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Subjective Well-being - Science topic

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I would like to join or initiate a network with this goal in mind. I cannot fathom why, especially in view of the documented psychological impact of COVID-19, hardly any secondary or tertiary institutions, in the US and abroad, are requiring these subjects to be taught. Some universities and high schools in the US, UK and Australia are offering courses on psychogical wellbeing AKA "happiness" as electives, but the content is often scientifically shallow and not integrated with student services.
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Thanks, I need to catch up and read the Palgrave Handbook. Having said that, as far as I know, many of the Positive Education interventions did not use standard measures of depression or in some cases, wellbeing, to evaluate outcomes. But I should read up on the latest.
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to conduct the research at Master level i need a scale/instrument to measure Subjective Well-being in organization. how can i get a scale which has open access?
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I think that one of the most common scales for SWB is Diener et al.'s (1985) five-item scale, which is free to use:
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
I am not familiar with specific scale which examine this variable in organizations, but you can look into the following reference for ideas:
Bakker, A. B., & Oerlemans, W. (2011). Subjective well-being in organizations. The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship, 49, 178-189.
Hope this helps!
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Good day! I wanted to ask for advice on how to measure Subjective Well-Being?
According to articles by Diener, Subjective Well-Being can be measured by 3 of his scales (Satsifaction with Life Scale [SWLS], Scale of Positive and Negative Experience [SPANE] and Flourishing Scale)?
I've seen previous studies combine both SWLS and SPANE, but the analysis was not explained clearly on how SWB was scored and measured. So may I know how it was scored? Do you just add their total scores and average them, or do you do any form of analysis to get a factor score (e.g. Confirmatory, Exploratory, etc.)?
I'm asking because I'm currently doing my master's thesis on SWB. Hoping for some responses. Thank you :)
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I see. Thank you so much Dr. Larisa Marchuk ! This helps a lot and I really appreciate it :)
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Heart Rate Variability is a well known and useful concept in Biomedical Engineering and Medical Sciences. Breath Rate is a lesser researched field and a newer measure Breath-Rate Variability is introduced recently to quantify meditation effect.
It is gaining attention of researchers as BRV has a number of novel applications. What could they be.
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Breath rate variability (BRV) as an alternate measure of meditation even over a short duration is proposed. The main objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that BRV is a simple measure that differentiates between meditators and nonmeditators.
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Hello,
We are looking for some one who can help with writting the introduction in the field of personality, social psychology, and well-being. If you are interested, please leave your email address here.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
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EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
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Sincerely,
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Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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I'm working with life satisfaction as my dependent variable and some other independent variables that measure purchasing power (consumption, income and specific expenditures). To take into account the diminishig marginal returns of this last variables (following the literature) I transformed them in terms of their natural logarithm. However, now I want to compare the size of the coefficients of specific expenditures with the ones of consumption and income. Specifically, I would like some procedure which allows me to interpret the result like this: 1 unit of resources directed to a type of expenditure (say culture) is more/less effective to improve life satisfaction in comparison with the effect that this same unit would have under the category of income. If I just do this with withouth the natural logarithm (that is, expressed in dolars) the coefficients change in counterintuitive ways, so I would prefer to avoid this.
I was thinking about using beta coefficients, but I don't know if it makes sense to standarize an already logarithmic coefficient.
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Am not sure Santiago I follow what you said. Elasticity can be used and Beta weights can be used. If I understand you? I will interpret elasticity as I % increase in the RHS variable changes the regressand by the estimated sign and coefficient of the RHS eg LnY= 2 -0.5Ln(X) -- Here a percent increase in X decreases y by .5 on the avg
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I have reported life satisfaction as my dependent variable and many independent variables of different kinds. Of them, one is the area in which the individual lives (urban/rural) and other is the access to public provided water service. When the area variable is included in the model, the second variable is non significant. However, when it is excluded, the public service gains enough significance for a 95% level of confidence. The two variables are moderately and negatively correlated (r= -0.45).
What possible explanations do you see for this phenomenom?
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Mr. Valdivieso. I think the Multicollinearity is almost definitely the problem. Try the simple VIF test. Then try to change the way you measure the variables Area & Access. Good luck.
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I'm studying the determinants of subjectve well being in my country and I have reported satisfaction with life as my dependent variable and almost 40 independent variables. I ran multicolinearity tests and I dind't find values bigger than 5 (in fact, just two variables had a VIF above 2). Also, my N=22 000, so I dont expect to have an overfitted model. Actually, at thet beggining, all was going well: the variables maintained their signficance and the values of their coefficients when I added or deleted some variables to test the robustness of the model and the adjusted R squared increased with the inclusion of more variables.
