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Dear researchers,
I want to study some events encountered by the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) satellite using different statistical tools. I have downloaded data from the websites recommended by different researchers, however I am facing a problem reading the .cdf file format of the data. If you provide all available data (in minutes resolution) of some specific event days, it would be a great help for me.
Thank you..!!
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Hi, I have been writing some routines to read such data from .cdf files in Python. I can share those if you are interested.
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During earthquake shaking absorbed energy should be equal to dissipated energy.
How to calculate absorbed energy & dissipated energy of a structure during earthquake shaking?
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Plot base shear vs roof displacement curve. Dissipated energy is the sum of the areas under the curve for each cycle.
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It is shown that quantization on the Fulling modes presupposes that the field vanishes on the spatial boundaries of the Rindler manifold. For this reason, Rindler space is physically unrelated with Minkowski space and the state of a Rindler observer cannot be described by the equilibrium density matrix with the Fulling-Unruh temperature. Therefore it is pointless to talk about an Unruh effect. The question of the behavior of an accelerated detector in the physical formulation of the problem remains open.
Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters June 1997, Volume 65, Issue 12, pp 902–908
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From the lecture of this article it is clear they have left the realm of science. Has the pink fog an invisible measurable effect?
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Why does the emission wavelength directly proportional to its duration?
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Solar flares and type II radio bursts have different origins and thus their durations should not be similar. It is believed that solar flares are caused by release of energy and plasma heating/acceleration due to sudden disruption of magnetic structures of parent active regions. Type II bursts are related to shock waves which can be generated in the low corona and can propagate far away in the interplanetary medium that can lasts dozens of hours. Life time of shock waves is, in general, independent of duration of an accompanying flare, even in the case when a flare is a driver of a shock wave (the case of a blast wave). In such case, a flare just generate a blast shock impulsively, and the shock is propagating freely after that. There is another case, when a shock is driven by a coronal mass ejection (the case of a piston shock). In such case, the shock wave and an associated type II burst is not dependant on an accompanying flare at all.
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With the help of numerous satellites, we are able to research the earth and sun (space physics). However, the study on the other planets in the solar system is still lack. I wonder if there have some missions are available for the public to study the planets?
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All data from NASA planetary missions is archived at https://pds.nasa.gov. The node mentioned by Jethva is dedicated to geosciences. Other nodes have data from atmospheres, etc.
Other countries also maintain archives for their planetary missions.
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What are the applications of plasmonics in space based devices?
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Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is widely used to monitor state of the surface and to measure parameters of absorbed or covered, deposited films. Such sensor can be useful to know state of the external surface of your space ship, to measure thickness and other parameters of deposited films. As well, it can indicate possible erosion of the external ship surface,
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Stellar coronae are sites where the temperature is roughly of the same order as in the Sun's core. Could some sort of nucleosynthetic processes take place in the stellar coronae region?
I know that the material is extremely rare, and I don't expect possible reactions in the corona to contribute by any means to the solar's system abundance pattern, but could some sort of density-independent, araeonuclear reactions take place?
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Please check out http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/505112/fulltext/ . Nuclear reactions in the corona are observed during large flares. The reactions tend to involve heavier nuclei and are not the same as the p-p and CNO reaction chains that fuel the Sun and other stars.
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Pioneer-V was 5.2 x 10^6 km (or 863Re) on Sun-Earth line on March 31, 1960, when first engulfed by solar plasma, but the peak of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was only measured six hours later, after it was measured by Honolulu station. This study shows the IMF was produced 12.5 RE from the earth, but the question is where the IMF was produced? (Given by one page of section “2.1 Re-Visiting the Historical Experiment” with related Fig.1 at: http://www.exmfpropulsions.com/New_Physics/SpacePhysics/Solar_or_Interplanetary_External_Magnetic_Field.pdf)
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Thanks Ram. 
In our article “The Source of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Measured by Pioneer V,” we showed several contraventions between the extra wonderful experiment carried at 5.2 million kilometers on sunwards, on March 30, 1960. During the first 55 minuets, while engulfed with the solar plasma, the probe didn’t measured any increase in magnetic field, and if it’s embedded within Solar wind, this should have been measured right from the first arrival of the protons.
