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Special Education - Science topic

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If you work in primary education or with primary aged pupils either who have or do not have SEN.
Then would you consider filling out my questionnaire as part of my dissertation into professionals perspectives and definitions of inclusion.
If you could follow the link below that would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!!
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No I don't
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I am looking for empirical studies (qualitative and/or quantitative) in PE lessons in special school. I have hardly found any studies so far, and they are mostly very old.
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Oksana Buturlina I am looking for empirical studies on physical education in special education.
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The classroom is comprised of different individuals, each of them with their own uniqueness, and having been admitted into the institution of learning gives them access to learn, and also right to enjoy that learning just like every other person.
In the variety of students in our classrooms are brilliant, gifted and talented children. However in the same classroom are physically challenged persons whose desire is also to learn, and gain quality knowledge. In some situations, some teachers see those physically challenged as burdens, and they do nothing or less to carry them along thereby denying them access to adequate learning.
With the advancement of science and technology comes with solutions to how those learners can also learn, and also help teachers who couldn't help them to actually carry them along, and that brought the introduction of assistive technologies.
What are some of those assistive technologies that a teacher can advise those learners to get in order to learn adequately just like others even as he/she helps in anyway possible?
How can those technologies be used?
Do those technologies have merits, and demerits?
Remember everyone have the best they can contribute, likewise the physically challenged, and if we don't do anything to help them, how can the best in them be activated?
Your response is needed.
Thanks.
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The following RG link is also very useful:
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Currently, I know that it will be a qualitative study, in the field of Special Education. Teacher perspectives and the data will be collected through, Interview, observation and survey questioner. I would like to write my dissertation about something that will advance the field of special education. but I am stuck trying to find Gaps in the literature, to lead the way and aid me in sharpening the topic of my research study.
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the area or the coverage of the speial education should be specifically mentioned. May be dyslexia for example. Then which languege. It should be further narrow down. May a a second language like English.
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Hello everyone. I conducted a research with action research. I collected data with interviews, videos, recordings, documents and researcher diary during a year , 15 hours in a week. After collected my data, I analysed them. I found 74 codes for implementation stage (3 months data).
My question is, amount of 74 codes is too much? Is there any rule that amount of codes should be under 50?
Thank you in advance for sharing your ideas with me...
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Review your collected data again and check for similarities, if any, you may reduce it to fifty or bellow.
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In Algeria, many teachers of deaf children are the ones who have obtained a BA or an MA in any field ( e.g. art, history, sociology, psychology, mathematics ). In general, they may have zero experience in teaching and most of them know nothing about sign languages. In addition, interpreters are not involved during classes in order to facilitate communication between hearing teachers and hard of hearing/ deaf children.
The new teachers receive 15 days of training in which they learn about some basic information about sign Languages ( alphabets and few signs, for example)
Does this mean that these teachers are qualified to teach?
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I recommend thih link for you:
I recommend this link for you:
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I am keen to deepen my understanding of co-teaching (in classrooms inclusive of mainstream and students with disability), and critically, the pre-conditions and/or variables that impact on its effectivness. I have been able to undertake alot of reading on the 'how to' of co-teaching but havent been successful in finding empirical evidence in this area. Can anyone help?
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Hi Steven,
Here are some meta-analysis and interesting papers. Exceptional children is an early childhood special ed. journal, but is the highest on the field. Some of them available in Google Scholar. I hope this helps!
Lochner, W. W., Murawski, W. W., & Daley, J. T. (2019). The Effect of Co-teaching on Student Cognitive Engagement. Theory & Practice in Rural Education, 9(2), 6-19.
Hang, Q., & Rabren, K. (2009). An examination of co-teaching: Perspectives and efficacy indicators. Remedial and Special Education, 30(5), 259-268.
Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A., & McDuffie, K. A. (2007). Co-teaching in inclusive classrooms: A metasynthesis of qualitative research. Exceptional children, 73(4), 392-416.
Solis, M., Vaughn, S., Swanson, E., & Mcculley, L. (2012). Collaborative models of instruction: The empirical foundations of inclusion and co‐teaching. Psychology in the Schools, 49(5), 498-510.
Murawski, W. W., & Lee Swanson, H. (2001). A meta-analysis of co-teaching research: Where are the data?. Remedial and special education, 22(5), 258-267.
Chicago
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"There is incumbent upon the educator the duty of instituting a much more intelligent, and consequently more difficult, kind of planning. He must survey the capacities and needs of the particular set of individuals with whom he/she is dealing and must at the same time arrange the conditions which provide the subject-matter or content for experiences that satisfy these needs and develops these capacities. The planning must be flexible enough to permit free play for individuality of experience and yet firm enough to give direction towards continuous development of power."
- Experience and Education (Book by John Dewey)
What tools do we currently have or can have to:
Q.1) "survey the capacities and needs of particular set of individuals" and then
Q.2) "provide the subject matter or content for experiences that satisfy these needs and develops these capacities"
Look forward to valuable insights from seasoned professionals in this so important area of education!
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As you said, a professor is expected to provide equitable professional service to his/her students. To this end, he/she has to know the entry behaviors of the students under his guardianship. Once he/she knows the students, he/she has to do a detailed plan that provides varied opportunities for different learners. That is, the professor should varied contents, activities, assessments, and what you name. Then, he/she is expected to conduct lessons using the plan as a guide. That is what it means by differentiated instruction.
