Spray Drying

Spray Drying

  • Gede Wenten added an answer:
    What are the economic, easy and novel techniques to harvest the microbial mass from media in industry?

    Freeze-drying and centrifuging are expensive techniques, spray drying has its own challenges and I guess the ultrafiltration might be challenging as well. Is there any other option?

    Gede Wenten

    Yes, ultrafiltration can be a good option in cell harvesting from processing and economic point of view. We have experience with SCP (single cell protein) harvesting, for more information please refer to,


    We have also succesfully installed continuous ultrafiltration based microalgae harvesting system for Nanochlorophyl sp. with water removal capacity of 2000 liter/hour. We apply high cross flow velocity operation, filtration flux is very stable during concentration process.

    • Source
      [Show description] [Hide description]
      DESCRIPTION: Demand on cheap nutritional food leads us to new kind of protein called Single Cell Protein (SCP). SCP can be produced through fermentation using methane as the sole carbon and energy source. The most common techniques used to separate cell from fermentation broth in large scale are continuous flow centrifugation, filter press, and rotary drum vacuum filtration. Conventional filtration is unsuitable for the case where the cells have an economic value;i.e. The cells normally contaminated with filter aid. Centrifugation is applicable for bacterial cell concentration but is difficult compared to yeast centrifugation, due to the smaller particle size. his investgation was undertaken to asses the feasibility of using cross flow membrane filtration to preconcentrate fermentation broth of Methylococcus (Mc) capsulatus known as single-cell protein. The process is optimized with respect to maximal flux, ease of cleaning and membrane stability. The parameters to be optimized are membrane choice (material and pore size), shear rate, pressure, temperature, and pH.
      Full-text · Poster · Jan 1994
  • Thomas Trezza added an answer:
    How to spray drying chicken meat powder with long shelf life?

    I have sample of chicken meat powder from Europe. It's produced by using spray dry. From physical appearance: very fine powder, just like a common spray dried powder, it's not so free flow and some forms clumps. 

    When I dilute it, the solution gives opaque color and contain insoluble particles ( I assumed that this must be the real / dried chicken meat)

    Then, it's document listed the ingredients, which are mechanically separated chicken meat (99% min), antioxidant. That's all. 

    When I read the documents, I'm so curious how the company made this product, using spray dry, but it seems like without any filler at all. 

    Then, I have a project to make a chicken meat powder like this in lab scale spray dry. I used the chicken hydrolysate (TSS 6-7), did some size reduction by using colloid mill. The slurry wasn't centrifuged, because I want to keep the insoluble particles & also the fat. Last, I did the drying process. 

    The result was soooo bad (as I expected before). Most of the powder tended to stick on drying chamber and I hardly could get the powder (very low in yield) 

    My questions are:

    1. Is it really possible to spray dry chicken meat extract without any filler? Just like the chicken meat powder I have, contains min 99% chicken meat? Any tips?

    2. How do you usually calculate the meat content in your chicken meat powder? 

    For example: I'm spray drying chicken meat slurry which consist of 50% chicken meat hydrolysate (TSS 10) + 30% maltodextrin + the rest is water. The chicken meat hydrolysate is made by using enzymatic hydrolysis. Let's say, I'm using 50% raw chicken meat + 50% water + enzyme.

    Is it correct if I calculate it based on the total solid of chicken meat per 100 grams of chicken meat powder ?? 

    3. I also tried to spray dry chicken meat powder with additional filler like maltodextrin & modified starch. After weeks or a months, the taste wasn't as good as it was fresh from spray drying. It became a bit rancid. What should I do to fix it? 

    4. How do you produce your chicken powder? Is it has long shelf life?

    Thank you for your help & suggestions. If you have good references, journals or any other thing related to it, please let me know. I really appreciate it. 

    Last, please pardon my bad English. Thanks

    Thomas Trezza

    Ms Ardianto,

    A number of suggestions and thoughts to your questions.  I'm not an expert in spraying but have done quite a fair amount work in this area in foods and pharmaceutical powders.