That failure forced the experimenters to endorsed the only know option, as they stated: “The only known way by which these transient fields could be established, or existing fields manipulated is by moving, conducting plasma of solar flare origin,” but arguments given in the paper Showed a great mistake was done, and upon which the current hydromagnetic is based. This paper explain what took place on 
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The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) as of solar origin was endorsed mainly due to the final report of the Pioneer V experiment on March 30-31, 1960. After reading point 3 in the poster you can decide for yourself (3. Weak Points in Pioneer-V Results Interpretation).
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In our article “The Source of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Measured by Pioneer V,” we showed several contraventions between the extra wonderful experiment carried at 5.2 million kilometers on sunwards. During the first 55 minuets, while engulfed with the solar plasma, the probe didn’t measured any increase in magnetic field, and if it’s embedded within Solar wind, this should have been measured right from the first arrival of the protons.
That failure forced the experimenters to endorsed the only know option, as they stated: “The only known way by which these transient fields could be established, or existing fields manipulated is by moving, conducting plasma of solar flare origin,” but arguments given in the paper Showed a great mistake was done, and upon which the current hydromagnetic is based. More at:  “The Source of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) Measured by Pioneer V,”at: http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/the-source-of-the-interplanetary-magnetic-field-imf-measured-by-pioneer-v-2329-6542.1000108.php?aid=29838
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I want to find out how a hypothetical spacecraft in a non-accelerating orbit can determine its orbit (initial and continuing) based only on measurements that can be made from the spacecraft of time and angle.
I know that position can be determined with triangulation of other celestial bodies, given a suitable almanac; I also know that distance from a body of known size can be estimated easily with a measurement of its angular size. Therefore, the available inputs are time and position (either cartesian or spherical measurements are directly available).
Furthermore, I know that this sort of calculation was done on the Apollo missions (notably Apollo 8), but as for the actual calculations performed, all I have been able to find is mission manuals outlining the crew procedure, and the fact that a Kalman filter was used by the onboard AGC (Apollo Guidance Computer).
I have written computer programs that can simulate n-body orbits with decent accuracy, given the masses of each object, and an initial set of orbital state vectors, but I have not yet been able to create one which will PREDICT even a simple, unperturbed, 2-body Kepler orbit, even with convenient cheats like a universal coordinate system and direct access to all bodies' orbital state vectors.
Even more frustrating is the fact that I know that this sort of thing used to be done with slide-rules and such, or even longhand (e.g.: Gauss).
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If I understand your question right, the answer is that the shape of the Earth and the fact that angles are measured from the Earth’s surface helps the equations to be solved for orbital position and even velocity. If you check the angles-only observation methods of Laplace and Gauss (as already mentioned by Rasit Abay and you may found in Vallado), the interesting thing about the formula’s used by all angles-only observation methods is that if the position of the observation site is omitted from the calculations, the method doesn't work. I mean, you cannot use Rsite=0 in Laplace’s and Gauss’ methods. This is somehow similar to finding distance from a body with known size.
Anyway, because you asked about Kalman filter and the small arc measurements, I would like to explain a little more about them too. Estimation of some states (in your case classical orbital elements or the position and velocity of spacecraft) using any kind of Kalman filter needs two sets of equations:
(1) state differential or finite difference equations (the governing equations of motion, either n-body problem, two-body problem, perturbed two-body problem, etc.).
(2) measurement equations (the equations relate the sensor measurements to the states of the dynamical system).
Despite the Determination methods, the Kalman filter (and any other filtering method in general) benefits from several measurements during the time instead of several measurements in one time instance. That’s why for determination methods it is required that the number of measurements to be more than or equal to the number of states (in your case 6) of the system, while in filtering methods the number of measurements (sensors) can be less than the number of states. It is noteworthy that the angles-only observation methods of Laplace and Gauss are working similarly, because only two angles are measured for each line-of-sight, but they utilize at least three angle measurements for three different times.
Generally, the governing state equations (linear or nonlinear) are used for ‘Prediction’. It means that they can predict the states of the system even without the sensor measurements. These equations (state differential equations) are generally used for the simulation of the system and in orbital mechanics they are used for so-called ‘Orbit Propagation’.
