Sustainable Rural Development

Sustainable Rural Development

  • Amr Hassan added an answer:
    Is anyone from Egypt looking for a cooperation in Fundamentals researches between Egypt National Research Center and Russian Foundation ?

    There is a government grants support for common fundamental researches with Egypt via  National Research Center (NRC).
    We are looking in common work in Fundamentals of sustainable and productive agriculture. We are looking in common w

    Amr Hassan

    Hi Ivan,

    I am working in Desert Research Center, Egypt. We are, in Plant Genetic Resources Dept., interested studying and developing plant genotypes under stress conditions. My interests deal with biochemical evaluation of different genotypes under stress and effects on end product quality parameters. please, let me know more about your project, to cooperate.

  • Maya Kant Awasthi added an answer:
    Can “agro-ecology” bring food security to Sahel?

    I’m going to study the concept of sustainable agriculture in Burkina Faso, mainly about different farming practices (smallholders mainly) can be more/less sustainable.

    Maya Kant Awasthi

    Your study will be more useful if you can also look at impact of small holders farming systems on social  and cultural sub processes. As nature of impact on on social and cultural sub systems will determine behavior pattern of small holders which then will influence their actions and actions will then influence  ecological sustainability.

  • Lucio Munoz added an answer:
    Should sustainable land use modelling/framing be done now within sustainability rules?

    When sustainable land use ideas were being discussed in 2001 I made the following comment for RIO + 10, for RIO +20 and now:


    "March 10/2001/FAO-RIO10 Conference: commments on Draft Report/SARD Part I

    From: "Lucio Munoz" <>

    To: "RIO10-Moderator" <>,



    Date: Sat, 10 Mar 2001 22:55:56 -0800

    Dear Friends, my name is Lucio Munoz, I am an independent researcher based in Vancouver, Canada

    II recall well, the problems at the time of Rio were, in general terms, increasing poverty and increasing environmental degradation.   The rio conference formally recognized these two aspects as the main issues to be addressed. A plan was made to address these two issues as soon as possible, but with long term objectives.

    The content of the draft repor SARD Part I sent to me provides evidence that the policies originally followed to address poverty and environmental degradation led to increase poverty and increased environmental degradation.

    Then globalization came to worsen the problem more by intenfying the poverty and environmental degradation problem of concern. Have we failed the goals of Rio so far?.

    As things are right now, globalization forces will become more wild and poverty and environmental degradation appear to be moving to a critical stage. Eco-economic partnerships can not be the solution in the long term  as implied here if they leave out social concerns(the majority).

    Over all, I see a systematic direct delinking of the goals(poverty and environmental degradation) that were set out 10 years a go and the instruments and processes chosen to achieve that.

    This report indicates that while poverty increased and environmental degradation increased, production increased, standard of living in industrial/urban areas increased, awareness and NGO movements increased,

    Goverment and international research networks increased, economic development over all increased, free trade increased, infrainstructure improvements have increased, vertical integration has increased, privatization has increased, and decentralization has increased.

    It looks like the better we do in all the fronts above, the more poverty and environmental degradation we are generating. And the report suggest that the way out of this poverty and environmental cycle is to still improve still more those areas/tools/technologies that appear to be leading to the problem we are trying to address.

    I would suggest that this issue should be looked a little bit closer.  Otherwise, we may find out during RIO-20 that poverty and environmental degradation are still worse.

    My warm greetings to all. The views shared here with you are my personal views, I may be wrong. Your comments are welcome.

    Sincerely yours;

    Lucio Munoz

    Vancouver, BC., Canada"


    A new round of discussion is about to happen about "sustainable land use model" and the issues I raised are still valid, poverty and environmental issues are worse, is it not time to think in sustainability terms this time around? What do you think?

    Lucio Munoz

    Good Day Chris-Valentine. Thanks for your comment.  It seems when you say "In all, land use framing and modelling must be carried out with sustainable development consideration", which in the eyes of those leading the sutainable development process(FAO, RIO, SARDS,,,,) they have been doing since 1987, but so far the problems they have been addressing, poverty and environmental degradation are getting worse.... I am for a new approach under sustainability thinking and acting...

