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Sport Nutrition - Science topic

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Does vitamin D have remarkable effects on athletes' performance?
Which performance does vitamin D improve for athletes?
What performance is significantly enhanced by vitamin D intake?
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A severe deficiency of vit D (below 25 nmol/L 25OH vit D3 in serum or plasma) causes loss of muscle strenght.
For athletes the optimum lies above 75 nmol/l, maybe even above 100 nmol/L being the natural status in rural living African people.
Read our publication about vit D and professional soccer players :
Do Professional Soccer Players have a Vitamin D Status Supporting Optimal Performance in Winter time?
Vander Slagmolen et al., J Sports Med Doping Stud 2014, 4:2 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0673.1000138
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Used to work with NutWin Software (UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil) like nutritonal software, it seems to have an installation problem (not solved).
For this reason I am looking for other differents nutrition softwares. Relatively easy to work and follow subjects and bibliography validation if could be possible.
Thank you in advance
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You can use those software which are considered as the top 3 in nutrition software:
Nutrium
DietMaster Pro
Evolution Nutrition
Best regards,
Ismail
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Heart Rate Variability is a well known and useful concept in Biomedical Engineering and Medical Sciences. Breath Rate is a lesser researched field and a newer measure Breath-Rate Variability is introduced recently to quantify meditation effect.
It is gaining attention of researchers as BRV has a number of novel applications. What could they be.
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Breath rate variability (BRV) as an alternate measure of meditation even over a short duration is proposed. The main objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that BRV is a simple measure that differentiates between meditators and nonmeditators.
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Recently, I was in a workshop concerning sports nutrition, the person delivering the information stated that there is no proof that detox diet exists and is effective, her statement blew my mind, as she claimed that a body is able to detoxify its self naturally!, I was definitely against her statement, because if it was true then why there is a huge amount of cancer diagnosed patients, due to the chemicals or wrong diets or many other causes related to foods and medication, many studies have shown that customized detox diet plans are really effective, and in my clinic personally I have followed customized detox diet plans and the blood tests showed amazing improvements on all aspects, I need the aid in my statement and thoughts against her, any study, medical proof or so would be so helpful.
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There are many types of diets used to clean toxins from the body, including the "juice diet," which includes drinking fruit and vegetable juices. Besides the different diets that contain natural and good ingredients that help our bodies get rid of toxins. Eating organic foods helps reduce the amount of chemicals in the body. It is reported that the "juices diet" provides nutrients and antioxidants as well as vitamins, which the body needs to cleanse toxins. It also includes foods rich in fiber and water, which are used to remove toxins from the body, by increasing the frequency of urination and defecation.
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Hi All -
I am posting this as I am currently completing research for an MSc in Sports Nutrition.
The topic I am is nutrition and hydration practices in golfers - and I am aiming to recruit as many participants as possible. This is being done via a short questionnaire.
I am hoping posting a link here can gain some useful responses to the study.
Any responses would be greatly appreciated
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Dear Rowan,
are you collecting data about professional or also amateur golfers that play sporadically?
Luca
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Can we eliminate BCAAs supplement from our daily nutrition plan? Please read the following article and subsequently participate in this discussion.
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Thanks Khashayar Maroufi , for sharing this article. I had read this article previously. This paper about whey protein supplement, and we know the whey protein supplement contains BCAA and other essential amino acids. In other words, BCAA is one of the constitutes that exist in whey protein. I asked about BCAA supplements use lonely. In the review paper that I attached to the present topic, indicated that BCAA supplement alone could not increase muscle protein synthesis and explained for elevation in muscle protein synthesis needs to other essential amino acids. On the other hand, a recent review( ) demonstrated that whole food ingestion (whole egg, whole milk) induce muscle protein synthesis regardless of the leucine threshold. The occurrences in muscle protein synthesis in this review explained with the food matrix effects. So if a person intakes sufficient protein in daily diet plans (through whole food) can we say BCAA supplement is not a necessary supplement to increase the muscle protein synthesis for him/her? Thanks for your participation in this topic
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which one of these diet can help to athlete for lose weight ?
what effect they have on body composition?