Anyhow, using only orbit propagation means that if the initial states are erroneous, the error is also propagated and may result in divergence. Moreover, with only orbit propagation, the perturbations that are not included in the model (which is always the case) cannot be compensated. So, you have to feedback the measurement data into the filtering method (which is generally called ‘Update Formula’). The only thing that matters for measurement equations is that the measurements should be influenced by all states (kind of!). To be precise, the system of state equations along with the measurement equations (which build a ‘system’) should be ‘Observable’. If the angular measurements (generally by optical devices) are influenced by the orbital position and velocity of the spacecraft, then they can be used for filtering purposes.
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If the light velocity in vacuum must depends in the characteristics of the vaccum, if the vaccuum here is equal to the vaccum in another place of the universe, the light velocity must be constant. It could change with time.
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Lets take  a 1 dimensional kappa distribution , there is any way to derive two dimensional and three dimensional kappa distribution from the given 0ne dimensional kappa distribution function. I would like to know to know whether there exists a general way which is applicable for any distribution functions
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I think there is no general method. It depends on the terms included in the distribution function for example if temperature anisotropy, drift, mass anisotropy etc are included in the distribution function and other distribution does not have such terms. Then one distribution function is easily solvable. But some of the distribution  functions can be derivable from others in certain limits.
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The Hubble constant is inversely proportional to the age of the Universe meaning whether acceleration or no acceleration the universe ages every second and so the constant changes respectively.
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Yes indeed, it's only a constant in terms of it doesn't change significantly on a human time-scale.
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I wanna fill the missing values in the radiation belt electron flux, but i am stucked by which method I should adapt. So can anyone give me some advice? I tried the Singular Spectrum Analysis method, but the window length parameter M and the grouping factor K are diffcult to set. How to determine the optimal parameters then?
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I suggest the following reading:
Quantitative Prediction of Radiation Belt Electrons at Geostationary Orbit Based on Solar Wind Measurements
Xinlin Li, M. Temerin, D. N. Baker, G. D. Reeves and D. Larson
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I have obtained the orientation data of the austenite and martensite. But, I don't know how to plot the polar figure and Rodrigues-Frank space to determine the orientation relationship between the retained austenite (parent) and martensite (product) as other people's papers. These figures were plotted by matlab, Channeal 5 or other software?
Thank you for your help. The examples are shown in the following.
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The figures remind me on Y. He et al :-) collected at the Gibeon meteorite. As far as I know he generated these pole figures by himself. At least for the pole figures you can do this even with Excel, but if you have Channel5 or MTEX it is very easy to do it. Please consider, that the data have been rotated additionally in order to express the three-fold symmetry of the austenite. In fact, this is not required, but since the transformation is often explained as parallelity between (111) planes of austenite it might be beneficial to look perpendicular to one of these planes. But it is absolutely not necessary. The R-F presentations are perhaps also available in MTEX but then as intersections and not as 3D presentation. R-F is also quite unusual. I don't want say "not necessary" But I do not know many people who are able to read them properly. If you can read them, you should be also able to generate them by yourself. Therefore my question: do you really need them or do you simply like this kind of presentation because it looks somehow special? My recommendation: only use tools you are familiar with. Everything else does not help you.
The determination or visualization of OR between fcc and bcc phases is an old story and therefore not simple. On this topic already people are working for decades and there is still no final tool which explains all. Nevertheless, for a representation pole figures are usually not sufficient.
I've only added a few links to some of my own papers which are related to this topic, but thee are tens of them from other scientists, e.g. Cyril Cayron. The OR is typically also not the solution of the problem since usually you want to find out which variant belong to a single grain. This is a typical task for grain reconstruction. Also for this specific task a few groups around the world already developed software packages which are, however, not free available. First address is again Cyril Cayron, but also a group in Metz (France), Japan, UK etc. developed code. As far as I've heard most stable are probably the both french packages. But usually all different software packages have specific advantages.
Could you post an image of your measurements? The here presented pole figures only make sense since they are data collected in only one single parent grain. For a martensitic structure this is usually not the case, but - more problematic - in technical products the data are not that idea as shown for the Gibeon meteorite, where also date are removed which do not match that nicely. Usually I would expect much more scattered data (cf. the content of the linked papers).  