However, I finally included some variables that measure the satisfaction with specific life domains (family, work, profession, community, etc.) and there is when the problem started: my adjusted R squared tripled and the significance and even the signs of some variables changed dramatically, in some cases, in a counterintuitive way. I also tested multicolinearity and the correlation of these variables with the other estimators and I didn't find this to be a problem.
The literature says that it is very likely that there are endogeneity problems between satisfaction with life domains and satisfaction with life since it is not too much the objective life conditions that affect life satisfaction but the propensity to self-report satisfaction. Can this be the cause of my problem? If so, how?
PD: I'm not trying to demonstrate causality.
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Hi Santiago,
I believe that what you write is correct, there might be a problem of endogeneity. As you seem to be dealing with subjective indicators, there might be self-reporting biases involved. For instance, respondents who tend to be more optimistic would report a higher score with overall life satisfaction but also with the different dimensions that you look at. Further, those scores might beaffected by the current mood of the respondent etc.
I think this problem becomes worst if you include these self reported variables as predictors and outcomes in your model. Maybe addressing these two elements in separate models might be a solution (one model with overall life satisfaction and your 40 dependent variables and one model looking at the different dimensions of life satisfaction and their impact on overall satisfaction).
I had a quick glance at the literature. Pachecho & Lange adress this question of endogeneity: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/03068291011062489/full/html
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I'm investigating the determinants of subjective well being in my country and I have a well endowed database in which I found a lot of environmental, psicosocial and political variables (+ the common ones) that are theory-related to my dependent variable (subjective well-being). In this context, do you find any trouble about including them all (almost 35, and that already deleting the ones that measure the same concept) in one single model (using the adjusted R2)?
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You have many independent variables: To check the multicollinearity among the variables use the Variance Inflation factors.
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Hi everyone,
I am writing a paper on the determinants of happiness of different generations (Gen X and Gen Y) in Russia. What I want to achieve is too see whether the previously found determinants (such as income, relative income, marriage, children, employment, religion, computer/phone availability, health, gender, place of living), have different significance for different generations.
I am using the RLMS-HSE for this purpose (data on all years), which measures subjective well-being from 1 to 5 (1 - fully satisfied, 5 - not satisfied).
At first, I wanted to do the following:
Divide the data into 2 groups: first group with data on generation X being 25-30 years old, second group with data on generation Y being 25-30 years old (thus, to compare generations at the same age). Then run 2 separate regressions (ordered logit) in the form of:
SWB = income + relative income + marriage + children + employment + religion + computer/phone availability + health + gender + place of living
However, my advisor recommended me to run just 1 regression on the whole data set with interaction terms to separate the effects of age and generation:
SWB = income + income*age + income*year of birth + [the same for all variables mentioned above] + age + year of birth
I followed his advice, but the results were very poor, as almost every variable (including the non-interactive ones) was insignificant. When I run this regression without the interaction terms, the coefficients are significant. Thus, there clearly is some problem with the second model.
Can someone help me with the right regression construction? If the first approach is correct, should there be some modifications?
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Hello Kate,
The better solution would be to run a multi-group SEM (with logistic option) and compare the resultant regression coefficients for equality (this in two stages, starting with an omnibus test--are all coefficients equal?).
If you don't want to go that far, then your separate regression solutions have yielded coefficients and standard errors each predictor variable. You can compare the coefficients across groups via a z-type test (you'll need to convert SE to SD, via multiplication by square root of group size). Since you have a lot of predictors, you'll likely want to adjust the alpha level downward to avoid an excessive aggregate type I error risk.
Good luck with your work.
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Hello, I am in the starting blocks to write my bachelor thesis. The thesis is supposed to be an empirical study, concerning heart rate variability and well-being and if HRV it might be a reliable measurement for (subjective) well-being. What I want with this discussion is to get input from you, what do you know about the two topics?
Thanks for your help!
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We have done work in this field for 30 years now. Heart rate variability (HRV) actually is a term that was not chosen well, as it implies an instability of regulation and was treated like this for a long time eg. by cardiologists. In a popular cardiology textbook, HRV is called ' a not-treatworthy heart rhythm disturbance' which is thought to disappear with age.
Actually, a better term would be 'heart rhythm flexibility' (HRF), as the phenomenon is an expression of the regulatory ability of the autonomic nervous system to cope with different ambient situations and especially to interact with other body rhythms like respiration, peripheral blood perfusion and blood pressure rhythmicity. So let me use this term HRF.
Low HRF is known to predict bad outcome in several cardiovascular diseases and even total mortality. HRF is reducing with age but unusually high values can be found in centenarians, implying that HRF i good for life expectancy. Healthy interventions like moderate running, omega 3 fatty acids, stop smoking, meditation increase HRF in the aftermath. On the other had, many bad things for health life like fine particulate matter, heavy metals, stress, reduce HRF in a matter of minutes.
