Questions related to Structural Geology
Is there any effective way to reconstruct the thermal history of deep carbonate formations?
I know that there is a Δ47/(U-Pb) method, but is this method too harsh for the selection of carbonate samples?
I'm looking for a journal article about oil and gas with a relationship with structural geology , like traps ,oil fields......
I need it with good pictures and on range from 2010 to 2021
Also it Has to be not too difficult because second-year student
So please if you can help me send me a message
Dear Researchers on Structural Geology and Tectonics
Strike-Slip Faulting: Is there any example of strike-slip fault with blocks moving in same direction but with different speed?
Paleomagnetic studies show that the South China block was moving northward continuously from 300 to 260 Ma and has experienced an overall ∼27° clockwise rotation since then (Huang et al., 2018) ,and assuming a stationary Emeishan mantle plume, so if I want to do a numerical simulation of the geodynamics of the Emeishan mantle plume based on the above conditions. How can I do it?
except for the vitrinite reflectance, conodont and acritarch colour alteration, fission tracks, (U-Th)/He, is there any new methods to reconstruct the thermal history of sedimentary basins?
What is the theoretical support for the formation of reverse faults in the extensional regional geological environment? Are there any field examples?
I'm looking for a advices of papers, or some comentaries about the tectonic history and structural geology of te Center of Ecuador.
Because i'd like to prepare a paper about a structural model in Azuay (near to Bella Rica District) especifically related to Porphyry Au-Cu Deposits and Epithermal veins in this district. I have a advances and maybe if you can advice me to refining this.
Thanks a lot for the comentaries
The samples are mainly composed of quartz and calcite, and minor amounts of white mica, clinozoisite, and garnet. They are collected within a thrust zone in an Archean supracrustal belt in Greenland. However I believe that the zone is of different origin and my hope is that these two sample can help me with figuring that out, but it is hard to finde any publications dealing with this. The two other ways I can think of describing this zone is either flexural flow/slip or a normal fault. Any ideas?
- With a good fault and fracture dataset (displacement and length), how can I extract a mathematical data, strain rate, so to speak? Maybe programs or even formula? Do you have any indications of papers/authors or program?
The paleostress orientations inferred from the orientations of dikes (see attached figure) indicate that none of the principal stress axes is oriented at neither vertical nor horizontal orientation, rather all of them are oriented at the intermediate orientation between the vertical and horizontal orientations. Hence, the fact violates the Anderson theory of faulting, where one of the principal stress axes must be vertical due to the stress boundary condition at the surface of the earth.
What could be the plausible explanation?
These photos taken at Sandstone layer . Please can somebody help me in the identification of these concentric and parralel laminations ? And which is the origin of this process ? NB : outcrops located on the coast influenced by marrine erosion.
I want to know if it is possible to construct a 3D structural model for a certain area using "Midland Valley Move software" by utilizing boreholes only.
The most important pull-apart basins are related with transform faults (for example Anatolian Zone) and i would like to know if pull-apart basins can form in continental strike-slip faulting
Please can you give me some papers for reading
Thanks a lot
"I am inviting you to submit interesting structural geological snaps and captions in the "Atlas of Structural Geology" (2nd Edition, Elsevier) that will be edited by me. Elsevier has approved this re-edition.
Open to take- natural secondary and primary, and also human-induced structures developed in all scales, acquired by any techniques.
To know the detail or to discuss, please drop me a mail at
1. Expression of interest: 30-Sept-2018
2. Submission of contributions: 30-January-2019
Dr. Soumyajit Mukherjee
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA"
I'd like to learn about the relationship between the foliation occurrence of the accretionary wedge in fore-arc and the direction of subduction.
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Some researchers (Sablukov; Buslovich) predict that there are mezosoic kimberlites on East European Craton (EEC). Is there any evidence?
The only reason is the presence of KIM's in mezosoic sediments of the north-eastern part of Mezen syneclise (northern part of EEC). It looks unreliable to me because Devonian kimberlites are located on the north of Mezen syneclise.
Can anyone offer me an typical picture of that？This term can be usually encountered in epithermal literature, but I haven't seen any useful picture about cockade texture so far. The similar collocation includes cockade breccia structure. As a Chinese, it's really challenging for me to imagine the appearance of 'cockade'. Thanks in advance.