    If we are open to the possibility that the old traditional market and the current green market are distorted markets, then there is room for sustainability actions as they they would correct the market, not distort it as it is commonly believe...

    See those ideas here as you may find them interesting:

    What If Markets Have Always Been Distorted? Would It Then Be a Good Fix to Add Fair Trade Margins to Correct Distorted Agricultural Market Prices?.

    I also took a look at land reforms under sustainability rules, not sustainable development sustainable rules and I came with the following ideas...

    The Search for Equity in Access to Land in Latin America: Which Are the Main Characteristics that Define a Sustainable Land Reform Model?

    I wish a good day Chris and friends

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Abstract It has always been assumed that we live in a world of perfect markets, where supply and demand interactions work magically in the absence of market distortions or externalities. Today we know we live in a world ruled by overproduction and overconsumption, which promote ongoing wasteful, polluting and degrading social and environmental processes. Is it possible that the traditional perfect market’s assumptions can be responsible for these negative outcomes through the creation of supply and demand scenarios that only meet at the lower pure economy price; and therefore lead to economic market flooding and waste? If yes, that means that we have been living in distorted markets all this time, market that do not reflect the right price; and these distortions need to be corrected now to ensure that the traditional perfect market reflects sustainability rules. The general goals of this paper are: a) To introduce the notion of the right market price, the traditional market price, and the corrected market price and to show how they can be related to ensure traditional market sustainability; b)To extend this notion to the right agricultural market price, to the traditional agricultural market price, and the corrected agricultural market price and to point out how they can be linked to ensure that agricultural markets are consistent with sustainability rules; and c) To list some relevant specific and general conclusions.
      Full-text · Article · Jun 2010

    + 1 more attachment

  • Chandana Jayathilake added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest me few marketing strategies for IT applications which are developed to support farmers and other rural population?

    We have developed different applications which will enhance  agriculture production and improve livelihoods of rural population. I need few marketing strategies to take these products into market and make them available for the grassroot . 

    Chandana Jayathilake

    Hi, This is some places where you can have agricultural apps,

    Specially you can go for ICT enable solutions like sms for market and agronomy knowledge sharing, community farmer radio programs, Low cost interactive voice responses systems  and many more. Go for our works with farmer community.

  • Philippe Baveye added an answer:
    Which countries have land use legislation that takes into account the capability of soils to fulfill certain functions?

    Someone mentioned to me that Uruguay has land use legislation that takes into account the capability of soils to render certain services. Apparently, this legislation places restrictions on what can be done with prime agricultural land, for example. At the core of this legislation is a very innovative, older piece of legislation that links property taxes to the potential of soils, not to their use.

    I am wondering if similar land use legislations exist in other countries. I have heard that Denmark has something along the same lines. Are these the only two countries that have done something in this area?

    It would be nice to document such legislations in detail, to encourage other countries to follow suit... So if you have documents that relate to soil-protective legislations in other countries, feel free to send them to me . Thanks!!!

    Philippe Baveye

    Thank you so much for this information!


  • Arash Malekian added an answer:
    How might I assess the impact of water resources on socio-economic considerations?

    The water resource is a valuable assets for the community. If better water resource available it likely to influence agriculture, production,livestock, fish and human etc. But the problem is that quantification of all these impacts.

    So please help me getting the answer,

  • Shaikh Shamim Hasan added an answer:
    For my Ph.D thesis - ICT and Rural Acceptance - I have identified 15 independent variables. What would be the optimum number for proper analysis?
    ICT Acceptance is the dependent variable; and the independent variables are:1) Attitude 2) Perceived Ease of Use 3) Perceived Usefulness 4) Self Efficiency 5) Perceived Credibility 6) Subjective norm 7) Transactions 8) Performance Expectancy 9) Effort Expectancy 10) Social Influence 11) Facilitating Conditions 12) Anxiety 13) Management Effectiveness 14) Program Effectiveness 15) Behavioural Intentions.