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Looking for a dissertation topic but I am finding it hard to narrow it down. I am interested in autism and special education practically inclusive education. I would quite like to focus on mainstream and special education and whether it is suited to all. But I am also interested in how autism presents differently in girls than boys.
Any suggestions on where to start looking or more specific topic areas would be greatly appreciated.
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social masking in girls with autism is very interesting and how they mimic their peers (other girls) or mirror one particular girl without fully understanding their actions/social behaviours. How autistic teens can "hold it together" in school then get home and have a "meltdown". You could look into school exclusions https://www.autism.org.uk/about/in-education/exclusion.aspx
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I am interested in finding a co-researcher/co-writer to explore the topic of mental health in special education.
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I would be happy to collaborate. Are you interested in researching mental health services in special education?
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Joining a Masters program brings changes in anyone's mindset as he deals with new data which sometimes were invisible in his everyday practice.
How have you have been affected by your academic involvement in your studies?
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First and foremost, after getting in touch with the master in Special Education , I recognized the characteristics of certain special cases of students more easily and I tried to use differentiated instruction more than before. The particular program of studies is not only a theoretical framework but also a whole mindset with applied solutions and useful knowledge about disabilities, behavioral disorders etc. It clarifies what educational integration can be in contemporary classrooms and it's a challenge for me to achieve it in practice!
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What is your idea about this?
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I think that in the area of ​​social policies - financial provision, social counseling for families, problems are better resolved.
Education policy remains the most difficult, despite some positive results. One of the reasons is the variety of clinical symptoms (basic and additional) that are not always well known by the trainers. Another important reason is the difficulty in developing adequate training methods tailored to the individual needs of the students. Of course, in recent years, we have been working very actively in this direction.
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Question for a Special Education Teacher
Describe one of your most challenge students and how you dealt with him/her?
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Bullying was overcome by psychological rehabilitation methods
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I am looking for reliable and valid physiological, i.e. bio-metrical, measures, in order to (objectively) assess the situational personal importance of interview questions (or even questionnaire items). What physiological reactions would imply a high personal importance and emotional charge?
Thank you for your time,
Panagiotis
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Thank you Timothy, I appreciate it!
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Kindly give the step for curriculum analysis
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CURRICULUM ANALYSIS is unpacking a curriculum into its component parts (e.g. learning, teaching, knowledge, society, resources); evaluating how the parts fit together, in terms of focus and coherence; checking underlying beliefs and assumptions; and seeking justification for curriculum choices and assumptions
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I have seen teachers explicitly model a mathematical concept (e.g., using the standard algorithm to add two digit integers).
I have seen teachers engage in a think-aloud modeling their thought process while engaging in a mathematical task (e.g., using the standard algorithm to add two digit integers).
Is there a difference at all? Is the major difference here that the explicit modeling of the steps (i.e., first scenario) is more focused on behaviorist principles and the second scenario is more focused on cognitive strategy training? When would you decide which approach to use?
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Thanks Corey, I'll check it out!
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Teachers’ self-assurance in their ability to accomplish in a way which leads to student learning is a characteristic of major importance which is highly correlated with educational process (Poulou, 2007). Special Education is a demanding field of training where strong beliefs are of principal importance. Their perceptions about instructional strategies, classroom management and students’ engagement in relation to Teaching Self Efficacy show that Special Educators can cope with the educational difficulties due to their level of training and their experience in special education classrooms.
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Interesting article! However, I think there are a lot of factors that must be considered in this kind of assessment. Maturity in research and learning is key.
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I want to learn more about this topic, such as legislation, special education, etc.
If you want to share some articles about this topic, please share these in English.
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Hello Constantinos,
I‘m German and study inclusive student management systems. What are you precisely looking for? Inclusion in education is a variable term, depending on profession and context.
What a psychiatrist in Munich suggested, is to follow the implementation of the new ICD 11 guidelines for diagnosis. It might affect your work as well.
Inclusion is such a huge field and is based on a compliance model of its users within the system and its norms. Acceptance of neurodiversity and future research about it, is only possible if teaching and learning is perceived as bi-directional interaction.
I‘m happy to learn more about your work!
Best wishes
Annette
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I am interested in looking at propensity score matching comparing children that receive and do not receive services.
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1. The effects of special education service on the self‐concept and school attitude of learning disabled/gifted students. By M.Elizabeth Nielsen and Susan Mortorff-Albert published by Taylor & Francis Online if your university has access to.
This study examined the effects of special education programming upon the self‐concepts and attitudes toward school of 76 learning disabled/gifted students. All students had been identified as learning disabled by their school and had an IQ score at or above 124. Eighty percent of the subjects had been labeled as learning disabled/gifted by the school system. The subjects were receiving a variety of special education services, self‐contained classes for learning disabled/gifted, a combination of learning disability resource room and pull‐out program gifted service, learning disability service only, or gifted programming only. These students generally expressed positive attitudes toward school.