See some considerations on HRF in our papers:
and advanced methods to disentangle HRF components in these papers
I wish you good luck for your thesis!
Max
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I am looking for reliable and valid physiological, i.e. bio-metrical, measures, in order to (objectively) assess the situational personal importance of interview questions (or even questionnaire items). What physiological reactions would imply a high personal importance and emotional charge?
Thank you for your time,
Panagiotis
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Thank you Timothy, I appreciate it!
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I'm looking for a short form locus of control scale but am not having much luck. If anyone has any suggestions for a LOC scale that's under 20 questions, I'd really appreciate it!
If context matters, its for a project investigating the links between personality, subjective well-being and mental health.
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I developed the 16-item Work Locus of Control Scale, but it is specifically about the workplace context. Below is a link to the scale, the cite to a paper describing its development, and a meta-analysis that might be of interest.
Spector, P. E. (1988). Development of the Work Locus of Control Scale. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61(4), 335-340. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1988.tb00470.x
Wang, Q., Bowling, N. A., & Eschleman, K. J. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of work and general locus of control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 761-768. doi:10.1037/a0017707
10.1037/a0017707.supp (Supplemental)
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I am working on a project linking parental homeownership to happiness score of their children and trying to figure out economic reasons whether to treat parental homeownership as endogenous or exogenous in my empirical model.
I have seen a number of studies on individual homeownership and their happiness score not treating homeownership as endogenous but some studies on parental homeownership and academic achievement of their children treating parental homeownership as endogenous. However, they just say that parents who own homes might be different in their characteristics and also in the way they raise their children. I still feel there needs to be more explanation to this if to treat as endogenous. Or should I just treat it as exogenous?
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It is accurately addressed research issue. Ownership of immovable property creates responsibility and set benchmark for performance comparison from generation to generation. Rest need to assess
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how can I tell if the results are either positive or negative? I understand you get two scores, one from the PA and the other from NA but if I'm only interested in the NA, how can i tell from the score on NA that it is infact negative?
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No special reason why not; you're deriving a kind of "affect balance" measure. Perfectly okay. But there is a reason for the separate scales: the amount of positive affect we experience is only weakly (albeit negatively) correlated with the amount of negative affect we experience. Some people feel lots of happy, little sad; some the reverse; some lots of both; some little of either. By performing the subtraction procedure, you lose that information. You'll also have a kind of hidden variable, namely, the overall degree of emotional experiencing. So, for example, a person with a score of 20 for PA and 17 for NA will get the same score as someone with scores of 4 and 1, which somehow doesn't seem quite right. At least the issue should be discussed in your paper.
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Looking for thoughts into this idea.
Can parents owning house influence how their children subjectively view their life satisfaction or rate their happiness index. Does it have an impact? If yes, then what mechanism can be there to argue this point.
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Hi Hushnell.
It is true that the well-being of children should be examined interactively. The number of moderators of the relationship of having a home - well-being is virtually infinite. A good model of the relationship between selected variables is needed. Your own home is a way of life, not just prosperity.
Best regards
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Housing Livability for Improving Residents' Subjective Well-Being in Nigeria.
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Housing, Dwellings and Homes: Design Theory, Research and Practice
by Roderick J. Lawrence, could be useful. It directs to a range of architectural, cultural, social and psychological variables. Veenhoven worked on the concept of livability and its subjective -objective measures, which may interest you.
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I am currently doing a research. As i read, Subjective well being has 2 aspect, cognitive and affective.
But which one of the two is more important? Or are they equally important?
I would be really glad if there will be a source too.
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Mauro, do you mean that if we expect good things to happen they will happen?
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Hi all, I am currently doing a dissertation project on whether education affects what kind of prison sentence a person is awarded. I am looking at both life without parole, and the death penalty. I am controlling for race, as this has been known to sway the results, this is categorized into black, white and other. Education is categorized by US grade, from 0 -25 (PhD). I need to know how to run this through SPSS and how to write it up in my results section. Can anyone help me? i have uploaded the excel sheet with the data. 
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Bethan, Excel can be exported to SPSS. Open SPSS and import the file. It sounds as if the type of prison sentence has multiple levels. If the levels are graded to their severity, you can perform ordinal logistic regression. IF however, you are looking at TWO outcomes - with and without death, then you can run logistic regression analysis. If they are just types, then you would need the outcome variable to be measured in categories using multinominal logistic regression. This is under analyze. I think you should collapse categories for education into 4-6 categories depending on how many people are in each category. First do a frequency (descriptives) analysis to see the number in each category. There should be more than 10% for each category to make a meaningful comparison. Also the total number of subjects is a factor in having enough power to find differences. I suggest that you speak with a statistician at your university. 
