Science topics: PhysicsAcousticsSound
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Sound - Science topic

Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing.
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Material presence is essential for propagation of sound. Does it mean that sound waves can travel interstellar distances at longer wavelengths due to the presence of celestial bodies in the universe?
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Detection of any type noise or very weak signals in case of GW is very difficult and depends on many factors on which data is filtered and then studied. Here some mass is converted to energy and that is the difference what signals carries but detection of such differences against the amount of matter included as energy itself is biggest scientific challenge of today's research. So signals may travel far as per large wavelengths but their detection is most difficult.
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Acoustic inside the mosque is affected by different creteria such as form, space design , material, insulations, AC,...
What do you think?
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The Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) from 10 to 60 Hz acoustic wave of low decibel(dB) inside a mosque, church, or temple can have impact on human beings' body and mind. The sound of a bell, the frequency of the fire (about 16 Hz), the gravitational wave (about 12 Hz), the air inside, and the electromagnetic field pattern created due to the structure, material used, etc. will create a dielectric resonator. When a human being, through deep prayer and meditation operates at such a low frequency, then his mind will resonate at low frequency. Therefore, he can feel the presence of some supreme power.
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If you fail in science, please provide me some sound advise.
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I agree that many well-known publications cost more. I am glad that many do not require payment - including some good ones that I have seen. Finding these - ones you do not have to pay for and are sufficiently reputable - is very time consuming because they are not easy to fin. It is worth the effort.
Saying all that, I have found a number of journals are transitioning to the require-pay.
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In 1944, a previously unknown phenomenon of sound propagation over ultra-long distances was recorded. They write about 5 thousand kilometers. In accordance with calculations using empirical formulas, the maximum range of sound propagation is no more than 150 km. In accordance with the theory of propagation of infrasound, 200 km is obtained. What could be the explanation for propagation over such large distances?
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Dear Anders Buen.
Now about the main thing.
Comment #2.
My colleague Boris Kapochkin has already written that sound can travel several thousand kilometers underwater when theory says that 200 km is the maximum.
I calculated that for cylindrical sound propagation with a frequency of 2 Hz at a distance of 200 km, the transmission loss is 67 dB (the power of sound energy decreases by about 200 thousand times), and at a distance of 5000 km, the transmission loss is 53 dB (the sound power decreases by more than 5 million once). This is fully confirmed by the results of calculations by my colleagues from the Odesa Department of Hydroacoustics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 3A%2F%2Fhydromech.org.ua%2Fcontent%2Fpdf%2Fcons%2Fcons2005_084-089.pdf&usg=AOvVaw0vDKOK1EACZ2j4ciY0u2iB).
In order to travel 5000 km, an acoustic wave must continuously, at each cycle of compression and extension, receive energy from the aquatic environment. Otherwise, only 200 km. I need to voice a few postulates.
First postulate. Water has structure. I have attached several diagrams in one picture.
Second postulate. When breaking and restoring one broken intermolecular bond, 400 kJ/kg is absorbed and released for every 10 water molecules. That is, during compression, the structure of water is destroyed, and the speed of sound in such a medium increases. The measure of the kinetic energy of the medium must increase (the process of wave propagation is non-adiabatic).
Third postulate. For infrasound, the process of wave propagation is adiabatic.
Fourth postulate. The destruction of the structure of water requires disproportionately less time than its restoration.
In this way, the aquatic environment, in the process of exposure to infrasound, releases energy and reduces the total mass of associated molecules. As a result, positive feedback occurs, which is very rare in non-biological phenomena, and is aimed at reducing entropy.
It's about like this somewhere.
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The intensity of external sound incident on the glass is partly reflected and partly transmitted to the interior.
The question is then how to maximize the reflected part and therefore minimize the internally transmitted part?
