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Surface Modification - Science topic

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Hi all,
I am finding polymer like PMMA and PC.
It should meet several conditions,
1. Transparent, high transmittance in visible light.
2. Tg is higher than room temperature.
3. Degree of crystallinity is very law.
I have found several qualified copolymer,
but I want to find a qualified polymer that has more simple structure.
Thank you very much.
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Dear Mason Lee, polystyrene meets all the requirements you mentionned. My Regards
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Dear researcher,
Grafting is a common method for modifying the polymeric membrane surface to be more anti-fouling.
But, can we use this method for surface modification in pilot and industrial scales membrane fabrication?
Thank you so much for your time.
Regards
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Not my regular focus, but maybe this is helpful:
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As we know oxygen rf plasma is rich in terms of O(-) ion density. I want to understand how / what way these negative ions contribute to surface modification of substrate kept on powered electrode. do these negative ions reach to substrate surface and engage themselves in any phenomena or they remain in bulk plasma only ?
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thank you ...
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I have an alcoholic solution (ethanol) that contains different functional groups. What is the easiest way to graft these functional groups on the surface of the polyethersulfone membrane?
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Dear Soheil Dadari, please have a look at the following paper. My Regards
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Is it common for surface modification to increase the standard deviation of electrochemical measurements ? I read several articles but did not investigate this issue. I'd like to know if there are any relevant papers or experience ?
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Standard deviation will change as the differences among values change!!.Regards
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I want to understand a process of interaction between atomic oxygen species (777 nm and 845 nm) from oxygen plasma and polymeric surface. Why atomic oxygen species are considered to be the most responsible species for surface etching phenomena ?
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The discharge plasma in oxygen as a processing gas can react with the polymer surface to create various atomic oxygen-based functional groups, e.g. C-O, C=O, O-C=O. In oxygen discharge plasma can be observed the formation of oxygen-based polar functional groups on the surface of isotactic polypropylene through the interaction between the active species from the plasma and the polymer surface atom. The chemical interaction in oxygen-based plasma systems also creates strong covalent carbon-oxygen bonds, that are of higher polarity than the initial carbon-hydrogen bonds.
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I intend to make the zeta potential of activated carbon positive through chemical treatment. What reagent and method should be used?
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Functionalised the carbon material by amine group, often results with positive zeta potential.
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Hi,
I don't have clean room and dust equipment in vacuum environment facility. So after doing precision grinding of my RB-SiC ceramic, it gets exposed to the cold atmospheric plasma process via oxygen (O2) fluid flow on the micro-grinding of RB-SiC ceramic at room temperature.
The hard-brittle layer be formed while and holding it to the substrate holder and fixture. And due to this, surface modification layer again forms which are supported as a effective improve the RB-SiC ceramic removal rate with hardness layer under the surface modification process produce C layer, SiO2 layer or Si-C-O compound through physicochemical reaction via oxygen at room temperature (To my knowledge).
How to further removal efficiency the hard-brittle layer?
Please suggest me something. Thanks.
Thank you for sharing and helping,
Best Regards,
Jiabin Xu (Jia-bin Xu)
Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT)
School of Mechatronics Engineering
Timestamp/ Time Line: 2022-04-07, Thursday, Night
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Evgeniy Popov Thank you very much for your discussion.
In order to obtain higher material removal rate and lower sub-surface damage, we study the surface modification process of SiC materials by plasma.
The material removal surface modification layer. Applied to lens grinding process.
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Suggestions for small scale Plasma treatment instruments
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I have to take part in the Surface Engineering exam in a few days and I do not have enough time to go deep through the lectures. I would be grateful if anyone could introduce any suitable source for surface engineering with an emphasis on surface characterization and surface modification.
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Dear Dr. Sajad Mohammadi ,
the eminent physicist, Wolfgang Pauli, used to say, “God made the bulk; the surface was invented by the devil.” Pauli explained that the diabolical characteristic of surfaces was due to the simple fact that a solid surface shares its border with the external world. Inside the solid, each atom is surrounded by other similar atoms. Surface atoms may interact either with other atoms from the same surface, or with atoms located just below or just above it, or with atoms located beyond it.
For more details, please see:
The Devil and the Surfaces by Michel Cardon in The short Peener (2006)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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After going through a literature survey and some experimental work, I came to know that stabilizing oil-in-oil Pickering emulsions are more challenging task than stabilizing oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions.
There are very few (but important) research papers published by some of the researchers around the world for stabilizing oil-in-oil Pickering emulsions by modifying surface properties of solid particles. Hope much more work may be going on in this field.
If we could develop a simple strategy (without or with surface modifications of solids) for stabilizing oil-in-oil Pickering emulsions, it will be helpful for opening doors of new research in the field of colloidal and interfacial science. This will be helpful in developing a new strategy for novel drug delivery systems for pharmaceuticals, etc.
Q. I want opinions from experts and researchers who are working in the field of colloidal and surface science that why stabilizing oil-in-oil Pickering emulsions is not an easy task and how to design strategies/experiments for stabilizing oil-in-oil Pickering emulsions.
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agree, that description oil/oil is a bit short and 'oil' is not very much defined. Much better to name it more precisely mineral oil, silicon oil, vegetable oil ...
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Hi,
I want to reveal the fundamental issue in the grinding of RB-SiC ceramic, numerical calculation and model analysis were conducted to investigate the effect of the composite process on grinding forces and the mechanism of subsurface material removal in the presence of plasma oxidation.
