Space Technology for Development

Space Technology for Development

  • Graham Peter Michael Burnett added an answer:
    Does Pioneer-effect depend on radial velocity with regards to Sun?

    After about twenty years studying of Pioneer-effect the theory that the origin of this anomaly is a recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the spacecrafts received significant support. Although dependence of additional radial acceleration on radial velocity towards to Sun a=-Q(v_r)^2 with Q= 4.13*10^(-20) cm conforms to the basic properties of the Pioneer-effect. Estimation of its action on radial perturbations of Neptunian satellites Proteus and Triton in a first approximation gives close to observed values.

  • Raheam A Mansor Al-Saphory added an answer:
    Can anyone help me to find a paper concerning quasi -Hilbert space?

    I mean, quasi Hilbert space is a quasi normed space induced by quasi inner product space where the third condition of norm function is :

    || x+y|| is less than or equal to

    k ||x||+ ||y||        and

    k is greater than or equal to 1


    Raheam A Mansor Al-Saphory

    Dear Mostafa Eidiani 

    Thank so much for your information

    Best Regards

  • Edward Patrick added an answer:
    Is anyone aware of published research on total ionizing dose radiation effects on ccd or cmos imagers?
    There has been a lot of single event radiation effects work done on imagers for space, but I am interested in the degradation of the image due to total dose.
    Edward Patrick

    These are very important issues when designing missions for Europa as increased shielding to combat the Io plasma torus will always result in a reduced science payload and a reduced number of Europa flybys. Being able to tolerate the highest ion fluxes can lead to much higher science return over flying a vault of tungsten and tantalum shielding.

    I often wonder if SiC heterostructures will be able to pick up the slack, but I don't see evidence for work on FPGAs or memory in SiC, only FETs and diodes. This is one reason why efforts to produce SiC devices for Venus will also pay off in higher radiation tolerance at Jupiter. Furthermore, such high-temp devices could lead to high temperature bakeouts for the entire spacecraft to meet any and all future planetary protection requirements.

  • Cole Christian Pazar added an answer:
    Can anyone help to clarify the numerical values?
    The paper "Optimal soft landing control for moon lander" does not contain the parameter values as; maximum thrust force(F-max), the admissible bound of the control parameters (sigma). I am studying this area if you please let me know it would be helpful.
    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: This paper considers the soft landing problem of a moon lander. The main purpose is to design the optimal control law to ensure the soft landing of the lander with the least fuel consumption. It is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, where specific requirements of this soft landing problem are all incorporated in the problem formulation. Then, by utilizing the specific features of the problem, this optimal soft landing problem is transformed into an equivalent standard optimal control problem subject to continuous state inequality constraints. A computational method is developed, based on the control parameterization in conjunction with a time scaling transform and the constraint transcription method, to design the optimal controller for this new constrained optimal control problem. Numerical results are presented for illustration.
      No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Automatica
    Cole Christian Pazar
    I would suggest trying to contact authors, Xing-Long Liu, Guang-Red Duan, and Kok Lay Teo if you haven't already.
  • James Garry added an answer:
    Why do we use gold coated mylar rather than silver coated mylar?
    Silver is more conductive than gold.
    James Garry

    Gold doesn't tarnish and thus its emissivity remains more uniform over time.
    (cue fond childhood memories of polishing the silverware every Christmas)
  • Priyanka P James asked a question:
    Which encoder currently used for video conferencing between earth and space?
    Encoder for space application?
  • James Dyhouse added an answer:
    Methods of G Hardening
    I recently read an article that Jules Verne's Space cannon is unfeasible due to the enormous g force upon the projectile, which according the article was calculated out to 22,000 G's. I have just read another article explaining that guidance instrumention for a U.S. naval gun had been G hardened to a capability of 20,000 g's. My question is this, what method is used to g harden their instrumentation, and are there other methods in use?
  • Paul Young added an answer:
    Manned, deep space vessel with centrifugal section.
    Does anyone know of any research or engineering studies regarding using centrifugal section(s) for crew habitat or rehabilitation in the design of manned, deep space craft? My interest is in the practical challenges relating to torque and angular momentum affecting forward propulsion; and, where torsional stresses will have structural affects that require design considerations. [One visual design example would be the Cosmonaut Alexi Leonov spaceship from the movie 2010.]
    Paul Young
    Erandall, see my previous post where we used sterling cycle engines for rotation.
  • Rishabh Bana asked a question:
    How can drawbacks of hybrid propellents be removed in spacecrafts?
    How can the pressure vessel failure and blow back failure while using hybrid propellent be removed or altered?
  • Jayaraman V added an answer:
    shall we give them the technology or only the benefit?
    New and emerging technologies, like space technology, are rapidly expanding, and will greatly enhance the productive capabilities and wealth of those countries and entities that are making judicious and appropriate investments in them. These technologies will govern future human interactions worldwide and dominate global economic activities in the 21st century. Space technology has brought unprecedented benefits to humankind, although more for developed than developing countries. This technology can make an immense contribution to solving the problems of the developing nations. It can help cushion the devastating effects of natural disasters and other man-made problems through early warnings before they occur. It can be used in the area of meteorological observation, satellite communications, positioning and emergency response, information regarding earth resources, environmental assessment and monitoring, enabling ICT applications for education, information dissemination for health, forest and vegetation mapping, land management among others.