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For high sound insulation, alumiunium profiles will be the limiting part for the sound insulation. They are also problematic in flanking sound between rooms or storeys in a building. So for very high demands aluminium is not the right product, or the profiles needs to be filled with sand or an other soultion to reduce the ring and transfer. It is also possible to improve the situation using profiles of steel or with double constructions like Wiconas system.
Good sound insulating windows are laminated and fairly thick, they are usually two or three layers to improve the thermal insulation. There are literature out there on sound insulation of windows, e.g. Bradley.
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During commissioning activities a static equipment was subject to sever vibration and high acoustic sound vibration. Although operated within the design normal operating parameters.
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Your information contains too little information.
As a general comment - industry tends to build systems assuming component property specifications suffice. Often, they do not. One has to take into account that components interact.
Very simply stated - if it was super easy to slap components together and get a well functioning system, then there would not exist a difference between, say, a Rolls Royce and a low cost entry level car. Both will take you from A to B, albeit differently when comfort is evaluated.
That said - aeroacoustics is a rather complicated field. Here is an introduction to the very basics
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I'm preparing a model related to the phenomenon of leak detection by acoustics in gas pipeline . The case is transient encountering injecting of an acoustic wave signals in the domain . After invistigation of results , i found that the results are mixed with reflected wave coming from the end of the pipe.So i need to eliminate the reflected waves by means of end condition that can absorbes all the reflected waves . NOTE (I already used perfect matched layer for frequancy steady state studies but it doesn't work with transient studies ) .
thanks for your supports .
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If you use Pipe Acoustics Transient Interface apply End Impedance and set zero reflection condition.
See COMSOL Documentation:
Acoustics Module > User's Guide > Pipe Acoustics Interfaces > The Pipe Acoustics Frequency Domain and Transient Interfaces > End Impedance
Good luck!
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(field measurements)
In order to assess sound performance of a building facade element (wall, window, louver, glazing,...) and its ability to mitigate airborne exterior noise into the reception room , i found different noise descriptors :
*weighted apparent sound reduction index R'w.
*weighted standardized sound level difference Dn, Tw
i want to know when to use each one of them.
am comfused because i think they both have the same sound insulation procedure, which is mentioned in EN ISO 717-1.
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Can we study an interaction in above stated question through RBD factorial experiment?
I know that we can do it in a convenient way by adopting Split plot design or Strip plot design but experimental site dimensions don't allow for such layout.
So please don't try to suggest that Split plot or Strip plot is the way.
Just comment whether conducting this field trial in RBD factorial will be statistically sound or not.
Thank you
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Main assumptions of split plot design is that main plot treatments require larger plot size to perform those activities which need large space like tillage practices, irrigation methods or nitrogen level etc because in case of nitrogen being highly mobile, there will be ample chances of losses of N via seepage if plot size is small and that nitrogen may get accumulated in neighbouring pots....while allocation of sub plot treatments, there may be small plot...in your question, there are 2 factor say tillage and nitrogen with 7 and 3 levels, respectively, then there will be 21 treatment combinations...if we replicate treatment combinations thrice, then there will be 63 plots of the same size that is larger size because in small plot, performance of 7 different tillage operations may not be possible...so area must be large..in this, we can make one replications in clumps like 7 treatments in 3 rows making 21 combinations..this can be done for other two replications by adopting randomisation procedure.. larger the experimental plot area, higher the error and lesser the precision of the statistical analysis...
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I already made the experimental setup of impedance tube for the same construction. Do I have to validate it?
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did you di it?
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Hello,
I remember coming across a study or article a few years ago, the main findings were that people tended to believe a research finding more if neuroscience terminology was used compared to traditional psychology terms. For example, when comparing the statements "the brain responded to the stimulus faster ..." versus "participants responded to the stimulus faster...", people tended to believe the former statement more. However, I cannot find the research article anywhere, and at this point am unsure if I made a mistake in my memory. Does this sound familiar to anyone?
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I heard this story related to brain images:
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Som researchers consider potassium also in this ratio. What is the correct procedure?
