Science topic

Strategy - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Strategy, and find Strategy experts.
Questions related to Strategy
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
Im a planning a workshop in a transdisciplinary format where the goal is to define future activities and a strategy. Any suggestions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Juan, I will look into it!
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
17 answers
I am primarily interested in 2-player combinatorial games with perfect information. Useful wiki links are below.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
20 answers
Please give advices or suggestions here,
Relevant answer
Answer
In addition, look after own health first.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
I would like to do my end-of-the-year research paper on this topic, but I am struggling to find papers related to this subject.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would like to do research on this topic, but I am facing a hurdle in the available resources
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Hi,
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend reading the following article:
- Elizandra Severgnini (2018) The indirect effects of performance measurement system and organizational ambidexterity on performance, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 1176-1199. DOI 10.1108/BPMJ-06-2017-0159
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
9 answers
Dear All,
Recently, I have looked into the Web in search for some works on Search And Rescue or guarding strategies. I have found some works related to UAV exploration in urban environment or SAR disaster site exploration. But, it was not what I really meant.
I wonder if there is any up-to-date literature (analytical, mathematical, physical, simulations maybe?) devoted to search and rescue or guarding, e.g., on the sea. I recall the stories from the time of WWII when allied vessels, after loosing contact with the submarine, started to move in circles with increasing radius. Also, there were special books prepared by mathematicians describing sequences of random turns to avoid being hit by a torpedo.
Do you know if there were any advances in the topic since then? Where the strategies using by modern SAR service are taken from?
Regards,
Michal
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Michał,
In general, the entire SAR action conducted at sea and especially a selection of the search pattern depends (obviously) on a specific situation. Many factors are affecting the course of the action, such as search area (proximity of the shoreline and nearest rescue center), distance to the commence search point, number of the vessels involved, availability of support for the air (helicopters, aircraft), environmental conditions (usually unfavorable), etc.
When looking from the merchant ship's viewpoint, we have an official manual prepared jointly by IMO and ICAO, the so-called IAMSAR Manual (International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual) where some procedures to be followed are presented. Among these, there are also search patterns introduced. Their application differs mainly depending on the aforementioned factors (especially the number of the searching vessels or possible cooperation with an aircraft). One of the most common patterns for a single ship is "expanded square", which is very similar to the example of allies vessels action recalled in your question. Other popular patterns used are, among others, sector search (also called a "flower-pattern") - usually with the support of a helicopter, as well as various modifications of parallel track searches - usually in cooperation with aircraft or other ships involved in the SAR action. For more practical information please refer to:
IAMSAR, 2007. International Aeronautical and Maritime Rescue Manual. Volume II, Mission Coordination. IMO/ICAO publications, London/Montreal; or any newer IAMSAR version.
However, in the mentioned IAMSAR Manual, you will find mainly simply operational procedures for the crewmembers of the merchant ships. If you are looking for algorithms or mathematic explanations of the most effective search methods/patterns you have to check scientific sources. There are a few, quite recently published papers about modern solutions in this field. You can see, for instance, the following papers:
Ai, B., Jia, M., Xu, H., Xu, J., Wen, Z., Li, B., & Zhang, D. (2021). Coverage path planning for maritime search and rescue using reinforcement learning. Ocean Engineering, 241, 110098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2021.110098
Ai, B., Li, B., Gao, S., Xu, J., & Shang, H. (2019). An Intelligent Decision Algorithm for the Generation of Maritime Search and Rescue Emergency Response Plans. IEEE Access, 7, 155835–155850. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2949366
Xiong, W., van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M., & Yang, K. (2020). A decision support method for design and operationalization of search and rescue in maritime emergency. Ocean Engineering, 207, 107399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107399
Especially the first publication seems to be suitable for you. When you check the reference list, you can find there the older papers/books from the math domain, like:
Koopman, B. O. (1957). The Theory of Search. Operations Research, 5(5), 613–626. https://doi.org/10.1287/opre.5.5.613
Good luck,
Mateusz
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
57 answers
PROs and CONs in adopting SCOPUS as a source for bibliometric measures of scientific and technical publications?
Relevant answer
Answer
What is the difference between ScienceDirect and Scopus?
Each uses a different database.
"ScienceDirect contains full text articles from journals and books, primarily published by Elsevier, but including some hosted societies. Scopus indexes metadata from abstracts and references of thousands of publishers, including Elsevier. Scopus builds additional functionality on top of that metadata, such as citation matching, author profiles, and affiliation profiles."
For information, please the attached figure extracted from Elsevier's website.
Source: ttps://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/28240/supporthub/agrm/p/15838/
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Gentlemen, I am conducting a research in my city on the application of the swot matrix in the largest retail chains, and through this application analyzing the impact of the pandemic on these retailers, could give me some idea of ​​how to cross the matrix, with the purpose of defining strategies more accurate for these businesses.
Relevant answer
Answer
The guidance/views/example of a SWOT analysis as per the following papers may further help:
  • Helms, M. M. and Nixon, J. (2010) Exploring SWOT analysis ‐ where are we now? : A review of academic research from the last decade, Journal of Strategy and Management, 3, 3, pp. 215-251.
  • Hill, T. and Westbrook, R. (1997) SWOT analysis: it's time for a product recall, Long range planning, 30, 1, pp. 46-52.
  • Pickton, D. W. and Wright, S. (1998) What's SWOT in strategic analysis?, Strategic change, 7, 2, pp. 101-109.
  • Yu, L. and Huimin, G. (2005) Hotel Reform in China: A SWOT Analysis, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46, 2, pp. 153-169.
Furthermore, the following publications may help enhance an understanding of SWOT, namely: “…..we prefer TOWS analysis because it starts with an outside-in perspective, whereas SWOT analysis uses an inside-out perspective. An inside-out perspective tends not to consider customers’ wants or competitors advantages. The TOWS analysis is used because changes occur so rapidly that a particular advantage can be rendered meaningless in a very short space of time. Rapid changes often become treats to a company’s survival, though they could also be viewed as opportunities…..” (Kotler and Kartajaya, 2000, pp. 98-99).