    The question is to facilitate meaningful statistical analysis to finally arrive at the Alpha - Value, I have to zero in on the number of independent variables for the final analysis. This selection will define the scope of the questionnaire for the field study / survey, and the questions can be prepared to cover each of the selected independent variables, accordingly.
    Shaikh Shamim Hasan

    I think the credibility of extension media contact is an important independent variable at farmers level  

  • João Arthur Pompeu Pavanelli added an answer:
    Is there any methodology for rural settlement agro-ecological planning at the landscape level?

    I've been working in a peasants community that had no land to cultivate (67 families), and now the government is creating a rural settlement where they will live.  I'd like to ask if there is any methodology for planning the settlement at landscape level (the hole area has 1500 ha), for better use and preservation of natural resources, such as water and vegetation.

    I have already made some maps of the area, such as: land use/cover, topography, euclidean distance from the rivers, riparian forest, land use around the springs and the division of the lots .

    Now we shall try to design resilient agroecosystems  and to plan a better way for land and water use, but I have no idea from where to start. Anyone had done it? Any article?

    Thanks for helping!

    João Arthur Pompeu Pavanelli

    Ivan, very nice work you have made! I totaly agree with you that self-powerig, among other sustainability principles are important steps towards sustainable communities.

    I also think that each settlement has its own characteristics, so sharing experiences is very important to elucidate how to deal with different people. In my case, most families don't come from cities and there is an extension group working with the community since 2010, with focus sustainable agriculture.


  • Tomás Loewy added an answer:
    How can I identify the structural and functional obstacles of implementation spatial planning?

    I have working on this subject “the impact of spatial planning on sustainable rural development ,case study: KHomeyn area, Iran”, The purpose of this study is to identify the structural and functional obstacles of implementation spatial planning in this area.

    How can I do that?

    Do you know any resources In this regard?

    Thank you for your response in advance

    Tomás Loewy

    Sustainable rural development must be part of land management. The two objectives must converge but they have to come from state policies.

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer:
    Can anyone demonstrate the understanding of the effects of community culture on sustainable residential properties development?

    Please if you know some articles in this area, I will appreciate

    Napoleon Ono Imaah

    Community culture vary. This could be a community of mixed cultures in which case internal co traditions lead to clashes and implosion. In rare cases, if the differences are not antagonistic or segregationist; healthy communal competitions could lift the component cultures positively. Otherwise, dominance of negative traits of mixed culture could lead to cumulative decadence.

    In monoculture communities, coherence appears guaranteed, particularly, in unity against external agression. However, monotony could kills communal spirit of competition. Monoculture, in its worst form, through inbreeding degenerate into stagnation.

    Culture could be learned or destroyed. Learning makes it easy to assimilate positive or negative traits. Culture be destroys through many means: genocide, dominance by culture over another. A culture could dominate another by superior civilization, force or wealth. A culture does not necessarily dominate by mere numbers because cultures in majority can dominate a culture in the minority and vice versa. When a majority culture rules it is democratic and it is undemocratic if the minority culture dominates. Thus one culture can swallow up another out of existence.

    The development of properties, naturally, follows the leaderships inclinations of of the dominant culture at a period of history. However, culture is dynamic and open to external external influences..The beauty of communal culture is the combination of many factors, therefore increase the options available for communal development.

  • Kwamina Ewur Banson added an answer:
    Any help/pointers towards developing an implementation plan "Digital Agriculture strategies for sustainable and inclusive development in Africa"?

    I am developing a 5 year Digital Agriculture project for ICRISAT to be implemented as a pilot in Kenya, Mali and India in the first instance. The idea is to learn and amalgamate the successful implementations of ICT tools in agriculture in a manner that is acceptable to local population, sustainable (hence entrepreneurship/market based) and in a framework that is nationwide and then replicable to other nations. As it is expected to be market driven, enough local flexibility needs to be built in.

    Thanks in advance for any help with potential ideas, partners, success stories etc.

    Kwamina Ewur Banson

    Dear Hemant,

                                      to develop tools in agriculture in a manner that is acceptable to local population, there is a need for a new methodological approach that requires moving from a "linear" way of solving problems to a systemic perspective that focuses on the root causes and interconnectedness between various components of the agricultural system.

