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Questions related to Space Science
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I want to create preprint of a research article via arXiv. Do you recommend any specific latex template?
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I have plotted solar wind parameters data (such as IMF-B, Vsw, Nsw, Tsw) by Parker Solar Probe, it shows maximum fluctuations nearby Sun (around 0.17 au for second encounter data, and around 0.13 au for fifth encounter data). What are the reasons behind this? This might be a basic question, but I am looking for some good references with detailed explanations. Thank you.
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Very interesting question. It is yet to be realized in the framework of the SSB fluctuations. The details could be found at the following:
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I was looking for some sources (if available), which contain information about geomagnetic events, ICMEs, Flares, SEPs during the different encounters by Parker Solar Probe (PSP). I am working on the analysis of abrupt fluctuation in solar wind parameters during the encounters by PSP. I would really appreciate your suggestions. :)
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For my work on CMES, I used Richardson and Cane catalogue:
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Recently, I have written a research article. I want to produce preprint of it. I found various platforms for creating preprints of articles, including arXiv and Researchsquare. Personally, which platform do you prefer?
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I have a different perspective for uploading any preprint anywhere before it has been published anywhere. Why you let others know about your insights and methodologies before publication?You may say that I am somewhat old-fashioned, but I have a different perspective for uploading any preprint anywhere before it has been published by your name. So, my advice is to not put your research anywhere until it is published.
  • Your manuscript may be copied and then published by others before you can do that. This stealing of your paper might be happening. You must wait until the paper is accepted and then published by that journal. Then, upload that research item on any platform you wish.
  • You should avoid telling the other researchers about the details of anyone of your papers until it has been published and seeing your name by yourself.
  • A journal may have automated plagiarism software to check the paper before admitting it to the reviewing process. There are chances that your paper can get a rejection at any point. Thus, to avoid this problem. Publish the preprint after you got ACCEPTED.
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Parker solar probe is providing data from different encounters. If we plot data over a distance (for eg: from 0.5 au to 0.17 au), it shows, towards the sun, interplanetary magnetic field increases. It has also positive correlation with solar wind density and temperature, however, slightly weak correlation was obtained for solar wind speed. I want to learn how solar wind parameters vary over a distance, and a physics associated with it. Need your suggestion (please suggest me some good articles, if available). Thank you.
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Dear Sujan Prasad Gautam , I hope you will find it useful:
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There has been a debate on the topic "Why the sunspot number needs re-examination?". What is the reason behind this controversial topic? Which model is currently the best model to predict the Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 25?
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Here is a discussion of a revised SSN:
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I heard that some storm events can occur without any change in the Dst index. Significant change in solar wind parameters that are triggered by storms events, but, without any change in Dst? Is it true? If yes, can you please suggest some events (or articles) for example? I am really excited to plot them. Moreover, what are the possible reasons behind those effects?
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Generally a "magnetic storm" is defined by a decrease (negative values) in Dst from its quiet-time, near-zero baseline, something caused by an increase in the strength of the magnetospheric equatorial ring current. Magnetic disturbance can, however, be manifest in different ways, and the field is never completely still. So, you can see very mild levels of disturbance with only small decreases in Dst. Sudden commencements (that often precede storms) are manifest as an increase (positive values) in Dst.
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I have calculated the ROTI from a dataset with my understanding, and I need to validate my results with some standard code results. Are there any sites to download the ROTI to confirm my code output to make sure I am not wrong? You can suggest the algorithm to calculate ROTI.
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Dear Ashok Silwal, you can find many data sets for running validations/comparisons from some past missions.
Here you can find some examples from the ESA GOCE and Swarm missions.
For further details, you can find many references browsing these web pages.
Good luck!
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We have been using the following relation (attached hereby) to obtain the Field Aligned Current. However, there must have been reliable sources of obtaining these data directly. Please suggest any authentic sites to obtain such data.
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Dear Sujan, we have our own script but we need to compare it with the values of Global community as well since a small error in the data can make big difference 😊
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Zipped folder contains aastex.cls and spr-astr-addons.sty files. No problem in compiling with my Winedt. But arxiv processing failed while uploading the manuscript. The template is of the Journal "Astrophysics and Space Science".