After searching, I found one method described below:
A novel cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), which is based on the precision grinding process in surface technology to modify at room temperature (RT) for grinding with a combination of plasma oxidation surface modification is proposed.
However, we found some problems from the mechanism research:
1. SiF4, as a gas, evaporates;
2. Some objects will remain on the SiC surface, which is difficult to remove its.
Do you have any experience about these methods. If your answer is yes, can you share your experience with us?
Thank you for sharing and helping,
Best Regards,
Jiabin Xu
Harbin Institute of Technology
School of Mechatronics Engineering
Timestamp/ Time Line: 2021-12-15, Wednesday, Night
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I am trying to etch surface of glass beads through NaOH for creating hydrophobic surface. Although the material is getting etched, it's not hydrophobic or positively charged. Also, the NaOH based etching method is not much predictable either. Are there any methods for creating hydrophobicity and a positive charge condition on glass beads?
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You can create a hydrophobic surface on glass surfaces "microbeads" or most any silicate glass surface by application of a silane monolayer. Etching is not generally required - though an etch with NaOH does produce additional surface area for additional bonding of the silane. Examples of this include the application of (Rainex®) or Aquapel® hydrophobic coatings for windshields and other glasses. One only needs Si-OH bonds on the surface. I suggest you refer to a review article on "coupling agents" - The simplest type of material that wold provide a hydrophobic material would be, for instance,
3(R)Si(OH) R could be CH3
More complex systems can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siloxane
Email me or message me through Researchgate if you need more info.
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normally surface modification of cellulose leads to the reduction in crystallinity index. but in one modification , i got higher crystallinity index. so i couldn't give an interpretation for this result. can you help me?
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Ya.. its my unpublished work. there is a steep increase in the intensity at 22.5 degree and the crystallinity index calculated also higher than the unmodified cellulose.
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Hello, I am doing a carbon surface modification with Gold nanoparticles.
from the FTIR below, I know the formation bond of NH3 and for COO , but I would like to know what is the range of thiol bond formation, is this FTIR good or not?
note that I know that the difference between the bare SPE and modified SPE is the increase of current which is measured by Potentiostat.
thanks in advance.
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Dear Aseel Alnaimi, the above FTIR spectrum is not appropriate given the fact that the corresponding transmission percentages of all peaks are higher than 90% signifying that the sample content in your KBr pellete has been rather too low. In such a condition, on account of low signal to noise ratio, some characteristic peaks are embedded in the noise level and cannot be detected at all. So, I suggest you either repeate the FTIR analysis once more with a well-prepared KBr pellete or use ATR-FTIR technique which can provide you with a higher S/N ratio for the surface functional groups. However, FTIR spectrum might not solely justify what you are dealing with but if it is accompanied with other surface characterizations especially XPS, it will most likely lead to a more rational conclusion. Please note, the characteristic peaks of the carbon materials are usually of low intensity, that is why it is mostly preferred to use XPS as a more reliable technique for inspecting their chemical structure.
Best,
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We are trying to carry out surface modification (using alkali treatment) on selected natural fibres for use in cement matrix composites. However, some of our team members proposed using demineralized water for the treatment process in place of the commonly used distilled water. Several literatures have reported the use of distilled water in this process but as of today (29th June, 2021) and as much as I know, I have not seen/read any literature suggesting the use of demineralized water for this particular process.
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Always use distilled water for process purposes
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As you may know, the amino acid can be conjugated to the side chain of acrylamide, usually catalysed by TEMED and light (is it?). Is it a radical reaction?
We try to replicate this conjugation in micro gel bead in microfluidics. I did a preliminary experiment in a blank gel block, simply casting acrylamide-amino acid precursor into a well plate, then treating with TEMED and light. The conjugation get verified by further conjugating a GFP to the amino acid using EDC/NHS (not reacts with acrylamide)
However when I shape the precursor using microfluidics then treat with temed and light, the GFP cannot connect to the bead any more. I tryied different pH considering isoelectric point to induce extra affinity for conjugation, yet still not work. I also tried lengthen light treatment or increase TEMED, still not work. What is the problem and how should I fix it?
Thanks!
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Dear Zonghan, The concentration seems to be high, try diluting in few trial reactions to half, quarter and may be less, microfluidics parameters also need to be lowered.
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I am looking for ways to give orientation to micro-scaled silicon chips and I am thinking of using a 'life jacket' strategy to keep one side always floating and facing upwards. Are there any materials or surface modification techniques (like maybe if we make it super hydrophobic) to achieve this goal?
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Trimesoyl 1,3,5‐tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1,3,5‐tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1,3,5‐tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1,3,5‐tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM), and trimesoyl 1,3,5‐tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) first‐generation dendrimers. TTDHM acts as superhydrophobe greater than polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compounds.
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I am trying to modify glass surface with 1% APTES in Isopropylalcohol (IPA) solution. But after 10 min., clean solution of APTES turns into a turbid solution which has white tiny particles. Have you ever encountered such a problem and how can I keep APTES stable in the solution?
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Do it in moisture-free, closed packed system and N2 environment at 60-80 deg celsius.
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I have synthesis iron oxide nanoparticles need surface modification when introduce TEoS I got silane layer but not Oh group .Since this Oh group is necessary for further introduction of double bond .
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Dear Asim Hussain, is it a coïncidence that exactly the same question is asked by another RG Scholars? Please take a look at the following link. My Regards
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I'm trying to coat my silica NP with diamine PEG, so i used GOPTS to add epoxy group on the surface of the NP then i'll add the PEG. I can not found protocol for SiNP coating PEG, most of the study used cover slip for silica modification, Did any one had experience with this modification (silica nanoparticle PEGlytion)?