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I am planning to do a paper on Forgiveness relationship with Subjective Well Being, moderated by Religiosity. 
I can use one scale for forgiveness, and one scale for Religiosity. But since SWB requires 2 scales (planning to use SWLS and SPANE), what stats analysis should I use. I can't sum SWLS and SPANE for a single value, as that would not be appropriate. 
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You use second order construct for the SWB. It can easily be done in SmartPLS and AMOS. But for AMOS the measurement models should be reflective.
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Dear researchers,
I am preparing a pre-/post test experiment for which I have an important question. I plan to do an intervention study that focusses on enhancing the independent psychological variables "mindfulness", "personal values awareness", "intrinsic values orientation" and "autonomy (self-concordance) of goals" of individuals. I plan to analyze how this intervention affects the dependant variables "goal engagement", "goal attainment", "subjective well-being", "psychological well-being" and certain health conditions like "depression", "anxiety" of the participants.
My specific question is, am I able to see how each of the independent variables contributes to each of the dependent variables. E.G. how "personal values" as one specific variable that was manipulated has affected each of the dependent variables. Or is it not possible to measure the causlities of each of the manipulated variables, because I manipulate 4 at a time? For me as a researcher it would be interesting to show causalities through my intervention and not only correlations.
It would be awesome to get some answers, as I am new to the methodoloy of experiments.
Best whishes
Benedict
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Here is a little fable.  One day I watched a grandfather, Leo, looking after his young granddaugther, Sarah.  Sarah had a pile of small cubes, some red and some blue.  There were two cups, one black and one white nearby.  She was picking up the cubes an placing them in either the white cup or the black one.  Every time she put a red in the black cup or a blue in the white cup a laughing noise came from near the cups, but not otherwise.  Sarah soon knew that red in a black cup or blue cube in a white cup causes a laugh.  Leo however knew this wasn't the case as he had a different world model to that of Sarah.
My message here is that experimental data together with a model may lead to an assertion of causality, but the validity of that assertion relies on the validity of the model not that of the data and the data analysis.
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Traditionally time use is measured by filling out a survey. This is very costly. It seems this is why time use surveys are carried out very rarely.
Given all the technology that is currently available, are there no more modern ways of measuring time use (through telephones with GPS for example)? 
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Hi Rutger, can you provide more context on what type of time use you are talking about?
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The empirical data gathered in Yonkers from a sample of 57 individual men and women across race, ethnic, social stratification and age suggest educated women fall in love often at 75% of the time while educated men fall often in love at 16.6 % o the time (Comparison Between Subjective Well-being Versus Self-Actualization, Psychology Club of York College).
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Dear Rasak Bamidele, 
Men are more aggressive, fear more educated women, suffer more from castration anxiety, how do you think this sounds?
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We are considering to use the Cantril Ladder (Cantril, 1965) to assess subjective well-being / satisfaction with life with a single item. The Cantril ladder has been used in numerous studies among various populations and in different settings and is considered to be a valid and reliable measure of subjective well-being. Does anyone know of any studies using this questionnaire in people with mild intellectual disability?
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Hello Noud
I have not accessed the full text of this, but in the Google summary, Cantril is mentioned:
Wellman, J., Barter, B., & Steele, A. (2015). Group top-up therapy for service users: Joshua Wellman and colleagues argue that those with learning disabilities could benefit from having a mix of individual and group therapy. Learning Disability Practice, 18(8), 33-38.
There is one reference to Cantril  in section 4.2.1 of this thesis:
Martindale, K. J. (2010). An investigation into the subjective wellbeing of people with an intellectual disability (No. Ph. D.). Deakin University.
Also see this RG link:
This might be relevant:
Riemsma, R. P., Forbes, C. A., Glanville, J. M., Eastwood, A. J., & Kleijnen, J. (2000). General health status measures for people with cognitive impairment: learning disability and acquired brain injury. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England), 5(6), 1-100.
This is the full text:
This is the RG link:
And this is one of the references:
Ormel, J., Kempen, G. I., Deeg, D. J., Brilman, E. I., Sonderen, E., & Relyveld, J. (1998). Functioning, Well‐Being, and Health Perception in Late Middle‐Aged and Older People: Comparing the Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Medical Conditions. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(1), 39-48.
I hope there is something of help here.