In a strike slip fault in central Mexico, we record P, R', Y-shear. But R shears are absent. Can someone please suggest similar cases and reasons for such absence.
dear expert as yo see in photo attached
in my village NW yemen, while i am checking area affecting by faults i found this viens in wadi, first of all i checked the magnatic no response, second thing if i add HCL give me some reaction in vein it self, third thing it is very hard to scratch and the color of streak is pale brown and dark grey in part, also give me some reflection colors under normal microscope.
the outcrop is sandstone, and area is wadi form by fault action, same area around 4 faults parallel.
i thought should by magnetite no magnet response and even after heating that means maybe not also hematite or geothite. and from streak color will not be pyrolusite (mno2), this is a physical properties study as difficult to perform chemeical analysis due to situation in yemen ( no opreational equipment).
please advise me from that i can conforim what is this mineral or i have to perform xrf and xrd to know , please advise
- by the way area adjacent to hot spring
i am working in study the kinematic vorticity of major shear zone in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. one of the problems is the absence of common rigid clasts such as feldspar and quartz due to the dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. only large mica fishes are observed in miceaous quartzite. can i use them as Kinematic vorticity gauge
I am presently working on the evolution of a part of the basement complex rocks in Nigeria. The area is marked by shear zones. My field visits have shown that the shear zones cut across granitic gneisses, pegmatite (extensive and comprises mainly feldspar) and some mica schist. A part of my objectives is to determine the strain (quantitatively) by way of field and laboratory analysis. I need guide and may be peer-reviewed papers that have addressed such case(s). Thank you.
Tourmaline can be a sedimentary protolith indicator? Or could be just post-tectonic crystals, related to a hydrothermal event?
Thanks for the help.
Attached thin-sections photos.
in need explanation about the approach of measurement of lattice preferred orientation of quartz crystals using gypsum wedge.
The Badami sediments exposed NNE and NE of Belgaum comprise granular to fine-pebble conglomerate and fine- to medium-grained sandstone. Both the sandstone and conglomerate contain abundant angular to sub-rounded to often rounded feldspar. The basement rocks are mainly parts of the Chitradurga Schist Belt. Preliminary palaeocurrent data indicate due NNW to NW palaeoflow. What could be the source of feldspar in Badami Sediments?
I just looked through your "Geomechanical ..." and "Investigation of cap rock ..." papers, thank you. The latter mentions that "faults may be present ..."
The seismic suggests that small faults are very much present - attachment. Statoil had a morbid view of small faults when I was there (link 1) - although that became and remains contentious (link 2 & further). Is there any chance that you will actually address their presence and effects?
Also suggest me whether I can study Morphotectonic,Neotectonic and Active tectonic in both Soft rock and hard rock. Any researcher can suggest me.
Barren Measures are sandwiched between two thick coal bearing formations i.e. Barakar and Raniganj, and devoid of coals. What are the reasons for the sudden extinction and reappearance of coal in reference to global tectonic and environment?
I've seen your interesting project on paleoseismology and I'd like to offer you my contribute (if you need and like) to it through dendrochronological dating of morphological features (scarps, active fault line, landslides) linked to earthquakes.
On my profile you can see some paper dealing on this topic.
Greetings from Italy, Rosanna
It has attracted a widly concern and dispute in the northern Tibet for initial time and displacement amount of Altyn Tagh fault system during the Cenozoic.Thus, how can you determine the slip rate?
I have many folding structure, i have the data of dip and trend of geological formation forming the flank of folds.
I want to use this data to obtain the trend and plunge of folding axis.
Can I explain the tectonic stress as perpendicular to this axis?
for sample if i Have the foldin axis is oriented N20°, can i say that the stress is N110° (20°+90°)?
thaks for responding
could you answer me what could cause such deformations in Pleistocene glaciolacustrine deposits like on attached photos? There are mostly slightly folded layers and many overturned folds, didn't find any faults.
What methods do you propose to examine and analyze such deposits?
Features such as crag and tails only occur because the crag was there first. Roches moutonnees start out as rock knolls. Small-scale rat tails are destroyed by the abrasional processes that produce striations and destructive wear by clasts in overriding ice (attached: intact rat tails compared with those destroyed by overriding boulders). Bernard Hallet shows that glacial abrasion removes bumps on a subglacial rock surface. Therefore, rock drumlins can only form if there are preexisting protrusions with the same spatial arrangement as the drumlins. Since the drumlins are commonly en echelon (Kor and Cowell, s-forms at French River attached), the same en echelon pattern required of the initial rock protrusions calls for a remarkable coincidence.
We have seen many salt strucutre in normal or reverse fault system, but how about the salt related strike-slip fault?
Quite surprised to get so many answers for my question. Thanks again. All recommended papers I will read carefully. Hoping to get more answers!
Recently in reading the The Salt Tectonics Short Course in Universidade Fernando Pessoa. Some basic knowledge can be learned in this course. Pretty Good!
I'm having some trouble deciphering the origin of well developed negative U and Th anomalies in cumulate ultramafic rocks. All my textbooks seem to make no mention of such anomalies. I have yet to see similar anomalies in any journal articles. The rocks also show positive Ba, Pb, and Ti anomalies while no Nb anomalies are observed (if this helps in any way).