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This is not a trick question: there are several explanations depending on the viewpoint taken- from heliosphere to solar surface. It would be great to have an online debate on several proposed models.
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you might be interested on my aproach where I document almost everything about sun spots, solar wind etc
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What I mean by this question is as follows:
We know that the growth/rise phase of solar flare components (Soft X-rays, Hard X-rays) is always associated with the solar radio type III burst and conconcurrent radio flux density. According to some space scientists and also we can see clearly, the type III burst extended over longer solar longitude, which is often consistent with the decay phase of the low energy (Soft X-ray of longer wavelength) flare component, indicating that it goes up to several thousands of kilometers in the IP medium. However, the radiated energy emitted from the decay phase is distributed over a long time indicating that the energy by shock wave perhaps is much more than the energy distributed by the decay phase of the solar flare component. To overcome the confusion on whether flare decay phase or shock wave is dominant in the interplanetary medium, it is important to determine the speed of the decay phase of the Soft X-ray components. I am looking for suggestion on this particular issue to determine the speed of the soft X-ray flux intensity (w/m^2).
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Hi Kazi,
you need to segregate your observation to understand the type of emisssion (thermal vs non thermal for example).
Once this is done, you need to infer the particle fluxes responsible for these emissions but it gets tricky depending on the transport model you are assuming, and there is a clear signature of return currents which will saturate your emission for large flares.
From the particle distribution functions, you can infer energies and speeds and integrate depending on the physical characteristics you are interested in.
You can review some of the papers on my page to better understand this or follow the procedure we normally do.
I can help you with your analytical and numerical models if you want.
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I am working in a glow discharge plasma set up. I am investigating nonlinear dynamics of plasma oscillation in presence of magnetic field. I would like to study the instability generate due to magnetic field or for different experimental condition.
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As you can see from previous answers, there are many types of codes avaialvle. But before you use a code, you must know the properties of your plasma. It seems like you are interested in wavea and instabilities in glow discharge plasma. Determine the plasma density as well as neutral density. Determine the electron and ion temperatures. Knowing these calculate the collsion frequencies such as electron-ion, electron-neutral and neutral-ion. Also you should know what types of waves, low or high frequency waves you are intersted in. These calculations should guide you what type of plasma code you can use. There are many collisionless particle-in-cell (PIC) codes both electrostatic and fully electromagnetic. They are in the list of codes in the answer by V. Bernshtam. There are some collisional PIC codes also available, written at UC Berkeleley and associates.
But PIC codes invariably require large computing resources, On the other hand hydrodynamic codes require less resources, but they lack some kinetic physics, such as Landau damping, generation of kinetic instabilities. Since you are intersted in the effects of magnetic fields, you need to consider a range of waves from below ion cyclotron frequency, such as ion cyclotron waves both electromagnetic and electrostatic, lower hybrid waves, whistler modes, upper hybrid waves. So please focus your problem and then decide the code and its suitability to your proble.  In plasma physics there is no one code that can be used for all plasma problems, but there are numerous codes designed with limitations based on approximations made in the physics. One must be aware of the limitations and approximations.
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The several detached semiconductor bulk crystals (InSb, GaSb etc.) have been grown, since 1993, in our laboratory. These grown crystals showed micro and macro homogenous composition with high-quality crystallization and drastically enhanced crystal properties. These characterizations are in resemblance with the detached crystals grown in spacecraft (Microgravity) and Space Laboratory (International Space Station- ISS). Hence, it showed that the microgravity conditions have been spontaneously created by vertical directional solidification (VDS) experiments. Thus interested in knowing the reduced gravity, the science and technology behind the detached phenomenon. The as grown ingots photo showed in attachment.
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May 6, 2015
Hamida Mohammed Bakr Darwish
Thank you Sir,
Your answer is encouraging our detached growth of bulk crystal using VDS. We are in this field since 1993 and have been grown 72 ternary detached bulk crystal in our laboratory  of highest mobility crystal grown ever and high quality crystalline ingots. Now we are interested to determine regions analogous to the crystal grown in space.