Very best wishes for your PhD,
Mary
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I am searching for literature (papers or books) on the thesis that welfare paternalism (that is, the infringement on the freedom of choice of a person aimed at improving his or her welfare) is self-defeating when the person does not understand why his/her freedom of choice ought to be restricted. The welfare of the person will be reduced because of his/her non-understanding. Conversely, if the person understands why there ought to exist restrictive constraints on his/her freedom of choice, he/she will accept these restrictive constraints, an acceptation which is better for his/her welfare.
For example, at a collective-political level, citizens would no longer – or, at least, would much less – suffer from the restrictive constraints upon democracy if they understood why constraints are needed to restrict the freedom of choice of temporary majorities. Constraints which are understood are better – for people's welfare – than constraints which are not understood.
Do you know any author, in economic or political theory, developing this thesis on the link between welfare paternalism and the comprehension of the constraints on freedom of choice?
Many thanks for your comments.
Régis Servant.
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Looking back at Stefan's question, I notice that he speaks of some kind of manipulation of supply. This is not necessarily bad at least by modern marketing standards, talking, of course, about material goods. It may be worse when we talk about books, for example. Hiding/manifesting is fine as long as it concerned with material goods and is a privilege related to a firm's marketing policy. which does not break existent law. The manipulation of information  which should by public   law be available to all citizens is a different matter, on the other hand. 
So certain things may be examined case by case (e.g. public/private goods) something which might not have been disputed by Von Hayek who used to defend a natural, spontaneous social order. However, I must admit I am not especially familiar with his economic ideas.
Equally, I have to admit I am not quite familiar with "soft paternalistic" methods. Yet certain kinds of manipulation which clashes with civility and law are definitely unfavorable. I do not think anyone needs extremely uncivilized methods in order to "shop". Shopping freely is supposed to be a "therapy", not a kind of chess.
Thank you for including me in your discussion. Hoping to hear further examples from Regis and his colleagues,
Dimitris
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Dear all, I´m searching for studies that deal with mediators of coping with MS and outcomes such as adherence to DMT, subjective well-being and quality of life, etc., ... I´m especially interested in health psychology approaches. Thank you very much in advance!
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Hello,
I am going to conduct an ESM study, in which I intend to ask participants how happy they feel at the moment several times per day during two or three weeks, and what they are doing, in order to link an activity to a mean level of happiness for instance. (not unlike what researchers are doing with DRM studies)
I want it to be as simple as possible for the participants, so my intention is to only ask one single question about their happiness at the moment (and a question about what they are doing). Searching through the litterature about happiness and subjective well being (SWB), I have found quite a lot of different measures, but most are complete surveys with multiple questions (which I want to avoid) or deal with overall life satisfaction ("overall, how happy are you with your life?").
So far, I haven't found a valid and reliable single question that would measure SWB. I am well aware that, since there are several dimensions to it, it is more rigorous to ask multiple questions, but once again, I really want it to be as simple as possible.
What question should I ask ? Something like : "How happy are you feeling right now?" ?
And the study will be conducted with French participants by the way, so if someone here knows of a french formulation that works well, that would be very helpful (as you can imagine, it is much harder to find established measures in French than in English).
Thank you.
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Ok I will check this paper out, thank you !
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What is the best measure of affect balance: the difference (PA-NA) or the ratio (PA / NA) or a combination of the difference and the ratio ([PA-NA] / [PA + NA]), or something else?
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the answer is not so easy. It depend on the characteristics of your study. All the measures you mentioned were criticized in the past. PA-NA assumes that PA and NA are negatively highly correlated. This is not situation in most cases when using the PANAS.
in regard to the positivity ration, I would recommend to read the latest publication by Shrira et al. 2015.
Shrira, A., Bodner, E., & Palgi, Y. (2015). Positivity ratio of flourishing individuals: Examining the moderation effects of methodological variations and chronological age. The Journal of Positive Psychology, (ahead-of-print), 1-15.‏
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Will be used pre and post intervention on elderly residents in a retirement home
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Hi Hannah
I agree with Jennifer and would advocate for the CASP-19 or its shorter variant the CASP-12. It is a lot better at assessing older adult QOL than a number of current indicators because (1) it was designed specifically for older adults, and (2) it actually measure self-perceived QoL instead of proxy measure that focus on health or functioning. It is excellent. We've used it in our New Zealand longitudinal study for 4 waves now and it has been used widely in the European longitudinal ageing studies (i.e., ELSA, TILDA, SHARE) as well as some of the occupational cohort studies. There is a growing body of work attesting to its stability across countries. Please let me know if you need any links or related articles.
Andy
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Why most people have positive affect balance (more positive affect than negative affect) most of the time?
 First variant of the answer to this question: people have positive affect balance because most of the people have more successes than failures,  more «income» than «expenses» most of the time (positive affect balance is a function of good performance).