    This can be done by gathering the “mental models” of all stakeholders involved concerning the challenges under deliberations in the agricultural sectors. Data can be analysed using tools such as Casual Loop Diagrams and Bayesian Belief Network Models to develop decision support tools. These model are used as a simulation model to test the possible outcomes of different systemic interventions by observing what would happen to the system as a whole when a particular strategy or combination of strategies are implemented: that is, before any time or money is invested in actual implementation. Also the systems models will help you to anticipate the long-term consequences of your strategies and actions, as well as help you to avoid the danger of “shifting the problems” or “giving rise to bigger problems to fix later”. In the long run, stakeholders take ownership of the solution which ensures adoption and implementation because it is their own mental model.

  • Md. Ektear Uddin added an answer:
    Is Udai pareek scale reliable for assessing socio-economic status in rural areas? Is there any other scale for assessing SES in rural areas??

     Socio-economic status scale for rural areas

    Md. Ektear Uddin

    Socio-economic status is a livelihoods perspective. Therefore, you can adopt DFID's sustainable livelihood framework as an analytical tool and can also develop to place emphasis on your interest.

  • Alex Lambrianidis added an answer:
    What is the range of tree density in 'parklands'?

    Parkland are man-managed wooded areas with low tree density.

    Alex Lambrianidis

    i believe it depends from the average per country space for public lands depicted from constitution law and the type of sp. that are adapted to the place beginning with wild wooded sp. and more specifically in hybrid (ornamental) sp. in urban areas. in fact in rural areas it depends from cadastral  applications like law on ownership, tenure, etc. which is more vague in some countries and more comprehensive in others.

  • Carole Vuillot added an answer:
    Has anyone experience of landscape (or collective) approaches to agri-environmental schemes?

    I'm looking for case studies and examples of implementation of agri-environmental schemes under the Rural Development Programmes of the European Union that  are managed with a landscape approach, i.e that aims to enroll a plurality of farmers in a selected area with specific environmental objectives under a single contractual frame.

    Examples of such schemes I'm aware of include the French "Mesures agroenvironnementales territorialisées" (Territorialised agri-environmental schemes) or "Accordi agroambientali d'area" (Agri-environmental territorial agreements) in Marche Region, Italy.

    Any research or report about the implementation, effectiveness and limitations of such approaches would be most welcome

  • Mohammed Samdani added an answer:
    What is the typical highest capacity (as of now) of Solar PV based microgrids implemented in developing countries and especially in India?

    Of late microgrids have been extensively implemented in developing countries and generally they have been in rural parts or those that are difficult to access. I'd like to know what is the typical highest capacity (as of now) of Solar PV based microgrids that have been implemented in various developing countries and especially in India. To my knowledge it is that of Sagar islands (Sunderbans, India) which has a capacity of about 130 kw is the highest in India. Any higher capacities than that? Thanks in anticipation. 

    Mohammed Samdani

    Thanks Arnulf for the information.

    @Prakash: I'm talking about the stand-alone grids that are local in nature and provide power to the rural areas.

  • Mohammed Samdani added an answer:
    How do I identify the villages that the government of India indicated to get less than 6 HRS of electricity in decentralized distributed generation?

    There used to be only those areas (villages/hamlets) where grid extension is not viable for techno-economic reasons, in the Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) mode of RGGVY scheme (now DDUGJY) of Rural Electrification in India.   However the Government of India has included, in 2013, villages that get less than 6 hrs of electricity in Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG). How to identify those villages? Any public forums available to access such data? 

    Mohammed Samdani

    I think the RTI might have to be made to Ministry of Power (MoP) because the provision has been made by the MoP, Government of India. Also the DDG/DDUGJY scheme is from the Central government and I suppose it is of concern to MoP. Please correct me if I'm wrong. 

  • Mohammed Samdani added an answer:
    How do I plan my field study to evaluate the decentralized rural electrification initiatives of the government in Indian context?

    I'd like to understand and evaluate the experience and use of decentralized rural electrification initiatives in Indian villages especially solar PV based microgrids in rural India. I've chosen the study area and i'm in the process of planning my field study. I'm not sure about how do i get the permission from the concerned authorities and proceed for the study. Any suggestions? Any advises? Thanks in anticipation

    Mohammed Samdani

    Also i'd like to know what are the typical sizes of Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) Solar PV power plants that are implemented in different parts of India. From the literature i found that Sagar Island of Sunderbans have the highest capacity so far, of about 130 kw. Any higher capacity SPV DDG plants in India?  