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Dear Hajar Alghamdi, if you are attempting to use surface PEGylation modification of silica nanoparticles in vivo, I advise you to use instead polysarcosine or polyoxazoline. They are being alternatives to PEGylation, with many adventages with respect to biocompatibility with no immune response. Both polymers are polypeptoids. My Regards
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I'm looking for a cheap material to modify Titania nanoparticles in order to use them in polymer and increase its contact angle.
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Dear
Alaa A. A Aljabali
and Bandna Bharti thanks a lot for your suggestions but actually I'm looking for a material except Silanes to modify titania nanoparticles because Silane materials are expensive.
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what is the major parameters of Plasma engineering in surface modification?
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For such a genaral question the answer is:
Just attend the next conference on Plasma Surface Engineering or read the papers of this year's conference!
If you need something more specific, your question needs to be much more detailed!
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I wish to deposit a perovskite layer over ETL (SnO2) in order to fabricate the n-i-p planar device and could notice the role of UVO treatment prior to deposition. I was wondering if there any alternative to the UVO treatment (our lab doesn't have one) to enhance wettability, reduce oxygen vacancy and remove surface contaminants from the SnO2 ETL?
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Dear Avi,
You may be solved your problem.
I would propse to treat the surface of SnO2 with an etching material after good cleaning of the surface TinOxide. Such etching will clean and refresh the surface.
Best wishes
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I want to disperse amphiphilic POSS nanoparticle in poly(vinyl alcohol)l chitosan solution. how can i do it whit out nanoparticle surface modification? I want to use surfactant for this . which surfactant and how many is suitable?
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I think that you can use SDS surfactant because of its anionic parts, dear professor
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Hi all researchers,
We have lots of methods for UF membrane surface modification. But as you know every one has some disadvantages that we can not use them in pilot scale and actually we can not industrialize these methods. So, what is the suitable method for this work?
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you can improve your knowledge about surface modification with With reputable journals and And make sure their method is workable
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I am trying to load hydrophobic chemical (porphyrin IX kinds) to PLGA nanoparticles.
Also, I want to modificate my PLGA particles with targeting peptides which have Cys in both ends(C-KGGRAKD-C).
Our labs doesn't have any expereince dealing with conjugation of peptides to PLGA particles.
I am studying and finding some artilces but I need advise for my Particle Preparation.
I am searching what chemical reaction that i have to use, and guide protocol.
Thank you.
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Dear Hong
First of all, please tell me that are Cys residues in both sides as the parts of peptide active site? You are not allowed to use aminoacids of active site for conjunction because it results in loss of the function. Nevertheless, u can conjugate the peptide by two steps:
First, select a bifunctional linker with NH2 in one side and Maleimide in other side. Then use EDC, NHS reagents to make an amide bond between carboxyl groups of PLGA and primary amine (-NH2) in the linker. Finally, add the peptide to PLGA, which will react with Maleimide end of the linker. Don't forget to use 2-Me (2-mercapto ethanol) or other similar reagents to inhibit cystin (S-S) formation from cystein residues. However u can use EDTA to chelate bivalent cations catalyzing S-S formation.
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The paper, Surface Modification of Graphene Nanoplatelets by Organic Acids and Ultrasonic Radiation for Enhance Uremic Toxins Adsorption, only stated the ratio of acid but not the amount, how do I determine the amount needed?
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Dear Tan Yoke Man, the easiest way is to mail the authors of the paper, there will no harm in that. Sometimes, some chemicals role is secondary such that the authors do not pay much attention to them. My Regards
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I am working on certain nanoparticles where I need to modify their surface with a polymer by Ligand exhcange approach. I came across many papers describing many different methods but I am really confused which one to pick up and which method can assure that the surface modification has done successfully. For eg. some papers are saying to do ligand exchange by sonication at room temperature while some are explaining by using certain temperatures with magnetic stirring.
Kindly help me in finding the most reliable methods among them.
Thank you :)
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Hi;
Please see the attached file (Table 3).
With my best regards
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I have a a question regarding surface modification of SiO2 chip. The presumption is that vapors of trimethylsilanol (CH3)3SiOH bond with the original hydroxyl terminated surface of the chip and cause wettability issues, not unlike the manufacturing process of hydrophobic sand (Magic Sand). Could someone please advise how would we go about removing these methyl terminating groups from surface and restore the original hydrophilic hydroxyl group termination?Oxygen plasma did not seem to have an effect on improved wettability. Surface is Si₃N₄, SiO₂, aluminium pads.
Thank you for ideas.
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Piranha, which is a hazardous mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide
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I'm looking for a method to attach APBA to a SU-8 surface. Until now, I'm not very successful in the process.
The SU-8 is a 1um film deposited over a surface. I'm trying to immerse the substrate in 80mM of APBA in ethanol.
Can you give me an advice?
Kind regards.
PS: Chemical molecules and suppose reaction
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Hi Manuel.
Oxirane ring can reacts with alcohol via etherification reaction. But it needs catalyst such as tertiary amine (triethylamine and etc.). Also, it easily reacts with amines.
Relating to your synthesis , may be the ethanol (solvent) participate in oxirane ring openning reaction.
Also, higher temperature im more favorable.
Don't use solvent or If you need solvent, change it.
Good luck
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I have TiO2 Nps and I have to disperse them in water, but they are not stable. I am trying to use citric acid as modifier to change surface properties of TiO2, but I don't know how and I didn't find a good paper about this.
I appreciate your guidance.