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Thanks all, my problem is solved now. It is because of arxiv's Texlive 2021 new online compiler. But I use Winedt in my machine. The error was UTF-8 format error, after rewriting the text the problem solved.
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Because we always wonder;
- where we came from,
- how we were created,
- who we are...
And questions like that...
I think we realized that we can't answer these questions just looking our home(earth).
Universe tells us the past, present and future. And it makes me really very excited. 🤩
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Dear Friends and Colleagues from RG,
I wish You all the best in the New Year. I wish you a successful continuation and successes in scientific work, achieving interesting results of scientific research in the New Year 2019 and I also wish you good luck in your personal life, all the best.
In the New Year, I wish You success in personal and professional life, fulfillment of plans and dreams, including successes in scientific work, All Good.
In the ending year, we often ask ourselves:
Have we successfully implemented our research plans in the ending year? We usually answer this question that a lot has been achieved, that some of the plans a year ago have been realized, but not all goals have been achieved.
I wish You that the Next Year would be much better than the previous ones, that each of us would also achieve at least some of the planned most important goals to be achieved in personal, professional and scientific life.
I wish You dreams come true regarding the implementation of interesting research, I wish You fantastic results of research and effective development of scientific cooperation.
I wish You effective development of scientific cooperation, including international scientific cooperation, implementation of interesting research projects within international research teams and that the results of scientific research are appreciated, I wish You awards and prizes for achievements in scientific work.
I wish You many successes in scientific work, in didactic work and in other areas of your activity in the New Year, and I also wish you health, peace, problem solving, prosperity in your personal life, all the best.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
I wish you the best in New Year 2019.
Happy New Year 2020.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
Hello Dear Everyone,
In the New Year of 2021, I wish all researchers, scientists and users of the Research Gate portal fulfill their plans and dreams, success in their professional work and personal life, success in the field of research and publication of their results, all the best. I wish all my colleagues and friends from the Research Gate portal that the New Year 2021 will be better than the previous years, that the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic ends as soon as possible, that there is a quick return to "normal", to the pre-pandemic state . The year 2021 begins a new decade of many new challenges related to solving key problems of the development of civilization, solving problems resulting from the pandemic crisis, economic, social and climate crises, etc. Let us hope that the development of science, further scientific research, new technologies, the current fourth technological revolution will enable the solution of key problems of civilization development.
Happy New Year 2021
Best regards, Stay healthy!
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Should a manned mission to Mars, which could be implemented in a few years, be an international mission, or rather a national one, inspired and organized according to the familiar concept of the 1970s, of international rivalry of the leading economically and politically largest countries?
Apparently a manned mission to the planet Mars is now technically possible.
Researchers working on space exploration programs argue that it is technically possible that humans already have the necessary technology to carry out a two-year manned mission to Mars.
First of all, it is necessary for the US President to issue a program of a manned mission to Mars.
A similar program in the 1980s was announced by then US President John F. Kennedy.
The plan of a manned mission to the moon was fully realized at that time.
However, the current mission to Mars, technically possible, would require large financial outlays for the implementation of this mission.
Perhaps it would be necessary to organize an international consortium that would organize an international manned mission to Mars.
Maybe it could also be an international crew of this mission?
Then mission costs could be spread over several countries and it would have global significance in terms of international cooperation.
The previous analogous manned space mission, i.e. the manned expedition to Earthly Princes in the 1970s, had the significance of political rivalry between the then US and the Soviet Union.
It was a symbolic technological race.
Is the planned manned mission to Mars also inspired by this type of international competition, for example between the US and China or possibly also some other countries?
China is rapidly developing technologically, aspiring to become a global powerhouse in a few years time. 1 not only in the scope of production of various goods and economic growth but also in the matter of having the most modern innovative technologies implemented in various economic applications.
In the US, a very large, historically high public debt can be a significant finns barrier to finance and thus the USA will organize a manned mission to Mars in the next few years.
If this mission to Mars is mainly inspired by this new international rivalry in terms of having technological capabilities, it is currently difficult to predict which country will win the race and be the first to organize manned missions to Mars?