  • Mohammed Samdani added an answer:
    How do you construct/build a socio-technical system of rural power supply?

    I'm in search of literature dealing with the construction of socio-technical systems especially for the purpose of rural power supply. Please reply if someone is aware of it. Thanks in anticipation.  

    Mohammed Samdani

    Thanks Ravi. Will it be possible for me to interact with any of the officials at ITCOT or TEDA to know more about this i.e., to learn the process of embedding technical system within the social context of the village. If so, would you please give me some references. Also i'd like to know if there are any off-grid/distributed renewable energy projects implemented by TEDA/or relevant organization in villages of Tamilnadu so that i can explore them. Thanks once again.

  • Justus Kavoi added an answer:
    What statistical analysis tool can be used to determine the socio-economic impact assessment of a road expansion project?

    The road expansion project is designed to include a railway in the middle of a 10-lane expressway from a 6-lane expressway. Is it possible to use a regression analysis to analyze the questionnaire?

    Justus Kavoi

    You also need to consider the following: As a result of the intended project, if individual households will be directly or indirectly affected by the implementation of the project, how will you be able to apportion what such households will lose or gain for that matter. Factor this into your predicted benefits/ gins to the beneficiaries of the project once its is fully implemented. Similarly, establish whether or not there will be any direct or indirect contribution to the household income as a result of the project activities - household members being employed as either casual labourers or on contract of permanent basis - this will enable you outline the impact of the project to the affected households.

  • Gráinne Dwyer added an answer:
    What is the role or contribution of community-based enterprise towards rural development?
    Rural industry and entrepreneurship.
    Gráinne Dwyer

    Hi Choen,

    My recently published thesis may be of interest for you to read, see here:

    My thesis focused on community collaboration to develop a walking tourism product. My results section (chapter 5 onward) highlights the perceived benefits that the community list as a result of the walkway.

    Kind regards,


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The tourism industry from 2012 to 2022 is expected to grow by an average of 4% annually to constitute 10% of global GDP (US$10 trillion). It is also predicted by 2022, globally, one in every ten jobs (328 million) will be tourism-related. With the unprecedented growth of tourism it is essential that sustainable planning guidelines are adhered to. Sustainable management of our natural resources is now a high priority, as tourism planners attempt to avoid past problems associated with the mass tourism market as happened in the case of the rapid growth of the Costas around the Mediterranean Sea from the 1960s until the 1990s.This type of mass or ‘fast tourism’ represents the very antithesis of a type of tourism that is considered sustainable. The dominant approaches to tourism development heretofore illustrated little or no concern for the existing landscape, social, environmental or economic and it is hoped that the dawn of ‘slow tourism’ and more ecological approaches that are based on a valorisation of natural landscapes can avoid, and to some extent, ameliorate the problems of the past and rejuvenate rural economies. This thesis looks in detail at an example of a tourism product that is based on the principles and practices of sustainability, as it examines the walking tourism industry in the Sheep’s Head Way on the south-west coast of Ireland as a mechanism for local development. The primary data and information gathered form a narrative of the innovative efforts that led to the development of the walkway. A near census of the peninsula provides an in-depth analysis of landowners’ and farmers’ attitudes to the evolution of the walkway as well as other attributes such as: environmental awareness, issues of sustainability, community links, farm diversification and conservation of the landscape. The success of the walkway is achieved through effective collaboration, financial assistance from REPS (Rural Environmental Protection Scheme), Walks Scheme payments, and the desire of a community to showcase their native and spectacular landscape. The results illustrate significant differences among the landowners' orientations towards the environment and a range of factors that influence landowners' intentions to engage in environmental conservation and sustainable tourism. Other themes that emerge through this study include local economic benefits, community collaboration and land access rights. Suppliers of nature-based tourism activities are at the helm of the future direction of sustainable tourism and it is essential that they are consulted and surveyed with the same detail as users of nature-based activities.
      Full-text · Thesis · Aug 2014
  • FC Prinsloo added an answer:
    Do you have experience developing a rural microgrid system and with commercialization models that benefit the community at the site of installation?