H.Shamsi
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Hamzeh Shamsi This is where you need a stabilizer to keep particles apart. As mentioned above pH control (in a buffer) is also important. If your material wets in water then a surfactant is not necessary. Take a look at this webinar:
May 28th, 2019 Dispersion and nanotechnology
My first attempt would be to sonicate in a 0.05% Calgon solution. Scientifically one could measure the zeta potential of the system. See slides 27 and onwards in the above.
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I am doing surface modification of polymer films using plasma in order to improve anti bacterial property.
Thickness of polymer film is 60 micron to 1 mm for different polymers.
I want to test it against E-Coli species.
What are the testing methods suitable to such substrates?
This work is in the direction of developing antimicrobial catheter surfaces.
Thank you in advance.
With kind regards,
Purvi
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As mentioned by Mr Damian, you must be sure that you can sterilise the sample without disrupting the plasma treatment. This is usually done through UV B exposure in a cell culture hood. You will need to find a lab which is capable of performing microbial culture. Some people use ISO 22196:2011 although this will only work on very smooth samples. Another option is to use a confocal microscope and either GFP tagged bacteria or a dye such as LIVE/DEAD to quantify bacterial attachment to the surface. We did some similar analysis here and I would recommend reading Andrew Hooks paper on '
Combinatorial discovery of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment. It is important to consider how you expect your polymer to kill bacteria, or just prevent the attachment.
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2. Sample holder is in contact with the liquid N or the sample holder all are put in the special Cryostat and then all emerced in liquid N by taking into account a gap or apenture to allow bombarding . I KNOW dr Franek on of the most experts in the field ion induced surface modification.....best regards
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Dear Salah,
I would expect the temperature 77K = -196C.
With Regard
R. Mitdank
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Dear All,
I have performed an experiment related to change in work-function of transparent conducting oxides.For this I have done KPFM measurements. Kindly suggest hwhat kind of results can be achieved from KPFM analysis and How?
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Hello Anand,
the attached paper gives information on how in detail such measurements must be carried out. Perhaps it helpes to find the cause for the difference. I would be interested in your findings because this method is new for me.
With Regard
R. Mitdank
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As we have used different thermal spray techniques to enhance erosion corrosion resistance of boiler tubes? Can be further apply any other technique on coated steel to improve erosion corrosion resistance?
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You can use thermally cured epoxy coatings, that are resistant against abrasion and corrosion. These epoxy coatings offer barrier protection from alkali and caustic solution as well as chemicals and solvents.
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When surface modifying high K ceramic particles like BT, BST or BZT for use in a high k ceramic/polymer composite film, some researchers say they get higher permittivity in the final film when the particles' surfaces are modified with, for example, an acid like gallic acid or phthalic acid. At the same time, other researchers say a low ph causes barium to dissolve from the particles' surfaces and they talk like it is a bad thing and say the ph needs to be kept higher? Who is right?
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Thanks but I'm well aware of what BT is already. Companies sell high k ceramic particles embedded in polymers to make a composite film rather than sintering into dense films of only the high K ceramics. Many researchers study how to make even better composite films.
Here is one example:
They are getting good results with acidic surface modifiers of their BT particles yet other researchers are saying not to go acidic because it causes Barium ions to come off the BT particles' surfaces and they act like that is a bad thing.
So my question is who is more correct and why?
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graphene is the reinforcement in the metal matrix
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I meant the chemical modification of graphene surface.
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I am trying to detect the presence of a surface modification I have made on silica microspheres (3um). I can see by zeta potential that there has been a modification but would like to confirm the presence of the functional group. I have tried FTIR but can only see the silica whereas the functional group has a C=O that I would like to detect.
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A single bounce ATR with a room temperature detector is likely to be unable to do what you need. A multi-bounce ATR with an MCT detector may do better. Spread the microspheres as best possible in a single layer across the ATR path and press the layer firmly (not crushing the spheres). As also noted by Weiran Zheng , DRIFTS is better suited to measuring from powder samples. Finally, FTIR analysis using either ATR or DRIFTS should provide a yes/no qualitative answer to the question of whether the functionalization is present or not. It will likely not provide absolute quantitative metrics in and of itself. For this, you will need to perform a cross-calibration against a true quantitative analysis, such as a wet chemistry titration method. The same can be said for XPS should you consider this option.
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Hi all,
I synthesized the Ferrimagnetic Magnetite Nanocubes according to this method:
I would like to coat a monolayer of this nanoparticle on a glass substrate. Since, the size of this magnetite is in single-domain regime, i found that they could easily attract each other and hard to disperse well in a solution. This retards further surface modification as they easily aggregate. Therefore, it becomes harder to coat them on surface. But I want the Magnetite with single domain but not the superparamagnetism. Does anyone have experience on it? Thank you so much!
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Hi dexter,
The problem with stabilizing ferromagnetic nanoparticles into a solution is due to two causes. firstly, high surface energy of NPs and secondly magnetic attraction between them. one solution is to modify the surface of particles with stearic acid or other ceramic surfactants. To find out how much surfactant is needed I encourage you to read more about stearic acid properties especially its specific surface area .There is a formula which can help you in this regard. how ever, a shear stress is needed to separate the NPs from each other during the surface modification to cover their surfaces well. this would be possible by a milling process or mechanical mixing. I hope it would be helpful for you.
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I would like to reduce the surface energy of a stainless steel made wire. I prefer to have durable coating as well as the coating resistance towards mechanical touch (not huge loads though, maximum 1 mN onto ~10 µm^2 surface area).