  • Kotler, P. and Kartajaya, H. (2000) Repositioning Asia: From Bubble to Sustainable Economy. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
  • Weihrich, H. (1982) The TOWS matrix - A tool for situational analysis, Long range planning, 15, 2, pp. 54-66.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Hi, I am a student of the Cooperative University of Colombia (UCC), I am initiating research on how to initiate critical thinking from children to improve their participation in classes. Could you advise me on techniques to achieve this? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
logic toys
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
12 answers
  • Business Critical failure indicators CFI
Multinational organizations as well as SME or any type of business organization for that matter share the same principle which is succeed. However success is not usually the end result due to XXX factors either internal or external or else, they all have left the business opportunity to other competitors or any other reason of such.
Below is a small list i picked from the net about these companies that really got my attention because they all shared greatness in their days and completely got cast away afterwards:
1- Kodak
2- Nokia
3- Xerox
Therefore, i would kindly solicit the help of anyone who thinks he has a close as possible answer (CFI's) that he/she could foresee before the their business ends up in a failure, what could be the possible way, approach or strategy that might help, and how to separate the right CFI from the wrong one.
Thank you in advance for your answers.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pareto's principle can be applied for evaluation.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Hello everyone, Today I am soliciting your help in completing a 30min survey. This survey concerns only small family businesses (1 to 50 employees) and the purpose is to diagnose Family owned innovativeness level. please follow the link (it is a google form): https://forms.gle/MNctCyHRo1SUhZ1D9
What you will gain from this
1) A very precise report on your innovativeness level because we are doing the diagnosis using success and failure indicators - a new approach to innovativeness diagnosis.
2) Tap into your organization way before receiving our report. The questions are designed to be a wake up call on everything concerning business innovation initiatives whether it works or not.
3) Get a clear plan of action on how to be innovative and stay innovative.
Our framework will help a lot of business determine their current location on the innovativeness spectrum and it is the promising one to get us there.
Thank you in advance and do not hesitate to contact me for more information.
Relevant answer
Affirmative
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
We are trying to boil down to an actual problem identification. Companies are now a days including sustainability in their strategies due to the demand of the stakeholders- We want to solve a particular problem/ loophole in this area with the focus on MCS- Management Control Systems. The highlighted themes so far is profit maximization and sustainability : are MCSs designed configured to fit the industries when it comes to sustainable strategies?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would recommend reading the following article:
- Jean-Pascal Gond, Suzana Grubnic, Christian Herzig, Jeremy Moon (2012) Configuring management control systems: Theorizing the integration of strategy and sustainability, Management Accounting Research, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp. 205-223
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
9 answers
Dear colleagues,
I'm working on methodology of transforming existing organization for manufacturing companies. Could you please guide me on how to approach the following questions:
1. How to split task between operational routines (repetitive tasks, business as usual) and dynamic routines (transformations, NPD, innovation etc.) for different functions (sales, manufacturing, HR, etc.)?
2. How to calculate optimal number of people involved into each type of activities in different functions (e.g. dynamic routines in sales)?
3. How to approach motivation for different combinations of task types and functions? What KPI or other ways of performance control should be used for each of these combinations?
Thank in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Keep it simple.
Any operational design should answer some questions, but always has some main questions to answer, previously.
Step 1 (mandatory)
Define your competitive strategy. Then design your Supply Chain, once this design is done. You can continue designing your operational process, do you need now the flows (operational, informational and financial) and cost numbers to decide about the next step.
Questions
a) What is the strategy that this operational process to feed?
b) What is the demand that this process should provide?
c) In that part of the Supply Chain, this process acts?
d) How this design maximize profits and minimize costs?
e) Is the main process or a support process within our Value Chain?
f) Which are your goals and objectives? What did we expect of the process? this is very important due to that you must design based on these objectives.
g) Define your Q&A standard, so this is your base of comparison, to in the future build you KPI's. Based on it's you can develop your control objectives and for consequence the KPI's.
1. How to split tasks between operational routines (repetitive tasks, business as usual) and dynamic routines (transformations, NPD, innovation etc.) for different functions (sales, manufacturing, HR, etc.)?
This question is answered for my past comments, without it, you only made an incomplete work that as always in the text is a theoretical misrepresentation of the reality.
Your design process considers certain restrictions or thinking in unexpected, that isn't the norm, your design is for your central limit of the process, any deviation must be treated as that it's an exception.
2. Once you know the operational number you need to define with that resources you will develop any process, this could be with people, machines, automation or other means. if you decide to use people you need measure times in each part of the process and build a "Line Balance" and if is productive to define machine and times a Mass Balance"
3. KPI's are only control measures that we design to measures relevant or critical operations or processes, that we need to keep in or near to the central limit (search SPC). You should develop it when you have mapped your processor when you are followed all the before steps.
Greetings
Alfredo
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
32 answers
Mixed-ability can refer to classes in which there are clear differences in language level, learning style, learning speed, aptitude, students’ background knowledge, and motivation. In this context, every student who is learning a language can be different in language level among other students. Thus, students may have different capabilities to grasp the lesson during the teaching process in the class. According to Ireson & Hallam (2001), “teachers need to recognize that a class is a mixed ability because children have different strengths and weaknesses and develop at different rates.”
In Indonesia, English is a foreign language which is taught and learned only in classrooms or additional English courses outside school. In this case, students may have some problems such as less proficient English ability because people in Indonesia rarely use English as a tool of communication. Also, teachers in dealing mixed- ability classes may have an ineffective learning classroom from both students and teachers.
Dealing with this issue, Mixed-ability students have their own learning style and preferences in learning a language. In this context, I would like to have your opinion of the following question:
What strategies would be effective to handle mixed-ability students in learning English as a foreign language?
Relevant answer
Answer
Always have a range of follow-up activities for stronger students, who may be paired together, which they can complete while lower level students are still working on initial activities. Stronger students may welcome more autonomy, but they also need to feel they are learning something from the lesson, even while you may be occupied with further explanation to lower level students.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
17 answers
I am working on a research that focuses on the management of technology education curriculum in universities of technology and would like to come up with sound recommendations on strategies that can result in effective management of a technology education curriculum. 
Relevant answer
Following.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
15 answers
Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research on think tank industry. The outputs of the research and the best international practices will be used in elaborating development strategy of our think tank. Please, indicate the best examples and strategic steps, which could be important in this process! Any comment, which you think should be considered, will be appreciated.
Thank you in advance!
Regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Vardan,
My advice is not to look to the best international practices -- you cannot replicate the Conference Board, American Enterprise Institute, the Brooking Institution, the RAND Corporation or EIU.