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Kindly go through the following RG link.
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Does coffee drinking time affect gastrointestinal function?
is there any relation between coffee consumption and gut microbiota function?
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The answer is "Yes"! Higher caffeine consumption is associated with increased richness and evenness of the mucosa-associated gut microbiota, and higher relative abundance of anti-inflammatory bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium and Roseburia and lower levels of potentially harmful Erysipelatoclostridium.
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Gut microbes ferment carbohydrates and produce SCFA among other products. They can also feed on bile acids.
Are they also able to use fatty acids and triglycerides as sources of energy?
Thank you to the expert scientists that can help this uneducated PhD who is too busy to dive into literature at the moment.
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We would like to measure the influence of the use of social media on lifestyle (e.g. sport, nutrition, consumer behaviour). Do you know of similar research and approaches?
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Food matrix refer to other components in the food that could synergic effect with macronutrient or micronutrient in food. One review had shown that whole milk had more effect than low fat milk or iso-milk protein for muscle protein synthesis regardless of reach to leucine threshold after exercise. This effect was without reaching to leucine threshold, due to exist of food matrix in whole milk. So I would like to plan this discuss about coffee component. The one of component in coffee that very application in exercise is caffeine and many research discussed about of different dose of caffeine for effectiveness during exercise. But many researches used the caffeine individually and in form of supplement (for example: pills, gum, and etc). Now I want to express this issue, does all of coffee component with together had more synergic effect than individually form of each component? Does synergic effect of coffee component more important than quantities of each components in individually form? For example maybe food matrix of coffee for effectiveness of caffeine more important than dose of caffeine? What’s your idea about food matrix for exercise performance?
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Thank you, Henry Wolfe for the excellent references. So many ways to improve performance and recovery inexpensively. Too many products developed for the bottom line, not necessarily the the elite athlete or the regular exercise Joe.
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The effects of acute exercise on plasma glutamine concentration appear to be largely dependent on the duration and intensity of exercise. Many studies showed that when there is a deficiency of glutamine or when the amount of glutamine is reduced during increased stress or exercise, the body experiences a suppression of the immune system until glutamine levels are restored through either diet or supplements. So I need your experience about the efficacy of L-glutamine supplement on sport training and athletes?
Thanks
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Hi, I've been used L-glutamine supplementation during intense exercises. And reducing muscle inflammation, I've been improving exercise performance. And a very good supplement for intense exercises.
the Journal of Nutrition, Volume 138, Issue 10, October 2008, Pages 2045S–2049S,https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/138.10.2045S
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Hi, i'm writing on sport nutrition too. Do you want collaborate with me?Do you want collaborate with me? ?
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Although I am new to research in Sports Sciences, still i want to avail every opportunity to engage myself and learn. I am ready to collaborate.
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some athletes follow the paleolithic diet. paleolithic diet also known as caveman diet. in this diet you have to eat like of a caveman. what is your idea about this diet? can this diet increase the athletic performance? can anyone explain about the aspect of health of this diet?
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Pitt CE. Cutting through the Paleo hype: The evidence for the Palaeolithic diet. Aust Fam Physician. 2016;45(1):35-8. https://www.racgp.org.au/download/Documents/AFP/2016/January/February/Clinical-Pitt.pdf
Popp CJ, Bohan Brown MM, Bridges WC, Jesch ED. The Effectiveness of MyPlate and Paleolithic-based Diet Recommendations, both with and without Exercise, on Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Strength and Anaerobic Power in Young Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Exerc Sci 2018;11(2):921-933. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179430/pdf/ijes-11-2-921.pdf
Manousou S, Stål M, Larsson C, Mellberg C, Lindahl B, Eggertsen R, Hulthén L, Olsson T, Ryberg M, Sandberg S, Nyström HF. A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72(1):124-129. https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2017134
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Dear Shaun,
I'm a pro-triathlete and researcher and very interested in the use of Maurten. Can you share any current findings on this project? I'm currently writing a report on sports nutrition for race day for the IOC and I'm very interested in what has been found for the use of Maurten sports drink and gel so far.
