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The article "Ethnographic Knowledge in Urban Planning – Bridging the Gap between the Theories of Knowledge-Based and Communicative Planning”, that was published on November 4th 2021 has serious ethical problems, e.g, plagiarism, authorship and duplication.
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Hello, again, Tal Berman
Like Usama Badawy , I hope that they at least gave you credit for your hard work. Otherwise, I would contact the editor of that journal to inform of the act. How did you even detect this problem?
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Dears,
I'm a spatial planning master student, I'm studying the soundscape in Jordan- Amman, the methodology I will use is varied from a questionnaire (Soundwalk) to a binaural recording, and I'm wondering if you have any recommendation for questions to be asked in the Soundwalk?
Thank You
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Hello,
Will you conduct noise level measurements at the soundwalk stops? If so, you could ask about the perceived loudness using a scoring method and then correlate the objective and the subjective results.
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would you please help me to finding some articles about informal settlements on a provincial scale ?
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Hey mobina, informal settlement are results of rapid population growth; huge rural-urban migrants; lack of affordable housing facility; weak governance etc. therefore it is mainly confined with urban area rather than any province.
However attaching some literature hope it might help.
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Hello,
I am looking to evaluate the quality of a land use plan in my country. However I am limited by availability of criteria to use. Do you know of literature I can review or advice on standards used in the planning profession when conducting a plan quality evaluation?
Your response will be much appreciated.
Regards, Malakia
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Your question helped me too. Thanks for asking here.
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Land use limits are a legislatively defined part of spatial planning tools in the Czech Republic. Is there a similar mechanism in other countries, please? Eventualy, is it available in English (either in the form of a handbook or an article)? My aim is to evaluate the link between land use limits in spatial planning and ecosystem services. Thank you.
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Hi dear Jiří Schneider
You can references this High quality papers:
Mitigating environmental risks: Modeling the interaction of water quality parameters and land use cover ( M Mirzaei, A Jafari, M Gholamalifard, H Azadi… - Land Use Policy, 2020 - Elsevier )
Contrasting effects of land tenure on degradation of Cambisols and Luvisols: The case of Central Bohemia Region in the Czech Republic
A Walmsley, H Azadi, K Tomeckova, P Sklenicka - Land Use Policy, 2020 - Elsevier
Monitoring land governance: Understanding roots and shoots
H Azadi - Land Use Policy, 2020 - Elsevier
Mutual effects of land distribution and economic development: Evidence from Asia, Africa, and Latin America
H Azadi, E Vanhaute - Land, 2019 - mdpi.com
Evolution of land distribution in the context of development theories
H Azadi, E Vanhaute, K Janečková, P Sklenička… - Land Use Policy, 2020 - Elsevier
Iran's land suitability for agriculture
MB Mesgaran, K Madani, H Hashemi, P Azadi - Scientific reports, 2017 - nature.com
Identifying the trade-offs between climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban land use planning: An empirical study in a coastal city
L Xu, X Wang, J Liu, Y He, J Tang, M Nguyen… - Environment …, 2019 - Elsevier
A national adaptation plan for water scarcity in Iran
MB Mesgaran, P Azadi - Working paper 6, Stanford Iran 2040 Project …, 2018 - academia.edu
Micro-scale sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects on urban transportation systems: Case study of Azadi district, Isfahan, Iran
MH Mansourianfar, H Haghshenas - Cities, 2018 - Elsevier
Evaluating sustainability and land use integration of BRT stations via extended node place model, an application on BRT stations of Tehran
P Pezeshknejad, S Monajem, H Mozafari - Journal of Transport Geography, 2020 - Elsevier
Housing Activism Initiatives and Land-Use Conflicts: Pathways for Participatory Planning and Urban Sustainable Development in Bucharest City, Romania
M Nae, L Dumitrache, B Suditu, E Matei - Sustainability, 2019 - mdpi.com
Conformance in land-use planning: The determinants of decision, conversion and transgression
M Padeiro - Land Use Policy, 2016 - Elsevier
Evolution of land use-change modeling: routes of different schools of knowledge
H Azadi, AA Barati, P Rafiaani, F Taheri… - Landscape and …, 2017 - Springer
Vulnerability assessment models to drought: toward a conceptual framework
K Zarafshani, L Sharafi, H Azadi, S Van Passel - Sustainability, 2016 - mdpi.com
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As COVID-19 has taken place in human lives and threatened life and by massive deaths everywhere how spatial planning can help to minimize the negative impact COVI9-19.
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Sure, looking at spatial planning, we should be mindful of the five components of planning; Political, Social, Economic, Policy/Laws and Physical.
For me, socio-economic and physical components are worth studying with reference to the Sub-Saharan region.
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I want to explore daily passenger volume at railway stations in the selected region.
Should I take into account the number of people getting on the train or getting off the train? Maybe the sum of passenger getting on and getting off the train at particular railway station? Is this correct in this case? I will count double passengers who commute to work and come back from work in the same day. Maybe the average number of passenger getting on and getting off the train?
Best regards,
Wojciech Jurkowski
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if you are interrested in the number of passengers using a particular railway line, then you should sum all boarding or alighting passengers at all line stations to get the demand of this line.
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In fact, do politicians depend on research for decision-making in the field of spatial planning, or does the investigation serve only for politicians to have tools for political propaganda?
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Yes. Increasingly, the need for spatial planning is being recognized by the Political Class.
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i am looking for a full-funded Phd scholarship for my research on maritime spatial planning in South China Sea. please give suggestions.
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Try to get a fully-funded PhD from DAAD Germany.
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i am looking for facts of coordination among authorities in implementing maritime spatial plan and ocean management in coastal states around the world , especially in Europe. i want to find out the measures to overlapping marine management of authorities and stakeholders
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In Italy the MSP has started with a coordination held by the offices of the Presidency of the Ministries Council for the following purpose: a) transcription of the EU directive on MSP; b) writing and adoption the Guidelines for the MSP. Then the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, acting as the competent authority, coordinates all the other Ministries and Regional Authorities in preparing the Plans. In Italy there are 3 main sub-plans according to the main seas
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I'm looking for specific examples of best practices in spatial planning at regional level. If this case-studies involve both the normative structure and the running process of plans it'd be perfect. I already have a bunch of examples following the contents provided by the ESPON projects and some other sources (i.e. manuals on nationalwide perspectives). I just wat to expand them as much as possible. Thanks in advance
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Dear Hector
your are receiving answers from a broad range of fields. it may be helpful if you specify which aspects of regional spatial planning you are interested in. the term "regional spatial planning" is very broad.; And the term "spatial planning" has different meaning in different countries and contexts. Do you mean land-use regulations? or regional economic planning? or regional administration? or environmental regional planning? Rachelle Alterman
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I am looking for papers or books where weights from AHP method was used to TOPSIS method? The main research area is related to spatial planning, environment, location of various activities.