    (1) I would start with understanding your process conditions.  In spray drying your control of inlet, outlet temperatures and air flow into the chamber are very important.  You might need to have a much higher than expected outlet temperature to ensure that you have enough heat to rapid drive off the moisture.  

    (2) Anticaking agents:  there should be some that might work - but you may have to add more than you'd like to or are able  to add on your label.  Below are a few non-sillicates that you might consider. They could be used as an ingredient in the liquid phase prior to spray drying.

    microcrystalline cellullose

    tricalcium phosphate

    magnesium carbonate

    magnesium or calcium stearate

    rice bran extract

    yes - these have no or low water solubility as Harald explained.  All of them might add some potential "off flavors" to your powder.

    (3) Calculating meat content - this is a mass balance exercise.  You need to know the dry solids content of your original material.  Assume every dry solid is considered part of the "meat" (even the enzyme hydrolyzed solids).  Most raw muscle tissue is around 70 to 80% moisture.  75% is a good starting point.

    (4) Rancidity - yes I agree with Harald - the antioxidants are used to delay the onset of autooxidation (rancidity).  There are many options.  Some work better in some products than others.  Here's a few to consider:

    (a) synthesized antioxidants

    BHT/BHA (butylated hydroxy toluene/butylated hydroxy anisole)

    TBHQ (tert-butyl hydroquinone)


    EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) - a chelator that makes metal ions (especially Fe2+, Cu2+) that catalyzed autooxidation unavailable for reaction.

    (b) common food extracted antioxidants

    mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols (Vitamin E)

    ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)

    Rosmemary extracts and botanical blends (many available commercially).  You may need to use higher levels to have the same effectiveness as the earlier ones mentioned.

    many polyphenolics from foods have some antioxidant properties but may not give you the desired shelf-life.  You'll need to talk to a supplier about what options work well with your food system.

    Regulatory approvals are country specific - so be sure to talk to the supplier about your situation.

    (5) Sticking to the walls - consider your pH of the slurry material.  Muscle protein has strong moisture binding properties.  If you are closer to the isoelectric point (pI) of the material, you might be able to drive off water more effectively.   At this pH proteins have minimal solubility and water binding ability (not zero, but their minimum)

    Best of luck!

  • SILAS DERENZO added an answer:
    The applicability of spray drying in the pharmaceutical industry: Would you consider utilizing spray drying as a crystallization process?

    Hello everyone,

    I am a young researcher and I recently started my PhD project, which will largely be centred around the practical aspects of continuous crystallisation by spray drying. I was hoping to benefit from your expertise and the diversity of each of your individual backgrounds related to this subject.

    What do you think are the major aspects related to the applicability of spray drying in the pharmaceutical industry? Would you consider utilizing spray drying as a crystallization process? Based on your experience, can you recommend where computational modelling can be used to best effect to support a conceptual process design?

    Thank you very much for your time! I would appreciate your feedback.

    Kind regards, Frederik


    I would suggest you to see the papers of Maria Ines Re  here in the researchgate.

  • Fabiola Porta added an answer:
    Does anyone know a cationic polymer like Eudragit RS-100 for Nanocapsules, but biodegradable?

    I will start to work with nanocapsules and need to use a cationic polymer, like Eudragit-RS100. But, we will spray dry these nanocapsules to use in pulmonary route. As we know, Eudragit RS-100 is not a good candidate because it is not biodegradable and can be stored at the pulmonary branches. Anyone know a polymer like EUDRAGIT - RS100, but biodegradable? Thanks in advance.

    Fabiola Porta

    Chitosan could be an option

  • Chibuike C Udenigwe added an answer:
    Can spray dried peptide loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles be produced?

    Alginate is a water-soluble linear polysaccharide composed of alternating blocks of 1– 4 linked α -L-guluronic and β-D-mannuronic acid residues ,whereas chitosan is a co polymer of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine.

    They have favourable properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability, pH sensitiveness and muco adhesiveness.