Hope to hear from you.
with kind regards,
Miriam van Reijen
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Dear Miriam
I am answering your question as supervisor of Shauns' PhD research work. Research is still underway, investigating gastric emptying characteristics and oxidation rates and it would premature to make any statements at this time. Initial results look promising, however. The hydrogel HAS been used by us in the Sub2hr marathon project, and there again results have been promising in terms of feedback from field experiments with the athletes.
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Exercise benefits for health are well known, but what if we're looking for the best way to fat loss, it's really exercise as important as most people think or is kinda overrated??
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Physical exercise is for the health care which by regular walking , swimming , & gyms for Yoga , & systematic breathing steps play an important part for our health care .
In case of person under a heavy weight or a person under a thin body & appearance may take the recourse for reducing over weight or an improvement in the weight for the thin body .
This is my personal opinion
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Nitrogen oxide (NO) and creatine interact in skeletal muscle cells. So is supplement of creatine and NO helpfull?
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I have experiance with local stimulating of NO, in pain treatment. we can stimulate it with acupuncture.
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Is sport science about individual holistic approach, or inter-individual reductionistic specialism?
Should someone try to know as much as possible about everything related to the wide field of sport science (nutrition, mechanics, chemics, psychology, genes, pathways, etc. etc.)
Or should someone be a specialist in one or more fields and look for inter-individual coöperation?
Or both (but is this possible?)
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This answer to the auestion "Is sport science about individual holistic approach, or inter-individual reductionistic specialism?" comes from half a century of research experience, with my first scientific paper having been published in 1969. Wholism and reductionism are labels for formalistic conceptions that may exist in the conceptions of sport philosophers but rarely if ever comprise useful frameworks for research. At the outset of any research problem one rarely knows all of what will be needed to answer the question, and must add new knowledge as one moves along. Far more than first knowing all of what may be needed is choosing the most important problem that one has a reasonable chance of solving (i.e. working in the "Medawar Zone" as it has aptly been termed.
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we know that insulin strike by high glycemic index food Block the cAMP signaling but some personal trainer said we need to insulin secrition for recovery of muscle after exercise. in the other hand if our purpose is increase of fat oxidation we shoud intake low glycemic index.
so I want to understand that how much insulin help to recovery of muscle?
which one of glycemic index better for fat oxidation and recovery after exersice?
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Insulin will activate mTOR which would increase muscle myofibrils. So for resistance training this would be adviced.
To restore glycogen you need to have some insulin to get glucose in the cells At least if you want a fast recovery. Otherwise you can also have low glycemic foods because the energy can be restored in 24 hours.
In case of cAMP it will recover fast energy, so on the short term it will make sure the cell is recovered quick. At the same time in the long run it will create more mitochondria. So short term it will recover energy status by limiting energy proces. On the long run it will make sure that more energy can be produced.
So in the short period you need to restore energy, so insulin can help to restore glycogen stores. After that initial period the cell will create more mitochondria. So preferable is high glycemic first, low glycemic after.
However, if someone trains a lot and has already a lot of mitohondria, when someone would ingest low glycemic food, the cell will restore its energy through more fat oxidation (intramuscular TG or from adipose tissue). This all depends ofcourse on how efficient the cell already is in fat oxidation.
So it depends on if you want to recover fast, and to what extend you are trained.
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Based on the ABCD Classification system, BCAAs are classified as a ‘Group C’ supplement. This means that they don’t work, but some studies reported that sports performance and muscle mass can be enhanced by BCAA supplementation. In addition, data showed that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise had beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis.