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You can check my paper.
" Optimization Route Selecting by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Analysis "
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The Centre for Research on Territory, Transports and Environment of the University of Porto is organising an international conference on the theme " Spatial Planning for Change". This is the link for the conference website: https://citta-conference.fe.up.pt/
The call for abstracts is now open!
Location and date: University of Porto, 20th September 2019
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My pleasure! I wonder whether some would not like to offer a full presentation. We would welcome that, if they so wished. The extended call for abstracts is still open...
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Digitalization in public administration and not least urban planning is gaining momentum. More and more data gets available and tools and methods advance and get digitized. I was wondering if digitalization (or the digital transformation) will impact urban planning practice in the sense that we will focus more and more on details, while loosing a sense for the big picture. But there could be also other concerns like for example a standardization (there are pros and cons for that of course) or a loss of creativity (while probably enabling new ways of creativity).
Has anybody done research on how planning practice changes due to digitalization?
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This is how I conducted such research, including analyzing the Land Use technical specification. t shows that only the Netherlands has solved the key problem. The paper plan does not have to be the only document anymore. The digital zone plan is just as accurate and is the equivalent of a paper plan. In other European countries, the document is still a document. Standardization brings many benefits, but the most for those countries that have long had a stable land use classification (France, Germany, the Netherlands). The authors of the Land Use specifications were the representatives of these countries, and therefore the standards contained in this specification are the most consistent with their model of the zoning plan. The standards of the European land use classification for national classification have not been mapped in these countries. Apparently, work is continuing to improve the adaptation of the European HILUCS classification to the needs of other countries and integrated planning. The very idea is very good, provided that there is a type of a stream plan in a given country, consistent with other instruments of spatial policy. In my opinion, it is ideal in this area in the Netherlands. A well-functioning development policy is very important for the development of the country. If economic domination is combined with spatial planning, then the country and territory data develops better. The 1: 5000, 1: 50,000 scale is important.
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Hello, I'm interested in studies focusing on the potential impact of China's present and future activity in the Western Balkans on the region's territorial governance and territorial development dynamics.
Can anyone suggest recent research/articles on the matter?
Any help appreciated! :)
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There was an interesting article in NRC Handelsblad - a leading Dutch newspaper. It was not about TG, but about Chinese investments having an impact on TG. In short: China invests in infrastructure - and countries cannot pay back the loans. The property, or a 99 year right, then goes to China. This happened in Sri Lanka (a whole harbour is now Chinese), and is likely to happen in African countries. China is not in TG, but in getting critical infrastructure, and that has an impact on TG. And China makes long term investments - and waits for 10-20 years. It would be interesting to check out the details of the loan documents. regards
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Transit Oriented Development areas are located within radious of one 1/4 to 1/2 mile (400-800 m) What do you think what is the optimal distance from housing development to railway station? What is the difference between urban and rural areas?
Best Regards,
Wojciech Jurkowski
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Research conducted over the years in California has found that walking distance depends on whether it takes place at the origin (residential) end of a trip or at the destination (employment or other) end. Cervero found, for example, that walking distance from rail station to office followed a steeply dropping curve; offices adjacent to rail stations saw 20-30% of employees arriving by rail; at 100m, that figure was about 15%; at 250m it was down to 5%, and at 400m it was down to 2.5%, an order of magnitude difference with adjacent properties (it is worth noting that no mode choice component of any Regional Travel Model in the US with which I am familiar bothers to take these differences into account; the San Diego model, for example, assigns a single average walking score to any employment site located within a Transportation Analysis Zone whose centroid is within a specified straight-line distance from the station, leading to gross distortions in ridership projections).
The question, here, though, is about residential access. Other research in California, I recall, showed a straight, gently sloping line, with maximum ridership generated adjacent to the station and ridership declining until a distance of about 800m. Additional research has shown that people report a willingness to drive up to 2 miles to access a park-and-ride facility; beyond that, willingness to drive drops off significantly.
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Currently I have to do a site plan in my academic works. I like to do a site plan for a critical junction area of Galle town, Sri Lanka. From the site planning I like to overcome the traffic jam in the junction.
This is my location
I want to refer some case studies or projects that others done like this. It will make lot for my project. Please advise me
Thank you,
Dilshan
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It can be possible or cannot possible. It is connected with many things, such as, existing land-use, the street patterns, the entire city road network and how it is connected to that locality, if the establishment surrounding the roads can be compromised to reshape or rebuild and so on. If the problem is very localized and only due to existing design of that particular junction, then, you can give the design solution that may minimize the congestions. If it is connected with many other things, then, it is very difficult to solve with a on-the-spot solution. But, I can understand that you cannot not solve all the problems with a single academic work if it is connected with many things. But, you can propose your own localized solution that can be input for a greater solution or comprehensive plan.
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I am preparing an international comparative study on the impact of planning policy instruments on the behaviour of private sector stakeholders in the sustainable development of urban waterfront locations.
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Dear Erick,
How are you? I hope your research is going well. I’ve seen your recent answer and I've remembered another document that probably could help you. It's about the Liverpool case; Hussein, Mohamed M. Fageir (2015) Urban regeneration and the transformation of the urban waterfront: a case study of Liverpool waterfront regeneration. It’s available at: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/28746/1/Thesis%20Final%2C%20Mohamed%20Hussein%2C%20April%202015.pdf
Best regards. Rolando.
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What do you consider the most important developments in the fields of Systematic Conservation Planning and/or Integrated Spatial Planning over the last 5 years?
Additionally, are there techniques/tools/technologies that facilitate the application of these newer developments? What are your favorites? What works well? What doesn't?
References/citations welcome :-)
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Viable territorial systems depend on rethinking the way our society is organised. Spatial planning may (should) contribute to fundamental societal transformations if integrates the principle of sufficiency (i.e. "how much is enough?") in its theories and practices. Otherwise it will be extremely difficult to find a way forward in the era of forced shrinking (e.g. in large extensions of rural areas across Europe).
Does anyone know approaches in this direction? I'd be glad to share thoughts and to discuss possible collaboration in this field.
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Hola Rolando:
Actually, my idea was slightly different: namely, to observe whether the approaches within spatial planning incorporate the idea of "sufficiency" in order to assume and to plan the forced changes our societies are going to face (because of the global environmental and energy crisis). But, indeed, CC adaptation is a good example of new practices within spatial & urban planning. We could further explore the linkages between top-down adaptation (e.g. measures to mitigate heat island effect in urban regions) and bottom-up initiatives related to sustainability and resilience (e.g. Transition Towns*) and how Spatial Planning can integrate both approaches in its practices.