    Chibuike C Udenigwe

    Indeed, predominantly hydrophilic peptides can selectively get adsorbed on the chitosan-alginate matrix during encapsulation. However, water solubility may not be the best indicator of hydrophilicity; amino acid profiling would be beneficial here. Also note that strong wall-to-core interaction while enhancing encapsulation may also make it difficult to release the bound peptides when needed.

  • Frank Roscher added an answer:
    Does anyone know of an aerosol device able to spray small quantities of liquid nano-microlitres?
    We would like to apply small quantities of liquid as an aerosol to specific objects.
    Frank Roscher

    Dear Christopher,  Aerosol-Jet deposition might be an option where you have the possibility to deposit Aerosol generated out of a "ink" container.

  • Titus Sobisch added an answer:
    How do I solubilize samples in aqueous solutions?


    I am not from pharmacology background. But I would like to determine my sample aqueous solubility after spray-drying. 
    I chance upon paper below
    Paper:Solid Dispersions of α-Mangostin Improve Its Aqueous Solubility Through Self-Assembly of Nanomicelle 
    "An excess amount from the samples (30 mg)
    was added to 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)
    at pH 7.4. The mixtures were vortexed for 5 min
    and sonicated for 1 min and then centrifuged at
    20,000g for 5 min. The supernatant was collected, filtered
    through a 0.45-:m syringe filter, and diluted in
    methanol. The samples were then analyzed using a

    Since, my sample wall cannot be dissolved by PBS. I used water in replaced. 
    And my sample before spray-drying does not dissolve in water at all. So I just use 10mg.

    But after spray-drying, its more soluble. Should I use it at 10mg as well? Or Excess like its written? 
    Because I want to compare before and after spray-drying solubility. Seems right to use it at 10mg. To compare properly

    Titus Sobisch

    As long as the spray drying does not change the chemical composition solubility should be the same before and after the process, however, kinetics might be changed considerably.

  • Philippa Ojimelukwe added an answer:
    Which is best to use, Tween 20 and Tween 80?
    I'm wondering if its possible to use Tween 20/80 as a carrier/solubilizer to dissolve a hydrophobic substance. So far, I tried heating either Tween to around 70C, and it manage to dissolve my hydrophobic substances. But when I remove it from the heat plate, it starts to turn into like white solid like ghee, which I guess happens because of the decrease in temperature to the cloud point?

    I'm trying to understand the differences in both Tween. I read somewhere that tween 20 is better to emulsify small amounts of lighter oils; whereas Tween 80 to emulsify larger amounts of heavier oil.
    Then I check the HLB value (wikipedia) in which:

    12 to 15: detergent
    12 to 16: O/W (oil in water) emulsifier
    16 to 20: solubiliser or hydrotrope

    Tween 20 (16.7) seems like a better choice as it can act as a solubiliser or O/W emulsifier compare to Tween 80. But then other sources said tween 80 is better to emulsify larger amount of heavier oil?Which sounds like its better to solubilised my hydrophobic substances.

    Erm. Do correct me if I'm wrong.

    Philippa Ojimelukwe

    This information might help. Tween 20 has more hydroxy groups than Tween80. However, Tween20 works better in some experimental environments while Tween80 works better in other environments. There are no hard and fast rules since many factors affect emulsion stabilization

  • Nadiir Bheekhun added an answer:
    What is a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry?

    Hi all,

    Can anyone suggest me what would be a typical range of %wt solid fraction needed to obtain a concentrated ceramic slurry for spray-drying? I have come across some works wherein 50 %wt of solid fraction have been employed.

    Any justifications will be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks a lot.
    Best Regards.

    Nadiir Bheekhun

    Dear Dr. Carlos,

    Many thanks for your suggestion. I'll look into the Brongniart’s formula and the answers you provided.

    Kind Regards.

  • Ruiying Li added an answer:
    How can I prepare chitosan nanoparticle sample for SEM?