In post-USSR countries there are just three types of striving thin tanks
1) extensions of particular ministries (ministry of finance, ministry of economy) performing outsourcing works to their major clients using the government money. The development strategy is simple -- to expand the basis of clients with gradual serving two, three ministries etc. The moment of truth in your strategy is to present or do not present in your report a point which totally contradicts the opinion of your client (minister, deputy minister etc.);
2) networks of researchers serving industry (employers) associations. Here you strategy is to extract data from participants of such associations and to present it back in a fresh interesting way with some assertive arguments for the benefits of the members of associations;
3) 'brain departments' of influential political parties. Here your strategy is dualistic -- be able to produce attractive populist ideas and assertive slogans and short texts (manifestos and political programs) and also to offer to politicians the real analysis of the current situation and the short-term forecasts.
For the first and sometimes for the third cases of think tanks do not expect that they will survive for a very long time. For the second case, you can work successfully for decades. In the second case you may also have a possibility to mutate into a consultancy company providing specified services for particular corporations.
Bests,
Igor Gurkov
Head of a think tank of the first type in 1994-2000, head of a think tank of first&second type in 2000-2006.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
For a term paper in the course of Strategic Implementation, I wanted to look at the biases that exist in strategy implementation. But a lot of literature I am finding speak of biases in the formulation stage.
Looking for resources where I may find something relevant.
Open to advice whether this is topic makes sense.
Relevant answer
Answer
Following may be useful...
Bukszar Jr, E. (1999). Strategic bias: The impact of cognitive biases on strategy. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration, 16(2), 105-117.
Olson, B. J., Parayitam, S., & Bao, Y. (2007). Strategic decision making: The effects of cognitive diversity, conflict, and trust on decision outcomes. Journal of management, 33(2), 196-222.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
What is the practical outcome that Trump expects from the maximum pressure strategy?
Will US exit from JACOPA affect Donald Trump's political future?
Relevant answer
Answer
حيث يحاول دونالد ترامب الضغط على العراق لكي يخسر ايران علاقتها القويه مع السياسيين الشيعه في العراق وهذه الخطوه غير موفقه معه لان السياسيين العراقيين عملائهم لايمكن خسارة علاقتهم مع الطبقه الحاكمه في ايران مما يجعله بسحب قواته بشكل علني ولكن سيناريو المخفي سوف يقوم بتوجيه ضربه كضربه ةلسابقه للسياسيين الموالين لايران .
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
I'm looking for new studies for my bachelor's thesis!
Relevant answer
Answer
Several studies suggest that music reduces the sensation of labor pain and alleviates the emotional and psychological discomfort associated with it.
Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour
Effects of music therapy on labour pain and anxiety in Taiwanese first-time mothers | Request PDF
(PDF) Effect of Music on Labor Pain Relief, Anxiety Level and Postpartum Analgesic Requirement: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
3 answers
could anyone suggest me a good subject for my thesis?
Relevant answer
Answer
Already have my friend, I'm talking about using safety strategy. The Near Miss is a golden opportunity for an organization to learn from pass mistakes. Reflective observation is a powerful and effective proactive tool in the hands of a safety practitioner. 😉
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
For all professors, researchers, and doctoral fellows out there in business and management studies: The 8th Doctoral Consortium and Conference, 2020, by American Marketing Association, Seth Foundation, Academy of Indian Marketing, and BIMTECH, will be held on Jan 03-06, 2020, at BIMTECH (Birla Institute of Management Technology), India. The theme is, "INNOVATING CUSTOMER EXPERIENCES IN DIGITAL AGE", with three tracks: (A) Consumer Behaviour (B) Technology and Analytics (C) Strategy. Co-organisers are Prof. Jagdish Seth, Prof. V. Kumar, Prof. H. Chaturvedi, and Mr. Russ Klien. For more information, such as details related to research paper submission requirements, registration process and other details, find attached a brochure, and also visit: http://bit.ly/2kfCkfk
THIS CONFERENCE IS OVER. THIS THREAD IS CLOSED. Thank You for your queries and interest.
Relevant answer
Answer
I wish, won't be able to get the Visa :)
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Among the well-known translation teaching strategies, if you were to choose a few, how many of them would you call the commonly applied? Kindly note them.
Relevant answer
Answer
Text based and genre based approaches to teaching translation work best, specially when one is using idiomatic translation method suggested by Mildred Larson.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
6 answers
Dear All
I would be grateful if You can talk about the theory that you know or suggest the best theories that talk about the Strategic entrepreneurship. You can also show the dimensions that you think are suitable for the Strategic entrepreneurship such as ( Sustainable competitive advantage, risk taking, innovation, or any other dimensions )
- Best Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
I could recommend the Ash MAURYA approach "Running Lean" which works in real life through a very well documented iterative process. Best
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
12 answers
Background - we played Jenga last night: you know, 54 pieces of wood stacked up on 18 levels one on another. You take the piece out and put it on top and so on. Building continues until the tower falls and the person causing it to fall loses.
Question: what is really a success? Starting with 18 levels you go up but is it better to win on level 24 or lose on level 31? It takes quite some effort and mastery to exceed level 30...
Well? What would you choose and why?
Relevant answer
Answer
Earl Nightangale’s definition is the best one in my opinion, “Success is the progressive realization of a worthy idea.“
Success is not then achievement but the feeling while chasing a goal.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
6 answers
I want to be sure that my investigation of the extant literature is thorough in identifying all terms used to describe the manner in which deliberate/intended and emergent strategy (Mintzberg, 1978) unfold to become realized or unrealized/ephemeral strategy (Mirabeau & Maguire, 2014). For instance, another name I've found is adaptive strategy (Andersen & Nielsen, 2009). Does anyone else have additional terms I may need to research?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ann:
I remember an author whose name is Quinn who coined the name "incremental strategy" (in spanish "estrategia incremental"). You can read some book by himself or several readings by Scholes/Whittington/Johnson or Mintzberg et al in "Strategy Safari". According to Quinn, managers have an initial strategy they pretend to use, while developing it they realize certain problems so they have to adapt it. These steps are small compared to the first one, so that´s why he speaks about "incremental strategy".