The results suggested significant program effects: for general self‐concept, for self‐concept related to perceptions of intellectual ability, for self‐concept related to feelings of anxiety, and for attitudes toward the social aspects of school. Among the school‐labeled learning disabled/gifted, those students receiving either a combination of both gifted and learning disability service or only gifted programming reported higher self‐concepts than did those students receiving intense or exclusive learning disability service.
2. Also A Propensity Score Matching Analysis of the Effects of Special Education Services which you can also access if your college have access to ERIC Journals
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Hello everyone. My name is Azur and I preparing PhD about the effects of goalball game on spatial orientation of visually impaired persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Has anyone researched this area? Thank you
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Thank you everyone. Your answers will be very helpful
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I live in the US and am interested in transitional services for youth who transition out of the public programs at age 21.
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Our team includes persons on the autism spectrum who have an intellectual disability in our research activities; however, not all persons on the autism spectrum have an intellectual disability. 
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what strategies could be provided to support these children?
What skills do practitioners believe are important when providing support to children with ASD? 
What could be done in the future to ensure inclusive practice to ensure every child receives the support and learning they deserve instead of being let down by the education system? 
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I'm an occupational therapist, so speaking from that perspective: often children with ASD need OT services collaboratively with their classroom teacher.  Each individual will have varied needs, but commonly sensory integration techniques are used for calming.  Social stories are emerging in the literature as being helpful with disruptive classroom behaviors as well.  Speech therapy will address communication deficits as needed.  Continued support and advocacy for parents is important as many do not know the rights of their child, and consequently may not be able to fully fight for their child's rights. 
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I'm looking for some more extensive research on reevaluating and remedying exclusionary zoning/planning practices in US localities.
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Is it possible that exclusionary zoning is not really zoning at all. Could it really be exclusionary building codes and housing codes . . . primarily?
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Ideally, the video should depict authentic classroom situations that involve students with or without disabilities. The videos should be free and accessible on the internet.
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Cordial saludo 
este video lo trabajos desde el programa de educación inclusiva en Colombia. 
Camino a reconocernos 
Éxitos 
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I am looking for some studies explaining why some children, despite their normal vision, get enrolled in special schools for visually impaired, especially in developing countries. 
Thank you. 
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@Kannamah Mottan
Its the scenario (a). In my study, I found almost 7% of the children attending a primary school for the blind (exclusively for the visually impaired) had normal or near normal vision and were able to read print books and write. (Also seen in many other studies from blind schools)
The 'system' should have identified these children at the time of enrollment, so that they could attend mainstream schools. Lack of proper examination due to limited facilities and professional may have contributed. But what other factors might have caused this? I am thinking financial benefits, associated physical disability and dis figuration... any thing else?
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Hello,
I am preparing a manuscript investigating the importance of school belonging in psychological and social functioning in academically at-risk adolescents.
I would like to categorize a continuous variable (three school belonging groups). There are many ways in the literature (for example z scores or lowest and highs %10). However, there is no a consensus. What do you suggest me?
Thanks in advance.
Gökmen Arslan
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Thank you so much for your responds. However, many research used this method, such as Proctor, C., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2010). Very happy youths: Benefits of very high life satisfaction among adolescents. Social indicators research, 98(3), 519-532.
Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(3), 293-301.
Like these, If I would use this approach, theoretically, does it create a problem for the editor or reviewer (s)?
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And hopefully there is something for pre-school teacher efficacy....
Thank you!
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Hello Livia,
I am attaching special education standards by the Council for Exceptional Children. You might want to turn them into a questionnaire.  They come from an authoritative source.  
Sandra H
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There are different type and different level of inclusion samples in different areas. But we still have some concerns about the forms of inclusion in mainstream classrooms. Teachers try to implement different methods, tactics and use various materials, but there are still some disadvantages based on various reasons and it is difficult to say; fully inclusion of SEN students is achieved in mainstream classrooms. 
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 HI Emir,
I'm a (PH.D.) clinical psychologist and behavior analyst (BCBA) in San Diego, CA (US).  I think there are many difficulties with our current attempts to fully included children with special educational needs in the gen ed setting.  What is a SEN student?  I only think inclusion is possible with additional supports to the classroom teacher, additional training and close tracking of the special needs child's IEP goals.
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what support do they need to reach the services they need?
what action should they take to stop their children from being discriminated at school?
what should they do for their needs of special education to be met by the state?
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Autism in minority communities anywhere face more challenges because of the cultural stigmas associated with autism. Research has found that minority children receive autism diagnoses later than their peers due to several factors. There may not be a willingness to accept a disability diagnosis for social reasons, because parents are fearful of others' reactions to their child who has a disability. A delayed diagnosis may also be due to parents' reluctance to accept that their child may have a disability, fearing the implications that will come with such a diagnosis. The more severe the autism manifests, the more likely the parents will feel the need to isolate themselves from the community. 
To stop discrimination against their children, parents must first be aware of the law. What provisions are in place that specifically protect their children in school settings, for example? Even with somewhat of a legal understanding, parents must become their child's advocate. For example, I started a website and blog devoted primarily to raising awareness and support for autism. Social media is a great way to get involved, advocate and educate one's self about autism and related disabilities. 
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I'm writting an article that aims to describe the potencial of infographics on literacy development and children with special educational needs. Does any one knows any publication?