    I have some chitosan nanoparticle suspension and I would like to observe the morphology through SEM. I tried to air dry 1% suspension on SEM stub with carbon tab, but cannot observe sphere particle. I have read some papers using dry powder to do SEM after spray dry. However, we do not have a spry dryer. Is there any other methods I can use to prepare SEM sample? Thanks.

    Ruiying Li

    It depends on what kind of nanoparticles you are preparing. SEM is only suitable for nanoparticles that are able to keep their structure in the dry condition. For some chitosan nanoparticles, there are no nanoparticles as soon as the water evaporates. 

  • M. Ibrahim added an answer:
    How long should we ball-mill a slurry before spray-drying?

    Hi everyone,

    For an aqueous slurry of weight 500g (water+binder+ceramic), what is a reasonable duration for rolled ball-milling before spray-drying?
    At what would be a recommended speed of rotation? 

    Thanks in advance.

    Best Regards. 

    M. Ibrahim

    I would like to confirm with you guys, as my doubt falls under this topic, whether I can keep my ball-milled slurries for some days, say 10 days, and then spray-dry them? The spray-drying facility is quite far and not possible to get a slurry prepared and spray-dry on the same day. I plan to prepare a batch, then carry out the spray-drying.

    Of course, I would be able to mix the ball-milled slurries using a magnetic mixer prior to spray-drying.

    Your suggestions will really help.


  • Roberto Molteni added an answer:
    Any suggestions on how to improve the powder yield of spray dried oil emulsions?

    How can we reduce the loss of oil emulsion samples in a spray drying chamber?

    Roberto Molteni

    I agree with the answers, especially with Agarwal. I suggest to grasp the optimization issues with a fractional factorial design because there are many parameters (type of encapsulation, temperatures, flow rate etc). Later, you can refine it with a more precise factorial design.

  • Denis Poncelet added an answer:
    What is deference between spray drying and spray chilling in microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria and which one is better?

    Microencapsulation as one of the most important techniques has remarkable effect on probiotic survival. There are several techniques to encapsulation of probiotic bacteria such as spray drying and spray chilling.

    Denis Poncelet


    Spray drying you start from a wet suspension of cells. They are dried in a few second and bring to 40 to 60 °c. The stress is then quite high.

    Spray cooling you start from a dry suspension of cells in melt material at 60-80 °c. Also stressful. 

    The way you master each process will control the final viability of cells. It may depend of the process parameters, the type of cells (very important) but also how you prepare and formulate the cells. 

    Now in application, spray drying beads would dissolve in water and not spray cooling beads

  • Mihai Ognean added an answer:
    How can we improve the viability of lactobacillus casei after spray drying?

    What are the factors that needed to be considered for a better survivability?

    why the reproducibility in the viability count results in the MRS agar plating technique are lesser ? How can we improve this?

    Mihai Ognean

    Also, in freeze dried sourdough production the LAB survival rate is increased if the culture is cold-adapted for 2h at a temperature with 15 oC lower then the cultivation temperature before freezing.

  • Arun Chattopadhyay added an answer:
    Can you suggest some training center for handling fluidized bed spray drying?

    We have a culture collection with probiotic bacteria and produce in liquid form. We have now acquired the equipment and we want the probiotic powder. Thanks for your help.

    Arun Chattopadhyay

    You are most welcome.

  • Md Ramim Tanver Rahman added an answer:
    Does anyone have the experiences of Vacuum Spray Drying (VSD) of Concentrated Fruit Juice ?

    VSD with low temperature treatment 40-60C.

  • Md Zohurul Islam added an answer:
    Is there research has done by the Vacuum Spray drying process? Can someone give me idea about this topic?

    Vacuum spray drying process.

    Md Zohurul Islam

    Thank you very much Mr Dustin Cooper 

  • Hassan Mohamed added an answer:
    Would dodecane be a suitable organic solvent to spray dry with beta carotene? If not what is commercially used as the organic solvent?

    Beta carotene melting point 180 degrees celsius.

    Dodecane boiling point 220.