Please shoot some ideas.
Best Regards,
Zoran
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Dear Zoran
By an approperiate annealing treatment to reduce the surface enery & any residual surface stresses, then by coating the stainless steel wire.
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i am doing the surface modification of gold nanorods by using chiral molecules like Cysteine, glutathione etc. I simply mixed the gold nanorods with these molecules with strong agitation at different pH. but the gold nanorods aggregate/precipitates in solution rather than staying intact. can anyone help me in this regard that how to solve this problem?
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Yes, you can add alkyl mercaptan to the dispersed system of amino acids and nanorods. Alkyl mercaptan has weak acidic properties and reacts with amino groups of amino acids at a certain pH.
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I would like to ask about the best conditions for modification of polydimethylsiloxane sponge surface to introduce hydroxyl groups using air plasma treatment including plasma power, air flow rate and pressure.
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Dear Ron Reiserer,
Thank you for your suggestion
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I want to prepare a CuI (Copper Iodide) thin film on ITO substrate but found out it is very much hydrophobic as well as difficult to disperse in ethanol, DMF, Hexane. But, in acetonitrile it is completely dissolved. To prepare a thin film by spin -coating technique dispersion of the material is necessary. So, I am thinking about surface engineering by which the hydrophobic surface will turn to hydrlophillic. Then I can disperse in water medium to prepare film.
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Starch is well combined with iodine and hydrophilicity will come. But you need to pick up the concentration. Take the starch, heat it with water until it dissolves, and then make a dilute solution from this solution and add it to your suspension.
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I want to modify the PDMS surface so that it is hydrophillic. Is the non-chemical based methods like UV/ozone/ plasma treatments better or the chemical methods of silane treatment better?
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Dear Grishmi
In my experience, PDMS surface modification by corona plasma treatment for coating multi-walled carbon nano tubes on the surface of PDMS was investigated. The corona (plasma) input power in the range of 180-500 W and the corona treatment time range of 2-6 min were investigated for MWCNT coating performance on PDMS surface. Based on experiments, in corona input power of more than 360 W and corona time of longer than 6 min, the surface of the PDMS was destroyed. Therefore, the maximum possible input power and time for corona were 360 W and 6 min, respectively. Based on obtained data, higher corona input power and longer corona time, lead to greater amount of MWCNT coating on PDMS and more surface roughness. Therefore, plasma treatment in my project was positive effect. If you need additional information can look for my paper entitles: Enhanced Ethanol Separation by Corona-Modified Surface MWCNT Composite PDMS/PES.PVP Membrane, JOM, 833 (2018) 1-9.
Best regards
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In order to remove PDMS from SU8 molds I have used Trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane coated on SU8. I have to bond these PDMS replica to PDMS. But, I think residue silane (which came while peeling off PDMS from SU8) is making the PDMS-PDMS bonding difficult. Is there a way to wash away this residue silane on PDMS?
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Hi Ravi,
I used Trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane to release AgPDMS(85%wt) from SU8 mold , but it made the AgPDMS-glass bonding difficult. And in your answer, you heat the fluid and add water containing Acetic acid (0.1%) and allowed it to react for some time at 90 to 110 C. And I want to know the more specific operations and time. Do you have any suggestions?
Thanks in advance.
-Zhang
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PVP is generally used as pore former in membrane synthesis. It can increase the rate of phase inversion process.
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I would like to know, if there are any experimentally validated mechanistic studies on the non-specific binding of antibodies to surfaces, preferable to SiO2 surfaces. Is the Interaction mostly driven by Electrostatic (ionic) interaction or by hydrophobic interaction? How does the surface modification e.g. the introduction of Amino groups, Carboxylic acid groups or PEG/ PEI moieties influence the non-specific interaction.
From my experience, for most antibodies the electrostatic interaction can be neglected and hydrophobic interactions take the most important part.
It is well known, that PEGylation of e.g. sensor surfaces can suppress non-specific binding of antibodies on surfaces, but how does this work on a molecular level? I found some studies, but they are focused on liquid-liquid interfaces, not solid-liquid interfaces.
I would be very glad if someone could share their experience. Citable work would be great!
Cheers!
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Hi Peter - We manufacture silica SEC-HPLC columns (https://www.sepax-tech.com/SEC.php) and from experience there is definitely an interaction of the surface and the analyte, hence why we surface modify. Here is a link which illustrates the impact on two different types of silica SEC surface modifications we sell commercially (Zenix vs. Zenix-C) when running mPEG: http://www.sepax-tech.com/app_note_access.php?id=EE1001
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Hi all,
I'm attempting to bond bulk gelatin gels to PDMS in the following conformation: □□□ (first and last squares are PDMS, middle square is gelatin; couple of mm in thickness). The application is stretching of gelatin gels. The PDMS is intended to provide a mechanically resilient location for gripping and subsequent stretching (directly gripping the gelatin would simply destroy it).
I'm currently trying out a two step plasma treatment protocol using acrylic acid (Design and Fabrication of Artificial Skin: Chitosan and Gelatin Immobilization on Silicone by Poly Acrylic Acid Graft Using a Plasma Surface Modification Method; Salati et al. 2011) but initial results aren't promising (no bonding at all).
Has anyone got any other experience with achieving a reliable mechanically-resilient bond between PDMS and gelatin? I appreciate that the bond is always going to be a weak point but I'd nevertheless like to test it.
Alternatively, does anyone know of another mechanically resilient gel (comparable to stiff PDMS) that bonds to gelatin relatively easily?
Thanks!