Second variant of the answer to this question: people have positive affect balance because good performance is a function of positive affect balance (humans were selected for positivity offset in their evolutionary past, and positivity offset determines positive affect balance, which determines good performance).
A) Which answer do you like more? First__; Second__.
B) Which version of the answer is more relevant as a base for the research the problem today, in your opinion? First__; Second__.
C) What dependence is stronger, in your opinion: 1) performance as a function of affect balance or 2) affect balance as a function of performance? 1) __; 2) __.
D) Your comment: ……………….
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Dear Łukasz,
Just known theoretical explanations by Diner et al.*, opposite my own explanation**, had prompted me to raise this issue with two proposed answers. 
Best regards.
 Модальная зона активности: к проблеме зависимости эмоций от успешности деятельности (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279973812__________)
  Деятельностная динамика основных измерений эмоций: модель и литературные данные (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279976304_________)
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A curvilinear theory suggests that the relationship between religiosity and death anxiety is curvilinear. That is, both high and low scorers on religiousness report lower levels of death anxiety. Only those who are moderately religious report higher levels of death anxiety. There are three rival theories. What is the best way to atest the theory?
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I think the simple answer is to square the X variable and enter it in a hierarchical regression model in a second step after the linear (unsquared X) effect is entered on step one.  As follows:
Step 1:  X --> Y
Step 2: X Squared --> Y
If there is significant variability accounted for in Y by X squared in the second step, then there is a curvilinear effect. Keep in mind X squared will test just the quadratic effect. That is, U shaped or inverted U shaped relationships.
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I found some researchers used Positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) + The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to measure one's SWB.
Can I use Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) + the neuroticism part (8 questions) in The Big Five Inventory (BFI) + The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instead?
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I use something called Happiness Mapping to assess well being. This is how the method goes:
Happiness mapping entails mapping of whether people are feeling sad, happy, or somewhere in-between in their lives. The evaluator uses this exercise to capture whether members were less or more happy as a consequence of joining the project or programme.
Step 1. Ask the participants to draw three faces - sad face, moderate face, and happy face. If participants are hesitant, the evaluator draws them based upon interviewing.
Step 2. Ask the participants where they are now in terms of their emotional well-being, and where they were during the period before the project/programme started. Are changes, if any, negative or positive? Are they gender specific or general?
Step 3. Are changes, if any, due to the project/programme or other factors? If other factors, what are the other factors? If the project/programme, what aspect of the project/programme contributed to change?
Step  4. If there are no changes and the participant was unhappy or moderate to begin with, explore what interventions are required to make them happy - including gender specific ones.
In an agriculture and micro finance project in India, it was found that the woman participant had economically improved. She however described herself as sadder than before the project began. When the reasons were explored, it was revealed that her daughter had been sent back to her home in order to get more dowry, in light of the economic improvement in the family. The organization sponsoring the project then had to help her intervene on the dowry harassment case. The two concerned Panchayats got together and decided to intervene and put pressure on the groom to withdraw the dowry demand. 
Best 
Ranjani
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literature related links between these “Independent variables” and the Dependent variable (student happiness)
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Hello Elochukwu,
May I suggest you to read this conference paper :
Optimal learning experience in digital environments: Theoretical concepts, measure and modelisation (Heutte, Fenouillet, Boniwell, Martin-Krumm, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014)
In this paper, you can find a proposal for a "pedagogical toolkit" to build the optimal learning environment (a learning environment which supports the flow of the learners).
1) For researchers:
• Work together to construct transcultural measurement tools,
• Carry out international comparative studies of the students' and teachers’ psychological determinants of motivation, engagement and volition;
• Study ecological validity and generalization of the EduFlow model and the Heuristic Model of the Individually Motivated Collective.
2) For school leadership and management:
• Contribute to develop pedagogical toolkit for monitoring the process of learning: to improve pedagogical management and quality of training systems, organizations or arrangements.
Best,
jean
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What would that include and how can it be developed in academic settings?
It can be argued that well-being capabilities are with the scope of mandated human rights and should be included in curriculum.
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Education, according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has among its aims full development of the human personality, and like public policy, the construction of citizenship.
Citizenship have many interpretations according the each nation's social model. In the same sense, in many countries "well-being" is part of its social model, but the "well-being's" meaning can be different. For example, in andean countries, like Ecuador or Bolivia, the model nation philosophy is the "good-living" (buen vivir) and despite that both of them, "well-being" and "good-living", look like synonymous, there are significant differences between them.
For that reason, in each nation it makes sense that the curriculum have to include the development of skills related to their philosophy of life.
Moreover, according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, there are aims to be achieved in terms of the construction of citizenship beyond the national peculiarities. In their 26 article, the aims are related with: respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and the maintenance of peace. Here are common's skills related with human rights.