(I still write in English so that other interested colleagues who don't read Spanish or Catalan can participate)
Best
Alexis
* For furhter information: https://transitionnetwork.org/
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As a further step in our research, now we would like to get new perspectives on this topic from users and stakeholders involved in Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) processes. We will appreciate very much if you fill in the questionnaire which will take you 10 minutes. You can reach to the survey here http://dst.azti.es Or alternatively, going directly to the survey https://es.surveymonkey.com/r/dst_quest. Please, do not hesitate to contact us by mailing to dst@azti.es, if you have any feedback, comments or questions. Thank you for your contribution! Best regards
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Based on my vast experience in dealing with DSSs in various areas, I do think that there are any significant reasons why DSSs should not be applicable to Marine Spatial Planning Processes. The "essence" of DSS (or Decision Support Tools - DST) is the capability to provide decision makers with possibilities to explore and investigate consequences of respective decisions on the behavior of the system at hand. These capabilities are created by usage of appropriate models reflecting specifics of the system at hand. And it does not really mean what kind of system (in physical terms) is it. Important is, that the models (together with suitable "physical" or economic data) maps the behavior of the system considered in response to decisions (i.e. development alternatives, operational rules, etc) made or considered. One aspect speaks very strongly for the applicability of DST: capabilities of currently available software solutions to process and display and analyse spatial (geographical) data, which seems to be crucial in spatial planning. I think it is very interesting and promising application area. Go for it !
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Dear online map makers and researchers, could you point to any recent (less than five years) online PPGIS that allows customisation of functionalities to engage lay users in spatial planning?
I am looking to perform comparative usability studies of different online mapping tools for public participation.
I am coming across a number of commercial applications of varying relevance and costs, but many of them are too costly or limited in their range of functionalities. There have been a number of research-led applications, but many of them are obsolete or the researchers have moved to industry or other exciting projects. 
Here is a doi link to the abstract of a recent article, entitled "Toward Cyborg PPGIS":
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Hi Ian, 
ArcGIS Online offers to my understanding some PPGIS capabilities in their Survey123 extension, but it is not opensource. You can build some fuctionalities quite easily on top of Google Maps, but I at least have limited knowledge on how the dataset created this way look like. 
Greg Brown builds his PPGIS solutions "in-house", Aalto University nowadays buys Maptionnaire from Mapita Ltd. as a SaaS, and actually Mapita has been offering Maptionnaire to quite many universities recently. So it depends a bit on what you aim to do, but I believe if you want to do public participation with maps, Mapita has a solution that might come quite handy. 
I am happy to have a chat over the Skype, if you wish.
And just to make this clear for others - I used to work for Aalto University where I used and developed PPGIS tools in many years, and nowadays I work in Mapita Ltd. Ian and I have met previously.
Kind regards, and sorry for the slight product placement.  
Anna
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If someone has a good example of spatial planning in relation to fluvial floods, it will be great!
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This paper provides an interesting comparison between approaches to spatial planning for floods in France and the UK (well England and Wales) see: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143622804000402.  The paper I wrote with a Dutch and French researcher on tools for emergency planning for floods see: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225158149_An_Assessment_of_Flood_Emergency_Plans_in_England_and_Wales_France_and_the_Netherlands
may be of interest
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"Is there any possibility of bitumen/ asphalt releasing carbon dioxide while being heated upto 170 degree centigrade. Though its known that its ignition temperature is ~400°C still if you have any opinion or test results with you.... please share
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I am interested in the mainstreaming of ecosystem thinking in relation to spatial planning. I analyzed the case of Birmingham and I would like to compare it with other significant cases. Thank you
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If you can read french the keyword is "trame verte et bleue" for regional and urban policies aiming at creating blue and green corridors in urban spaces. I found two relevant sources, but only in French. One discusses the role of ecologic corridors in urban policies, while the second analysis the Angers case.
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Can anybody help me to generate spatial weight contiguity or distance matrix.
I wanted to know how it is generated and then how it is used in the spatial regression further?
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Thank you for the kind reply i have planned to do the analysis in R and Stata both. Is any paper or session available in R or Stata that how to conduct the Spatial Econometric. I have couple of papers but needed more to be sure about it.
Thank you for the support.
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I want to measure these variables. How can i measure urbanization?
 By health risks I mean observing diarrhea and TB among slum dwellers. I want to know how to measure it.
 I'm observing ecological deterioration of these slum territories and around territories, how could i measure environmental degradation of these areas? 
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Your research question is quite interesting. However, putting in too many ideas together may lead to complication that hinder you to see the whole picture.
What I can understand from your question is that you would like to measure three variables: urbanization, health risk caused by diarrheal, and environmental degradation.
In terms of urbanization, it is the number of population living in urban area. This figure can be obtained from most of the statistics department. The slum population can be obtained by identifying all the slum areas in or surrounding the cities and the percentage of population living in those areas.
To study how the rate of urbanization contributes to the increasing of slum, you may need to obtain the time series of urban population in one area, let say 10 years, and compare how the urban population has been growing within this 10 years period. By doing so, you can also know how many percent of population living in those slum areas located within and surrounding the city.
In terms of health risk caused by diarrheal, the access to clean water supply is a good indication. Since the most common cause of diarrheal is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite, as a result of accessing food or water that has been contaminated, people living in areas without water supply may have high tendency to be infected. In this case, you may get the proxy of diarrheal health risk by knowing the percentage of urban population with no access to water supply.
In terms of environmental degradation in slum area, you may need to obtain the water quality data from the environmental department. You may need to identify where the water resources of this slum population are, and to check whether these resources fall under Class A, Class B, or Class C with regard to World Heath Organization drinking water quality standard.    
As a conclusion, when you try to analyse your research question separately, you can easily obtain the data that you want from published document. Otherwise, you may need to conduct primary data collection by your own, in which is costly and time consuming.    
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I'm interested in the indicators of the development of megacities or the development of sub-urbs which can contribute more to economic growth.
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Begin from Environmental baseline data through population growth and it's characteristics to determine requirements and adequate zoning 
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Space syntax is the analysis of empty space in architectural and urban space scales through a graphic schema, it is helpful in explaining associations between fluxes and the configuration of the built environment, thus associated also with the land use and socio-economic spatial patterns. Any literature in the use of this space syntax and its usability in doing land value analyses (land appraisal) for taxation purposes?
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Location and development complimentary are key to land value determinants 
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Where this topic is described and/or requirements are outlined.
I am searching for any kind of reference, e.g. reports, calls, drafts, strategy papers.