Regards
Gustavo Concari
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
i want to know if there is a method or strategy that i can use to create a science lesson in school on different groups of students and that will allow me to create each time different emotions while using the same scientific content.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are many strategies such as brainstorming strategy, brain-based learning strategies, and others.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
"Mistake 2: Not building flexible career capital that
will be useful in the future" (80000hours.org Career guide). My question: What are the reasons behind this mistake?
--
Background
I'm trying to understand what the reasons that lead people to this mistake are. Maybe after we understand the reasons, we would realize that they're not mistakes after all. Or if we still believe they're mistakes, we'll be much able to solve them.
Here are some general reasons:
1. Trade-offs: Advice often neglects to address the trade-off that comes with this advice: For example, "be flexible" ignores the disadvantages of being flexible and the advantages of being "inflexible" (keeping your eye on the goal, avoiding distractions, persistence etc…) and vice versa with persistence advice like "never give up".
2. Unclear evidence or debatable positions
Often contrary or seemingly contrary positions both have evidence.
Do we underestimate or over-estimate the differences between us and others? The "False Consensus Effect" suggests that we under-estimate while the "Fundamental Attribution Error" can imply that we over-estimate the role of personal differences.
--
So even though the position behind the advice has evidence, it can also be true that the position contrary to the advice has evidence too.
3. Lack of knowledge or effort.
4. More pressing issues
The question then becomes: is : Does the advice that comes with "Not building flexible career capital that will be useful in the future" suffer from general reasons 1+2?
Here are the sub-mistakes of the main mistake:
Some of the reasons that cause people to fall into this mistake (based or influenced by the 80k section though not exactly how they say in all points):
1* Short-term thinking.
2* Not giving career choices enough thought (e.g. English PhD sounds nice so I’m just going to go with it).
3* Underestimating soft-skills: Not Investing in transferable skills that can be used in any job like
A- Deep Work by Calvin Newport. The example given in 80k career guide is writing your daily priorities. I would prefer something like "how to avoid distraction).
B-Learning how to learn
C- Rationality
4* Lack of awareness about automation threat.
5* Inaccurate predictions about one’s future interest/opportunities in the chosen career. (e.g) "The End of History Illusion":
So for example, for 5*, it could be the case that General reason 2 "unclear evidence" is implicated it could be (and I don't know it is) that in contrast to the "End of history Illusion", there is a group of personality theorists who claim that we under-estimate how stable our personality is. Or for 3*, general reason number 1 "trade-offs" is implicated. For example (and again I don’t know), it could be the case that the more you focus on developing general skills like "learning how to learn", you become less competitive in non-transferable technical skills because you have less time to focus on that now.
Relevant answer
Answer
Christopher Steinman
Very good points! I want to add them to the blog post as a comment. Are you ok with that? I'll quote you ofcourse.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
50 answers
More and more research centers operating in different countries and investigating climate change state that the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth is already a fact. As a result, the risk of increasingly frequent and increasingly dramatic climate disasters is increasing. Man has less and less time to counteract these negative processes.
It is necessary to change the development strategy based on intensifying the exploitation of the Earth's resources on the sustainable development strategy. It is necessary to develop new energy technologies based on renewable energy sources to slow down the progressing greenhouse effect of the Earth in order to reduce the risk of dramatic natural cataclysms. It is necessary to develop ecological innovations, while it may not be too late. It is necessary to save the Earth through destruction for future generations.
In view of the above, I am asking you to answer the following question: Is the greenhouse effect on Earth already objectively recognized by the climate research centers as an irreversible process?
I invite you to the discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
The greenhouse effect has long been recognized by research centers and in the past, from the age of 60. Since the 1990s, many international researchers have come together under the auspices of the United Nations to work on this rapid and global climate change and its evolution. Regarding the cycle I totally agree with my colleague Kenneth M Towe
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
I came across papers by Sigglekow, Knudsen, Gavetti, etc and they use agent based simulation to generate NK based complex models. From the few paper that I read, none of them mention the software that they use. So, I am looking for recommendations - as a beginner, what would be the best software to learn to be able to simulate such complex models in strategy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please tell me if the attempt to open the zip file prospered. Regards
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
12 answers
How can a nation restore 'lost' patriotism?
What strategies can be used to give back ownership and responsibility to the general citizenry where corruption, nepotism and clear lack of love for country manifests in many forms.
Please share your suggestion.
Kindly
Relevant answer
Answer
It is something like what Frederickson said in the New Public Administration (the ‘70s) as well as in the Spirit of Public Administration (the ‘90s) more than just for merely social equity anyway ... it was substance for the quo-vadis of existing public administration. If so ... the patriotism will be vis-a-vis with the professionalism, a masterpiece of governance concept in contemporary public administration.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
5 answers
The discusion of structure following strategy or the opposite or both of them reacting to each other is open for years in the field of strategic management (Chandler, Mintzberg, others).
What I wonder is whether the answer (as inconclusive as it is) is the same for public sector or different views / findings are valid for that sub-field of strategic management. Is it asked in that contexts at all?
I did find some publications arguing that implementing strategy of public entity means also adjusting structure if necessary, but that's too little for a conclusive argument.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Tomazs,
In my context, making a generalization seems difficult. Every alternative in the literature (e.g. strategy follows sturucture; structure follows strategy; they interact with each other; they are independent) seems possible under certain conditions. For example, public organizations sometimes adopt some structures ceremonically that are dictated by some forceful organizations. In this situation, structure can be independent (decoupled-loose coupled) from strategy of related organization. Good luck in your studies!
Best regards,
Mehmet
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
12 answers
Once boss is in angry mood and your personal interaction is prefix then what is the survival strategy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Change the boss's "focus of attention" as quickly as possible to a new and different issue.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
What is the strategy that involves the simultaneous administration of two or more anabolic steroid substances, often for the purposes of body building?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Entedher sarhat, Thank you so much!
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
just as Narasimhan Jegadeesh and Sheridan Titman do in their paper:returns to buying winners and selling losers implications for stock market efficiency 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
We talk about alignment between strategy and structure, and also between firm strategy and functional strategy. Nadler and Tushman (1978) give an information processing perspective to the need for strategy - structure alignment. Are there other such perspectives? I am especially looking for theories that explain why alignment between firm strategy and functional strategy is necessary. Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Strategic alignment is necessary for its effective execution. Strategies need to be aligned with the structure, processes, operations, resources and so on.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
1 answer
Hi all, I am trying to identify NK and NKT cells in mouse splenocytes. I am identifying CD3+CD335+ cells as NKT cells but I am not sure whether CD3-CD335+ would correctly identify NK cells. Any help is appreciated! 