With regards
Dr D B Gadkari
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I am searching a listi of stellar types (F0,F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, G0, G1,G2,G3,G4,G5,,G6,G7,G8,K0,K1,K2,K3,K4,K5,K6,K7,K8,M0,M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M6,M7,M8) with temperature in kelvin and luminosity in solar units like these ones
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I mean, quasi Hilbert space is a quasi normed space induced by quasi inner product space where the third condition of norm function is :
|| x+y|| is less than or equal to
k ||x||+ ||y||        and
k is greater than or equal to 1
regards
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Literature uses 1112 ESH for a year on GSO with north-south faced satellite. This can be found on:
"Degradation of thermal control materials under a simulated radiative space environment" by A.K. Sharma and N. Sridhara
"Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings Degradation in Simulated Geo-Space Environment" by J. Marco and S. Remaury
and other publications. How does this value derives in detail? My approximations  show results around 886 ESH.
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Thank you very much!
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Is it convenient to use plane wave solution in spherical coordinate system? What are the conditions to be satisfied to use this approximation? Also, please suggest some references on this regard.
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Hari,
Sure, if you're sufficiently far from the source I see npo problem to approximating the flux from that source as a plane wavefront.
(for example, if I was designing a moon-based solar array I wouldn't bother calculating the angular offset of the illumination vector across a 1m wide panel).
It all depends on the solid angle that the region of interest subtends at the source - and more details about the problem wouldn't hurt.
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What I mean by this question is:
There is a flare/CME eruption from an active region site (e.g., 11476). I know how to determine the possible area/volume/energy of a suace (foot-points) of a flare ribbon using the RHESSI hard X-ray data. If I use some sort of theoretical small equations and use the observational data of TEMPERATURE, EMISSION MEASURE of GOES/RHESSI/YOHKOH, it may give any possibility, but I am not sure if it can be reasonable. I am looking for any code or technique that will help me to determine the possible amount of energy erupted from the active region of the Sun.
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Make use of Spectral observational data in different wave-band (including Visible light, Infred light, ultraviolet, X-ray, gama-ray ect.), with the spectral diagnosis method and the spectral profile analysis, it is possible to measure these physical parameters mentioned above. It is a possible way.
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I mean when the solarwind arrive at the magnetopause in light, the solarwind will have an effect on the whole magnetopause,including the magnetotail. However, for the distant magnetotail, will this effect be shown instantaneously? Or, How large is the downtail range, in which we can ignore the travel time? 50 RE? 100 RE?  If it takes times, how about the time scale with the downtail distance?
Thank you!
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I totally agree with the previous answer. The situation is even a bit worse as Alfvén waves propagate mainly parallel to the magnetic field lines, so that information perpendicular to the field may be carried by magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere (with different velocities). Concerning the tail, giving a table distance-> time is complicated by the variability of the plasma parameters so far from the planet. You can however have an estimate of the time by assuming that at each distance, the information propagation velocity is the largest of the solar wind or of the Alfvén/magnetosonic velocity. To be complete, note that for giant planets, the corotation velocity may also be important.
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Looking for time series of airglow intensity, if possible in zenith mode of observations, from ground stations measurements with published data (in any form) on the web. Public data with possibility to download them.
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You may please mention the nature of time series as well. The data may not be very regular over equatorial places due to repetitive clouds and as often data is taken during new moon periods.
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With signals in the UHF and VHF, the ionosphere is like a transparent medium (that is, it is like a vacuum). Is it safe to assume that ionospheric and space-weather effects do not interfere with these signals? If there is/could be a relationship between them, kindly discuss them and please support your argument with relevant literature if available? Thank you.
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There are some known effects already studied for several decades such as ionoshperic scintillations. In a very simple and crude method, the signal strength of a VHF (or UHF) signal from a satellite can be monitored continuously. In the 1990s I was associated with such a setup around 400MHz with a crossed YAGI array to receive a signal from a Japanese satellite. So, to conclude, yes there are ionospheric effects observed for the VHF/UHF signals. I may be wrong but I am not in favor to assume that there are no ionospheric/space weather effects observed on VHF/UHF signals. Also, if you go beyond the ionosphere, i.e. in the space vacuum, again there are some disturbances observed in the propagation of radio signals. These are referred as the interplanetary scintillations. Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad, India was operating at Thaltej one such IPS Radio Telescope around 103MHz which falls in the VHF band. Unfortunately it is not active and totally dismantled. But you can search for literature in this field.