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Ive seen one journal Volume 19 issue 1 all about disability studies...http://www.ifets.info/ 
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I am a special educator who deals with deaf undergraduate Computer Science students.To improve their logical skills I am designing a programme. Every week we dedicate an hour to do worksheet, games and activities .Considering their language difficulties non verbal reasoning activities are tried.How can we evaluate the effectiveness of the programme. Also is there any resources available that can be included in the programme like logical games or activities
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Hi Raji,
Trying to answer your question by taking logical skill to mean more like reasoning skill, putting before them questions relating to their  everyday life which would involve their decision making after considering reasoning based on various disciplines would be a good idea.
Salil Bhatt
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Is there any researcher interested in agricultural vocational training for students with special needs ?
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Dear Richard Zigler, Thank you.
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How do the three basic psychological needs, autonomy, relatedness and competence reflect as subsitutes when the needs are frustatrated?
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Dear Merja,
I have found the following articles which may help you on your study.
You can find it on attahment.
Regards
S.E.Afsahi
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Is there a framework that could be referred to design a curriculum for children with severe disabilities?
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I am currently completing my MEd. thesis on examination accommodation support for students with autism spectrum disorder. I am wondering does any body know of any recent studies in this area or if you could point me in the right direction for any literature relating to this? I am looking at current provision of reasonable accommodations in Ireland but any international or national information would be most welcome. Thank you. 
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- Appeal to the results of direct and indirect psychological of autistic assessments.
- Assessments of the potential emotions, feelings and affections of autistics.
- Assessments of the psycho-motor sensory and motor development,: psychomotor and sociability of the autistics.
- Effectuation of several case studies analysis and, after individual reviews, find common denominators of autism.
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Iam a coach in karpagam university. I will analysis the field hockey
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a closed rope with the length of  3+4+5 = 12 units. plant a long nail on ground and put this rope around the nail and by trail and error method make a triangle with sides 3,4 and 5. you will get a perpandicular lines. with the help of thisextend the lines to get marking for your any court
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bibliography
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Behavioral treatments for the core symptoms of autism in young children (up to 7 years of age) usually take longer time such as 10 to 20 hours per week.  But behavioral treatments for focused problem areas such as irritability in children ages 3 to 8 or anxiety in children ages 8 to 14 can be delivered as one-hour per week interventions over 4 to 6 months. 
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research impact  on education due to social change. In special education, policies that bring about change in based on research. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) laws, Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) laws.
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 Assumption that social change occurs as a result of the effect of a change agent. Agents for change can come from individuals, groups, or institutions. If you want research to uncover the "meaning" a social change, then the appropriate research method is a "interpretive" (qualitative research), which aims to reveal the meaning behind the action (individual, group, or institution) that is the subject of research. However, if you want to research on explaining the process of social change and an event of social change "general", then the method appropriate research is a "quantitative research" aimed to reveal a process of change and test theories about social change in the context (individual, group, or institution) that is the subject of research. thanks
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Hi there,
I am conducting a qualitative study into educators' instructional strategies and support systems used in the University of Education, Winneba to include learners with special needs in the regular classrooms. I will also be surveying students' (regular & disabled) perceptions and experiences regarding the impact of such inclusive practices on their academic life. Does "inclusive education practices" aptly describe the variables I intend to study? Are there other variables I need to consider to make my research richer? Comments and suggestions are welcomed. Thank you.
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up to my knowledge, Legislation on Inclusive education and further, curriculum according to the inclusive education, professional development of inclusive education teachers, classroom arrangement, educational administration and family and other agents for education are variables but you have to limit according to your research objective.  
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Why is differentiation for children with SEBD effective and why is it not effective? What are the problems differentiation creates for children with SEBD, teachers and other children in the classroom? 
Relevant books and articles would be highly appreciated.
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Hello Nnenna:
Part of differentiation is accommodating for diverse cultural backgrounds among your students. The attached gives an idea of how this can be achieved. I hope this is helpful in answering your question.
Many thanks,
Debra
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Hi there, I have a question about my study:
Is there any survey or scale that explorer this?
Thank you, 
Husain
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There is a similar study uploaded here in RG. See the link below:
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Assessment of Peer Relations.
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Hi, I do not use,,, but this link may help you
regards
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I'm working on my PhD thesis that is about “Designing Learning Environment Enriched by Virtual Social Network Model and It’s Impact on Learning and Social Skills of Students with Hearing Impairment”.
The basic goals of my research are:
1.Find the other countries experiences in using social network for hearing impaired students.
2.Identify the elements of a model and the relations between them.
3.Design lesson plans based on the model and execute them.
4.Identify the effect of the model on learning and social skills of hearing impaired students.
Now I'm working on literature review and searching to find the answers of these question for this step of my work:
1.Why social network is a concern for schools, specifically, those who work in the realm of special education and hearing impaired students?
2.How are schools using social network for hearing impaired students, both in the classroom and as an extension of the classroom?
3.What are the risks relating to appropriate teacher/student boundaries that are exacerbated by use of social media and how to allay those risks?
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Dear Ehsan, maybe the embedded search will guide your thoughts somewhat? I am unfortunately not sure how easily these papers can be accessed.   Some free search engines may also generate relevant information (please see the embedded link)..
Good luck with your studies!