Relevant answer
Answer
CD3+CD335+ cells will be a small fraction compared to CD3+NK1.1+ cells. Regardless both NK1.1 and CD335 will be expressed by a majority of NK cells. CD335 is expressed in NK cells and iNKT but not on CD1d restricted NK cells. For C57BL/6 mice I will use NK1.1, CD335, CD4, CD8 and TCRbeta
NK cells: NK1.1+CD335+TCRb negative
iNKT cells: NK1.1+CD335+CD4-CD8-TRCb+
other NKT cells: NK1.1+CD335-TCRb-
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
5 answers
Hi! I'm trying to find out what are strategical elements for mutual support between people.
I reviewed related literatures about mutual support and social support, and extracted about 8 elements which are influential and important factors in building supportive relationship.
I'd like to apply these elements in the field where mutual support are needed.
But before applying, I'd like to verify these elements and revise(develop) if needed.
In this case, would using Delphi method be appropriate?
And I also wonder if the panel group can constitute both practitioners and researchers. (Doesn't heterogeneity matter in forming panel group?)
Thanks!
(I will very appreciate if you could give me any relevant literature.)
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that the 'controlled feedback' procedure in the Delphi method makes it inappropriate for decision-making, since it acts as directing and modeeling the thinking and analysis of the anonymous experts
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
3 answers
What is the exact position of supply chain strategy in the general strategy classification?
We proposed a general classification of strategies. What is your point of view about the attached framework?  
Relevant answer
Answer
The current SCM approach is to create values and enhance key outcomes (in terms of efficiency and effectiveness) that drive firm performance. Please refer to Ketchen & Hult (2007). 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Source for the questionnaire for measuring corporate governance & strategy execution; risk management & strategy execution, government policy & strategy execution and prudential requirements & strategy execution. Kindly provide a guide.
Relevant answer
Answer
see this article 
THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE PRINCIPLES APPLICATION ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES LISTED IN AMMAN STOCK EXCHANGE
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
3 answers
My research questions are on corporate governance and strategy execution; risk management and strategy execution; prudential requirement and strategy execution; and government policy and strategy execution.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Nizam Shah Allabasc,
I am working on banking industry (micro finance bank sub-sector).
Thank you.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
What financing strategy can be envisaged for the financing of innovative SMEs?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
What is the project management toolset you use in practice?
What are the limitations and benefits of them? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Nolberto,
Yes, I agree with you it may help in project planning. The duration estimates are the result of subjective input and the probability is based on the subjective input of the project manger or the team. Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
9 answers
I am going to implement Voltage source converter control strategy in SIMULINK ,The Current and voltage are regulated using PI controller ,Can anyone guide me how should i select values for Kp and Ki.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
you have to follow a trial and error method basically although you can use any of the available optimisation techniques available like PSO. A easier method is as follows:
1) form the transfer function of the complete system and find out the open loop gain. Open loop gain is nothing but the transfer function of the forward path and the feedback path in cascade. Take any arbitrary value of Ki and Kp (say 100 and 1 respectively to start) 
2) draw the bode plot and observe the phase margin.
3) If you phase margin is more than 76 degrees then your Ki and Kp are acceptable
4) If phase margin is less than 76 degrees then change your Kp and Ki value to make the phase margin more than 76 degrees.
NB: Phase margin of more than 76 degrees is needed to make any system remain stable 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
3 answers
Are you focusing more on the development of activities that teachers can implement or on strategies that are transferrable to different contexts and activities?
Relevant answer
Answer
According to the project description, the goal is to help them learn and create opportunities for students to learn about all aspects of scientific practice. A structured PD must include three steps. First, introduce teachers to Next Generation Science Standards (knowledge). Second, introduce teachers to classroom plan or activities that will help them in sharing scientific practices. Third, introduce teachers’ strategies or encourage them to develop strategies that will create opportunities for the student to argue about the scientific practices. In the third step teachers may include a classroom experimentation for developing a successful strategy.  Finally, the strategies are developed based on the goals.
Thanks.
Mohammed
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
We want to increase the identified of HIV positive adolescent using the facility based interventions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Paul for that clarification
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
I want an example to relate it in military context.
Relevant answer
Answer
Methods of future and scenario analysis - Overview, assessment, and selection criteria
Hannah Kosow & Robert Gaßner
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
3 answers
May I ask the expertise here to give me concise difference between land use strategy, spatial strategy and national zoning strategy?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
14 answers
What knowledge management activities appear in the four perspective of Balanced Scorecard? Knowledge creation, knowledge loss, knowledge accumulation, knowledge sharing, knowledge utilization, or knowledge internalization?
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
measuers  for strategy implementation
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mohamed,
I agree with Igor. However, please allow me to simplify and provide more details.
There are various tools to monitor Strategy Implementation, and it all depends on whether they are for Corporate-level, Business-level (e.g. specific product group or geographical area) or Functional-level (e.g. Marketing, Operational, HR or Finance) strategies. One of the tool that is more applicable for corporate strategy is the Balanced Scorecard, where using measurable KPIs identified, we can track the changes to them over time. The Balanced Scorecard is often translated down to also the business level and the functional level to monitor and improve such corporate level strategy.
For Business level strategy, it is often positional assessment as noted by Igor. Here, we can position the business in views of competitors (e.g. to identify gap areas using the Growth Share Matrix) and to compete similarly or differently (e.g. using focus, differentiation or niche strategy). We can then gather performance indicators in view of these axes or variables such as market share, growth or financial performance.
Functional strategy relates to functional performance. For example in Marketing, we may want to capture customer satisfaction, customer orders and market share in Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Depending on the projects, as depicted by Igor, you can further compare 'before' and 'after' results but the measurement again depends on the function and project.
Hope this will make measurement clearer to you.