I appreciate any help you can provide.
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Hi Sven,
there is, besides the "structurvisie ondergrond" in the Netherlands, also an initiative in Switzerland where the Federal
Law on Spatial Planning will be revised and recommendations for
action are being drawn up regarding the coordination of the underground
space. And of course the developments in Germany concerning subsurface spatial planning.
I hope this helps.
Best regards, Sebastian
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articles or books
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A lot of the work undertaken by ESPON in Europe would be helpful. One example is:
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disaster manager and geoscientist How is the role of informal stakeholders in disaster management? Any best-practice for developing countries?
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I would look to the changes FEMA is making, specifically those Administrator Craig Fugate is championing on the integration of professional and community roles in emergency management.  His term is "whole of community."  Other disciplines have had a similar philosophic shift, Sir Robert Peele, almost 200 years ago, set a similar tone for the integration of professional and community roles in policing.  
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Park proximity is considered a feature related to park use and park-based physical activities. Parks play a positive role on urban air quality also. Could someone suggest some research papers on these topics?
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When thinking about externalities in the urban context, think about boundary effects. So distance from the boundary is what matters most.
Of course, the relationship between park and quality of life is complicated (meaning multifaceted). But the market simplifies everything. So this relationship is summarized by the property value surface around parks. So stop thinking about a radius around parks. Instead, think about the value surface in all directions. This surface is intersected by similar surfaces from other parks. For a given park type, the lines of intersections defines park market areas. Refer to Losch (August). What do you find? Are the market areas approximately hexagonal?
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In regional (spatial) planning programs, we have different goals & indicators and off course programs. A regional planning program shows a strategic plan for a region on mid-term period. We want to monitor different indicators to assess that how is the situation of any program and indicator. Please share me any experiences about assessment and monitoring of spatial planning programs.
Thanks
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The UK had introduced a whole set of measures to monitor progress of the Local Development Framework implementation at Local Authority level. You can find the practice guide via any search engine: ODPM 2005 Local Development Framework Monitoring: A Good Practice Guide. It's specifically bound to the UK context and data availability, but may be of use for your purpose.
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Ozawa and Seltzer (1999) through an extensive survey, attempted to produce a list of skills and competencies a planning graduate should possess, which Alexander (2005) consequently refined into skill-based categories. Both these studies identify ‘Synthesis, Creativity and Design’ to be a major skill set within a planner’s competence. Keeping in mind that a spatial planner’s ultimate object is creating or shaping physical form or spaces, what sort of ‘Design’ does this refer to? Is it the ‘Design’ that I emphasised on my previous post? I do not think so. Then, what sort of ‘Design’ it is?
It is my view that I should elaborate on what sort of ‘Design’ that I intend discuss about. As most of you have already agreed upon or would agree, design fore mostly is a problem solving exercise. Reading into Christopher Alexander’s work on Notes on the Synthesis of Form (1964) design as a problem solving activity, can be broadly understood have three constituents or components. Based on this premise Munasinghe (2007) conceptualises a design activity or ‘an act of design’ can be witnessed in the presence of,
1. A cognitive act that deals with identifying and envisaging patterns on a given problem or situation
2. A process of both problem solving and realizing form with regard to these patterns
3. A product (physical or functional) with which its designer’s thinking can be traced.
Alexander (1964) also extends his argument by stating
“...before we can ourselves turn a problem into form, because we are self-conscious, we need to make explicit maps of the problem structure…”
Hence, a designer in order to achieve physical clarity in a form, must achieve some form of programmatic clarity in his or hers mind and actions. From a spatial planners’ point of view, it is then critical that they have higher capacities in visualising and envisaging the particular ‘physical form’ that they intend to create of shape. Their task in achieving such ‘form’ in this sense, doesn’t necessarily have to be ‘sitting on a drawing board’ composing plans, sections or visuals, although it is an important part of the process, for which they can seek assistance from allied experts. The above mentioned ‘product’ from a planner’s point of view can be a policy decision, a regulation, a charter, a contract, (urban) design guidelines, an assessment and the list goes on… Yet, it is the responsibility of a planners to have clarity of thought especially their spatial thinking ability, on the particular ‘design product’ they intend to achieve. In the absence of such clarity in mind, planner’s identity as a ‘designer of space’ would inevitably extinct, leaving behind a bureaucrat whose task is restricted to the mere application of technical knowledge. Emerging specialities of city designing—the so-called ‘qualified designers’, certainly making this difficult for spatial planners.
If it is clarity of thought or skills of visualisation and envisaging what spatial planners are seeking, there is a wealth of knowledge that they can utilise. Numerous ‘thinking models’ or ‘methods of structured thinking’—Strategic Thinking, Systems Thinking, Design Thinking etc. are already proved effective in uncovering and enhancing cognitive capacities of professionals. It may necessarily mean that spatial planning graduates and students should adapt ‘Design’ thinking at an early stage of their careers within their multi-disciplinary concerns of space, in becoming expert ‘Designers’ of space.
According to Tonkinwise (2011) however, such thinking expertise cannot exist in isolation of being a designer—what Cross (2004) states as ‘designerly ways of being’. Within his explanation, it is quite clear that such state of being is something that has to be manifested within a person, through conscious and deliberate being. It requires both structured way of thinking and acting accordingly. It then inevitably becomes a way of life; a part of who that person is; and his or hers actions then, becomes a part of what that person is. It may be then the need of the day for Spatial Planners and planning students to develop such understanding and act accordingly.
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This is an interesting discussion. In answering your question it is important to acknowledge the enourmous diversity in planning and design practices and disciplines. This implies that skills and competencies are diverging as well; in time and place. Many of the debates about the skills and competencies of planners have revolved a certain ideal type planner; one that never existed and never will exist. Furthermore not all planners will work on the same issues and from the same perspective or interest. Contemporary challenges require a different kind of planner, with different skills and compentencies than those of planners who used to formulate and enforce zoning plans for example. Skills, competencies and therefore the education systems need to stimulate diversity and evolve with sociatal demand and challenges.
In an article in Planning Theory (see attach) we argued that a design perspective can enrich planning systems, and planners can indeed become designers. But we have also shown that this might entail some risks. The benefits and risks are community and time specific, as the co-evolutions of planning and design have shown, and should therefor always be considered in a specific context.
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As this is my first ever post on any online media, I thought of keeping it simple. Yet, the question I pose within this writing may be deep and broad enough to even do a PhD research.
So, as the title speaks it self, can a ‘Planner’ (Town/ Urban or Spatial Planner) become a ‘Designer’?