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Dear Sir/Madam's
My name is Jack Gilbert. I am a final year student at the University of Northampton studying BA Special Educational Needs and Inclusion. I am currently undertaking some research on whether dance/movement could be used as an intervention to support children with Autism. I am asking whether it would be possible to interview anybody who works within this field.
The interview would last approximately 30- 40 minutes and can be in a location that is virtually for you (whether face to face, telephone or virtually). 
Your confidentiality and anonymity will be remained throughout and the research will abide with the University of Northampton's ethical guidelines. The research will also be stored securely.  
I am very aware you must all be extremely busy so I would like to thank you in advance for reading this text. Any information would be useful. 
If you would like to take part within my research, or have any questions about the research, please contact myself 
Kind Regards,
Jack Gilbert 
BA SEN & Inclusion student at the University of Northampton 
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Jack, I have certainly heard of some children on the spectrum benefiting from karate or other more formalized movement disciplines. using dance for "therapy" to help improve in those areas  like dance and gymnastics, and karate helps so much in morale, especially when morale can be so difficult in other areas of life.  My own daughter, who didn't have autism, but had issues in motor skills when she was little, was in a gymnastics program at Easter Seals that took place in a regular gymnastics facility where other children were becoming athletes.  I think that setting became an important aspect to the success of that program.  Yes, there were children on the spectrum in her classes, but it was better for these classes to be conducted in a public facility rather than somewhere dedicated exclusively to children with special needs.  It gave them a way to feel proud of their accomplishments.
I also would be interested in seeing interdisciplinary approaches used to tie in issues in the biochemistry with any difficulties in movement.  I've dreamed of seeing some occupational and physical therapists formalizing evaluations in this sort of area...evaluating such things as stiffness, and vestibular function and even strength and muscle mass and speed.  I've seen what is possible at a gait clinic that deals mainly with people recovering from injuries or  from MS.  An autism center could develop formal standards  that later could be used to evaluate function for many adults with other developmental disorders.  But, for "treatment", the more normal setting (how people with no diagnosis build these skills), seems better overall.
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Focussing on strategies used compared to those used within a mainstream classroom, and benefits for children with SEBD. All research welcome. Thank You
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Dear Sarah,
I have some related research article.
Please find it as file attachment.
Hope it will be useful.
Happy researching...
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Now in Thailand can't service education for cerebral palsy. I think it is rights for all.
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Inclusion shall be a right for all, all over the world. Every child as inclusion potential. Although each country has its inclusion policies. When having the appropriate human and material support no child must be left behind.
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we are carrying out a study about the relationship between mental health and job demand-resource model of Karasek, but the setting of this study is in special education centers (schools of persons with disabilities). 
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a nice list! (I upvoted all o you! :)
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Why can't industry produce cheaper products to attend individual needs? E.g., a larger wheel chair.
Does someone know new references abaout this topic? I would like to research in this area. Thanks in advance.
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Thank you very much, dear William!
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plz discuss here the emerging scope of ICT in special education needs
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You may find information on projects from the European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education helpful -  see: https://www.european-agency.org/agency-projects
Also the model policy for Inclusive ICT -http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002272/227229e.pdf
Hope this is useful!
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Use of technology as an interactive tool to engage special needs student in math activities.
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Dear Samuel,
Although a suitable approach will depend upon the particular neurodiversity and stage of the student I would recommend educational robotics, such as the Roamer robot. The Roamer developers have reported some success with neurodiversity students. Look for the names Catlin and Blamires.
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I am using ICF as a conceptual framework in research of school to work transition for young people with disability. I am also using social inclusion theory for analysis and ICF to frame the questions and design research instruments but am struggling with how to use ICF framework as its implication is large. If you could please suggest sample of the question guide, it would be wonderful.
Thank you,
Huong
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How to "use" the ICF is akin to asking how to "use" a car.  There are technical aspects and then there are those left to your creativity and inventiveness.  Technical aspects include the use of the codes and qualifiers and the needed assessments to map onto them.  Clinicians and scholars alike are often frustrated by the ICF because it does not "tell" you how to do much of anything.  It as never intended to dictate but to provide a common framework for professionals to design effective real life programs to enable all people to reach their full potential.  What works ICF wise in country X for elderly patients with dementia does not have to be same as for country Y for children with cerebral palsy.  Home health care has different components than skilled nursing home care.  Specifically, in the ICF it states "As a classification, ICF does not model the “process” of functioning and disability. It can be used, however, to describe the process by providing the means to map the different constructs and domains. It provides a multiperspective approach to the classification of functioning and disability as an interactive and evolutionary process. It provides the building blocks for users who wish to create models and study different aspects of this process. In this sense, ICF can be seen as a language: the texts that can be created with it depend on the users, their creativity and their scientific orientation"  Which use, which measurements will ultimately prove the best?. That is what research is for and the ideas you come up with may be just as legitimate as those who have been studying disability for years.  In addition, research builds upon previous work. But someone has to start, someone has to be the first to try.  It may fail but that is of great value because then everyone knows not to go down that route again.  If there are any specific articles of mine you would like, I would be glad to share them.