    In our study, we are developing a combined heat and power system with microgrid interfacing. It will be interesting to learn from researchers in Africa, India, China, Brazil, Mexico, etc. how off-grid microgrid technology are commercialised to the benefit of the community it serves. 

    FC Prinsloo


    Firstly, a favorable regulatory environment and rural electrification plans needs to be implemented to promote adoption of microgrids in the private and commercial sector for which customers in shacks or rural villages can pa or barter trade to get access to electricity or to power generated renewable energy.

    Technology cost of renewable energy to electrical power conversion can be used as a commercial model, as the technology owners needs to recover the cost of the equipment at least. 

    A company Ellies started selling low cost solar PV equipment is the hyperstores and this opened opportunities for many individuals from rural areas to set up their own supply units at their homes and in some cases share the power with paying neighbors.

    The African concept of stokvel savings to implement rural microgrids based on renewable  energy may become very important in Africa in the future as a way of communal investment in decentralized rural power infrastructure. 


  • Daan Francois Toerien added an answer:
    If robots increase agricultural production efficiency will the increase in value be greater than the social cost of unemployed labor?
    Both technological efficiency and price efficiency are required for economic efficiency. Many so-called economies of size and scale do not satisfy this condition.
    Daan Francois Toerien

    Dear Bill

    Thanks for your answer.  I agree that technology is an externality that needs consideration. However, I am hesitant about the tax idea, and for at least three reasons.

    The first is that it would not reflect an understanding of how competitive advantages are created. Michael Porter has a long time ago identified the basis of sustainable competitiveness: for commodities you have to be the cost leader (or at least have cost parity), and for differentiated products you have to have uniqueness. Since most agricultural products are commodities, it means that price is a very important issue in most of commercial agriculture. Levying an additional tax on agriculture would place most countries' farmers in a disadvantage in a global world. In fact, many developed countries subsidize their farmers in order to keep them on their farms. From this perspective an additional tax would not fly.

    The second reason is historical. At the start of the Industrial Revolution some 80% of the people countries such as the USA were involved with agriculture.  Now less than 3% of Americans produce enough food to feed ta much larger nation and also to export a lot. So for centuries better technology has continuously pushed up agricultural productivity. Would a tax stop this process?  I don't think so.  

    Thirdly, Acemoglu and Robinson in their book about the reasons why nations are poor or rich, show how in many countries extractive politics and institutions have been used to enrich small elites at the expense of the poor.  In this process the politicians of many countries (e.g. some in West Africa) have interfered in markets and taxed their farmers excessively. This has enhanced poverty. The book of Acemoglu and Robinson raises many questions about the factors contributing to poverty, and is well worth reading. 

    A last idea - could redistribution in the form of taxing the rich more heavily and governments providing more aid to the poor (promoted by Brynjolfsson and Macafee) perhaps provide part of the answer?

  • J Perriot added an answer:
    How can the new sustainable development goals (Post-2015) reflect child poverty?

    A key issue that I would like to highlight is that child poverty is distinct from household poverty, although they are often related. With this in mind, eradicating extreme poverty ($1.25 a day) is only relevant to child poverty insofar as households invest in their children, but is not a direct indication of whether a child is poor or not. Indicators to measure child poverty in a multidimensional way can be derived from the Convention of the Rights of Child, in areas such as nutrition, healthcare, education, leisure, information, (no) exploitation, among others, and measured with the use of household surveys. This would allow us to capture the multiple dimension of poverty, and to do it in a way that is relevant for children, and not only for adults or households. Taking this into consideration is essential to tackle child poverty reaching all children.

    J Perriot

    Very interesting Ljubomir...the economic crisis is not good for the weakest particularly the younger (but also older, women or less educated)... The more you are powerful and rich the more you become rich and powerful but the more you are weak and poor and the more you become poor and weak...