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I am looking for supporting articles for a statement diet vs exercise what should be started first? should it be started together?
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First exercise then diet control
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It is claimed in some articles (2014/16) that big muscles can have 40 g protein and smaller one 20 g protein in their recovery. Opinions?
So glutes, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major should have 40 g?
So what about biceps and triceps? Is it not depending on how intensive these are trained?
What about chest-triceps, and back-biceps training what is recommended in those cases?
This also in light of recent debates about what are big or small muscles?
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I and one of my colleagues are currently working on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of chocolate milk compared to other sports beverages on the markers of recovery from exercise. It is registered in PROSPERO: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016038090. Although my field of study is nutrition, however, I believe the resulting manuscript should be reviewed by an expert in the field. We are looking for cooperation with an expert in the field of sports nutrition with some experience in systematic reviews and meta-analyses to critically review the manuscript (the way we analyzed and represented the data) and also to check for its possible writing errors. Please contact me if you are interested and have time to put on this work. 
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Will be pleased to collaborate on this project
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Excluding any evidence relating to sports nutrition - this question is around the clinical evidence base for using oral nutritional supplements or enteral nutrition with added leucine, in patients with chronic conditions and particularly head and neck cancer. Thanks in advance!
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Thanks so much for your help, Pouya! Much appreciated.
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Hi all,
For my university project (sports nutrition), I have to re-create a specific sports supplement (specifically for the sport of bodybuilding or, people who go to the gym and workout) and explain what ingredients I have chosen and why they have been chosen for?
I have tried researching for journal articles that talk about protein and whey for the use of bodybuilding but have not found anything that goes into depth in regards to the ingredients that are used for the creation of whey protein.
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Ok, I think that you need to understand more about muscle. The most important ingridient is carbohidrates to develop muscle mass. I know that protein is necesary , but if you have enough glycogene your muscle develops better. I suggest you see the book "Clinical Sports Nutrition" by Louise Burke.
On the other hand, some important nutrients that are added to whey protein for better results are: glutamine, HMB, and Creatine. In my opinion, HMB is the best to improve muscle mass; HMB is a metabolite from Leucine (a BCAA) and it shows important results about muscle mass.
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what is the best mental test to assess the effect of dietary supplements on central fatigue after high intensity exercise?
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For mental cognitive testing, you may want to look at the Uchida-Kraepelin test. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Tower of London are also commonly used to assess flexibility and planning. Good luck!
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Good afternoon, I'm going to start a project for assessing the welfare and fitness among an airport military staff. In addition to the physical tests that we perform annually on over a thousand people, I would also like to explore other aspects in their life, such as the level of motor activity, sport, nutrition and employment. Would someone help me to choose  the best and valid questionnaires that we can use for that? For the level of physical activity I'm using HAPQ. For the rest!? 
Thanks
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Try to make a link in your questions between their professional  diseases and their activity, especially for those who work close to airplanes and engines.
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I am currently writing my dissertation, although the question i have asked is on building the mind muscle connection, any strength gains that can be induced through cognitive strategies (i.e meditation, imagery training) will be appreciated.
Thank you
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Cheers @KlausBlishke
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Effects of training taper on blood levels of cortisol (C), testosterone(T) , the ratio of testosterone to Cortisol(T/C), growth hormone(GH), creatine kinase enzyme (CK) and concentration of lactic acid(LA) ?
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I agreed with mr Ashraf about 
No statistically significant decres were observed in the concentrations of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), growth hormone(GH), creatine kinase(CK) and lactate during taper.
What the Effects of training taper on Hormonal Responses , Enzymatic and Lactate ? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/what_the_Effects_of_training_taper_on_Hormonal_Responses_Enzymatic_and_Lactate [accessed Mar 10, 2017].