Best wishes
Prof Kuah
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
I am conducting a study on the development of the security doctrine of the Russian Federation in the time period 2000-2015. Development understod in forms of continuity and change. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Always start with National Level documents - Constitution, Treaties, Laws on Defense and Chain of Commend/Executive Authorities for Decision Making, National Defense Strategy (including Threats, Diplomatic, Infrastructure - physical and communication/cyber, Acquisition & Materiel/Production, Economic, Technology, Education, and Geography), National Military Strategy, Current Force Structure, Required Operational Capabilities, "Gap Analysis", Future Force Structure, Modernization Strategy, Operational Doctrine, Defense Policy & Institutions, Professional Military Education system, Assessment/Periodic Revisions to all of the above. This is based on a decade of personal (US Security Cooperation/Assistance DOD/DOS) resident advisory work at the strategic national government/ministry of defense and joint staff levels of four former communist nations in SE Europe as a senior defense reform representative to those nations in cooperation with OSCE, NATO, UNDP, and US DoD/DoS - Ambassadors and SACEUR/USEUCOM. .
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
12 answers
Hello,
I'm searching for academic references that critically explore how recent strategic analysis tools from the Osterwalder & Pigneur - Kim & Mauborgne (Strategy canvas, 4 action framework, Business Model Canvas) complement traditional strategy tools as the Porter 5 Forces, PESTEL, SWOT and Ansoff?
Relevant answer
Answer
Joseph,
The models you refer to are created by consultants and have received less academic and business validations that the classics you refer too. They cannot be called "frameworks". This does not make them uninteresting, but they require to be taken with a grain of salt. It is true that the classics are somewhat dated. If you want to look at contemporary academically solid frameworks, look also at the Resource Based Theory, Knowledge Based, etc. Look at
Conner, K.R., 1991. A Historical Comparison of Resource-Based Theory and Five Schools of Thought Within Industrial Organization Economics: Do We Have a New Theory of the Firm? Journal of Management 17, 121–154.
This can also help you structure your comparison.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
34 answers
Cooperative firms are owned and run by their employees, who receive a fair share of the profit. I'm looking at any existing literature on the performance of such firms. Any suggestions? Thank you. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Thomas,
These papers about the comparative analysis of workers’ cooperatives vs. capitalist firms may be of interest to you (from the oldest to the most recent ones) :
Ben-ner, A. 1988. 'The life cycle of worker-owned firms in market economies.' Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 10:3, 287-313.
Ben-Ner, A. 1988. 'Comparative empirical observations on worker-owned and capitalist firms.' International Journal of Industrial Organization, 6:1, 7-31.
Pérotin, V. 2006. 'Entry, exit, and the business cycle: Are cooperatives different?' Journal of Comparative Economics, 34:2, 295-316.
Burdín, G. & Dean, A. 2009. 'New evidence on wages and employment in worker cooperatives compared with capitalist firms.' Journal of Comparative Economics, 37:4, 517-33.
--
With regard to the performance of financial cooperatives during crises, there is a report of the International Labour Office, which can be found following this link:
See also this special issue of the Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity:
Hope this helps.
All the best,
Thomas
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
9 answers
The new EU policy for the waste management focus on the concept of Circular Economy.  The questions is: how easy is for a small Municipality in Insular area to adopt and adapt the concept of circular economy in order to solve the problem of the waste production as usually micro managements, micro politics, lacks of vision and infrastructures etc. may affect the result.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Antonis,
I very much appreciate your question, as well as the answer from Petra!
I have worked for more than a decade in MSWM in Southeast Asia with more than 20 pilot municipalities that tried to establish enhanced MSWM systems in developing country context. The best result from our (official development) work by Integrated approaches was a 'recovery rate of 50%' , mainly through low cost approaches that channeled out organic waste prior to disposal. I have to admit that the organic recycling component was 'subsidized' in all cases, meaning without the supporting local policies to provide project subsidy this 50% recycling rate could not have been achieved. Recovery rates for 'sellable items' (hard plastics, selected glass, metals, paper cartoons) usually had a share below 15% of total collected waste. We have tried several approaches for value adding with the informal sector (handicraft items, alternative fuels, briquettes for household consumption, etc but most of these projects remained small and could not be replicated. Looking on the accomplishment from a simplified perspective: Tackling the organic waste fraction (presented at the ORBIT 2012 for San Carlos City) solved many issues related to waste disposal but is hardly a 'self-running/self-sustaining' activity. Organic waste recovery on a small scale (as is typical for most islands) in view of circular economy demands to provide a sustainable business models that is (lastingly and reliable) supported by the municipality. We have documented this approach in a special GIZ Publication "Eco-Center" (2013) in the Philippines. Please feedback to me if you like to get an e-copy, as well as other related papers.
In summary: It would indeed be interesting to consider a review paper that summarizes to what degree other researchers / developers / island states were able to implement 'circular economy' for island contexts and what were success factors respectively barriers. 
Johannes Paul
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
13 answers
How can Small and Medium- size Enterprises and start-ups benefit from open innovation strategy?
Relevant answer
Answer
All great points that have been made here. I would just add that an open innovation strategy will differ by industry sector and often goes hand in hand with the development of an open business model. SMEs are often part of a (social) network and the utility of an open innovation strategy will depend on their surroundings. 
The literature on this topic is constantly increasing, so I would take a look at these for further reference:
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
6 answers
Does the second reviewer need to go through all the steps in the selection process? Do i need to include the seach strategy of the second reviewer in my appendix, or just one is fine?
thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
The search strategy is common for both reviewers. In other words, you develop a search strategy and retrieve the initial set of articles. Then, both reviewers start the selection process independently. Both reviewers go through all phases and disagreements are mediated first between them and if not possible by a third person from the research team.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
13 answers
Which theory best explains effectiveness of strategy execution, or explains the foundation of effective execution?
Relevant answer
Answer
The execution of different strategies requires various types of organizational structures, systems, management styles, staff, resources and shared values
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
11 answers
I am currently writing my paper on seasonality problem in tourism and culture. I have problem with methodology. There are a lot of articles dedicated to forecasting demand and measuring cycles, seasonality, but I haven't found much information on seasonality management. Are there any materials?
Do you have any ideas on how to measure and evaluate  the strategies used by these organizations? 
Relevant answer
Answer
I think that there are no universally accepted strategies for seasonality management. Since the factors that are causing seasonality of tourism demand are different from destination to destination, the strategies aimed at reducing/managing seasonality must be different as well. In Croatia, we apply strategies such as focusing on the tourism generating markets with the lowest seasonality (as measured by Gini coefficient) - typically long haul markets, on accommodation facilities with the highest occupancy rate (hotels and similar) and on improving overall destination experience, in terms of activities that are available to tourists during off season periods. However, these strategies have produced slim results so far, since the major factors that are causing seasonality (climate, public holidays on generating markets etc.) are beyond our reach. Hope this helps. Best of luck with your research!