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Research paper on inclusion
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Jessica,
This link has landmark legal cases that shaped our present special education practices.  This is not an inclusive  list of disability laws.  Special education started in the US when child labor laws were established in the 1900's. Once these children were in schools, their differences were noticed.  Access a textbook in this area for more information.    h 
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Are special education teachers prepared to teach subjects area, such as reading, writing and math, or they just have knowledge about the characteristics of students with disabilities and inclusion process?
If you can suggest some references about this topic, please do.  
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This is a very interesting topic. I will share some of the experiences from Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the time I finished my studies, special educators were calles „defectologists“ (now the term is special education teachers and rehabilitators). „Defectologists“ were trained in a similar fashion that prof. Matsuishi explained- much medical and psychology subjects- anatomy, physiology, genetics, neuropsychology. We also had a lot of training on general characteristics of people with disabilities. Than, on the third year of the study you have to choose the specialized department: speech therapist, special educator for children with intellectual disability (ID), SPED for children with hearing impairments, SPED for children with visual impairment  and SPED for children with behavior problems. I chose SPED for children with ID. But, in actuallity you are not just trained to work with children but with adults as well. We had an in depth training in methods of early intervention, school work (with much practice at school), and work with adults (for example. Preparation of Individualized Support Programs based on needs, and Person Centered Planning). So, you actually choose the field to study and in my case it was ID. I am quite satisfied with my training as it provided us with a broad knowledge and practise for work in the field. Our „leaders“ in the field were Leo Vigotsky (Russia) and Lightner Witmer (USA). Nowdays only certain Universities do offer these wide courses (including my University) but most Universities in BiH are now offering special education courses that are more in line with general education (and you get special trainings on how to make individualized Education Programs, support students in inclusive class etc). Apart from the pejorative name „defectology“, I prefer the Vigotsky and Witmer approach.
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Or just individual reviews on each system?
Thank you for your time!
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Christoforos:
There is no national standard in the United States. Individual states develop their own systems for inclusive education. The only proviso is ensuring compliance with IDEA. Perhaps you could contact the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) for more information. 
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Early career researcher
PhD research
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I found some master's thesis' in Finnish about the issue and some articles close to it, which are about inclusive pedegogic in Finland (in English, Halinen & Järvinen 2008 and Takala et al 2009). The issue is interesting and I think it defenetaly should be studied!
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Papers can be theoretical or empirical. 
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Perhaps this research on helping Creole language students to write and speak English for the purposes of exams can be helpful:
Best regards,
Debra
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Usually children with hearing impairment face many problems after integration to normal school. I would like to know what may be probably the major challenges these children faces in integrated school setting.
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i wanto write a controversial paper about it.
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There have been several papers by others over the years that have laid the groundwork for inclusive education ---- check out work by Cole, Waldron, & Majd (2004), or Huber, Rosenfeld, & Fiorello (2001)
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From a legal perspective, children entitled to special education are entitled to an individualized plan.  Only so many approaches are likely to work, however, so I'm trying to locate research on the question of whether differentiated education is actually necessary in order to deliver special education services. 
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Suggest you read: Hattie, John (2008). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. NY: Routledge. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-415-47618-8. Whilst it could be argued that differentiated education is not actually necessary in order to deliver special education services or, indeed, any educational services, such education that lacks differentiation is not likely to deliver any worthwhile educational outcomes. In the UK, OfSTED inspectors and peer observers are not likely to endorse teaching practice that does not contain elements of differentiation as a matter of routine for all children. Differentiation is likely to be of particular importance for children with special educational needs.
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Why do we have such a limited number of students from diverse cultural backgrounds seeking teaching careers? I am particularly asking about teaching in special ed in countries like the US where teachers are predominantly females from middle class backgrounds. Thanks. 
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Hi Rama,
Is this something you might find helpful to take one step further?
Best Heiner
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I am looking for information on the use of outdoors teaching (small group and or individual 1:1)  to support development of social and emotional skills within ASC particularly for ages 9+. Most forest school research seems to be preschool-EYFS based.
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As CEO of Autism SA I've asked a few people this question and received tow quite distinct responses, one that children do not cope with natural environments as by definition they lack structure and/or involve sensory overload, or, the other that children benefit significantly. I'm not aware of any specific research but you can check Claire Warden's forest t kindy website and Richard Louv's children and nature site.
My research is related to the topic and there is certainly myriad findings on the benefits from a whole range of social and medical aspects
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spatial skills in general
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Spatial awareness is a large part of learning for people with Dyslexia.  Starting from the basics as Jim mentioned to the more complex may help.  There is a program here in NY called the Children's Dyslexia  Center of Central New York.  They have a great success rate in working with students.  Phone: 315-736-0576 •Fax: 315-736-0575• Email: reception@cnyclc.org. You can also check out their web page at
I have known a few students who used this program..
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In our team we found in several studies that teachers and paraeducators do not cooperate in an efficient way. We found that children benefit from the work that is done by paraeducators, but that very probably the effect of their work would be even larger if the teacher-paraeducator communication was improved.
My question is if colleagues could direct me to research which looks into cooperative structures in schools and into the question how communication and cooperation could be fostered.
Thank you.
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There is very much research by Michael Giangreco and colleagues and Blatchford, Webster and colleagues. They also have a project-site. See link below.
Best regards, Conny
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Beginning teachers often work in inclusive settings. But I think there are many challenging areas for them, e.g. the required paperwork or writing IEPs. What do you think about it? And I'm looking for research, and researchers in this topic.