In recent years, GPS signals are used to study the ionospheric variations including to determine the electronic density or Total Electroinc Contents (TEC) of the ionosphere. Although the GPS frequencies operate well above the VHF band or the upper end of UHF usually called as microwave frequencies (L-Band), so yes, there are very-well known effects that are studied and vast literature is available in this area too!
I hope this gives a satisfactory answer to your question.
Wishing you best luck in your work!
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Depending on the usual surface materials, there must be lot of electrons due to photoeffect (UV, X-rays) from Sun that may have influence to some devices, particularly operating with high voltages. Has anybody measured / analysed this?
Thanks.
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In low density plasmas, the photo electron current of a sunlit spacecraft will often not be offset by the electron collection through collisions. So in effect the spacecraft will be positively charged relative to the surrounding plasma, ranging from a few volts to several tens of volts depending on plasma temperature, plasma density, solar flux and properties of the spacecraft surface.
For electron spectrometers this can be a problem since the flux of ambient electrons with an energy below the spacecraft potential will be obscured by a large flux of photo electrons being returned by the spacecraft potential. Ion spectrometers will naturally have the opposite effect, that low energy ions cannot reach the instrument.
Solving the sheet equation for the spacecraft and plasma should give information about the density and energy distribution close to the spacecraft. Though it is my understanding that doing this analytically is anything but straightforward. It is however relatively simple to use the spacecraft potential to estimate the density outside the sheet, in the unperturbed plasma. This is a commonly used technique in space plasma physics.
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I am exploring concepts for new experiments in solar-stellar research.
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Hi Philip, 
Speaking from a dynamicist's point of view, this is certainly possible. As already mentioned by James and Duncan, and, in particular, speaking about the results of the paper by Friesen, an inactive (initially) geostationary (equatorial, circular- synchronous) satellite (low A/m) will precess about a 'frozen' equilibrium point; the so-called Laplace plane in the planetary science's literature. This is a stable orbit (in fact, the natural regular satellites of the giant planets form in this plane), but it's only defined in terms of the gravitational torques acting on the orbit (lunar, solar, and oblateness perturbations). It's also, as discussed by Friesen et al., an idealization for Earth-orbiting applications, since the Moon's orbit itself is precessing about the pole of the Ecliptic plane. What this means is that a geostationary satellite will approximately precess about the pole of the Laplace plane with a period of about 53 years, and it's inclination will reach 15 degrees after 26.5 years before coming back down to equatorial. If such a satellite was placed initially in this plane, however, it would be fixed on average (the 'true' orbit, due to the regression of the lunar nodes, which is not taken into account in the analytical theories, will actually have a bounded inclination between 6 and 8.5 degrees, and an ascending node between +/- 10 degrees). 
This, as I mentioned previously, is only defined for satellites that are not appreciably perturbed by solar radiation pressure. In your case, however, you may want to consider the modified Laplace plane, which is the generalization that accounts for the SRP. This is described in the following papers:
Also, as described by Duncan, there is another mode acting in the system, which involves the perturbations caused by the ellipticity of the Earth. This effects the semi-major axis and stroboscopic mean node (primary variables of interest for ground track control). What this means is that your satellite will not remain fixed (w.r.t. the rotation of the Earth) over a single point on the equator throughout the day. The two main modes (motion in eccentricity/inclination and motion in semi-major axis) operate independently and on different timescales.
To conclude, 'stable' inclined geosynchronous orbits exist, but there are a few questions that need to be considered:
(1) Is the spacecraft required to be in the Earth's equatorial plane, or is an inclined geosynchronous orbit feasible for the proposed mission (The former is not possible without station-keeping? An inclined geosynchronous orbit will produce a distorted figure-8 ground track.) 
(2) Is the spacecraft required to be fixed over a particular point on the Earth? (Not possible, in general, without East-West station-keeping; but without control, it'll tend to move towards one of the stable longitudes as described by Duncan)
(3) Is the eccentricity required to be fixed? (Solar radiation pressure will cause the orbit eccentricity to undergo an approximately yearly oscillation with amplitude increasing with increasing A/m.) 
I hope this helps, and please let me know if you need any particular references on this, or have any specific questions.
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Maybe unusual changes in solar wind parameters and heliospheric parameters cause atmospheric disturbances which lead to unusual solar disturbances.