  • Dian Ekowati added an answer:
    Is technology that is deployed in rural areas sustainable?
    Rural areas have received a lot of attention by researchers proposing ICT solutions for their problems. Do rural people really need such technologies, such as computers; Ipads; e.t.c.
    Dian Ekowati

    I have witnessed technology that sustains in rural communities in Indonesia, not necessarily in the form of Ipad. It is micro-hydro for electricity. They built it by themselves (imitating neighboring village) and get electricity for their remote village.
    Rural community is also not a homogeneous entity within them and between communities. The use of technology as you mentioned (ipad or computer) might useful (and sustain) at one place and not the other place, or might be useful for some part of the rural community, but not for other.

  • Frank Kabuya added an answer:
    What is the indicator for measuring either local or rural income distribution?
    How to measure local or rural income distribution?
    Frank Kabuya

    One should describe the kind of income as there are different forms of income. In addition to the Gini coefficient, which is the most used indicator, there are other indicators such as the 20/20 ratio, the Palma raio, the Theil Index and the Hoover index.

    The 20/20 ratio compares how much richer the top 20% of populatios are to the botton 20% of a given population. The Palma ratio is the ratio of the richest 10 % of the population's share of gross  natonal inocme divided by the poorest 40 % 's share. The  theil index is an entropy measure indicating the distributional redeundancy  of a system; whereas the Hoover index is the proportion of all income which would have to be redistributed to achieve a state of perfect equality.  However, the choice of these indicators depends upon the locations or target populations.  

  • K. M. Singh added an answer:
    Are there any value chain studies on rice in India??

    Looking for value chain studies on rice in different Indian states, any publications which deal with methodological issues are welcome. Also if data of area, production and yield along with marketed quantities if available, are welcome. Thank you in advance.

    K. M. Singh

    Thanks Dr Dubey, for this link.


  • Monica Opole added an answer:
    Is indigenous knowledge retrogressive and anti-development?
    There are notions in certain quarters that indigenous knowledge cannot serve any useful purpose for human progress at this time. Those who seek to valorise this form of knowledge are tagged as backward! However, the rise of post modernism is one of the best things that have ever happened to local knowledge. So, if local knowledge truly has a significant role in sustainable rural development, how can we make it happen?
    Monica Opole

    My lifetime experiences have taught me and  made me discover that there is a "school culture" that when attended one is assumed to be educated, and that there exists " an  indigenous- community based  village culture". In the field of knowledge know-how one is educated first by the community on relevant survival skills,  communal etiquite and domestic etiqute/ manners as part of normal survival knowledge and that not all knowledge is useful sustainable survival knowledge. Yet even now most developed communal cultural knowledge  are currently classified as ignorance.

  • Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero added an answer:
    How does social capital work in rural development, and how can we build it?
    Importance of social capital
    Gonzalo Galileo Rivas Platero

    The territorial approach to rural development highlighted in particular the relevance of human capital, being necessary to have individuals endowed with knowledge and values ​​that enable them to express their developmental potential and desire to excel. To this must be added the dimension of Social Capital is reached when it has these socially organized actors, democratically represented and willing to be agents of their own transformation.

    When the dynamics of development in rural areas are analyzed, the first thing that jumps out is the diversity of actors and institutions involved; initiatives which take advantage of the opportunities offered by the labor market or to engage in business or professional enterprise, there are a myriad of public and private institutions (city councils, councils, communities, peripheral regional administration agencies, financial institutions, religious bodies , ...) and collective actors (political parties, business organizations, professional associations, trade unions, cooperatives, irrigation communities, groups and networks of rural development, women's or youth, cultural / recreational associations, ...) whose goal is somehow involved in development strategies, accompanying the various individual initiatives, supporting with grants and economic incentives to entrepreneurs, providing services of various kinds, participating in leadership training or acting as real stars in those areas where individual initiatives are absent or lacking the necessary push to be the engine of development. Good relationship between collective actors, institutions and individuals-that entrepreneurs say, the system of "governance" - depends on the success of the development process in rural areas.

  • Choen Krainara added an answer:
    What is the role of social business in rural development?
    Importance of social business
    Choen Krainara

    Dear Chandra, Thanks for your insight. It seems social business work in rural development across countries.

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