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 I was a teacher, for the first time, in 1975. As a beginning school teacher, I needed some help in teaching methods but I only got that from joining an education program & not from the school principal or the science inspector (they both worked for personal ends or aims). I applied the principles of education as taught in the diploma program & they gave successful productive results. After 3 years of school teaching, I resigned to join postgraduate studies & obtained a PhD in chemistry. In 1984, I began my career in my "present" university which involved lot of teaching for undergraduate students. I still apply the principles of teaching methodology but with continuous modifications.
I brought this entire story to emphasize that good teaching does not come normally by having vast knowledge in chemistry or physics or math…etc. but a person, who opts for teaching, must have some degree in education to know that teaching is an art by itself since what matters is not how much you know but how efficient are you in the transfer of knowledge to the minds of the students.  
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This is for my Thesis for my Master's in Elementary Education. Please note I am also doing my Master's in Special Education with an emphasis in Autism. I currently work in an alternative school setting with children with HFASD, but I need to find articles and research findings to support this question. Thanks you.
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Hi Breann,
That's a very interesting subject! You can find a lot of articles about the inclusion of HFASD children (dealing with both challenges and benefits). There is a inspiring department of education, working on inclusion for children with special needs (mainly ASD) in Manchester University: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/neil.humphrey/research (page of Dr. Humphrey).
Here are some of their research :
Hebron, J., Humphrey, N., & Oldfield, J. (2015). Vulnerability to bullying of children with autism spectrum conditions in mainstream education: a multi-informant qualitative exploration. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, n/a‑n/a. http://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12108
Humphrey, N. (2008). Including pupils with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream schools. Support for learning, 23(1), 41–47.
Humphrey, N., & Lewis, S. (2008a). Make me normal’The views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism, 12(1), 23–46.
Humphrey, N., & Lewis, S. (2008b). What Does « Inclusion » Mean for Pupils on the Autistic Spectrum in Mainstream Secondary Schools? Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 8(3), 132‑140.
Humphrey, N., & Symes, W. (2013). Inclusive Education for Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in Secondary Mainstream Schools: Teacher Attitudes, Experience and Knowledge. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(1), 32‑46.
Symes, W., & Humphrey, N. (2011). School Factors that Facilitate or Hinder the Ability of Teaching Assistants to Effectively Support Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in Mainstream Secondary Schools. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 11(3), 153‑161.
Symes, W., & Humphrey, N. (2012). Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 27(4), 517‑532.
I have all these papers: if you are interested, just ask me.
Moreover, there are some others papers that can help you, such as:
- De Schauwer, E., Van Hove, G., Mortier, K., & Loots, G. (2009). ‘I Need Help on Mondays, It’s Not My Day. The Other Days, I’m OK’.—Perspectives of Disabled Children on Inclusive Education. Children & Society, 23(2), 99-111 (it's not specifically about HFASD but it provides some insighful thinking about perceptions from the children).
- Moores-Abdool, W. (2010). Included Students with Autism and Access to General Curriculum: What Is Being Provided?. Issues in Teacher Education, 19(2), 153-169.
- Sansosti, J. M., & Sansosti, F. J. (2012). Inclusion for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Definitions and Decision Making. Psychology In The Schools, 49(10), 917-931. doi:10.1002/pits.21652 (file attached)
- Morewood, G. D., Humphrey, N., & Symes, W. (2011). Mainstreaming autism: making it work. Good Autism Practice, 12(2), 62-68. (file attached)
This one may interest you too:
- Chandler‐Olcott, K., & Kluth, P. (2009). Why everyone benefits from including students with autism in literacy classrooms. The Reading Teacher, 62(7), 548-557 (I like the idea that including children with ASD benefits to everyone)
Enjoy your reading and your research!
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I'm looking to set up an Academic Resource Centre in a UK secondary school and would like to find out as much as possible about others that have been set up as possible.
Thanks
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At our school we use a double layered approach (or did, funding for the second layer disappeared this year)
Layer 1 is based on the positive behaviour framework, which treats behaviour as just another thing to learn, and at our school we take judgenent out of the equation as much as possible and treat dysfunctional behaviours as a problem to be solved in the social context of the classroom. Some teachrs fid this very difficult and others love it.
For those students who do not respond well to this for whatever reason, we have a withdrawn classroom, where an appropriate teacher Ispecific skill set) looks after 5 - 10 students who can' fit into the 'normal' classroom working on a self paced  semi individualised curriculum. This seems to allow these students to relax and some return to the mainstram after a year or 2 but others move on the external education or jobs. Depending on what you choose to measure, the success rate is small to moderate but acceptable.
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I'm writing a coursework for reviewing spatial dysgraphia, and found it difficult to get some articles about the specific areas in the brain which causes the problem. Do you have any suggestions of articles on spatial dysgraphia, especially the ones related to logographic language, except for 'QY' one. Thanks. 
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Yes, unfortunately this is one of the areas that simply needs more work within China. Best of luck with it Annie.
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I'm doing my thesis about inclusion in Finland and Italy, I'd need all researches or data set about schools inclusion but also about disability in the society in Finland, or all the details I should need to better understand the Background in Finland
Thanks
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You might also want to check if you find the work of T. Saloviita any helpful.