You can use "respect" for each human right like argument, but you can't use it independently of the accomplishment's meaning each human right has, in your nation's social model .
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I want to know if both these concepts mean the same so I can decide which concept I want to use as a variable in my research. 
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Partly the answer to your question above is contingent on your research question--what you want to learn from participants.  Spiritual well-being would be a much tighter and more objective, hence easily measured, variable as Cinar indicates. This is particularly true for a quantitative study. Spirituality is a broader construct that can have many aspects such as spiritual beliefs, spiritual behaviors, spiritual support, etc. It would be better measured quantitatively with a scale, though both can be (and have been) scaled. Spirituality also does not preclude suffering which would be one antithesis of spiritual well-being.
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This is areas of my interest and would like to read papers based on Asian context.
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It is about 1500 miles away, but perhaps we could talk on the phone.
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I´m starting on a paper addressing happiness vs. loneliness relation within a city region? Does anyone know good references for this from the empirical happiness study? Or even better would be ones operating in an urban environment
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hi Mikko,
You have received a lot of valid answers to your question. Still, I´d like to mention an interesting author, a pioneer in research on loneliness and social support.  Only last Tuesday, Jenny de Jong Gierveld gave a lecture at the Leyden Academy on Ageing and Vitality, on crosscultural perspectives regarding loneliness. and social relations  Prof. Gierveld has developed a loneliness scale in her sociological work, which today is used in many countries (1), and she is involved in several large scale longitudinal studies on social networks, such as the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study and the Generations and Gender Surveys. She is an expert on demographic and social aspects of ageing, with particular reference to:
- well-being at later age and its relationship with social relations,
- the role of exchange of social support and its relationships with living conditions (rural or urban) and family arrangements (2), (3).
Some of her publications :
(1) Gierveld, Jenny De Jong, and Theo Van Tilburg. "A 6-item scale for overall, emotional, and social loneliness confirmatory tests on survey data." Research on Aging 28.5 (2006): 582-598.
(2) Scharf, Thomas, and Jenny de Jong Gierveld. "Loneliness in urban neighbourhoods: an Anglo-Dutch comparison." European Journal of Ageing 5.2 (2008): 103-115. 
(3) Gierveld, Jenny De Jong, and Marjolein van Broese Groenou. "Quality of Marriage and Social Loneliness in Later Life." Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (2014): 5309-5312.
I hope this may help you, and I wish you the best..
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Is there anyone working on the SHARE data, who could share some experience on dealing with the different scales of life satisfaction used in the survey?
In WAVE 1 there is a 4-point scale (1= Very satisfied; 2 = Somewhat satisfied; 3 = Somewhat dissatisfied; 4 = Very dissatisfied).
In WAVES 2,4 and 5 they switched to the commonly known 11-point scale ("On a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 means completely dissatisfied and 10 means completely satisfied, how satisfied are you with your life?")
When looking at the development of life satisfaction over time - how can I compare the results? How can I transform them to get comparable data? Any literature or concrete advice would be very helpful!
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Maybe the following paper which we recently published is of interest to you. In this paper we describe how we derived a reference distribution from the responses to a numerical scale and used this reference distribution to decide at which point verbally labelled response options transit from one state to another, for example from ‘satisfied’ to ‘very satisfied’. Next, these transition points can be used to estimate a population mean for each wave of the time series in which the verbal scale is used on a level that is comparable to that of the mean of the reference distribution. These estimates are appropriate for use in an extended time series based on the responses measured using a verbal and a numerical scale.  
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I know the difference between subjective well-being, psychological well-being and emotional well-being, but I have not found a definition of the latter
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Hi Lisandra,
Have a look at those different papers : 
Diener E (1984) Subjective well-being. Psychol Bull 95:542–575. 
Kahneman D, Krueger AB, Schkade DA, Schwarz N, Stone AA (2004) A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science 306:1776–1780.
Kahneman D, Riis J (2005) in The Science Of Well-Being, eds Huppert FA, Baylis N, Keverne B (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford), pp 285–304. 
Graham C (2010) Happiness Around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires (Oxford University Press, New York). 
All the best, 
Laurence
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Studies examining the relation between income and subjective well-being have revealed a clear association between log-transformed income and life evaluation. However, it's not clear to me if it is appropriate for me to use log income when my subjects reported their income in a certain category:
Under 5k
5-20k
21-50k
51-75k
These categories are discrete and not linear- some are much larger than the others. Would log work here?
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What you have is 'ordinal' data. Various 'ordinal regression' approaches are available to use this data as such, without the need to transform. See if this can help
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I am searching for national versions of Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-14, Keyes) and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule 20-item version for measuring general affect (PANAS Watson & Tellegen). We plan to use them in our new study and it would be a great help to have it all.