    Hassan Mohamed

    saraniya bharanthi , I know dodecane has optimum extraction of the algae biomass , but is it commercially used as a solvent for spray drying . And if so , wouldn't the temperature of the hot nitrogen cause the beta carotene to melt?

  • Patrick Druggan added an answer:
    What will be the suitable conditions for vacuum spray drying of concentrated fruit juice?

    I have carried out 50:50 (juice solid: maltodextrin solid) ratio, but the product, powder not free flowing. solidification/ coagulation  occur. What should be the suitable conditions? I am also doing my experiments in different proportions. 

    Patrick Druggan

    Do you know what the chain length for the maltodextrin is? This could have an effect on your process.

  • Ashish Kumar added an answer:
    Which of these processes (Freeze Drying, spray drying and evaporation by heating) is best for nano suspension drying into nanopoweder?

    I had synthesized nanoparticles as nanosuspension. I want to convert the nanosuspension into nanopowder. I am thinking of one of these drying processes (spray drying and evaporation by heating). Accordingly, I am in need of advice about which process would be best in terms of the least affecting the size, properties and the dispersion of the nanoparticles. In other words the one with the least possibility of nanoparticles agglomeration into larger flocs.

    Thanks in advance  

    Ashish Kumar

    Freeze Drying is the best technique. but is time and energy consuming. also only suitable for small amount.

  • Arjun Radha Krishna added an answer:
    How can I predict the Glass transition temperature of spray dried powder and Gordon taylor model?

    I perform DSC,  temperature  -60 to 120C, of my spray dried powder sample. But i cant set the base line which transition 1 or 2  will be the glass transition temperature Tg. When i set to base line i got onset, endset and midpoint temperature. Which one is the Tg. In Gordon Taylor model,  Tg, Tgs, and Tgware the glass transition temperatures of the mixture, solids, and water, respectively,xw is the mass fraction of water, and k is the Gordon-Taylor parameter, how can i predict. specially k value . my sample solid about 96% water 4%. 

    Arjun Radha Krishna

    I agree with Piyush!

  • Ludwig Christian Ries added an answer:
    How can you achieve a zero emission level of SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter) during spray drying?

    We are manufacturere of Pigment. Right now we are achieve the SPM level <30% from Spray Drying. But we want to achieve the SPM level near about zero. Can any one suggest me the right direction?

    Ludwig Christian Ries

    Dear Mr. Gopal,

    the large amount of aerosols i would try to remove with an electro static method. This is proved since quite long in removing aerosols for example from coal firest exhaust. As i also have written in the beginning.

    For the rest filtering makes it possible to receive zero emission.

    It is also questionable whether it is possible to develop and use a 2 stage electro static method, which could increase efficiency and at the same time reduce load for the final filter. so the filter would keep longer.

    For my opinion i think that this is the way you could search for an technical solution.

    kind regards,

    Ludwig Ries

  • Md Zohurul Islam added an answer:
    How to spray dried soy sauce in higher TSS?

    I am trying to develop soy sauce powder by using spray dry and using modified starch as filler.

    The initial TSS (total soluble solid) of soy sauce is 32. Then I mixed soy sauce (60%)  with modified starch (20%) & water(20%) until I got TSS 36. The result is well enough although the flavor isn't strong enough.

    Next, I was trying to increase the TSS by removing additional water. Soy sauce (75%) was mixed directly with modified starch (25%). The final TSS before spray drying was 49. However, it resulted coarse powder.

    This coarse powder also happened when I spray dried chicken extract under the same TSS, which was 49 - 50.

    Usually, the spray dry is set under T inlet = 145 - 155 C and T outlet = 95 - 100 C

    I don't have a good basic knowledge about spray dry, so I'm really confused about it.

    The questions are:

    1. How to produce nice spray dried powder in higher TSS for example 50 or higher  without making it coarse?

    2. Somehow when I try to spray dried slurry with TSS 50 (under the same temperature as I explained above), the upper chamber becomes wet which means the powder isn't dry enough. But the same problem doesn't exist when the TSS is around 35-40. How to avoid this wet chamber? Why does it occur?