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I am looking for a study which I can use to start a discussion about the use of nutrition for recovery after sport exercices. As I have to represent some negative effects (even if so little exist) and as my colleagues in class do speak about the positive effect of chocolate milk as a recovery beverage, I have to find something to criticize their studies or maybe find something better than carbohydrate-protein drinks.
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Vit. D can block the action of enzyme which is needed to make the "stress hormone" cortisol. More than one-third athletes may have low vitamin D levels. 
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Dear experts,
which method is recommended to inducing diabetes type 2 in mice for studying mitochondrial dysfunction?
Drug (streptozotocin) or high fat diet?
and also any other useful information about the type and age of mice?
After inducing diabetes, 8 week exercise training will be conducted.
Thanks in advance.
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I am in agree with you. for this reason, we are going to use combination of high fat diet and STZ administration. Thanks again.
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...
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Thanks Maurya
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Can anybody recommend leading researchers in that field or knows anything oneself about sport and fasting nor sport, fasting and metabolic syndrome?
Thank you for your help!
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This paper is a good resource 
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i have been training so hard for the past two weeks and today throughout the day I was having a running stomach. Last year I was training athletics team during their preparation for the cross-country competition, and most of them were complaining about their running stomach. I interviewed them about the type of diet and amount of fluid they are taking, but it was a good diet and approximately 5-8 litres of water they drank per day(before, during and after training). I'm trying to find out if you guys you have a solution for this encountered solution. i want to know the physiological changes that takes place in the body that resulted in this situation 
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Thank you to Laurent and Mary for covering a wide range of literature to give you a sound footing in understanding the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract - particularly during exercise.  One thing that hasn't been picked up is the sheer volume of water the athletes were consuming throughout the day.  Additionally, it is not clear as to whether the training camp was conducted in a different country than the athletes were usually training in - two things to clarify before making comparisons to your own circumstances.
Finally, these are seemingly well trained athletes familiar with increased training loads - your personal circumstances suggest you are not familiar with training loads therefore making the link between the two events difficult.    
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HI ALL 
2. Does it affect the performance or other markers (testosterone) in athletes?
The following meta-analysis is attached and hope for their valuable opinions. Thanks!
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PHYTOESTROGENS ARE CONSIDERED TO BE IN ASIAN DIET DECREASING THE RATE OF SOME CANCERS NOTABLY OF THE BREAST SURELY BECAUSE  SOY DERIVATES.
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Dear Ever,
Maybe you can use the following publications…
Goh Q, Boop CA, Luden ND, Smith AG, Womack CJ, Saunders MJ. Recovery from cycling exercise: effects of carbohydrate and protein beverages. Nutrients. 2012;4(7):568-84. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407981/pdf/nutrients-04-00568.pdf
Ferguson-Stegall L, McCleave EL, Ding Z, Doerner PG 3rd, Wang B, Liao YH, Kammer L, Liu Y, Hwang J, Dessard BM, Ivy JL. Postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves subsequent exercise performance and intracellular signaling for protein synthesis. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1210-24. http://lous.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/ChocMlk1.pdf
Highton J, Twist C, Lamb K, Nicholas C. Carbohydrate-protein coingestion improves multiple-sprint running performance. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(4):361-9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233326667_Carbohydrate-protein_coingestion_improves_multiple-sprint_running_performance
McLellan TM, Pasiakos SM, Lieberman HR. Effects of protein in combination with carbohydrate supplements on acute or repeat endurance exercise performance: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2014;44(4):535-50. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40279-013-0133-y
Best wishes from Germany,
Martin
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¿Energy substrate or protein synthesis?
In case of protein synthesis, Does this happen at the expense of AMPK?
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BCAA's may be useful as both an energy substrate and beneficial for protein synthesis.