    There is an argument that it is not feasible to establish more capacity in developing countries in the area of space technology under the circumstances of the currently existing enough number of active satellites and the existing market competition between satellite-manufacturing companies. Rather, what they recommend is, developing countries should focus on ground services and effective use of remote sensing data for development. However, others also argue that providing the technology and skills to establish space industry to the developing nations has tremendous benefits.

    Leave your comment about this idea?
    Jayaraman V
    World has seen quantum jump in the number of developing countries joining the remote sensing field in the last 10 years from the earlier limited number, There are around 30 players today with more than 200 satellites planned in the next 10 years. There are many success stories from developing countries like India which has end-to-end capability.
  • Debasish Patnaik added an answer:
    Safe and Economic Space Debris Removal Technologies?
    How can the pollution in Space such as derilict satellites, wastes of used stages of rocket and other siimilar debris be removed from space through safe, economical and technically feasible ways?
    Over the past 50 years of space exploration, we have created enormous amount of such waste, which is a serious danger to spacecrafts and satellites while performing their regular missions.
    LASER technology has been brought in use, but that is however, not an entirely safe method. Please suggest some concepts that can be developed to clean our orbits atleast.
    Debasish Patnaik
    just love people belong to R&D..
  • Ravi Reddiar added an answer:
    MARS mission, why it has been delayed ill 2030.
    What prevents earlier attempts. what , and where we need tecnological development.
    Ravi Reddiar
    @Egbert Jan Veen ,gone through the prescribed NASA link,understood satisfactorily.Understood is orbiting is less fuel(nil), that is why long elliptical (moon is o.k),but elliptical as far as Mars.
  • Bruce Pivar added an answer:
    What are the materials used for building a spacecraft?
    Bruce Pivar
    It depends on the function or purpose of the spacecraft segment or component. Just as with materials on earth, various requirements dictate the properties and capabilities. In space vehicles though thermal properties and reactions can be high on the list of decision making. Strength commensurate with being light weight (or, low mass) is a major driver of selecting things like composites (carbon fiber is a biggie) or the newer aluminum alloys. Many spacecraft anymore are dressed in Kapton blankets (the Apollo Lunar Module's descent stage- the stage that landed the humans on the moon had a lot of the gold-looking blankets covering it; in fact Kapton has a thin layer of flash vaporized super thin gold as one of it's layers). There are man-made metallic-like acrylic materials that substitute for the gold in those blankets that have the equivalent of 99% thermal insulating capacity of gold. The 1st two space qualified shuttles- Columbia and Challenger had the gold Kapton blankets under certain removable components or modules- while Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavor had the acrylic, in an attempt to reduce costs. Many items use carbon fiber such as the photovoltaic arrays (also known as solar cell panels) for bonding the actual solar cells to. Stronger, more rigid structural requirements such as where a large high thrust rocket motor would mount will still be made from materials less prone to flex or crushing like steel or titanium, but aluminum is still the prevalent material. Titanium is substantially lighter than steel but with much of steel's properties. The "backbone" of the shuttle orbiter are the two titanium sill longerons, located along where the bottom edge of each payload bay door meets the fuselage are. The remaining primary structural material is aluminum (structure including stringers and the skin, underneath the infamous tiles and white thermal blankets. Items such as the leading edges of the wings are carbon carbon- a rock hard and seemingly brittle material that actual starts out prior to development as rayon cloth. Many spacecraft expected to engage heavy radiation exposure such as those that go to the outer planet gas giants have outer thermal blankets with external metallic coatings to shed radiation and radiation-generated electrical charges, for protecting the internal electronic systems that power, and control the spacecraft and also protecting the various scientific instruments- the reason these spacecraft exist. Most communications satellites in earth orbit are outside the van Allen radiation belts and technically reside at the edge of deep space- 22,300 miles from the planet's surface and as such need to have insulating blankets to resist cosmic radiation but also solar radiation that we don't get affected with on the ground due to the earth's atmosphere. Those blankets also assist in resisting micrometeorite impacts that can damage.
    Propellant tanks often are made of spun filament made of fiberglas or carbon strands- to keep weight down, instead of metal tanks, though aluminum tanks are still much in use. Solar arrays often have glass over the cells for protection, though other materials more resistant to cracking from impacts and heat, radiation effects are staring to be used more.
    ...hopefully this minor explanation has provided some of the answer you seek.
  • Closed account asked a question:
    Heavenly Gadgets: Spinoffs From Space Programmes
    Under a series of discussions furthermore has been accepted on the idea of bionics as a perfect discipline towards sustaining the world symbiotically applied.

    What do ceramic teeth braces, artificial hearts, airbags, insulin pumps and olympic-calibre swimsuits have in common?

    Answer: They originated in space.

    All these gadgets and hundreds more are spinoffs from technologies developed for the multi-billion-dollar space programmes that kicked into high gear 50 years ago when Yuri Gagarin became the first human catapulted into orbit.

