungi, but we haven't done RNA extraction from yeasts.
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Hello,
I start to simulate a simple transformer in FEMM and compare the results with Maxwell.
In the manual of FEMM they describe how to use the block integrals to calculate the inductance. If I compare them with the Maxwell inductance the results are different.
Also the magnetic field strength is different even though I have the same material details.
Thanks for your help. BR
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I found already the failure with the magnetic field strength. The excitation in Maxwell was wrong.
I will try the calculation of the inductance. Thanks Hossein Dadashi .
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I am a civil servant working in the special department related to stray dogs. As the conductor of the description of the mutual assessment to get dog-food supplies, I have to be accurate about the reason I need to ask for dog-food protein rate around 18-22% with the detail of it containing not less than 18% biologically originated protein. Can you please inform me about the proper legislation referring it? A thousand thank you in advance.
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Thank you so much for your immediate answer
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The title of the paper is: arXiv and the Symbiosis of Physics Preprints and Journal Review Articles: A Model
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Thank you Emmanuel.
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how to find mutual information between two images say A and B or say A and C. If matlab code available for computing this, kindly help me with the link.
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you can search google. U will surly get the answer
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I am looking at different companies that work within an ecosystem, such as a startup incubator. In what way, using qualitative research, can I measure whether or not companies have a competitive attitude towards each other?
My goal is to study whether or not companies practice mutualism towards each others in an environment like this or are the competitive?
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I recommend Bhaskar Bhatt answer... SWOT analysis may give a good guide to do so....
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In order to sharing knowledge resources, and gain mutual benefits among RG members I would like to ask you all about :
((the best book, research, article, or any scientific contribution you have read for the year 2018 according to your specialty?
Thanks in advance
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The book titled " Reasoning Strategies in Argumentation" by Zarofsky.
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We are designing a metamaterial-based microstrip antenna array of two elements. We are interested in reducing the mutual coupling between the antenna elements using MTM unit cells implemented in the ground plane but since two-element array needs phase interface, one question came up why do we need MTM structures to reduce mutual coupling?
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If the design is geometrically symmetric and the feed lines' paths are kept equals in length. So, using phase interface to control the mutual coupling is not applicable here. However, the phase interface can be used by make vertical shift or increase the horizontal distance between the 2-elements patch but then the volumetric size of the antenna will increase. Therefore, the metamaterial structure is used to reduce the coupling between the symmetric 2-elements patch keep the antenna size as compact as possible.
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I have used before measures like the Jaccard Index or the Normalized Mutual Information to check the performance of a clustering algorithm using some benchmarks that have ground truth.
Now I am working with time dependant environments split in several time slices. For any time slice i have a ground truth to evaluate the performance of my clustering algorithm. I am looking for some measurements like the ones mentioned above that compress the performance over all the time slices into one number.
thanks.
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Validation of clustering. There are many methods to find the best number of clusters.
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** Given:
a) Ground truth clusters for a data,
b) Clusters obtained using a clustering algorithm (eg: DBSCAN) when applied on the data after processing it .
** Issue:
How to evaluate the performance of the clustering technique when applied on a specific data??
** NMI (Normalized Mutual Information) is a popular external measure to do so. But in cases like below, it gives bad results:
E.g:
Ground_truth = [1,1,1,1,1] ;
DBSCAN_Clusters = [1,1,1,1,2];
nmi = normalized_mutual_info_score(Ground_truth, DBSCAN_Clusters); %python code
** The value of the variable "nmi" approximately equal to zero in this case.
** Here, note that, nmi = 0 in-spite of the fact that DBSCAN (clustering algorithm) has failed to cluster only one cluster member and rest four matches the ground truth.
** This is a typical case when the ground truth contains only one cluster.
** Questions :
1) Why does this happen?
2) Does it mean that clustering algorithm is performing bad?
3) Should I use other measures along with NMI ? If so which ones, and what are they for?
Thanks.
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I think you can add other measure to be able to discuss the obtained result such as the error measure, the F-measure and if you are working with density based clustering you can add internal evaluation metrics such as cd_bw index and DBCV index.
hoping it helps you in your question.
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I want to make a simple, but very significant peace statement and I think that mutually beneficial economic relations in the free World zone of the United States, the European Union and the former USSR can solve many conflicts. Let's expand the European Union and add the United States and the former USSR, then other countries.
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329403368_Wise_World_Union_in_Internet_Era_Can_Become_Needful_Economic_Robotics_for_Peace_Processes_
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I require differences of DNA replication and repair between prokaryotes and eukaryotes mutually exclusive in both
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Have you interest in differences in molecules employed? In Processes of detection? Please, give a bit more detail to your question.
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I am trying to analyze dichotomous/categorical data across several age groups and within each age group. The dichotomous/categorical data come from a decision task in which participant responses are classified into one of three decision types. The decision types are mutually exclusive (i.e., a participant's decision can only fall into one of the three categories). I want to analyze:
  • Whether our 5 age groups differ in the proportion of each type of decision made (e.g., whether some age groups make Decision Type 1 more than other age groups)
  • Whether the proportions of the three decision types differ within each age group (e.g., whether participants in Age Group 1 make Decision Type 1 more than Decision Type 2 and 3).