Thanks for reading.
I'm studying a Late Cretaceous (~68 Ma) opx-bearing granite in the Qiangtang Terrane, Tibetan Plateau. The two-pyroxene barametry indicates that the melt-formation of the this pluton require pressure ≥ 14.2–18.1 kbar and temperature ≥ 900–1000 ℃. When plotted on the P-T diagram illustrating the partial melting of mafic lower crust and phase relationship, this P-T range corresponds to the “amphibole and plagioclase-out” and “garnet-in” field, implying the breakdown of amphiboles and plagioclases and occurrence of garnets in the source region.
In combination of chemical compositions, we suggest that partial melting of mafic lower continental crust in the stability of garnet (e.g., garnet-granulites or eclogites) was the most plausible scenario for the genesis of the pluton. High Sr and Ba, low Y and heavy rare earth elements (REEs), strong depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSEs) such as Nb, Ta and Ti, and lack of negative Sr and Eu anomalies (Martin 1986, 1999; Defant and Drummond 1990; Martin et al. 2005) in the rocks indicate that the pluton closely resembles adakites in element compositions. However, peculiarly, it exhibits higher Yb and Y concentrations as well as lower Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios relative to the typical adakites.
It is so peculiar. So, I want to ask partial melting of garnet-granulites or eclogites necessarily produces adakites with high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)n ratios? If not, what geological processes would result into the decrease of these two ratios in the partial melts from the eclogites or garnrt-bearing granulites?
I read this paper from Butler and Paton (Butler R.W.H., Paton D.A., 2010. Evaluating lateral compaction in deepwater fold and thrust belts: How much are we missing from “nature’s sandbox”?, GSA today, v.2 , n° 3, 7pp, 4-10, doi : 10.1130/GSATG77A.1) that shows on the Namibian margin how shortening related to gravity gliding can be accommodated by direct lateral compaction within the sedimentary layers. Lateral compaction could thus accommodate 18 to 25% of the shortening and then the amount of shortening evidenced by the reverse faults is lower than the true shortening.
Do you know other examples/references concerning lateral compaction process?
Does a low amount of shortening (say less than 25%) could be entirely accommodated by lateral compaction within the sedimentary layer, then without any reverse fault?
Many thanks in advance!
There are some methods for selecting a proper TBM based on the geological conditions. These methods are proposed by RMR, QTBM, and etc. Is there any method for selecting the best TBM according to the tunnel situation that use all parameters such as strength parameters, water level, changing during the length of tunnel, depth, cost, and etc and for every parameters is presented a number for every TBM types? For example, a system like RMR that it is considered many parameters and finally suggest a tunnel supporting system based on the RMR number.
Thanks in advance for sharing your experience
I guess the following question is only relevant to those familiar with quartz microstructure and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) but here goes...
I have been perplexed by the concept of the quartz opening angle geothermometer (Kruhl, 1996; Law 2014), and its resulting wide application, for quite some time. Sure, there is some ostensible statistical basis for it (an approximate linear increase in temperature with increased angle between girdles of the quartz CPO, refer to above refs), but is the scientific basis? I can appreciate that there is a specific shift from an orthorhombic symmetry defined by basal-<a>, rhomb-<a> and prism-<a> (~60 opening angle), to that of an orthorhombic symmetry defined by prism-<a> and prism-[c] (~120 opening angle). This shift is explained temperature dependent slip system changes, coincident with alpha-beta quartz transitions. What about between this general jump? What is causing the observed linear relationship between angle and temperature? I can't find any sources that communicate this clear, despite its wide use. I would be very appreciative for some suggestions.
Also, surely the kinematics of deformation potentially make the results of this geothermometer highly dubious. It seems relevant for rocks undergoing dominant flattening or plane strain (where a clear orthorhombic symmetry is observed in the quartz CPO), and entirely irrelevant for dominant rotational strain or non-coaxial flow (where a monoclinic symmetry is common). Surely, everything in between carries a high uncertainty factor as well?
What about second phase content? Pinning is likely to diffuse the quartz CPO and thus manipulate the m.u.d contours (assuming that is how researchers quantify the opening angle). Do variations in second phases affect the resultant opening angle? If so, this carries major setbacks for quantifying opening angles in polymineralic rocks, or even quartzites with variations in second phase content.
I'd love to hear comments from anyone particularly interested in this, and please forgive any harsh skepticism on my part!
Kruhl, J. H. (1996) Prism- and basal-plane parallel subgrain boundaries in quartz: A microstructural geothermobarometer. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 14, 581-589.