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
11 answers
I want please to have some new references about strategy performance management tools nowadays, as Balanced Scorecard.
Relevant answer
Answer
You might be interested in the following papers:
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Especially the most interesting are answers on following questions:
- how do you understand terms "air transport" and "aviation" - what is part of what? What is their relations?
- what resources, mechanisms and instruments can be distinguished in the process of creating and implementing vision of the development of air transport policy?
- who are the decision-makers (politicians, others?) and stakeholders of aviation policy and innovation policy and what they are influence on aviation?
- how decision-makers (politicians) think about aviation policy, the process of its formulation? What demands report? Do they see the need to take into account the elements of innovation policy?
- what kind of barriers prevent the develppment of national strategy for aviation?
- what else is also important, but i didn't noticed, mentioned?
I will be grateful for all answers, links or proposals of literature too - it will by helpful for my PhD thesis.
Relevant answer
Answer
Historically speaking, another policy aspect to look into is state support of national airlines for the purpose of building a national identity. In the process of improving air transport infrastructure, image-building objectives could be fulfilled--or at least that's what the objective was. I link to an article discussing such efforts in Southeast Asia.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
6 answers
I am studying the process of activities that organisations undertake during strategy formulation and implementation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you everyone!
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
I'm looking for any articles/posters/papers that support this coping trajectories (non in the parents, only in the children/adolescence) in different serious illnesses
In our studies we have found that recency of diagnosis was related to coping strategies used.
Children more recently diagnosed with their chronic disease (0-6 months)
used less cognitive strategies than those children who are in the period
between 1 and 2 years from diagnosis.
We have also found that there are different trajectories between cancer diseases and rheumatic diseases.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you all for the contributions,
Alessandro
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
Integration on market and non market strategy
Relevant answer
Answer
We provided a framework for market and non-market strategy in "Government Policy and Firm Strategy in the Solar Photovoltaic Industry" published in the California Management Review. It is accessible from my profile page linked below. 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
75 answers
There are many different approaches. Is a strategy part of a strategic plan or a strategic plan elaborates a strategy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Strategic plan is a long term plan, generally up to five years, worked out based on the likely changes in the business environment, in order to explore the opportunities and threats and to assess the organizational strengths and weaknesses for effecting the necessary changes, so as to maintain the competitive advantage. The strategy is the way to achieve corporate objective in a changing business environment. Strategic plan is working out the means, and strategy is the means to an end. 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
I want to know more about the insecticidal application strategies as I' m going to compare different application strategies for the management of insect pests infesting okra.  So give idea in context to effectiveness of concentration base insecticides or active ingredient based insecticides in depth. 
Relevant answer
Answer
For a given active ingredient, concentration is important, particularly when the pesticide target a mode of action relevant a given organism. For example, fungicides generally have little impact on insects, while organophorous insecticides do.
Take note that there are tremendous variations of mode of action and bioactivities across insecticides.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
Ideas or remarks for a future planning ?
Thank you !
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much. Yes, i am writing my Masterthesis in this topic
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
1 answer
I'm interested in natural history, time course development of symptoms and any management strategies for rehabilitation of this condition.
Relevant answer
Vincent Blok...very good article...thanks again...
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
I am looking for some strategies for dealing with architectural design trade-off? 
Do you know any strategy in  research or applications in companies?
Relevant answer
Answer
Sajjad
i assume you mean trading off performance along one dimension against another.  If the real intractable problem here is that you cannot find a common metric for all the issues in design.  These issues are dealt with extensively in my book. How Designers Think
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
I'm working on creating a business plan in neuromarketing in Colombia, so I want to make a prospective analysis with the help of expert's opinions.
Relevant answer
First you should determine market segmentation, then you study the incentives of buying decisions.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
63 answers
For instance, if you have a particular strategy developed for addressing an education research issue, would you refer to it as a "model" or a "strategy"?
Relevant answer
Answer
The way I understand it, a strategy is the process you use to approach a problem.  A model is a more abstracted way of schematizing a process, so your strategy could be generalized to solve similar problems in other fields.  A theory is a formalized model that is both generalizable and predictive, and therefore can be used prescriptively. 
For example, I might decide to try a particular strategy for negotiating which movie my husband and I will see tonight.  My strategy might be to defer to him, or agree to relent the next time, or flip a coin, or something else.   I should take into account the particulars of the situation such as who I am negotiating with, how important the issue is, what I can afford to give up, and what I really want.  A model of negotiation abstracts the process more generally so I can select among strategies if the particulars vary.  Then, I will be equipped to negotiate on trivial matters like movies and more substantial matters like terms of employment.  A theory of negotiation might describe how I ought to negotiate, given compelling evidence about how power and control are distributed, or what motivates people, etc. Theories offer rules.
Models are not testable because they are merely descriptive.  Theories are descriptive and prescriptive; you can test a theory by making some guesses (hypotheses) about how your situation will turn out, given the particulars and then check to see if that is what happens.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
8 answers
We are about to start to develop the Human Resources Development strategy for an oil and gas company. Can someone share the methodology to do such works and experiences of the oil and gas company in this matter?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Syeda. Our core business is E&P.  This year can not attend the Oil&Gas HR Forum, but will keep eyes on this
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
10 answers
Which is Top level managers are said to performing roles?
Operational, functional, tactical and strategic
my point of view Strategic is top level managers are said to performing role but Traditionally, the role of top level managers has been to set overall direction by formulating strategy and controlling resources. But now, top managers are more commonly called on to be not only strategic architects but also true organizational leaders.
what to all say?????
Relevant answer
Answer
Top level managers are strategists, mentors, humanists, guides and above all visionary team leaders, who facilitate the team members to synchronize the organizational goals with that of personal goals and motivate to achieve the same through commitment and team spirit. 
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
To be more specific, what kind of experiments would you perform to get structural constraints data for small, medium and large proteins? I am struggling to find a paper that solely talks about this without going to the details of each technique. I just want to know what the experiments does and what kind of information do you get for the experiment being done on different size of proteins. Any papers that you could suggest would be much appreciated! Thank you in advance
Updated response:
As commenters pointed out, I realised my questions are too broad. So I am talking about soluble proteins using solution state NMR technique. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Faiz,
You have asked a very broad question that is not going to be covered by a single paper. I would suggest the following book to start.
Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications
by Quincy Teng.
All the best
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
15 answers
The Impact of Customer Appreciation service on Customer Loyalty Patronage: Evidence from Nigeria Financial Sector.
Relevant answer
Answer
I completely agree with daer Bright that customer appreciation Service (CAS) is the most effective tool for customer loyalty patronage to firms or the products.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
7 answers
I would like to know  it is possible do a proteome analysis on plant for which protein data base is not available. If so, what could be possible strategy?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Madhu,
Although no protein might be available for the organism/plant of interest, candidate protein sequence can indeed be derived from some sources similarly to what Sharad suggested. One example would be expressed sequence tags (EST) (http://bib.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/1/6.full). Before the era of large scale genomics EST were used for protein identification (e.g here: http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v20/n1/full/ng0998_46.html). Here is an example of EST use in organism without sequenced genome : https://www.researchgate.net/publication/231978104_Methods_for_protein_identification_using_expressed_sequence_tags_and_peptide_mass_fingerprinting_for_seed_crops_without_complete_genome_sequences . Similarly, if any RNA-Seq analysis has been performed on this organism, candidate protein sequences can be extracted.
Finally a straightforward and much easier to implement way is to simply search the data against Uniprot  or NCBInr (non redundant) by limiting to a large phylogenetic tree to which the organism of interest belongs.
Ilian
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
4 answers
Blended Learning is viewed by many experts with different interpretations. When we apply this concept in our class room we need certain specific models which provide systematic procedures or steps to be followed while applying the Blended Learning. Hence, details about  the specific models or strategies to be followed in the Blended Learning would be useful in the real situations. Could you provide details about these Models?
Relevant answer
Answer
Blended learning
Blended learning is the combination of traditional face-to-face and technology-mediated instruction encouraging the adoption of platforms such as online learning, mobile technologies and resources that exist in the cloud (Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). Blended learning can be adopted also in distance learning and with new information and communication technology its will come ‘the new normal model’ (Norberg, Dziuban and Moskal, 2011). Blended learning has emerged by the development of information and communication technology but very few studies provide educational guidance for institutions (Halverson, Graham, Spring and Drysdale, 2012).
Littlejohn and Pegler (2007) expanded the types of blends to include the ‘space blend’ (face-to-face or online), ‘time blend’ (geography and availability), ‘media blend’ (tools, technologies and resources), and ‘activity blend’ (learning and teaching activities, individual or group). It is essential that a higher education institution defines and supports policies and course design processes that ensure all students access to learning regardless their time of study and geographical location. Many higher education institutions teach in multiple modes which includes on campus, at a distance, online or a blend of a number of modes (Taylor and Newton, 2013).
During the development of blended learning, a spectrum has appeared on course-delivery modalities which ranges from traditional face-to-face teaching to complete online teaching. The first step is the technology enhanced education. Thereafter the blended learning is followed by learning mostly online and finally completely online (Graham, Woodfield and Harrison, 2013). The latter phases of the spectrum are useful in distance learning. There are virtually unlimited possible combinations of face-to-face and technology-mediated education. Each of them are no more or less valid than all the others.
Higher education institutions have started blended learning first in part-time adult education, because students are at work, but the new techniques have become more common also in full-time study. Blended learning has become more popular among young full-time students in Finland, because most of the students work while they study. The experience has shown that the fully online courses are very demanding for many students. Institutions need to solve the technical and pedagogical obstacles in the face-to-face education. The development has led to technology enhanced education, blended learning and learning mostly online. Blended learning presumes the increased capacity of the tutoring of students and electronic libraries (Kettunen, 2007).
According to the research evidence there is no singular best model for blended learning that fits for all. The mode of delivery has a very weak statistical correlation with student success or persistence (Dziuban & Moskal, 2011). Each institution has to select the success factors for the mode of delivery to fit for the purpose and improve them continuously over a span of several years to achieve high quality. It is typical that at the beginning of a course there is face-to-face class to meet and build community, but discussing a complex matter that requires reflection may be better accomplished through an asynchronous Internet discussion forum (Garrison and Kanuka, 2004).
The key issue in the literature on blended learning is the combination of face-to-face and technology-mediated instruction. Even though it has been expanded to geographical, technological and activity dimensions there is still room to add new perspectives to blended learning. Blended learning has a tradition of many decades in Finland. It has evolved to distance learning, which includes essays from literature with practical applications and criticism, service to society, practical training, student exchange, entrepreneurship and development tasks among other things. The integration of research and development into education is a new innovation in higher education and creates capabilities for students to participate in development work after graduation.
Innovation pedagogy
Innovation pedagogy was developed to improve the external impact of the universities of applied sciences and support the regional development (Kettunen, 2011). The institutions respond to the development needs of the enterprises and other organisations in the region. Typically these development needs are multidisciplinary. The universities of applied sciences apply for project funding and integrate the projects into education. Students are offered project studies and they able to learn innovation competencies in the research and development projects (Kettunen, Penttilä and Kairisto-Mertanen, 2013). Innovation competencies are gained in international collaboration and they are valuable to promote entrepreneurship and the export of education (Kantola and Kettunen, 2013).
The positive external impact of the universities of applied sciences is created with incremental or radical innovations (Tidd, Bessant and Pavitt, 2001). Incremental innovations are created by continuous improvement of existing products, services or processes. Radical innovations create new products, services or processes.Successful innovation pedagogy promotes the economic growth, employment and welfare in the regions of the universities of applied sciences. The curriculum is developed to reach out and engage with development activities in the region.
 Individual learning is extended to collaborative and networked learning, which are the modes of delivering education in projects and distance education. The students are offered project studies where learning emerges as learners interact (Vygotsky, 1978). Students work together and develop their problem-solving skills to achieve the practical learning goals (Puntambekar, 2006). Advanced learning takes place in professional education when learners are well-connected to their environment. The networks raise the ability of students and staff to participate and interact when they resolve their shared problems (Cross & Parker, 2014). Networked learning can be supported not only by information and communication technology but also social and international networks.
  • asked a question related to Strategy
Question
2 answers
Moore(1993) suggests that scholars replace the word "industry" by the word "ecosystem". It has a more complex meaning. So I want to launch a study about the transformation of some specific business ecosystem.
Relevant answer