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The solar energy acts on atmosphere following various ways
1) the solar radiations heat the atmosphere 
- absorption of UV and EUV in stratosphere  generate for example  atmospheric tides
- the visble and infrared radiations arrive at the ground level and play a key role in low atmospher 
2) High speed solar Wind, CME and all other solar events disturbing the auroral zone  produce electric current  (J) and electric field (E) and energy can be transferred to  the atmosphere by 2 ways
- momentum transfert JxB
_ Joule heating J.E, the Joule heating can produce gravity waes and also an Hadley convection cell between the pole and the equator
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And if possible the methodology of extracting such datasets.
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Thank you for the address. I have started working it out.
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In recent years I have observed increasing numbers of research students trained primarily to use sophisticated toolkits, such as large observational and experimental facilities, and/or large computer programs.
A disturbing number struggle to articulate the basic question addressed by their research, or why one should care about the outcome. Young scientists need to be trained to spend time formulating questions whose answers will guarantee advancement in our understanding.
Should we be driven mostly by tools at hand and by societal needs? Do curiosity and the strictures of The Scientific Method have a role to play? Or is scientific work now driven by those outside of science?
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Every student is different of course (and structure and length of PhD is different in different countries), but with my students recently I try to start them off for first year on a mini-project looking at an event or events, probably using other people's software. By end of mini-project you know the student's capabilities and weaknesses whilst they have learnt a lot on the field and other skills. I think it's pretty important that the student has a chance to develop their own code later in the PhD. Surely one of the most powerful aspects of research today is being able to solve a problem by directly writing your own code.
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We let assume that sunspot number (SSN) ranges from 0 to 200. In this case, when SSN was greater than 50, it is solar maximum, otherwise it is solar minimum. Is this correct?
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No, this is not correct. SSN has a cycle with an average period of 11 years from minimum to maximum and back to minimum. Different SSN cycles have different amplitudes, modulated by a century-scale variability (the so called Gleissberg cycle). Plus, there are prolonged periods of grand minima and maxima of solar activity. In some low amplitude cycles SSN may never reach 50, in some high amplitude cycles 50 is not yet maximum. To determine sunspot minimum and maximum, you must look at the whole SSN record and identify the years of minimum and maximum SSN. Or, you can just look at published dates, for example http://solarphysics.livingreviews.org/open?pubNo=lrsp-2010-1&page=articlesu13.html.
If you are interested in comparing whatever parameters during solar maximum and minimum conditions, my advice from personal experience is to use the years of maxima and minima +/- 1 year - that is, 3-year periods around SSN extrema.
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Ground-based vertical plasma drift is inferred from the time rate of change of hmF2 or h'F (the virtual height of the F-layer)
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paper about chemical corrections for the vertical plasma drift calculation is for example:
Bitencourt, J. A., Abdu, M. A., A theoretical comparison between apparent and real vertical ionization drift velocities in the equatorial F-region. Journal of Geophysical Research 86: 2451-2454, 1981.
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Parks et al. [2012] found the entropy of electrons are increased across the Earth's bow shock. Based on the Vlasov equation or the entropy conservation equation, the entropy of electrons are almost unchanged if their distribution is symmetrical (e.g. Maxwellian, flat-top etc.). What are your views on this?
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The answer is in the question. Firstly, most of the distributions are not maxwellian in the magnetosphere, that is moslty loss cone and anti loss cone and power distribution and so on. Even if the distribution is maxwellian it will get remodified due to the various acceleration mechanisms of the particles, gain energy from the solar wind. It is not much difficulty in understanding that the bow shock region is a dynamicall unbalanced region, so the magnetic field pressure and the particle pressure will be highly fluctuating (beta), So the entropy should change and energy is definitely from the solar wind may little bit from earths magnetic field
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I am simulating an electron beam which should linearly gain kinetic energy along its path. Should I implement this in UserSteppingAction?
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Hi Oznur, Yes, you can change the kinetic energy of your particle via the SteppingAction, but you have to get the current track through the step. For example:
G4Step()->G4Track()->SetKineticEnergy (const G4double aValue). This is, however, a bit of a roundabout way to do a physical process. Something must be creating this gain in energy. I'm assuming a uniform electric field is creating your linear gain of kinetic energy. Why not just apply an electric field in Geant4?