Law, R. D. (2014) Deformation thermometry based on quartz c-axis fabrics and recrystallization microstructures: A review. Journal of Structural Geology, 66, 129-161.
Dear RG members
I want to know about these principal stresses working in rifting, thrusting and folding. Only comments are welcome. Sorry to website's links.
With best regards
The safety factor is a factor for checking the results. How much is the safety factor for different slopes based on different standards or guidelines such as UIC, British standard, and etc.? Is it different for rock slope or soil slope in different conditions such as static or dynamic conditions (ODE/MDE/MCE)? Should it be considered based on special projects like high speed railway or other projects?
Thanks in advance for sharing your experience!
I want to have the point of view from different experts given below to adopt an integrated approach.
2. Engineering Geologist
3. Mining Geologist
6. Civil Engineer
7. Mining Engineer
9. Structural Geologist
10. Landslide Expert
11. Earthquake Geologist
Thanks for a quick response.
I am interested and want to seek geological rift record or record of normal faulting from a foreland basin of a collisional orogenic belt.
We observed crescent depression with 1-2km width and 200m depth nearer to seamounts. Multibeam data when we first analysed we suspected it may be of turbudity. (Since all depressions are arranged in almost in a single direction).
But later detailed subbottom profiling & ROV revealed that they are hard bottom.
If anybody can give probable reason for its formation will be a great help.
One of the ongoing challenges in textural analysis via bulk diffraction is to calculate an ODF for a material (rock or metal) from measured pole figures with well defined intensity peaks. Evidently, the availability of different crystal axes to be measured depends on their diffraction intensities, and in some cases key axes contain intensities too low to be measured (hence they are extrapolated mathematically by ODF derivation). Recently we have been able to deconvolute the (003) c-axis reflection in quartz from the intensity spectra. This is one of the most important crystal axes for geological texture analysis and wider structural geology inquiries. The measurement of this crystal axis was previously thought to be unattainable, due to its low intensity and proximity to the (112) reflection. Our results are being prepared for publication.
My question is: are there other examples, particularly in metals, where important crystal axes are either too low to measure, or are masked by other axis diffractions? I would like to read the literature available. For example, I have read that (100) reflections in Al are particularly difficult to measure directly. Any suggestions would be very appreciated. Thank you!
I would like to retrieve the best fitting seismic moment tensor from given pressure and tension axis orientations, even in the case of non-double couple seismic source mechanisms. I did not find such function in MoPad, any suggestion, at least for pure double-couple case ?
Figure: for a given seismic source, I have a probabilistic representation of pressure and tension axis orientations (Left and middle plots), what is the moment tensor of the corresponding source mechanism (right plot) ?
The clast size are in the range of boulder to cobble in a clast supported conglomerate. The deposit is inferred as a rigid plug formed from loss of trapped water. Now, will this clast be able to tell me what was the slope of the surface on which it glided? If there is, please refer any paper or provide me a methodology
In a pluton, there may be different granitic magma intrusions like monzonite, granite and/or syenite which were intruded in different times at the same place like ballooning mechanism. Is there a way to map each pulse in the field or what do you recommend to distinguish each pulse? how should these bodies be sampled?
Can someone explain me how exactly should I adapt quaternary sections (age+genesis) built according to USSR Quaternary Commission requirements to international scientific publication or just give me a link to comprehensive example?
The section is attached below.
Observation of rock fracture orientation is a fundamental work directly or indirectly served for multiple scientific fields and engineering areas, for example rock mechanics and hydrology. A common technique for observing fracture orientation, line sampling such as along ground scanline or down underground borehole tends to bias the orientation distribution to an extent, dependent on the intersection angle between fracture and scanline/borehole. This directional error can be reduced by the well-known Terzaghi correction, comprising three steps that (I) to mesh the stereographic projection net into cells, (II) to count the observational frequency lying in each cell and (III) to weight the frequency by the error-compensatory factor 1/sin θ, where θ is the angle between the scanline and the fracture defined at centre of the current cell.
However, the Step I seems unnecessary; it may be omitted. The reason is:
If the Step I is omitted (absence of mesh), the weight has been transferred onto the frequency defined over each orientation pole due to mesh removal. Such a pole, from a calculus view, can be treated as an infinitesimal cell that only contains one pole. Hence, absence of mesh may be treated as an extreme case of the presence of mesh. And then that means, alike the conventional Terzaghi method (presence of mesh), the modified version in which the Step I is removed away (absence of mesh) is also feasible in theory.
I am not sure the though is right. So, I want to discuss and get answer.
My samples are collected in an outcrop that is jointed and folded. (fig 8-11)
When viewed under the microscope:
Plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene occurs as euhedral to subhedral crystals. Iddingsite occur as an altera