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The process of plasma treatment is though not clear to me, but how about - if you exposed the PDMS film under oxygen plasma and then try to stick bulk gelatin. Because, plasma treatment of PDMS film provides a very good bonding.
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I want to clean the glass surfaces for surface modification analysis, therefore i am exploring various glass cleaning protocols for the maximum possible decontamination. ( Organic, inorganic and oxide complexes)
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I worked in the LCD industry for 7 years doing exactly that. Here's a link to my previous answer to the question:
Keys are to use filtered (0.02 um) solutions of everything and warm surfactant in an ultrasonic bath.
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I looking for nanoporous thin filim of mesoporous silica on SiO2 surface which can adsorb humidity. There should be uniform hexagonal pores in the thin film.
So, please suggest about the type of mesoporous silica and also about the modification procedure.
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Thanks in advance
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"near anhydrous conditions" is really an interesting statement.
I strongly recommend to read the mentioned article in which the Kinetik of different methoxy and ethoxy silanes are measured and compared.
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I prefer a silane with low boiling point as I am going to deposit it in the vapor phase (chemical vapor deposition).
I have tried TMS (Chlorotrimethylsilane) using CVD on Si wafer and I got water contact angle of ~55 which is not suitable for my purpose. I need something less hydrophobic (30-40 degree).
Your answers will be much appreciated.
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Dear colleagues,
we normally use Serva-Silicone solution in propanol.
The best results we have is after heating-up for one hour. The angle I never check.
However, a picture I have taken from a short movie...
(I have the impression, that the angle is different when only drying in air).
Regards
Alex
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Free download via link below or please contact me
Highlights
•Zr-1Nb alloy was treated by plasma immersion Ti ion implantation and deposition.
•A gradient distribution of titanium as well as vacancy type defects were shown.
•Concentration and depth distribution of vacancy type defects was increased with bias.
•The strong interaction of hydrogen with vacancy type defects was demonstrated.
Abstract
The effect of low energy plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition of titanium on microstructure, defect structure and hydrogen trapping in zirconium alloy Zr-1Nb was studied. Defect structure and distribution were analyzed by Doppler broadening using slow positron beam. The surface microstructure after modification is represented by nanostructured Ti grains with random orientation. The gradient distribution of titanium as well as vacancy type defects were analyzed. The concentration of vacancy type defects is rising with increasing bias voltage. Gas-phase hydrogenation of the Ti-modified Zr-1Nb alloy was performed at 400 °C for 60 min. The strong interaction of hydrogen with vacancy type defects was demonstrated. Two different changes in the defect structure after hydrogenation were observed: when a titanium film is formed on the surface (after deposition at 500 V) hydrogen trapping occurs with the formation of titanium hydride phases, while in the implanted layer (deposition at 1000 and 1500 V) hydrogen is trapped due to interaction with vacancy type defects. The physical basis of Ti diffusion and its influence on the evolution of defect structure after surface modification and hydrogenation were discussed.
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Sometimes, hydrogen trapping occurs in correlation with or as a concurrent process to different light impurities such as, for example, oxygen, carbon and so on. You can find experimental results on the PIII or II Ti oxidation by Prof.Rauschenbach et.al., for example.
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I want to prepare a nano-iron particle for surface modification with positively charge or negatively charge.
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I think you must check the relation, whether it is satisfied for your conditions or not:
Msn = Msb[1 − (β/D)]
Msn, Msb are the saturation magnetization of nano and bulk materials respectively, and β is a constant.
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I try to do the surface modification of multi-wall carbon nanotube with acid nitric (70%), what is the procedure of dilution the acidic solution with DI water in case that functionalized MWCNTs aggregate together and make us able to filter them?
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Dear Arash,
In addition to the above good papers I would recommend to dilute the dispersion by pouring into DI water and then filter the precipitate. Or if the CNT portion is small, it is be better to use a few centrifugation cycles with intermediate washing up to neutral pH. Moreover, for certainty you can leave the finally washed CNT in water for some time and then check pH, centrifuge and dry.
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I have a nanoparticle that can be functionalized with amines or carboxyl groups. I would like to "print" the nanoparticle onto a flat polymer surface, only in regions that have been irradiated by a laser. Is there a combination of laser, polymer, and process that would allow me to do this?
For example, one way to bind carboxyl functionalized nanoparticles would be to crosslink it to an amine on the surface of the polymer. Is there a polymer that would expose amine groups after exposure to a laser?
If there are multiple solutions, then a simple and fast solution is preferred.
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Please look at this articles.
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Could you please to inform me , what is happening for hardness when residual stress occur after surface modification , is it increased or decrease?
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You can look at hardness as the indentation yield strength.
The nature of the residual strength is important.(Compression or tensile). This would determine if it would increase or decrease the hardness.
Generally hardness should increase with residual stress present at the surface as it the surface which has to tolerate the applied load during the hardness testing.
The type of residual stress (Type 1,2 or 3) and the relative dimension of the indentation would also play their part.
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Can we add amine group from APTES to the surface of pure Si nano particles instead of silica? If yes, what is the suitable solvent and method to do so?
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Hello,
I suggest you use toluene as a solvent. Place the silica in the flask, add toluene and aptes. The whole is stirred on a magnetic stirrer under the water condenser for 2 hours at 100 °C.
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I had coated graphene oxide on top of PES membrane. However, after heat treatment of GO-PES membrane in vacuum oven for 12 hours, the coating was removed when I dipped inside DI water. Is it because the PES membrane acted as hydrophobic before coating. If so, then how can I make the surface modification of PES membrane so as to get very good GO coating?