During prolonged exercise, BCAA’s are preferentially taken up by the skeletal muscle rather than the liver in order to produce energy. (1)
BCAA supplementation before exercise attenuates the breakdown of muscle proteins during exercise in humans, specifically leucine strongly promotes protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in humans and rats, suggesting that a BCAA supplement may attenuate exercise induced muscle damage and promote recovery. (2)
Sources
1. Armsey, T.D et al. Protein and amino acid supplementation in athletes. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2003, 4:253-256.
2. Shimomura, Y et al. Nutraceutical Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Skeletal Muscle. The Journal of Nutrition. 2006, 0022-3166/06 
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I am only curious, since I'm working on some sports nutrition research.
Has there ever been any research into nutritional practices concerning musicians, especially singers, actors/ performing artists or dancers in order to optimize their performance specifically?
I am aware that dancers may be the most appropriate for this so I'm looking more into musicians or actors - Not particularly pop culture celebrities.
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In ballet dancers the nutritional recommendations for athletes are used, this is my practical experience
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I am looking to provide a dietary plan for 18-25yr old footballers, who have a body percentage over 25%? What are the proper guidelines to lose fat but minimize the risk of injury. Any advice will help. Thanks.
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The best recommendation would probably be look the international guidelines.
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With some references, if possible,..
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 Hi Jan, 
Don't forget the old classic from Keith Frayn 
However as mentioned above at higher exercise intensities these equations will not work. When the respiratory exchange ratio rises above 1.00 you will notice negative fat oxidation in the results.
When RER = 1.00 then the RER caloric equivalent (kcal per L of O2 consumed) is 5.047 and I don't believe this technically rises any higher as RER increases above 1.00. I have not yet figured out how to accurately calculate substrate oxidation values when RER >1.00.
Best wishes, 
Jamie 
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Is there a study that has measured resting metabolic rates on people after different nutrition interventions, like ketogenic diet versus ordinary western diet?
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Thank you Shabnam, a very useful publication.
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Hello all,
I'm looking into the effectiveness of caffeïne, especially when combined with a carbohydrate-rich meal. I have found some evidence for this but the number of studies investigating the effect of caffeine with and without a meal is very slim. Is there anyone that could enlighten me on this subject?
The main article that lead me on this path is an article by Tina Skinner and colleagues on the effect of caffeine in rowers. They found no ergogenic effect of caffeine, while other studies on rowers found the typical 1-1,5% improvement in power output.
Regards,
Jorrit
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I agree with the colleagues above. Nonetheless, although much is being discussed lately, the damaging effects of caffeine should be noticed, for instance:
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Ultra-structural damage including plasma membrane impairments and damage to the sarcoplasmic  reticulum have been observed following unaccustomed eccentric exercise (Warren et al., 1993 Friden et al., 1993., etc). My question is, is there any possibility that omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in maintaining plasma membrane integrity and the subsequent reduction in membrane permeability and Ca2+ concentration?
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Thank you very much for your answers! Highly appreciated. I am in the process of doing my literature review and I will be looking up some of your suggestions.
Kind regards,
Sallu
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For example, are there differences in the design of the effort?
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Hello Ghazi Racil. It is known that vitamin B12 is an important cofactor for remethylation reactions, moreover, erythropoiesis. However, there are no direct evidence related to supplementation of vitamin B12 and improved performance in normal diet condition. I hope I have contributed.
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Some time ago I read in a sport paper (probably Volek JS, but I do not remember) which said that women habitually under-reported when answer different dietary records.
I work with female athletes and always when I calculate their nutritional intake, with 7- days records or validated food frequency questionnaire, see low energy intake and macronutrients, specially carbohydrates.
I think a possible justification, they do not write every food which eat.
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Everyone underreports, even when we know we are being watched: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24635904
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Specifically looking at strength based athletes
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We examined this in the study I've linked below. At the time we examined global field power but we might have seen differences if we had analyzed for a different outcome variable. This is something I may follow up on this in the future.