Hope that helps,
Cheers,
Evan
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Current work in solar physics is dominated by data acquisition, reduction, and numerical modeling. Has the tool between the ears become less important than those catching photons, particles, and those that move electrons around on electrical devices in computers? Is the infrastructure now guiding our research, or are scientific questions guiding the infrastructure we have?
To see how we might make real progress and avoid some potential traps in relying on external tools, it might be useful to compare thoughts on the major achievements, questions that have been answered in solar physics since, say 1900, and how these were achieved. I might start it off by saying that the development of the Saha equation allowed us to begin to understand solar spectra for the first time, in a quantitative fashion, for example.
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My opinion is that in the past 30 odd years, solar/space research has not influenced fundamental physics at all. While it is true that we have made a large number of remarkable discoveries, some of which are really astonisihing and changed our view of nature, they remain discoveries of new natural phenomena that can be described in terms of exisiting physics. Howver, there is not much new physics in it. It is suprising to see how little solar/space physics has changed, in a profound way, the way we understand the fundamental laws of physics or helped us generalise them or challenge existing laws. If you compare with astronomy/astrophysics and particle physics, the difference in profoundness is enormous. Don't get me wrong, the solar/space physics community has improved our knowledge of the sun and the solar-terrestrial interactions, as well as other planets in the solar system, it in a most dramatic way. But there is very little outcome in terms of fundamenta from these exercies...
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What is coronal loop? Where from it originates? What is its contribution to coronal heating? How to model it and which model is appropriate for theoretical investigation?
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For historical completeness, we should include the Craig, McClymont and Underwood 1978, A&A , 70, 1. This gives essentially the same solutions as the better remembered RTV paper. The motivation for considering these solutions was driven by SkyLab observations that suggested considering active region structures as isolated atmospheres would be a reasonable approximation.
On a personal note, I would caution young scientists not to be seduced by the beauty of these approximations. The underlying assumption is that the magnetic field is so strong in the corona, that it can be ignored and we can spend great effort on the 1-D hydrodynamics and forward modeling the optically thin radiation. This was brilliant, 30 years ago, but one time would be better spent confronting more realistic 3-D, MHD (or multi-fluid) radiation hydrodynamics. The set of equations is nasty, but range of physical behavior is compelling and worthy of detailed study.
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I got pulled to the Solar Physics field by interest and now exploring it in its full depth. One major area I have found highly intersting is the Effect of Solar Flares on the technology we possess. In accordance to several anomalies put forward by different research groups, I am curious to know the possibility of a Solar Super storm in the near future. Calling in seasoned researchers to spark a discussion and also come up with ideas to counter attack such an event.
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There is an interesting paper by Mark Giampapa that is relevant your question. He surveyed magnetic activity in a group of sun-like stars in the similarly aged M67 cluster. There are examples of stars that fall both above and below the current ranges of solar activity. We do not yet understand what controls this range, so as James Green mentions above, it is possible that the Sun could become much more (or less) active in the near future - both of which would have serious consequences for mankind.
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Recently Hubble discovered a spiral in Antilia constellations claiming to be millions of light years away. Besides it is a thing of distant past as the nearest star is four and half light years away?
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Typical differential star velocities are of the order of 20Km/sec. Typical distances to the stars of constellations are about 1000 parsecs. At such distances, the projected separations in the plane of the sky for the individual stars that make up the constellation are about 150 parsecs. Now at 20 Km/sec, a star moves 20 parsecs
in a million years, or about 1/7 of the separation of constellation stars.
As a result, constellations will appear to show subtle changes over periods of about 100,000 years, and when a constellation star is nearby, it will be seen to move
substantially over periods as short as 1000-2000 years. This is how Halley noticed that Sirius and Arcturus had moved from their positions recorded in Ptolemy's catalog.
made some 1500 years earlier
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Plasma contains many charged particles at very high temperatures. So, the different particles produce electro-magnetic fields, which fall off rather slowly compared to the electrostatic fields and more effective. So, is it correct to assume electrostatics and formulate a debye sphere?
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Yes it is. If you can define a Debye length then you can find (per definition) a Debye sphere.