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In the Gibbs diagram, the ratio Na/(Na + Ca) is a number without units and in terms of TDS and in units of mg/l
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I understand there will be exact multiple of fundamental frequency based bearing rotation with respect to fundamental, based on gear rotation with respect to fundamental. But what exactly means for multiples of bearing rotations, multiples of blade passes like 1x, 2x, 3x etc.,
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Honestly, it depends...
It depends on the specific machinery and source mechanism.
It can be nonlinearities in the system (e.g., nonlinearities in linear drives like speakers), it can be (periodic) elements in the system (e.g. number of teeth in gears), it can be wear in components (which needs to be periodic on rotating parts, e.g. higher harmonics on railcar wheels - polygonalization), it can be impulsive behaviour triggered periodically by a rotating part (e.g. combustion impulses in internal combustion engines), it can be linearly moving parts that are not rotating (e.g. pistons), it can be some additional higher order torque components from inbalances, ...
The key point is that for all of these processes (except of some non-linearities that might generate subharmonics), you can only get integer multiples of the base period.
Nevertheless, it is important to mind the base period. For a 4-stroke engine, for example, this is 2 rotations, which is why you might also find "half orders" at internal combustion engines (and only full and half orders, no third or something...).
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In my model, as I increase the grid size, the results are close to observed values. But the problem is that the model is small and larger grid size means the number of grid sizes across the width is very low (maybe only 7 or 8). Am i missing something here?
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Rajeev Shrestha but that shouldn't happen because maybe you are importing data from some source ? or manually generating cross section geometric data ? .. as per my knowledge, even-if grid sizes changes results remains same... until source input data is changed.
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when working on nitrogen analyzer assembly unit, it produce to much sound, can anyone give idea how to reduce it?
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I don't know which company instrument you are using right now. But normally KEL+ nitrogen auto analyser make sound only while intaking NaOH and distilled water. While distillation a light sound will be there but i dont think that will disturb you. So if your instrument is making too much sound that means it needs survicing.
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I'm doing a thesis that is related to sound production of crabs. Various crabs such as Ghost crabs and Dungeness crabs produce sound when they feel vulnerable. In my case, my thesis focuses on the mangrove crab Scylla Serrata. But due to travel restrictions due to Covid-19 situation I'm not able to perform my own experiments. I could not find any resources that were dedicated to sound production of Scylla Serrata. So, I wanted to know if Scylla Serrata produce sound when they feel vulnerable or before other crabs cannibalize them.
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I have been searching for a real Master for about 30 years and till now I have met a number of so called fake masters who misguide you in the divine name of Light and Sound, but no one could give any inner experience. I have met Ishwar Puri, Ching Hai, Darshan Singh, Thakur Singh, Pier Franco Marcenaro Paul Twitch , Sadhguru, Radha Swami Satsang Byas today, Ravi Shankar, Niraankari, Divya Jyoti Jagran Sansthan, Ram Pal and many like these. They all say that sit in the meditation and you will get some experience as per your past karmas or you will get at the time of death. Though it is said by the Real Masters of past that the Real One will give you some first hand experience as he is connected to God and God is manifested in him. It is not possible that if someone connected to God can not give you any experience. He is like a sandalwood tree, if it does not give you anything, at least you get its fragrance.
I just want to confirm "Is there anyone in this world who has seen Inner light and heard Inner Sound and met with a Real Master who has blessed him with these Divine Things?"
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Jonathan David Binnington That's a very wise answer. Any number of people with delusions and hallucinations may have seen some kind of "Inner light and heard Inner Sound". On the other hand, any delusion is a bonus experience, as long as you recognize it as a delusion.
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Hello
I have to perform a localization of a underwater autonomous vehicle (UUV) and for that purpose have a couple of sensors available on board. I know that ultrasonic (Sonar) sensors perform well in the water. I also have IMU and Monocular Camera available .So my question is , Visual-inertial localization better solution for underwater compare to Sonar(ultrasound)? So thinking of Fusion of the IMU and and Monocular camera to be used for the localization and depth calculation instead of ultrasound. Which solution is more appropriate and have more advantages?