Conceptually and theoretically, ‘Planning’ itself is understood as a ‘Design’ discipline; and its practitioners as ‘Designers’ (Levin 1966, Owen, 2007, Lawson, 2005, Razzaouk and Shute, 2012 etc.). This is commonly accepted on the basis that the ultimate object of ‘Spatial Planning’ (I would refer to term spatial in covering a wide array of specialities) is achieving physical form or space—be it urban, rural or in between. In this sense, a Spatial Planner’s contribution irrespective of being involved in strategic or statutory planning activities, would be to shape the intended physical form, directly or indirectly. It is at this point that I intend to view the title question to be two fold, of which I would write focussing only on the first premise within this post.
As a Town Planner who is immensely passionate about urban design practice, yet never was fortunate (or unfortunate?) enough to have formal specialization in Urban Design, I have often felt a weak designer. I have been hesitant and less confident in composing smooth diagrams, lines, curves and visuals that are supposed to communicate the great planning proposals I have in my mind. I often compare my ‘urban design’ work to that of architects (and students who usually have gone through intensive training in those areas) and realize how far behind I am. This is strongly evident when it comes to designing smaller spaces, the finer details of a typical urban space, that I feel I am incapable of doing so. But, I must state that I possess above-par skills in sketching and drawing compared to my fellow planning colleagues. I’m also confident that similar to any spatial planner, I too understand the language of spatial thinking.
  • Does this mean a spatial planner naturally lack such competence? That they have to go through additional training in order to actually be able to design city spaces.
  • Does that mean becoming a ‘designer’ of cities, is that straightforward for ‘planners’? What does this tell us about urban design?
I would present a second premise in the following Part-2 of this post, which focuses on a concept that is considered rather unfamiliar, at least within planners.
All types of responses are welcome and I would be delighted to develop a discussion that would benefit everyone.
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Thanks Paul, Sohail, Anna, Andrea, Earnesto and all others for such valuable insights, which has created a lot of buzz within the conversation. I do have to say, everyone's comments have actually expanded my thinking into this issue, may be too far. I certainly agree with and feel similar ways with what Bryan and Paul has written so far. And at this rate, it is impossible for me to respond to everyone's comments, which has become a 'problem' itself. I believe, the only option I have now is to post Part2, which would clarify my thoughts on this matter. Please await for my next post, I'm sure it would be as interesting as this one.
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The EC-funded project INSPIRATION – http://www.inspiration-h2020.eu – is to formulate an end-user driven Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for land-use, soil management and spatial planning and the related, impacted compartments of the Soil-Sediment-Water (SSW) system in order to meet current and future societal challenges.
In a series of bottom-up stakeholder engagement activities across EU nations the project gathers Research and Innovation (R&I) needs related to the INSPIRATION scope (land and SSW-system use and management), including topics such as:  
  1. What are the strategic research topics? 
  2. What are experiences regarding connecting science to policy/practice?
  3. What are national and transnational funding schemes to implement such Research?  
To complement these activities, I would appreciate your view and contribution! What is your view on the research and innovation needs and opportunities? Do you have a vision on, and what is your insight in upcoming knowledge demands (short, middle and long-term)?  
Collecting input from you is crucial for the project in order to help us describing the state-of-the-art as input into the European research agenda.  
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Interesting project, question and approach to use research gate for this. 
I would argue for research which contributes for assessing the efficiency of land use from the point of view of sustainable development. Many policies (including those that explicity aim for SD goals) have implications for land use: protection of BioDiv, Bio fuels and use of bio based raw materials, renewable energies, organic food, etc. Is all this coherent? How can efficiency of use measured and inform decision making, while considering also non-monetary values (or alternatively improving the data base for monetarization). 
Best Klaus 
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From my point of view De Certeau's works have a phenomenological approach, but I find quite interesting his contribution to tactics and strategies as subversion forms to hegemony.
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Hi Alejandro,
why do you want to employ De Certeau to study practices when there are theories of practices? I understand the incentive to find a way to grasp counter hegemony and I agree that theories of practices (Giddens, Boudieu, and partially Schatzki) often fail to see this.
My suggestion would be to look at the pragmatist notion of praxis which is definitely more than practices. It draws on both, the establishing of conventionalised practices and the way they are permanently contested in every day praxis. We tried to work this out in: The cultural sense of disasters (see link)
Regards
Klaus
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Decades ago, when my professor said that, I already doubted it. In my opinion, economists get the wrong unit of analysis. They should examine the amount of housing service, or the square footage, i.e. floor space for various uses. In that sense, the supply is quite elastic, as providers quickly respond to price change. For example, vacant room will be put to market where rebuilding and rezoning takes place.
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I first misunderstand the question, since "idealistic" is philosophical and not economic term. But as in answers I saw "inelastic", i will refer to it.
In the short run land supply (in the sense of sq. meters of housing) is indeed inelastic (at least in a city fully packed by buildings). In the medium term it becomes less inelastic if extra floors are build after. But there is some limit to population density in a city, because we need space for roads, pedestrian paths, some trees. I found that the maximally observed population density is about 40000 people per square kilometer. Even New York with its skyscrapers does not reach this density; it allows for some space free of buildings between them.
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I am looking for studies on the links between energy consumption, spatial planning and mobility planning. Do you have any suggestions both from academia and planning practice?
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As we all know that based on their experiences & perceptions of urbanization & trends, western theories contextualize generalization to the the third world cities. there are lot of ambiguity and confusion about it. One of the interesting discussions participated by Prof.Ananya Roy & Solomon Benjamin has illustrated the direct examples to disapprove  to unify the global theory of sub-urbanisation.
Annaya Roy directly disfavored these arguments and suggested these generalization are not the universal ones as they can not spread beyond certain boundaries, hence they are not hegemonic theory. Similarly, Prof.Benjamin suggested that this big terminologies loose its significance to explain the realistic situation at micro level and that too from global south cities.He emphasized upon the ethnographic cases which could directly give the flavor of  that case/ site. 
Definitely, the formulation of theories should come from the empirical understand of the local cases, then it can be validated for similar context featuring homogeneous characteristics in terms of governance, economy and institutional aspects.
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You might like to take a look at a book I'm reading at the moment: 'Confronting Suburbanization: Urban Decentralization in Postsocialist Central and Eastern Europe'. It is edited by Kiril Stanilov and Ludek Sykora (2014, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester) who have a broad and simple (but not simplistic) definition of the characteristics of suburbanization globally as well as regionally and contrast urbanisation and suburbanisation in socialist countries before the turn to capitalism. This might give you a new perspective on the breadth of literature in this field so, hopefully, you can align yourself with some whose approach you have sympathies with as well as making critiques.
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I am interested by the postcommunism evolution.