    3. How to strengthen the powder flavor besides by reducing the filler in slurry?

    Thank you for any comments!

    Md Zohurul Islam

    I am Agree with Mr Marali. It is very common if you increasing the TSS and feed rate final product quality will not good. Better to decrease the TSS (30-35%). To retain the flavor you should need to low temperature treatment. Then you can try Vacuum drying process. If you want to spray drying please find out the proper filling ratio, lower the feed rate, increase the atomizer pressure or speed (rpm). Thank you.

  • Marcelo Pagnola added an answer:
    What is the best way to do powder coating?

    I need to use a sintering aid and it is important to have a uniform coat over grains to achieve better microstructure. What is your suggestion? Would you please introduce a good reference?

    Marcelo Pagnola

    You may too turn to chemical coating method : Spontaneous Polimerization

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: El presente desarrollo está centrado en la producción a escala industrial de componentes magnéticos por procedimientos pulvimetalúrgicos. Éstos emplean partículas metálicas micrométricas con revestimientos funcionales. Los mismos son de naturaleza orgánica, inorgánica o mixta, y son ferromagnéticos o diamagnéticos
      Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2007
  • S. Sadeghzadeh added an answer:
    What is the usual methods for granulating the silica gel in industry?

    I know that some methods such as oil-drop and spray drying may be used in industry to granulate the silica gel. I want to know which method is used really in industries?

    S. Sadeghzadeh

    Thank you very much Elena.

    That's very good. Do you know any about the  "air granulation" mentioned there?

  • Sherlyn Tang added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to check this protocol for probiotic microencapsulation?

    I did the experiment a number of times buy am still not able to obtain the expected result. I would like to seek help from everyone. The protocol as follows:

    1. Dissolve 1%maltodextrin and 1%CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) separately in sterile distilled water.
    2. Centrifuge probiotic culture and wash with PBS.
    3. Dissolve pellet with 1% maltodextrin and follow by CMC, stir using magnetic stirrer for 5 minutes.
    4. Perform acidity test for the mixture.

    Result obtained: survivability of control sample is higher than malto+CMC encapsulated sample at pH1.5 for 90min.

    May I know which step went wrong? Or, is it a MUST to perform spray drying process in order to obtained the encapsulated cells?


    Sherlyn Tang

    Thanks for all the suggestions. Do you think spray dry process must be perform to complete the microencapsulation? I meant, do you think the cells will be better encapsulate if perform spray drying after mix with the encapsulated agents? Thanks

  • Xianqian Zhu added an answer:
    How can I form a stable emulsion of fish roe that can be spray dried?

    I have tried solubilizing the fish roe in dilute salt solutions. But that still forms 2 separate layers. How do I form a stable emulsion?

    Xianqian Zhu

    Try colloid mill to make the particle size smaller

  • Yunier Paneque added an answer:
    What is the effect of inlet air temperature on the morphology of powder particles using protein as a carrier?
    I am using protein as carrier in spray drying of juice powder.
    Yunier Paneque

    An elevated temperature of air entering the drying chamber influences the hardening of the particles through which the steam / water or remaining attached diffuse air, will cause such diffusion takes place very slowly.

    The inlet temperature of the air can cause powder sticking on the wall of the drying chamber. When the temperature is not enough for the water to evaporate external to the particle before it reaches the wall of the drying chamber is sticking.

  • Matthias Steiert added an answer:
    I am looking for possible methods of drying drug loaded nanoparticles (polymeric nanoparticles) apart from freeze drying. Can someone suggest?

    There are very few methods in literature for drying nanoparticles - mostly freeze drying is used, few others are spray drying, oven drying, evaporation etc. However, these often lead to agglomeration/change in size and also in some cases properties. I am interested in a simple and effective method of drying.

    Matthias Steiert

    Spray drying might be another option. This link is just to get your started looking into it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nano_spray_dryer

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