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I would look at papers based on army training courses (they get away with a lot because of lower ethics requirements it would seem!) (eg Fortes 2013). Also look at combat sports (eg Mendes 2013) papers as well as other weight governed sports. Word of warning be critical of these types of papers as it would seem that authors often have an agenda of proving reducing BF% detrimental even if their results prove otherwise (just like papers on dehydration in short-duration sports). I don't have my papers with me ATM but I will try and reference some more when I get back to them.
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I am working with elite female volleyball players and i do not know what equation to use to RMR and total energy expenditure.Depends which uses, differences of up to 400 kcal.
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Hi Juan,
Indeed, it is best to use a prediction equation to estimate RMR that is most representative of the group with whom you are working (in this case active females). An elegant study (Thompson and Manore, 1996) compared actual RMR in the laboratory with predicted RMR values using several equations in an attempt to establish which of these equations works best for active individuals and athletes. They found that the Cunningham (1980) equation best predicted RMR for both active males and females, with the Harris-Benedict (1919) equation being the second best (an underestimation of 9 and 192 kcal/d in the Cunningham (1980) and Harris-Benedict (1919) equations, respectively). The Harris-Benedict (1919) equation is easier to use (because it does not require measurement of lean body mass), and therefore may be more practical to use in a setting where lean body mass cannot be directly measured.
I hope this helps.
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Athletes often respond quickly to new concepts and often manipulate their training or dietary practices before the confirmatory research can be completed. As such, research that proves a concept wouldn't further inform since they are already doing it! Therefore advice showing no effect or even a detrimental effect could be seen as more useful?
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Hi Patricia, I guess this is sort of what I was getting at, although there is also some evidence to suggest that often athletes don't pay that much heed to the risks either!!
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I want to know both the positive and negative effects that diet have on their performance
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There are several studies on this topic. Search for work done by Asker Jeukendrup, Kevin Tipton, Robert Wolfe, Elisabeth Boersheim, Louise Burke...and there are of course several others as well...
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A limited number of trials have been carried out on the efficacy of the "Paleo" diet for improving metabolic health outcomes (see attached pub). Additionally a wave of interest has sprung up around the use of the "Paleo" diet for improving sport performance.
The contention is that we evolved to consume this diet and therefore it is "better" for our health than a diet composed of grains/dairy and products not available to Palaeolithic man. However, is the evidence base strong enough to recommend this diet in either clinical or athletic populations?
Please base your responses on evidence based and peer reviewed research.
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There is no evidence base that paleo diet specifically reduces cardio metabolic risk as there has not been enough clinical trials done to evaluate this nor is there any clear data on what the paleo diet was. What there is emerging evidence of, is that processed foods may be increase our cardiometabolic risks. The idea of using evolution as scientific evidence is not sound;evolution does not need to take into account health after children are reared, and most cardio vascular disese occurs after this.
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Is possible that female athletes with light level of muscle mass, have low levels of muscle damage?
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The muscle mass increase was shown first by Geoff Goldspink. You should check for others, but I think that the key references are:
Goldspink, G. (1985). "Malleability of the motor system: a comparative approach." Journal of Experimental Biology 115: 375-391.
Goldspink, G., A. Scutt, et al. (1991). "Stretch and Force Generation Induce Rapid Hypertrophy and Myosin Isoform Gene Switching in Adult Skeletal Muscle." Biochem Soc Trans 19(2): 368-373.
Increased sarcomere counts are in:
Lynn, R. and D. L. Morgan (1994). "Decline running produces more sarcomeres in rat vastus intermedius muscle fibres than incline running." Journal of Applied Physiology 77(5): 1439-1444.
The protection against injury has lots of papers back to the 1980s.
(Armstrong et al., 1983; Newham et al., 1983; McCully and Faulkner, 1985).
My favourite experiment for the importance of long length is walking down stairs two at a time in:
Morgan, D. L. and U. Proske (2004). "Popping sarcomere hypothesis explains stretch-induced muscle damage." Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 31(8): 541-545.
That will also have references for others.