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Dear Cristian,
I believe these material will help:
Post-communist urban planning. From concrete jungles to global cities
Twenty Years of Transition: The Evolution of Urban Planning in Eastern urope and the Former Soviet Union, 1989-2009
Regards,
Vanessa
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Spatial prioritization for species recovery programmes needs to be evidence based, and it may be better to target effort in certain parts of a species rangeB but I'm struggling to find examples where interventions have been applied with good spatial replication across a species range. Agri-environment schemes perhaps provide the best opportunity for such studies. Maybe there are other interventions applied across big areas, that have been monitored and assessed (both the level of intervention and the animal/plant population response).
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Thanks. I am interested in this issue as I'm currently looking at spatial prioritization for single species recovery programmes, to inform conservation policy. There are several spatial questions related to this - for example is it better to direct resources in a species core or edge of range? I have found very few tests of conservation interventions applied right across a species range (i.e. covering a theoretical, or measured, core and edge).
I am also interested in examples of where a conservation intervention has been applied on the edge or outside a current range but where the dispersal ecology of the species, or range shift under climatic change, means colonisation or sustained population persistence is unlikely (i.e. where resources have been directed with little prospect of success).
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Urbanization poses an assemblage of complex issues that are concerned with rapid and seemingly stochastic development, increasing interest in sustainable development as a response to environmental issue, need for long-term thinking, polarizing effects in cities (Spatial & Social) are demanding expansion of the research and policy agenda for spatial planners (Albrechts 2004)⁠. The triggers of urbanization issues may be due to numerous processes like increase in urban population, varying social patterns, motivations of economic growth, swaying political atmosphere, altering landscapes and so on. Hence lately, increased emphasis on integrating non-spatial aspects has been recognized as an important step towards managing change. One such paradigm towards meaningful merger of social and spatial aspects is emphasized through coproduction for reinforcing strategic actions with inclusive decision making process. Such complex issues are not static, but they are dynamic and non-linear in reality, bringing transformation to the cities. As a response various integrative methods, frameworks and strategies have been developed at all scales (Regional, City, Neighborhood or are there others?). A general distinction that has emerged to make spatial planning more instrumental to change is through a reduction approach by developing strategies at regional scale (eg: Land-use Plan, Structure plan) and at local scale (eg: strategic projects, Master plan ).
We will explore the concept of resilience, frequently used in policy documents and project goals , for a framework that can aid in understanding & managing changes. We intend to do this by looking at cities as interdependent systems for their functioning. Systems perspective in spatial planning is not new by any means, but we use it in our research as an underpinning rational to expand its value for spatial planning. This will be further discussed in the methodology section of this chapter. From a systems perspective, a city is a hybrid system comprising of natural (ecological) systems and human (urban) systems (Pickett et al. 2011)⁠. The plurality of systems is emphasized here due to the reason that, even though they are whole system but they comprise of nested systems with numerous parts, which are directly or indirectly related to each other. Implying that any modifications occurring to the parts, either indigenous or endogenous, will have an effect on the system as a whole. With this background we engage with the concept of resilience in cities, and specifically interested in socio-ecological resilience. Here we refer to Holling, who gave the definition of resilience in ecological systems in the 1970's and made a plea to look at ecological and urban systems as interdependent systems which are complex adaptive systems (hereafter referred to as CAS) by themselves. This was established by comparing ecological system with urban system, drawing similarities between the two systems. The similarities of the systems was argued based on three characteristics -i) dependence on the succession of historical events; ii) reliance on spatial linkages; and iii) non-linear structures(Holling & Goldberg 1971)⁠. It explicates cities are not homogeneous entities but a spatial system of mosaics with an interplay of economic, social and ecological variables that sets forth a system with spatial heterogeneity. The complex interplay with and within these variables makes urban systems malleable, thus making them attractors for transformation of both kinds planned and self-organized. Heterogeneity, non-linearity and malleability (Sensitive to changes) in an urban system is compared to CAS which is characterized by numerous parts that interact and self-organize corresponding to collective behavior of the individual parts. We will refrain from establishing urban systems as complex adaptive systems in our research, as it has been done capably elsewhere (Portugali 2011)⁠. However by assuming it, we use it as the for our research. Our interest lies in better understanding of diverse interactions of system variables that enable self-organizing capacities in urban system. Lately in planning theory self-organization is associated with social innovation, discourse on ecosystem services, power relations and coproduction to mention a few (add ref). The causal effect of in the system increases the surprises and risk in urban areas exposing them to disturbances. For us, spatial planning as a field is concerned with tackling these disturbances to provide a productive environment for people. Planning ultimately is for betterment of a society.
In a systemic sense, researchers over the last few decades have focused on the potentials offered by crisis and disturbance as an opportunity for positive development (vale, Lawrence; Campanella 2005)⁠ (Lhomme et al. 2013)⁠. The frame adopted by the researchers is through degree of resilience of urban systems, which is one of the characteristics of a complex adaptive system. Resilience theory discards the assumption of equilibrium state of a system. Instead it emphasizes on the non-linear dynamics of change occurring due to the interdependent parts of an socio-ecological system. He also emphasized on including humans as component of the system as the social processes undertaken by humans altered the processes in natural system. From an ecological point of view, urbanization impacts on ecological components in cities such as urban hydrology, soil substrate, urban climate and urban vegetation to mention a few over time (Pickett et al. 2011)⁠ has been stressed upon by ecologists. These impacts informs us that resilience is concerned with not only sudden changes in a system but also slow processes that can open opportunities like recombining of evolved structures and process, renewal of the system and emergence of new trajectories (Wilkinson 2011; vale, Lawrence; Campanella 2005)⁠. Assuming cities as socio-ecological systems, comprising of both ecological and anthropogenic components whose interactions have an impact on its resilience. A network approach is seen beneficial to gain deeper insight into socio-ecological resilience (Janssen & Bodin 2006)⁠ This will be further discussed in the approach of this dissertation.
However, asking a simple question that can be answered in many ways is – what differentiates cities of 21st century from cities in the past? This question rakes the sheer foundation of our image of a city and makes us think in terms of morphological changes that have occurred. From a systems perspective, analysis of structural elements of complex adaptive systems lies in the nested networks they form(Janssen & Bodin 2006)⁠. For continuity of the same language, we apply network perspective to socio-ecological systems to analyze the structure of interactions in terms of nodes and links. The overarching research question from a network perspective is -
Which roles do (multiple) networks and (diversified) nodes play in making a region/city/city quarter/neighborhood (more) resilient?
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A rather dated but highly technical work in graph theory on nodes and regions- #1 link
A more accessible and recent work on nodes and nested city systems
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The motive is to develop spatial planning tools to support the ecosystem approach (considering bio-physical and socio-economic factors, suitability of cultured species, scale of operations and farming technologies employed) to aquaculture and fisheries development. But, as a beginner, I would like to know what are the spatial planning tools widely used in these kind of research. Any kind of help is greatly appreciated.