In view of the above, I ask you with the following question: Should a manned mission to Mars, which could be implemented in a few years be an international mission, or rather a national one, inspired and organized according to the familiar concept of the 1970s, of international rivalry leading economically and politically the largest countries?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Same as fighting the COVID pandemic, we have the technology and know-how ... but not the wisdom to work collaboratively. #Greed #Ego #Individualism
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I'm starting a master's research about on-board image processing for small satellites but struggling to find a niche or problem to solve or discuss. I've read less than 15 articles about related works and would hopefully find one nice topic to pursue if I continue reading, but I just want to ask some senior researchers in this field what would they recommend.
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1- Various large smallsat constellations in low Earth orbit (LEO)
LEO has been commercially active in both broadband and imaging constellations of 100 satellites or more. This scenario takes mainly into account "mega-constellations" of broadband, providing a low latency to accessible global broadband Internet.
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2- Smalls with Larger Remote Sensing Satellites
In this scenario a increasing number of countries have close parallel access to technology with large satellites in distant context , given the remote sensing capabilities that are available commercially and beyond the United States.
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3- Insecure for LEO Satellite Operation
In this scenario a increasing number of countries have close parallel access to technology with large satellites in distant context , given the remote sensing capabilities that are available commercially and beyond the United States.
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4- On the Space Maintenance, Assembly & Development
In these circumstances, many persistent LEO and GEO platforms for on-orbit operation, assembly and development (OSAM) are used by governments and the private sector.
As large satellites become the standard for competitive and host payload platforms, the satellite industry is versatile in designing , constructing and utilizing satellites that best fit a given application. drives the perception of profitability and consequently injection of funding and talent into other drivers, including the development of new technology, low-cost approaches, and infrastructure.
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5- Market Demand
-- The most important technology for the four scenarios examined comprises optical imagery, radio frequency interference (RFI), spectrum use, small platform optical communication, and propulsion system miniaturization.
-- Low cost approaches to development , implementation, and robotics and alternative business models, such as modularity and standardization are included. are included.
-- Professional practice of infrastructure include space awareness technologies and systems (SSA), ground stations networks and space relays, and low cost ground antennas and terminals. Infrastructure drivers include
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6- Space Access
The fact that the four scenarios can be realised in the interim is driven
by the cost of their launch as well as the availability of reliable launch options.
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7- Alternatives to Compete
Smallsats may either render or ignore the relative value proposition for smellsats of alternatives such as terrestrial and airborne platforms and gradual and advanced developments in large satellites.
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8- Government Policies
The spectrum allocation policies of governments; RFI; protectionism/ mercantilism; debris mitigation; on-orbit regulation; and the management
of space traffic drive the private sector 's involvement in the smallsat ecosystem, both positive and negative.
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Hi, I am looking for open source softwares for computational physics. Suggestions should be in the following format:
1. Software name
2. Type of interface and programming language
3. Methods or models available
4. Area of applications
Thank you in advance!
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Useful thread Dear Ananyo Bhattacharya
I follow & recommend
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I am a third year Mechanical Engineering student from Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat, India. I am interested in pursuing higher studies in the field of space sciences, in particular study of planetary hydrodynamics, astrophysical plasma and electrical activities in planetary atmospheres.
I am looking for universities as I want to pursue higher studies and a career in the field mentioned above. Please give your suggestions and recommendations in the following format.
Name of university
Location
Research group, associated research (current, past and future prospects)
Admission criterion
Website
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Paul: Master or PhD degree in Space Science (or related field)
1. University College London
2. Politecnico di Milano
3. The Open University
4. KU Leuven
5. University of Leicester
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When are the first manned trips to Mars planned?
Considering technological development, when will it be possible to establish the first permanent research bases and residential colonies on Mars?
Please reply
Best wishes
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I am not sure what to understand under term "colonize". Mars is a smaller planet than Earth, but it is still very huge object and pretty far away - and our present technology has difficulties even to land there by robots (though NASA is the best). So far there is no achievement to send a robotic probe that would be able to land there and return back to Earth... And we are ready to discuss about the colonization. What about "colonization", let's say, 10% of Sahara? We have lot of people for manpower, food, water supply, health care, good air to breathe, million tons of heavy construction equipment... If you mean to make "Mars habitable for humans" I am very skeptic, mother Nature is much-much stronger (will we make breathable atmosphere ? will we make artificial magnetic field to protect atmosphere against solar wind erosion?, etc...) Mars - perhaps for robots... For humans, top task is to save the Earth...
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SPS is one of the two levels of service providing technology by GPS.