I have currently coded the decision type variable in two ways (see the attached for the data file setup):
  • A single between-subjects variable with three levels corresponding to the decision type
  • Three within-subjects variables (one for each decision type), where participants get assigned a "0" if they didn't make that decision type or a "1" if they did make that decision type.
Ideally, I want to look at the interaction between age group and decision type, and follow-up with simple effects and pairwise comparisons. The easiest way to do this seems to be a 5 (age group: between subjects) X 3 (decision type: within-subjects) ANOVA. However, the Decision Type variables are dichotomous, not normally distributed, and not really within-subjects. Is there another way to set up the data, or an alternative analysis/analyses that offer full resolution of this analysis from the omnibus test to the pairwise comparisons?
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I calculated the interaction using R (the Fisher test and with several non-parametric tests for the interaction; see R script in attachment) .It is not sign. ; although there seems to be one (see the PNG figure of the interaction in attachment).
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Dear All,
We are currently using Q5500 MS with Symbiosis (HPLC) to analyze samples. We would like to extend our detection capabilities by installing a UV detector (Agilent 1260 MWD) before the MS. Although, AB Sciex claim that Analyst should be able to control all/any Agilent detector through ICF, both Agilent and Sciex will not guarantee this. We are having difficulties getting in a demo model to test for our self so I wanted to ask the community if anyone has tried to operated successfully an LC-UV-MS system where all modules come from different vendors?
Thank you for your help.
Regards,
Cezary Poplawski
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Dear All,
After a number of phone calls to both Sciex and Agilent I quickly realized that both companies only support and advertise the more expensive DAD detectors and any work regarding the issue I would have to undertake myself. after a few days of trials I was able to configure the detector such that it was recognized in Analyst's Hardware Profile. I was able to manually set spectral parameters and turn it on and off. Unfortunately, at this point the Analyst has developed some sort of error and would not work at all. We had to re-install the software and , at the moment, I am a little reluctant to go back to playing with the MS system. I might try it again when the workload eases. I will update this post when I have new information.
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I wonder if (geologically) long ranging host harbor more parasites from different clades than short-ranging hosts? (You may think that long ranging hosts evolved more effective defense mechanisms through time, while on the other hand, they were longer available for parasite adaptation - the Red Queen said to say hello!)
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I think that a classic reference on this issue is the article by the late T. R. E. Southwood, published in 1961 in the Journal of Animal Ecology: ‘The number of species of insect associated with various trees’. Although the article is focused basically on phytophagous insects and their host plants, the main questions examined by the author (in this and other articles) are of general interest: Why different species of host are consumed by different species of parasite? Why some species of host are attacked by more parasite than others? And, more specifically, why hosts with a wide geographical distribution tend to be attacked by more species of parasite than hosts with a more restricted distribution?
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Hello,
I want to create a self sustaining bacteria lamp using multiple microorganisms that live in symbiosis together. I heavily refer this project to the “biobulb“. My plan is using bioluminescent e.coli containing the pVIB plasmid, an algae species the e.coli feed on and a predatory protist that recycles the nutrients. So this ecosystem is self sustaining as long as it keeps in balace and gets enough light. I wanted to ask, whether anyone knows which predatory protist and algae specied may be most suitable because the e.coli have to feed on the algae and the algae have to be mostly translucent to see the glow through. OH, and it is important that the e.coli does not kill all the algae, so it would have to have a short generation time
Thanks very much,
regards,
André
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Like the idea! Just random thoughts, but maybe you could use a porous patch for gaseous exchange with outside - rather like 'sun bags' used for plant tissue culture? Also, maybe routine maintenance could consist of a gentle flush via a filter inlet valve with some fluid 'running to waste' via a similar exit valve, in rather the same way as excess salts can be 'bled' from a recirculating hydroponics system? Will think hard about other possible candidate organisms...best of luck with this idea!
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I would like to know what is the significance of symbiotic relationships in plant nutrition.
Do we have evidences suggesting that symbioses have a significant potential to improve crop yields and quality ?
Especially about mycorrhizae, do you know to what extent they could contribute to plant nutrition? with examples for crops, or records in "nature".
Do we have an idea of the magnitude of the contribution ?
Could it play an important role with a little more selection and innovation?
Or is it just something that ecologists like to point out but have no interesting technical applications.
I guess the answer is somewhere in between ...
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Very good question. Surely the answer is in between.AMs have a huge role in improving plants ability both physiologically and biochemically through a series of enzymes to not only plant nutrition but add another dimension of antioxidants profile to offer much better resistance to plants under water stress or any other kind of stress including salt stress...
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Looking to find any methods and/or publications which review the social sustainability and economic value created for firms (and as a whole) of industrial symbiosis networks. These can be both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Please let me know for example if you have published an example, approach, etc.
I have worked extensively with the "other" pillar sustainability, i.e. applying LCA to review environmental implications of IS (see my publications and methods). For some new projects I'm trying to review and connect the other pillars and understand what can/cannot be done given current methodologies.
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We have a more general model than what you are asking a