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The Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture (EAA) is Participatory in nature with multiple objectives interwoven with other sectors and nested with adaptive capability using extended knowledge, incentives and open public participation and transparency as the cohesive force for stakeholders.
Considering spatial scope, it covers the farm, waterbody and the global scale.
EAA starts from site selection through operation and final marketing of products. To ensure that the environment is protected, decision making and modeling tools come in handy. Decision support for expansion and optimization of aquaculture operations can make use of a wide range of models, designed and run in the virtual environment with field mverification as the final step.
Environmental Models
Mass balance equation, which can be used for many different parameters but is most widely used in a water quality context to model nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in and from aquaculture systems.
DEPOMOD: can be used in local-scale assessment of the effects of fish cages on the environment.
Spatial Models
GIS is an important tool in this regard because it organizes, analyses and presents geographical data in a useful and efficient manner via standard data formats.
You can visit:
This gives you a general look at the EAA tools for Aquaculture and freshwater at the bottom page. You can then navigate to the three websites given there. Particularly, the ECASA toolbox: http://www.ecasatoolbox.org.uk/the-toolbox
There is a list of indicators and models to choose from. However, I would suggest you start by looking at this site: http://www.ecasatoolbox.org.uk/
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Creative city is a cutting-edge topic for urban and regional policies, however, it's really difficult to find spatial planning tools on this matter (such as maps, cartography, indicators, development plans, local action plans,ecc.). Do you know some interesting case-studies?
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Some of these papers might be helpful:
Boschma, R. A. and M. Fritsch (2009): Creative Class and Regional Growth: Empirical Evidence from Seven European Countries. In: Economic Geography 85 (4), 391-423.
Brennan-Horley, C. (2010): Mental mapping the ‘creative city’. In: Journal of Maps 6 (1), 250-259.
Evans, G. (2009): Creative Cities, Creative Spaces and Urban Policy. In: Urban Studies 46 (5-6), 1003-1040.
Hesse, M. and B. Lange (2012): Paradoxes of the Creative City. Contested Territories and Creative Upgrading. The Case of Berlin, Germany. In: Erde 143 (4), 351-371.
Martin-Brelot, H.; Grossetti, M.; Eckert, D.; Gritsai, O. and Z. Kovács (2010): The Spatial Mobility of the ‘Creative Class’: A European Perspective. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Rese-arch 34 (4), 854-870.
If you need some more, don't hesitate to ask!
Best,
Moritz
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Why most of landscape fragmentation studies use use categorical maps to depict patterns of fragmentation rathern than conventional topographical maps?
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Categorical maps are preferred because fragmentation studies are based on landscape metrics. This are calculated with algorithms that operate on categorical maps composed by fragments of different cover type, by programs or extensions like Fragstats and Patch Analyst.   More recently, there is a preference for working with surface metrics, which are obtained from continuous maps; this should allow to work with topographic maps for purposes other that human impact on natural vegetation cover. I recommend reading the paper by McGarigal et al. 2009. Surface metrics: an alternative to patch metrics for the quantification of landscape structure, Landscape Ecology 24:433–450.
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What do you think about it? Can it be used in spatial planning in your country?
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You can try:
"A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units –  An Eco-physio-graphic Stratification Approached"
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Is this a question of semantics, or is there a genuine fundamental difference between the two? - e.g., that marine spatial planning involves better spatial organisation of activities in the ocean for long-term sustainability of ecosystems and associated goods and services, whereas maritime spatial planning is simply better organisation of ocean-based activities excluding a link to environmental sustainability.
They seem to be used interchangeably but I can't find a concrete comparison of the two terms. Thanks in advance.
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Thanks to everyone for responses so far.
I understand the difference between "marine" and "maritime", and I think this is something that is broadly agreed. The big question is in marine/maritime spatial planning
UNESCO says this: "Marine spatial planning is a public process of analyzing and allocating the spatial and temporal distribution of human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic, and social objectives that usually have been specified through a political process. Characteristics of marine spatial planning include ecosystem-based, area-based, integrated, adaptive, strategic and participatory."
The EU says this: "... maritime spatial planning [is] a cross-cutting policy tool enabling public authorities and stakeholders to apply a coordinated, integrated and trans-boundary approach. The application of an ecosystem-based approach will contribute to promoting the sustainable development and growth of the maritime and coastal economies and the sustainable use of marine and coastal resources."
They seem fundamentally the same to me...
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The relation between these two kinds of plans are very important but in a lot of cases we don't have any strategic plan previously to a Spatial Plan. So we need to put a strong strategic component in the spatial plan (normally a Municipal Master Plan). But I think that it is very different.
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According to the European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy."
Spatial planning can be done on a local/ municipality level but also on regional, national and inter-national level.
It is a key step towards implementation of policies. 
And, yes, I agree with you, a strong strategic component is needed. Strategy needs to develop a vision for a desirable future, define goals for the near-, mid- and long-term, assess the status quo and define strategic levers to achieve the goals. Thus, strategy is the basis for spatial planning and implementation of policies.
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I would like to determine endmembers using PPI method. The PPI is typically run on an MNF transform result.
However, I do not know when to apply an image fusion technique to the image data - is it before or after MNF transformation? Which technique can provide a better result!
Thanks for any help.
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Hi,
After reducing the data dimentionality by implementing MNF, PPI is typically applied to determine the pure pixels. So, there is no need of doing pan-sharpening on your dataset. N-dimentional Visualizer (in ENVI) should be applied afterwards, as an multidimensional analysis to identify the spectral endmembers.(usually those which are located at corners are selected!).
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Economic planning was the forefront of planning in developing nations like India. Recently the new central government abolished the planning commission. They are looking for new planning organisation with more private and public participation. Whether there is chance to provide for spatial planning extending from city to region to district and state i.e. from micro to macro. What should be the role of various actors who may add to current budget based planning some spatial elements? Can the District Planning agencies can be strengthened to facilitate planning at grass roots.
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I think in many places it is common to focus on infrastructure at municipal and province/state levels, and to use zoning to help make sure that infrastructure can be matched to needs of residents, businesses and industry while allowing for a decent living situation.
In many places, it is considered as undesirable to go much further than that, except for the fact of needing to build or rent plenty of other building to perform many other tasks of government. In such cases, the role of spatial planning is fairly limited.
For example, in Toronto there is a waterfront. Much of it is public-access parkland. But some of it is residential, some of it is industrial (relic of the old days), and a very little bit of it is commercial (some restaurants and touristy spots right downtown). But the question of infrastructure isn't so challenging on public-access waterfront.