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I am currently assisting a chaplain at a special school to support parents and one parent has asked for specific information or tips to assist in prevention of uptake of substance use by a child. This Parent feels that the tips given to parents of mainstream children are not sufficient.
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Hi Michael,
Joanne VanderNagel invited me to respond to your question. I've studied an e-learning based prevention program for student with intellectual disabilities from special needs schools. Surprisingly most of these students drank more than once, with 15% drinking even before the age of 10!! These findings are  showed us that there is a absolute need to develop evidence-based prevention programs.
Adaptations of our program were: (1) frequent repetition of the tips; (2) Adapted way to inform the student by using easily understood materials (photos, drawings, short movies etc) and (3) the use of games. Other important adaptations are: (1) improving social skills and refusal skills by role playing, in vivo sessions or the use of video feedback and (2)and parental involvement is necessary. Keep in mind that not every adapted material, like videos or pictures, is suitable for every person!
I could send you a part of a reference list with quite a bit of literature on prevention in special educational settings.
Kind regards,
Marion Kiewik
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Any thoughts how to teach foreign language pronunciation especially IPA notation and transcription to students who are blind? 
For me IPA has an enormous value in learning foreign language pronunciation, what about my students who are blind how to adapt it? Do you have any ideas, did you come across blind student of linguistics who learnt IPA? Maybe you are a professional who encountered blind student and was wondering how to adapt IPA? Is IPA and transcription for the blind totally omitted and the topic marginalised. Share your ideas and reflections with me as the topic seems extremely interesting for me.
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We have a recent article in Teaching Linguistics that might be useful to you: A tactile IPA magnet board system: a tool for blind and visually-impaired students in phonetics and phonology classrooms.  
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I want to design a TLM for autistic children. Kindly guide me about different parameters we should consider when designing TLM for autistic children.
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The UK's National Institute for those who have them and their families, it is known that consists of three
parts:
1. Social Interaction
2. Social Communication
3. Imagination
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For a research paper
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Can anyone assist me into finding articles that I can use for my research paper
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Justicepolicy.org has some interesting information. There are many school to prison pipeline articles written. Here is an interesting one: Safran, S. P., & Oswald, K. (2003). Positive Behavior Supports: Can schools reshape
disciplinary practices? Exceptional Children, 69(3), 361-373.
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I'm interested in PRT implementation in schools. I've been able to find 10 studies examining this, but wonder if there are more out there. Is anyone aware of any?  Is anyone doing any work in this area?  Thanks!
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Check out this EBI website.
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Does the tool provide for consistent longitudinal data collection and accountability for teachers? I am interested in what other tools are used within Australia to map progress of Students with Educational Needs or for Students who are achieving below the Australian Curriculum Foundation level. How do these tools marry up to the Australian Curriculum and if they provide for clear links to researched based teaching and assessment strategies for ease of Curriculum differentiation within mainstream schooling and education support settings. 
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There is of course NAPLAN data which is collected in years 3,5,7 and 9. Data is compared over the whole state. There is also PLAN data which looks closely at the literacy and numeracy clusters of individuals. Educators can track student performance here and look at student progress in terms of a continuum. Educational differentiated plans are normally made at school level with individualised eduation plans designed around the student and their specific needs. You can google both to get info about it.
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I have planned for a comparative study of policies for disability rehabilitation particularly for children with intellectual disability using a Sequential Exploratory Design (Qualitative Part dominant). Any researcher interested in such collabrative study kindly drop a msg?
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Sounds interesting. My e-mail: agnieszkazyta@wp.p
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They can be research articles or literature reviews. Thank you.
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@Ian thank you but already tried scholar for both :)
@ Majed ı know that paper thanks a lot!
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I am working with a young, highly able child K/1st grader who is struggling in a regular classroom setting with writing. His emotional state is a definite impediment to learning as he is presenting patterns of very poor behavior which exacerbate the situation.  
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Thank you for your response Gordon ... I have looked at this source and, as you say, it is comprehensive and informative.  I have also shared it with his parents. Although there is a great deal of information about this condition,  I am always interested in learning more that may be helpful. When faced sometimes with disbelieving and untrained/prepared school faculty - especially when it concerns an otherwise highly able individual - I have found that the more perspectives I can offer the better. I tend to view situations from a holistic point of view (See: chandelierassessments.com).  An example - not with regard dysgraphia, but an issue supposedly associated with ASD.  
I had a young, highly able client (kindergartner reading at 3rd grade level, 140+ IQ) whose behavior and social interaction everyone in his school regarded as clearly indicative of some level of autism.  They were pushing for implementation of an individual educational plan for him based on their perceptions.  After some observations and research, I found he was hyperopic and this condition had only been detected during the later stages of development in the visual cortex - around three months. Although he received glasses at that time, it meant he was extremely far-sighted, had seen only very blurred images close-up and had not properly experienced his mother's facial expressions and body language. In other words the normal development of pragmatics  was compromised. Given other tests and measures used at the time of my evaluation suggested very high levels of ability, the alternative view led to the implementation of strategies based on his being a highly able, visually impaired individual and not autistic. (See for example:http://www.autisticvision.com/doctors.html)