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Please see
L.-H. Lyu: SPACE WEATHER STUDY USING MULTIPOINT TECHNIQUES (Elsevier, UK, 2002).
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Normally, people apply plane-wave analyses even in a curved geometry, often irrespective of wavelengths. It is mostly encountered in the area of astrophysics and space sciences, even without considering any inter-dependency between the perturbation wavelength and the radius of curvature. What is the main justification?
Can I get some references on the planar-nonplanar wave connectivity and inter-transitional behaviour?
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I am grateful to you all for answers and references.
Hope this discussion to continue.
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Greetings!
I am curious about this topic. Most of the research about microgravity is focus on the morphogenesis and tropism of the plant. As far as I know, the microgravity can affect the production of plant hormone. That is the reason why the growth of plant is not normal. If the plant growth is not normal, is photosynthesis must be affected?
Experts, I need your help and share me some literature about the microgravity, knowledge and wisdom in writing a research proposal.
I am interested to make a study and write a research proposal.
Thank you and more power!
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Microgravity is the condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. Means the individual quantum particles situates a resultant gravity which is theoretically equals to zero.
In the case of plants the chlorophylls are formed with huge number of quantum particles within. As the micro-gravity is said the photosynthesis must not be affected by this issue. But as the hormonal systems affects by the micro-gravity, the photosynthesis or photosynthetic activities could be affected. 
It is well known that different plants are having different different cycles like C1, C2, C3, C4 etc. and all of them are mutually dependent on photosynthesis for that reason the photosynthesis would be affected if the cycles got imbalanced. This is my best to give the answer regarding your query.
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What relevant science missions, that can be designed in cis-lunar space to get relevant science data not available but needed by the space science community?
Especially, taking nature of orbits around liberation points in consideration.
If possible, a narrowed down list of science instruments that can be deployed aboard a spacecraft would be great.
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Kuldeep,
Currently satellite communications and infrastructures at Earth, power grids, commercial aircraft routes, etc...are affected by the constant solar activity, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). To this date, we can obtain early solar warnings about 55 minutes from the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange (or Libration) point located at about 1,500,000 km from Earth (eg. the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft).
An ideal mission would be to send a spacecraft to an orbit around the equilateral point L5 in the Sun-Earth system (SEL5) because from this Libration orbit around L5 (Trojan orbit), we will be able to anticipate space weather about 3-6 days (much better than 55 minutes!). Also, a mission to SEL5 would help characterize different CMEs among other things.
Similarly, a mission to the equilateral points of the Earth-Moon system (eg. EML5) will help alleviate some of the issues above mentioned but to a lesser extent since EML5 is about 4 times closer (distance Earth-Moon is 384,400 km) to the Earth than SEL1.
You can find more information about this in some papers, here is one:
1) L5 MISSION DESIGN TARGETING STRATEGY
Also, solar observations are not the only venue to anticipate space weather from the Lagrange points. Quasi-satellite orbits could be quite attractive for space weather too, see reference below:
2)HETEROCLINIC AND HOMOCLINIC CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE SUN-EARTH TRIANGULAR POINTS AND QUASI-SATELLITE ORBITS FOR SOLAR OBSERVATIONS
Angelos Vourlidas wrote a very nice paper from the instrumentation point of view required for a spacecraft to obtain space weather observations from SEL5. See reference below:
3) Mission to the Sun-Earth L5 Lagrangian Point: An Optimal Platform for Space Weather Research: Mission to the Sun-Earth L5 Point
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I want to know when the convective zone of any star start to begin and what is the thickness of convective envelope. 
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please, have a look at the following article first.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 11; 96(10): 5356–5359.
PMCID: PMC33578
Helioseismology: Probing the interior of a star
P. Demarque* and D. B. Guenther†
also read the following references.
References
Jump up ^ . arXiv:astro-ph/0105054. Bibcode:2001A&A...373..190B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20010585. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Jump up ^ . arXiv:1304.3337. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..23M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321282. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Jump up ^ Reiners, A.; Basri, G. (March 2009). "On the magnetic topology of partially and fully convective stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 496 (3): 787–790. arXiv:0901.1659. Bibcode:2009A&A...496..787R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200811450.