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Thank you for your kind reply. Can you please tell me how to functionalize the PES membrane. I know about UV and plasma bean radiation but these can be harmful if not known properly. In some papers they have mentioned incorporating polyamide on top of PES membrane before coating. Can you please guide me how to proceed ?
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Hello Folks,
I want to coat metal alloy on PET and PC sheet using Thermal vapor deposition. i have tried number of trials but there is no good adhesion between polymer and metal. So Please suggest your ideas.
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An Ar-O2 plasma pretreatment of your substrates before the deposition would raise their surface energy. This should be at least helpful for a better adhesion
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I have MF microspheres with a diameter of around 20 micrometers, and I would like to create -OH groups on the surface to increase wettability.
Thanks.
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Hi,
Maybe not a good idea, but have you considered plasma treatment ?
Best regards
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I need to cover a metal surface with a thin layer of a water soluble polymer and this layer should adhere very well and not separate , also no-toxic ... what are the feasible methods?please advise
thanks
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Hello
Here are some options:
1. Cross linking between polymer and metal: depending on the type of polymer or metal you may be able to bind functional groups on them and cross link
2. Plasma treatment of the surfaces is another approach.
3. I think it worth if you can read a chapter titled Adherends and Bonding Technology in a the "Handbook of Adhesives"
Regards
Amin
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  1. Silane solution preparation for hydrophobic coating
  2. Preferable deposition technique of coating on inorganic surface
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Please follow the article section 3.10 on solgel method which mentions about the preparation of silane solution.
"Recent progress in preparation of Superhydrophobic surfaces: A review"
-Sanjay Subhash Lathe
Please note that the various silane solution gives different hydrophobicity.
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Looking for a new challange in the High Tech industry in the Eindhoven region in The Netherlands. I am interested in thin film technology e.g. surface modification, functional polymers, nanotechnology.
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anyone ?
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One carbon's surface has been modified with potassium hydroxide while the other is plain. Can anyone suggest what is the inference from these graphs. What do the peaks at 2theta = 20 and 25 indicate? Thanks
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Dear Abinaya Arunachalam
Have a nice time and good day.
You don’t mentioned to your sample type; thin or thick film, powder, bulk,?
If your sample is thin or thick film, the obtained XRD is totally for the substrate and your film so firstly you should subtract the XRD of the substrate from the obtained XRD for your modified and unmodified samples then the obtained XRD can be carefully identified. If your two samples are powder or bulk you don’t need to the aforementioned procedure. In this case - powder or bulk – the hump from 2 theta 10: 30 is a well-known hump which characterizes the amorphous materials. So you two samples are amorphous or as amorphous in nature may contain particles within nano scale (may quantum dots, TEM can be used to check this assumption). The XRD of the modified sample shows another hump at 2 theta range (40-50) deg., this means that the modified sample is highly disordered than the unmodified one. Also you can use Scherrer's equation to estimate the size of the crystallite after subtracting the instrumental broadening factor from the experimental line profile. After correction the obtained “pure”line profile can be used to calculate the crystallite size. You can compare the size of the calculated crystallite size by Scherrer's equation and TEM. The modified sample’s hump is shifted to higher values of 2 theta. This means the presence of strained samples; you can calculate it using the procedure described through the attached file, see the attached figure. If you are experience in radial distribution function, RDF you can use the XRD of your two samples to study the short range, SRO order or medium range order, MRO.
I wish this is useful and help you.
Yours
A. EL-Denglawey
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As far as I know, wax and fatty substances are minor constituents in plant natural fibers which consist of several alcohols. Unfortunately, I didn't accomplish finding certain answers for some of my questions.
1-In spite of the fact that pectin is water soluble but waxes are insoluble, some literature do not separate waxes and pectin and some of them claim that way waxes are one of the constituents of pectin. Is it right? What's the explanation?
2- Does it appear just in form of tyloses filling the pores on bundles, or fill the intercellular space between individual cells accompanying lignin and pectin, or only covering the fiber bundle's surface?
3- According to the literature, Soxhlet process in acetone, benzene, and ethanol, named dewaxing, is applied to remove wax from untreated raw fibers prior to following treatments. Is alkalization process by sodium hydroxide an effective method to remove wax without performing the dewaxing process??
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Dear Reza Bahrami,
Alkalization is better than sodium bicarbonate treatment but when u compared with silane and fluorinated treatments with respect to tensile strength of the fibre : Alkali treated fibres have less tensile strength compared with silane, potassium permangante treatment , flourinated treatment..
I already mentioned..there are thousands of treatments...All depends upon you...which one u need to take....If u need a better tensile strength ..go for silane treated fibres..
Outer layer of natural fibres obviously have waxy layers..
Filling the pores which i have mentioned is a fatty substances called tyloses--its a kind of wax only.. accompany with the lignin and pectin binding individual cells together
Just refer structural composition of natural fibres..
You can refer this books-- it will be useful in sometime
1) Industrial Applications of Natural Fibres: Structure, Properties and Technical Applications
Jörg Müssig (Editor), Christian Stevens (Series Editor)
2) Handbook of Natural Fibres 1st Edition Processing and Applications Editors: Ryszard Kozłowski
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Nowadays as we know , there is different ways for surface modification of dental implants ( sputter deposition,Electrophoretic deposition, laser treatment, coating and etc.)
I was wondering if anyone could answer my question:
what is the priority of sputter deposition in comparision with other techniques such as coating ?