I would require versions in: Italian, Dutch, Estonian, Latvian, Hungarian, Malay, Russian (for MHC only), Romanian, German (for MHC), Serbian, Czech, Slovak, Japanese, Korean, Portugal.
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Thank you! I`ve contacted with professor Keyes yet, however as MHC is really popular he has no all versions at his personal computer. Anyway, we have some versions already translated and ready to use.
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BBC report says scientists have developed a mathematical equation that can predict momentary delight. They found that participants were happiest when they performed better than expected during a risk-reward task.
"We can look at past decisions and outcomes and predict exactly how happy you will say you are at any point in time," said lead author Dr Robb Rutledge from University College London.
What is your opinion about this research? Now that we have an equation which can we use it in survey research to replace a Likert scale for such questions? Any further comments will help. Thanks.
Robb B. Rutledge, Nikolina Skandali, Peter Dayan, and Raymond J. Dolan - A computational and neural model of momentary subjective well-being, August 4, 2014, doi:10.1073/pnas.1407535111
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Trying to find an equation to precisely predict happiness, I think it is the definition of being unhappy! "Happiness" is a vague concept. How can you have a precise equation for an imprecise concept.
Without an equation I can sy that "life" is full of ups and downs! When you are increasing towards the pick, you are happy and when you go down from the highest point you are unhappy.
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I am doing my preliminary research involving 230 respondent with low-economic status in Jakarta, Indonesia
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I agree with the colleagues, you shouldn't sum them up. If you plan on performing structural equation modeling, you can have factors for each dimension load on a second-order factor that would represent participants' SWB.
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I plan to investigate between parents' well-being of disabled children and children's well-being with disability. I need to know whether there is a short-version of child's well-being scale perceived by parents for disabled children between 6-13 years old. Researchers who are experienced in this topic, please share our thoughts.
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Dear Adrian, thank you for your advice. I think we have made a contact by e-mail some months ago regarding to the using of this PWI scale (PWI ID and PWI SC) :)
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I use the PWI-adults version from Cummins to measure parents' well-being with disabled child. However, I will also measure the disabled child's well-being using different questionnaire. Is it possible?
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I'm no expert on the subject, but I believe that the questionnaires provide a measure of reality. I decided to answer because I wanted to express my opinion that the questionnaires should not be accepted as an absolute truth!
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Is there any theoretical explanation?
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Hi Antonio,
You might have a look at the paper called "Does child care involvement increase or decrease distress among dual-earner couples?" on the bottom of page 3 of my profile. Bob
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Based on most persons responses the general consensus is that I should measure PA, NA and SWLS independently. What confuses me, is how can I then speak of person's overall Subjective Well-Being score.
The research questions which I wanted to look at were:
1) Is there a difference between males and females’ levels of subjective well-being?
2) Is there a difference among participants’ ages and their levels of subjective well-being?
3) Is there a difference among participants’ perceived economic status(High, Middle & low) and their levels of subjective well-being?
4) Is there a relationship between the Big 5 personality traits(extroversion, etc) and participants’ levels of subjective well-being?
Are these research questions still feasible? If I test the scales independently (PA, NA, SWLS) would the format of my research questions change and what tests would I have to use to obtain this information?
PA, NA, SWLS are all interval variables (produces a raw score), Age is also an interval variable along with my BFI scores. The only nominal data is sex and perceived economic status (high, middle and low).
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I'd suggest using structural equation modelling and using each of the three subjective wellbeing scales as distinct observed or latent variables, but allowing their errors to correlate. This still allows for separate hypotheses for each as Cinar has suggested. Either of these approaches is better than combining them as each dimension may (and often does) have different predictors. While I haven't used satisfaction with life recently, an example of this type of analysis is my 2013 paper with Wendy Phillips on Self-compassion in older adults, which can be found on my ResearchGate page. Good luck with your study.
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I am currently conducting research on the correlates of SWB: with Big five traits, and demographic variables (age, sex, and perceived economic status). I have collected data for SWB using the PANAS and SWLS. From my understanding, these two scales do not provide a total SWB score, but rather three separate scores. Therefore, I would have to run my statistical tests on all three dimensions (NA, PA, & SWLS) if i want to examine SWB. Is this correct?
I am looking forward to your replies and would love to engage anyone who is knowledgeable in this area, as I have so many questions about the data I have collected and what I can do with it.
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Hi there, I am working with the same variables of SWB, affective component (PANAS) and cognitive one (SWLS). In my work, I think it is more interesting to compute a "balance score", that it subtracting negative affect from positive affect. A paper is attached. I hope it can be useful for you.