Jump up ^ . arXiv:astro-ph/0309348. Bibcode:2003A&A...412..213D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031410. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Jump up ^ . arXiv:0805.3242. Bibcode:2008A&A...486..511L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809363. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Further reading
Hansen, C. J., Kawaler, S. D., & Trimble, V. (2004). Stellar Interiors. Springer. ISBN 0-387-20089-4.
Zeilik, M. & Gregory, S. A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy and Astrophysics. Brooks Cole. ISBN 978-0-03-006228-5.
External links[edit]
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My question is about how to convert the data to percentage or to value that has defined dimension. Also it is nice to be clear if those data could be compared to those from in-situ measurements. Up to now I could not find reference for usage of this product.
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Hi Hristo,
I have some experience in using the Landsat surface reflectance product, and have eventually validated this product over the urban coastal environment of Hong Kong, you can have a look in the attached publication.
Regarding the conversion of the surface reflectance product into percentage you can consult the LEDAPS SR product guide.
Majid
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I am thinking of typical Mercury and Gemini retrofire maneuvers. Mercury was nose down about 34 degrees at retrofire. Gemini was about 20 degrees nose down. Is there a convenient way for a non-mathematician to estimate the resulting orbit after such a maneuver--maybe a graph or a macro or app?
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John no offence but IMHO old good math is still required - I use this as a starting point http://www.braeunig.us/space/, please go on Orbital mechanics there is a good example of Hofmann transfer with tangential impulse (when spacecraft manuever change altitude and inclination). And you need to know at least parameters of initial orbit (apogee, pedigree and inclination). 
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Prediction of Solar cycle 24 based on various models that is a less active cycle is well known. What is the best model or way to predict Solar cycle 25?
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Dr. Ken Schatten, long working in the NASA Goddard community, has developed methodologies for the long term predicts of the solar cycle.  Schatten used to generate a 3x3 matrix of predicts.  High-Nominal- Low in solar activity and Early-Nominal-Late in geomagnetic variations.
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I've red that Minkowski space is reducible and Rindler space is irreducible. How do I have to understand this? And that means further both spaces are disjoint. How can I make sense of this?
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Of course not, because the words don't mean anything as such. What is required is a definition that spells out what ``(ir)reducible'' means in this context and provides a way for deciding whether a spacetime is (ir)reducible or not. I provided an example-I haven't seen any other here. The word `(ir)reducible'' appears in many places in mathematics-how it's intended to be used here is part of the definition.
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For Velocity, Acceleration, 'g' , Load etc.
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SHORT TERM MICROGRAVITY EFFECT ON ISOMETRIC HAND GRIP AND PRECISION PINCH FORCE WITH VISUAL AND PROPRIOCEPTIVE FEEDBACK
P. Pastacaldi, P. Orsini, F. Bracciaferri, G. Neri, M. Porciani, L. Liuni, V. Zolesi
Advances in Space research, JASR 6283. Vol. 33, Issue 8, 2004 , pp.1368-1374
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If one wants to simulate, for example, the effects of protons in LEO/GEO orbit on different materials, the raw data are needed for the source simulation. The same for electron spectra.
Any suggestions?
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Look at the chapter 9 of the Handbook of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The 2nd edition is free at the following link : http://ads.harvard.edu/books/hsaa/
There is some information on the Earth's atmosphere and environment including protons and electrons flux and density near the Earth's orbit.
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Suppose a matter A with mass, m1, and spin up. Suppose a second matter B with mass,m2 and spin down. If both particles have the same mass, m1=m2. Is this a particle-antiparticle reaction?  That is:
for m1=m2=m, the reaction A Sup + B Sdown --> 0
or
 
A Sup + B Sdown --> (A+B) with S = 0
 
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The moment I got to the part where the "Big Bang created very tiny spiked sphere like objects", I stopped reading. Pointless nonsense, sorry.
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UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) were never a threat to the security of humankind. But repeatedly it has been claimed that residents, military personnel in particular, have seen them flying, sometimes crashing into the field. One such incident happened recently on January 23rd, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina. One of the enhanced images of it is attached here.
Have these things ever existed and if yes, what are they made of?
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Unobtainium...
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Time is included in the SpaceTime model as if it were a physical dimension of space.
If this is true, then all actions and all change will be encompassed by this 4-D hyperspace. There cannot be any change outside of this hyperspace, since change would require time - which is already accounted for in the 4-D model.