Thanks
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As an affordable and accurate solution I would recommend the ”Underwater GPS“, that we are using with a BlueRov2: https://shorturl.at/floIJ
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Experimental results of the Sound absorption coefficient of material have mostly been found to be in good terms with the Theoretical models. But the calculations look confusing. With imaginary terms and differential equations.
Are there any simplified calculations and methods for theoretical modeling in acoustics?
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Regarding your question on the Nocke paper, Equation 6 is derived from the previous 5 equations. The numerical value of Equation 6 depends on the values chosen for the parameters b, d, t and D. If the system is linear, the impedance should not be dependent on sound pressure, so I am guessing that the p in the denominator should not be there.
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How do sound waves travel through a barrier? A sound wave is the result of compression and rarefaction of gases. This pressure difference makes the air molecules oscillate. [Fig 1]
When sound waves hit the plane wall they reflect. I am considering the same thing for the pressure difference. But when the wave hits the barriers like as shown below image. How will be the pressure distribution? Will it follow the same compression and refraction pattern? Or it will be a high-pressure region at the corner? [fig 2]
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Dear Prerna,
When considering a barrier large compared to the molecular mean free path (in air this is 1E-8 m=0.01 micrometer), the behaviour of the air can be described by means of a continuum model which ignores the behaviour of individual molecules. Furthermore when the pressure variation p' associated with the wave is in the typical audio range (p'<20 Pa), one can use a linear approximation of the equations describing the momentum exchange between fluid "particles"(elements of fluids small compared to the acoustic wave-length and large compared to the mean free path). Combining this with the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium and the assumption that mass is conserved (non-relativistic model) one can derive the so-called scalar wave equation stating that the second derivative of p' by the time derived by the second derivative of the spatial derivative of p' is equal to the square of the speed of sound c. This speed of sound is in air at room conditions c=343 m/s. Assuming that the barrier is impermeable, one will see from the solution of these equation that the pressure in the corner between the barrier and the "floor" (or ceiling) will indeed increase and reflected waves will be generated. At the central opening in the barrier the wave will be simply transmitted. Due to its "wave" character it will however also be diffracted, which means that some wave energy will spread around the direct path through the barrier (lines through the hole in the direction of propagation of the incoming wave). This phenomenon depends strongly on the ratio of the acoustic wave-length (distance between pressure maxima in the incoming wave or speed of sound c divided by the oscillation frequency) and the size of the opening b. See earlier answer of Weerawut Thanhikam. In principle only a mathematical solution of the problem can provide an accurate answer. However a global idea of the answer can be obtained once the ratio c/(b f) is known.
Reards
Mico
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It is widely agreed that any sustainable development shall be based on sound scientific findings and innovations. The researchers are working in very difficult to develop or promote these solutions. Unfortunately, on the other side, policy makers and executive are working without any clear and stable links with researchers and scientists. This situation create a gap between scientists and policy makers and leading to establishment of unsuccessful and unsustainable development projects in the developing countries.
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in some countries like Venezuela, at this time, they are not even able to establish development projects
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I need to test Sound Insulation of concrete Panels (300 mm * 300 mm * 50 mm). May I know about what kind of arrangement need to conduct this test at laboratory
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To determine how to cancel out noise, we need to understand how sound changes with varying conditions. We know a few things already about how sound works. Cement boards are dense, making them suitable for insulating airborne and impact noises. Since cement boards are heavy, they make it hard for sound to move through them. For this reason, cement boards are excellent for soundproofing.
these links will be useful also:
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Hello everybody,
I would like to measure with a microphone the surface sound pressure on a steel plate. A transducer is attached to the other side and operates at fixed frequencies between 20 and 40kHz. The idea is to see how the vibration is distributed along the plate, where is the maximum ad minimum etc. I plan to divide the steel plate in a sort of coordinate system, where measurements are made at each point. The microphone will be connected to an oscilloscope, peak to peak signal will be recorded and then converted to sound pressure level (SPL).