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Dear Elahe,
If with priority you mean "specific characteristics" for sure Sputtering can provide you the following issues :
- very precise and high purity control of chemical composition
- coating thickness in the range of approximately 10 - 5000 nm
- line-of-sight deposition or rather it is difficult to coat out-of-view surfaces or high porosity materials that should be typical in dental implants
- no major variations of surface roughness given by the coating process (meaning that after coating you will have approximately the same surface roughness as before)
I hope these info should be useful,
Best regards,
Simone
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Actually I am working on the effect of surface modification on explosive boiling. Basically I have considered two types of modification- nano dots and nano coatings. I have found nano coatings are less efficient but can't found the exact explanation of it. 
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Hello, 
Nanocoatings can be deposited not flat and smooth (or if smooth they can be etched to a small degree); then you will have enough active centres. In addition, you may also get a nanolayer of closely situated nanodots.
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We are working on the ATH complex as a anticoagulant material. after production of the complex, we want to remove the unbounded AT and Heparin. for purification of this complex, the Butyle-agarose and DEAE sepharose were used in the reports. Is there another way other than this for remove unreacted AT and Heparin ?  I will be appreciative for any help.
with best regards
Esfandyar
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There are limitations because of the nature of your starting materials to a one-step chromatographic purification method.
You could try ammonium sulfate precipitation, this method requires you to determine the conditions empirically. You would expect that the complex would have a different precipitation point to the Heparin and/or antithrombin. the method is also relatively quick, cheap and easy.
However, if you are committed to a chromatographic methods,  an alternative to DEAE usage would be able to use Size Exclusion chromatography to exclude unbound Heparin, but you would still need to use the Butyl-agarose (or any other Hydrophbic Interaction Chromatography media that you have ) to remove unbound antithrombin.
Of course you could try combining the SEC chromatography step with the ammonium sulfate step or any of the other published methods.
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I want to make a coat my polyurethane slides with a coating that will make them more hydrophobic. I've seen people use fluorosilanes on silicone and glass but wasn't sure if this would translate to polyurethane as well.
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Yes you can
Either add A1100 Silane to the PU or coat it with 20%water/ 80%IPA / 2% A1100 and dry it at 60-80 C for 1 hr.
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I am really interested in polydopamine-based surface modification of materials. This method is impressive since it provides a functionalized surface that is reactive with amine (-NH2) and thiol (-SH) groups. However, there is one point I do not clearly understand that many researchers have used Tris buffer for polymerization of Dopamine while it might react with polydopamine.
Could you give me suggestion about this?
Thank you very much!
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From my experience, I would say there is a reaction between poly/dopamine and Tris. For instance, If you change the buffer e.g. potassium chloride (pH 8.5) during polydopamine coating you will observe that the thickness is much higher in the presence of KCl over Tris. This can be also another explanation. 
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surface modification by aptes ((3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane ) is recommended. but there is no protocol
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Every act of your reaction: cellulose + APTES - evolves 1 water molecule. BUT the solubility of water in toluene - is negligible - so - the water content does not matter. 
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For a given temperature it is well believed that black-bodies  emit the highest amount of spectral intensity ( Watts per/m2 per frequency interval). However with the modern surface modification technologies it is possible to activate surface plasmon enhanced emission. This emission is partially coherent so that the waves could be interfered each other and exceed the black body limit. Can some one suggest me a reference for this? 
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There are at least two ways to exceed a black body radiation
1. For a finite size object (a small particle) we can engineer its optical cross-section to  be larger than its geometrical cross-section. Such particle may emit/absorb more than a black body of the same geometric size.
2. An exceed of a black body radiation (a superplankian radiation) may happen if two objects are placed close to each other at a distance similar or smaller than the wavelength. In this case evanescent fields of both objects overlap, which may lead to an energy transfer faster than with black bodies placed in the far field
For large objects positioned in the far-field a black body radiation is a fundamental limit. Interference effects should not change this as interference essentially leads to redistribution of energy in space and should not affect the overall result. 
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Trying to make an ELISPOT protocol based on the old paper.
Want to coat my plate before adding cells of interest, secondary enzyme-linked antibody, chromogenic substrate in agar, etc.
If I just evaporate my solution onto the plate will the antibody stick?
Maybe I should opt for maleimide?
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Yes. Immunoglobulins, like a lot of other proteins, have hydrophobic moieties on their surface, which facilitate spontaneous binding to hydrophobic surfaces such virgin polystyrene.  This phenomenon was reported initially (I believe) by Catt and Tregear, Science 158:1570-1572, 1967, in developing radioimmunoassay.  Later on, Engval and Perlmann (name spelling may not be accurate) used this finding to develop the micro ELISA.
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Compared to other polymers like PET, PP etc. LDPE has very poor oxygen diffusion barrier properties. Enhancement of barrier properties in the case of PET / PP is very good just by surface modification / thin barrier film deposition but not getting reduction in OTR values more than approx. 10 - 15 times in the case of LDPE.
If anyone here have done similar work on LDPE films please share your experience. It would be very much helpful for my studies.
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Yes Purvi, the fact is when the integrity of the coating layers is same, i.e. free of connected porosity, cracks, the films applied as same as multilayer mode and same thickness, the permeability properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate), low- and high-density polyethylenes and polypropylene across the coating films rank according to surface roughness and the LDPE got the higher roughness then the higher permeability. I think the work of M.S Hedenqvist etal. is highly support the hypothesis of roughness factor. 
Best regards
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Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used as reinforcement in polymer matrices via its crystalline regions. But because of its very high density of OH groups, it is very hydrophilic biopolymer.
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