Does not this imply that all past and future events are immutable - since there cannot be any change to SpaceTime?
We could be in the situation of not being able to determine the spacetime positions of all objects, however the model would seem to imply that this is a consequence of our lack of understanding, since the model encompasses all actions and events.
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If we allow quantum mecanics to enter in the picture then no determinism is there, only probabilities. Space and time will be seen as quantized, with fluctuations and under the well known physical laws of quantum mechanics. No determination.
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I have the IRAS number of a few thousand objects that I would like to locate in the WISE all-sky catalog. I planned to retrieve the data from the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. It seems that I must provide the RA and Dec of the objects in a search file. While I can obtain the RA and Dec of each object through SIMBAD, the sample is too large for me to cross reference manually. Further, the coordinates in SIMBAD are sometimes different from those in the WISE catalog. I found that there may either be missing objects or multiple objects per query in the search results depending on how I set my search radius. Is there an effective way for me to ensure to obtain the data that I want from WISE?
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Do you have IDL or Python ? One possibility would be to simply use IPAC-provided routines such as query_irsa_cat to cross-correlate your objects with close-by WISE sources by using their RA/DEC. As Dana said, XMatch is also a potential solution that would not require coding, if you do not need to use much more complicated considerations that angular distance in your cross-matching.
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For excitation of electron from ground state to excited state, electrons have to take energy from the electromagnetic waves.
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As your question talks about waves, rather than photons, I'll give you the classical answer, which works well in many cases.
The Lorentz force on the electron due to the EM fields of the wave is given by
F = e (E + v ^B)
where e is the electric charge, E, B, are the (time-dependent) electric and magnetic field vectors and v is the vector velocity of the electron.
For a classical EM wave we know that the magnitude of E is c times the magnitude of B. Hence, you can see that unless the electron is moving relativistically, then v<<c and we can neglect the B-field and write the Lorentz force as
F ~ eE
This approach works for processes like Thomson scattering from free electrons and gives a classical approximation to the interaction of light with atoms (which must then be modified by quantum mechanics through "oscillator strengths").
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Recent study performed by Wittke et al., who analyzed impact spherules, supports theory of cosmic impact 12,800 years ago. This event may be responsible for fundamental and very fast climate change, causing the extinction of most of the big animals over North America. This is an exciting theory, and, if correct, it may be very important also for our understanding of asteroid/comets impact threat. But, is there enough evidence to support this claim?
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To provide the contrasting view (Martin has given some info), most impact cratering specialists doubt the Younger Dryas impact. Most impacts are identified on the basis of two primary geochemical/mineralogical features: shocked quartz, and platinum group element (PGE) enrichment. Discovery of a crater is also quite important, and one that was 12900 years old would certainly be obvious in the geologic record.
The Younger Dryas event has none of these. In the original paper, Firestone and others (see Firestone, R. B., et al. (2007). PNAS 104(41), 16016-16021) provided a number of lines of ambiguous evidence, including iridium enrichment of magnetite (a meteoritic indicator would be iridium enrichment of the bulk soil), charcoal, soot, and fullerenes with extraterrestrial He, among others. These studies may have been replicated, but replicating ambiguous data still only gives ambiguous results. The main research group still hasn't produced the key lines of evidence for an extraterrestrial impact: notable PGEs and shocked quartz. Instead, there is an appeal to cosmic airbursts (no crater), and cometary impactors (hypothetically low in PGEs, but not really).
That said, there's still some new data coming in for the idea that have been obtained independently. I wouldn't completely discard the impact hypothesis, but also note that not all extinctions require an extraterrestrial impact.
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There is possibilty for any molecules or atoms to have a particular surface energy which allow them to move, whether it is translational, rotational, vibrational or electronic.
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If that energy is electronic I would think not because the energy is being used to excite electrons to higher energy states.
Similarly with vibrational that energy is being used to give off heat during the vibrations but translational and rotational i would think you do get increased momentum which would result in higher effective mass.
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SmartWires for Aircraft
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Mr. James Garry, the research is ongoing. Some researchers already published their work on SmartWires for aircraft. Even myself when I was in USA, I prepared 3 pages proposal regarding SmartWires. As you said, we yet to find suitable solution for the above problem. Thanks.