    Many of these offshoots began with a quest by American, Soviet and European engineers for materials that could perform new tasks or withstand extreme temperatures, cosmic rays and the stresses of high or zero gravity.

    So-called memory metals, for example, that flex and recover their shape in response to heat are used for shower valves to prevent scalding, surgical staples and tubing for reinforcing arteries called stents.

    Sharper-than-steel scalpels, medical implants and even performance-enhancing golf clubs -- stronger than titanium as elastic as plastic -- are today derived from a related class of space-age alloys called liquid metals.

    Likewise the flexible wire rims of your sunglasses... which may also feature a glass coating, developed to protect astronauts' eyes from glint and glare.

    Often the product seems quite remote from the technology that spawned it.

    When swimwear maker Speedo set about making a faster suit, it turned to experts at NASA Langley Research Institute, who had specialised in studying friction and drag.

    The resulting LZR line, launched in February 2008, quickly became de rigueur for competitive swimmers: more than nine out of 10 gold-medal winners at the Beijing Olympics six months later wore them.

    Other space-boosted sportsgear includes athletic shoes with a cushioning material designed by NASA for its spacesuits.

    Healthcare monitoring devices have also been derived from space-related inventions.

    Technology once used to gauge the temperature of distant stars and planets now monitors the body heat of humans by measuring, in less than two seconds, energy emitted by the eardrum.

    Automatic pumps that continuously deliver micro-doses of insulin -- eliminating the need for painful daily shots -- are based on NASA satellite components developed for the Viking Mars mission.

    Technology created to track the health of astronauts in deep space has now been integrated into fitness machines: an infrared heartbeat transmitter strapped against the chest uses the heart rate to directly modulate exercise intensity.

    And an artificial heart-pump, ten times smaller than earlier models, was inspired directly by systems that monitor fuel consumption on space shuttles.

    Some applications have gone from cosmic to cosmetic.

    Using material from missile-tracking devices, a company working with NASA invented translucent, shatter-resistant braces that have since been worn by hundreds of thousands of smiling adolescents.

    Shock-absorbent foams developed to protect astronauts from the brain-jarring effects of g-force are widely used in protective head gear, including for cyclists.

    A light-weight, fibrous material five times stronger than steel -- originally made for the Viking space vehicle parachute -- will soon be integrated in radial tires of your next car, according to NASA.

    Even gourmet food fans have reason to hail space-based science.

    Borrowing technology developed by ESA to study how fluids move in the bodies of weightless astronauts, Spanish producers can now measure with near-absolute precision the level of humidity in their high-priced hams.

    by Marlowe Hood and Laurent Banguet Marlowe Hood And Laurent Banguet – Sun Apr 10, 6:51 pm ET
  • Closed account asked a question:
    Advanced Research Intelligence: OOS Proposal for Orbital Debris Removal Robots
    This paper focuses on threats stressed by space-based pollution towards the ISS and the possible solutions that can be formulated by the combined application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS) and robotic spacecraft for debris removal (RSDR). Little is done for the latter and as much as the race of space exploration increases proportional to the trial of designs which compete for commercial deployment by the government system, litter and debris in orbit in near space exists through trial and error by manned spacecraft and miscalculations.

    The space environment represents one of the most challenging applications of robotics. Indeed, there is a widely-held but contentious viewpoint that space application represents a natural and inevitable arena for the advancement of robotics by imposing the requirement for high autonomy in space robotic systems (Ellery, A., 2004).
    Only one issue, orbital debris, rose in the rankings. This is explained by the construction of the International Space Station and Moon Base, as well as the proliferation of satellite networks.

    The space station and spacecraft are frequent targets of small orbital debris, which sometimes inflicted substantial damage due to the high speeds, about 35,000 kilometers per hour that objects travel in space. There are thousands of big objects, such as spent rocket stages and dead satellites, as well as screwdrivers and other objects in orbit, most about 300 to 400 miles above the Earth, along with trillions of tiny objects, such as paint flecks. When a tiny piece of an abandoned satellite crashed through a space station window during construction, extra shielding requirements became mandatory and the completion of the Earth-based Orbital Object Radar Tracking System (OORTS) was pushed forward to 1999. OORTS helped track the debris and avoided all but an occasional collision (Coates, J., 2003).

    The governmental space-based infrastructure budget should consider the insertion of research programs and the developments of spacecraft specifically designed with the capabilities to meet the requirements for the sustainable planet and the cleanup of waste produced by the multi-billion dollar space-driven programs on a number of orbits used by spacecraft today, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbits (GEO) to Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) that are utilized for astronomy missions.

    Until this proposal in principle is taken into consideration, little is that will be understood about space sciences and how biomimetics or imitating natural materials can be utilized to bring the best out scientific-driven technologies.

About Space Technology for Development

Space technology is technology that is related to entering, and retrieving objects or life forms from space. "Every day" technologies such as weather forecasting, remote sensing, GPS systems, satellite television, and some long distance communications systems critically rely on space infrastructure. Of sciences astronomy and Earth sciences (via remote sensing) most notably benefit from space technology.

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