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Or did all these urban-regions emerge/are they emerging in developed countries that had some more characteristics than the defined dynamics in common which led them to a polycentric region?
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Read Shlomo Angel
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There is a widespread effort to operationalize resilience in the context of urban spatial planning. However, an important precondition to this effort is the acquisition of evidence and documentation of the spatial characteristics and properties of social resilience. Does anyone have in mind a relevant study / work?
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Spatial resilience: integrating landscape ecology, resilience, and sustainability
Graeme S. Cumming Landscape Ecol (2011) 26:899–909 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10980-011-9623-1#page-1
it is a landscape ecology paper but is interesting for the underlying conceptual basis and maybe useful?
It is an important point about scale, individual, household, community etc.
With resilience to disasters another point is that it can be different during an event and recovering from an event at each spatial scale.
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Does urban resilience mean an improved capacity for all to avoid, cope with and recover from shocks and adversities to which the community as a whole is exposed? Are there any conflicts between resilience of some groups and that of others? Does (personal) individualized make sense? If yes, are there any conflicts between personal and collective resilience?
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From the work I have done on Resilience I believe that Resilience is "the reaction to vulnerability". In this sense it is a dynamic property and I do not fully agree with Ivar's view that resilience might be identified as the positive characteristics of an entity making it capable to bounce back. For me the "bouncing back" process is Resilience and this process may lead to a new regime of balance very different from the starting regime before the appearance of the stress.
Resilience attitudes are actually performed by a wide variety of entities / agents in a city or region: Authorities and institutional organizations, individuals and households, social groups and business networks…. The focus of my question is what happens to the citizens if an urban community for instance is qualified with resilient authorities / institutions. Reversely, if the community is qualified with resilient citizens (versus risks and adversities) what can be the impact of this individualized resilience to the institutions and the urban community as a whole? Have you in mind examples of self-centered resilience that exacerbates vulnerability and exposure of others and/or collective vulnerability? Furthermore, have you come upon experiences of resilience triggering new hazards currently or in the future?
In the case of Athens’ social and economic crisis several cases of resilience have proved to transfer vulnerability to the future and other agents, also to produce new risks and exposure. Since the beginning of fiscal crisis in 2010 the Greek Government has displayed an outstanding capacity to avoid default (i.e. resilience); state adaptations however have translated into extra vulnerability for social groups, particularly the weakest. A crowd of households in Athens are increasingly exposed to the chronic risks of malnutrition, infectious diseases and epidemics, psychological depression and suicide, criminal assault, homelessness and forced migration. The reasons are related to wage and pension cuttings, elevation of direct and indirect taxation, shrinkage of social welfare public provisions and other policies aiming at fiscal rationalization and remediation. This has been indeed a resilient political option of the Government which opted dismantling the welfare system instead of other possible options such as chasing tax evasion or cutting the privileges of political and economic elite. It is obvious that this is about transformation of state’s vulnerability (to debt crisis) to human and social and its transference to every social group dependent on the state’s welfare system. The reverse transference through resilience has also proved to be true: resilient individuals and households turn to wood fuel for heating, resort to cheaper but unsafe housing accommodation and turn to cheap meals and food stuff of questionable safety. These practices have already or may lead in the future to new hazards and collective exposures: atmospheric pollution, technological accidents, urban fires, communicable diseases, illegal wood-cutting and deforestation.
Above cases indicate that individualized may come in conflict with collective Resilience. How this contradiction might be handled through policy? This has been the essence of my question.
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I was looking for material on mitigating and adapting measures for climate change. But the problem I faced was that I mostly get policy framed proposals, or which are primarily related to technology and science, e.g. using green roofs etc. I wanted to know how spatial planning can help in mitigating and adapting to climate change. The scale will be around 1:200,000 (i.e. for a district in India). I believe that if you use this level of scale, you can do spatial planning measures best. If you use a larger scale, it will become more policy based framework, and if use a smaller scale, say 1:50000, then it will be a technological measure, and will not solve my purpose.
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Dear Prakhar,
I know that the situation in Europe can not be easily compared to the on in developing countries. However, I think the BASE project should be of interest for you: As you can see on there website, the "research project "Bottom-Up Climate Adaptation Strategies for a Sustainable Europe" (BASE) supports action for sustainable climate change adaptation in Europe. BASE makes experiential and scientific information on adaptation meaningful, transferable and easily accessible to decision-makers at all levels. The project is funded under the EUs 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7). A presentation describing BASE, as well as its relation to the the EU Adaptation Strategy is available for download" --> http://base-adaptation.eu/about-base
Kind regards,
Stephan
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While polycentric urban regions identified by scholars as a new urban phenomenon and is a spreading pattern worldwide, what are the opposing reasons to this approach? Are there any ideas supporting the former patterns that mostly can be seen in developing countries-Urban Primacy?
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Hi, I don't really have the depth of knowledge here and seeing more opinions would be great so I'll add and hopefully get some more discussion happening.
One issue is that of governance and the division of power. Planning Asian Cities by Hamnet discusses it a bit in relation to Manila and Jakarta. Reading about the cities in Manila doing their own thing and the central government hasn't managed to get conformity so different rules and regulations (such as building standards) throughout the greater area. I'd also see this giving rise to competition between the different centres and the playing of one 'local' government against each other.
We modelled future urban growth in Australia and examined it in respect to a regional plan covering a number of local government areas. Too broad scale for urban design work but overall the regional plan was very good. However it is only a guideline for the local governments who have the capacity to ignore it. We've also had local government feel specific new developments are inappropriate for their area or will give rise to other issues - traffic, changing the nature of the place etc and have then been overridden by a higher tier of government.
Total speculation: Depending on size of the city and distances between centres there may be advantages with not having to replicate facilities and infrastructure which may give an advantage with economics of scale?
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My recent case study reveals that frequently impact assessors are unable to apply SEA because they consider some spatial plans to have none of the strategic aspects to assess. It got me curios about the roots of spatial strategy and impact assessment. Hence, considering the context of SEA, when can we say that a spatial decision is strategic one and how to call the other decisions – design, operational or tactical?
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In my experience, strategic decisions are about which of several (to possibly many) spatial units are the highest priority for, say, protection or remediation. Emphasis is on the which. Next, given a set of priortized spatial units, one may then ask, for any specific unit, what are the best management options. The emphasis here is on the what. This a classical multi-criteria decision analysis problem in which I want to choose among one of several discrete actions, and this is an example of tactical planning. Finally, having selected a specific action to implement on a specific spatial unit, there is the question of precisely how. Emphasis on the how, which is about operational planning (and so also design, I suppose).