Do you think this would give any meaningful results? I have rather limited knowledge in acoustics and sound propagation so any sort of tips and suggestions are welcomed.
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I am examining a Masters dissertation and 10% of the sources consulted are from the supervisor - the supervisor's work cannot be regarded as seminal or benchmark on this topic.
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Agree that 10% is not thst high. Rather than the total quality, I suggest thst you consider the contribution of each citation. Does it contribute something valuable and distinctive? Contextualize the dissertation would be one type of contribution.
These 10 rules may be helpful.
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I am working on phoneme recognition. Is there any dataset of sound files for each phoneme class?
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Dear all,
I'd like to supply a sound velocity measurement setup for the synthesized glass samples in our lab. For this, is there anyone who can help me to find out a supplier? Also, any example setups in your labs will be highly appreciated.
Thanks in advance for your time-consuming.
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I agree that any set of reciprocal piezo-transducers can be used. Alternatively you can use a small instrumented hammer to create the pulse, an only use one piezo-sensor as receiver at the other end of the glass sample (you don't need any more a pulse generator and power amplifier).
Your sample must be a rod with one dimension much larger tan the others in order to clearly differentiate the sound wave from the shear and flexural ones. Because the compressional waves are the fastest in a solid, you just need to capture the precise travelling time of the first arrival of the wave you generated either from the same transducer (the return pulse after reflecting at the other end of the rod) or a second transducer at the sample extremity (the direct path). For an accurate measurement, you need to look for the peak of the correlation function of your E/R signals, not just the first instant of energy arrival which is more difficult to determine precisely... But it remains a simple measurement if you are not looking for upmost precision.
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Pearson's Q-Global is expensive, and does not have Indian versions of tests or norms!
a. Are there cheaper, culture-fair online tests that are psychometrically sound, for research?
b. What are people's experiences of adapting existing neuropsych tests to videoconferencing for research purposes?
Thanks in advance!
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Teleneuropsychology: A model for clinical practice.
One more relevant publication for your reference:
Thibodaux, L. K., Breiger, D., Bledsoe, J., Sato, J., Hilsman, R., & Paolozzi, A. (2021). Teleneuropsychology: A model for clinical practice. Practice Innovations, 6(3), 189-198.
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Hello,
I am looking for a system that measures insect activity over a natural area such as a pond. Is there anything? I was thinking similarly to sonar to measure bird migration.
Best,
Valentin
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For birds there are AI based classifies that can detect certain species.
For insects I am guessing image and video processing can be the most reliable approach.
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Hi everyone, I have attached a picture of sketch for FCU duct-borne noise calculation. There are 2 questions in the sketch or as shown below,
Q1: Do we do power division for the FCU sound power when calculating duct borne noise for path 1 and path 2? Any published material for referencing specifically for this?
Q2: SPL at receiver = Path 1 + 3dB or Path 2 + 3dB ?
I'm welcoming any advise and comments towards it. =)
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Jack Chong , i guess you need to ask / understand exactly what is specified / given in that spec respectively how it was measured to understand how you could make use of the data given.
I am very well aware of poor specifications, incomplete understanding of acoustics by people distributing such data, etc.
However, I think we cannot really help you here within this discussion without more detailed information. At best, we might add further guesswork - and I am doubtful whether that would help.
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Any human construction is not a perfect number generator. Any lottery drum cannot have a perfect design. Therefore, several mathematicians succeeded!!!
There are a lot of examples. For example:
Incredible Spanish Casino Winning Strategy
Gonzalo Garcia-Pelayo was not only a mathematician. He was able to develop mind-blowing powers of observation. When Gonzalo realized that the calculations and actual results did not add up, he began to look closely at roulettes. In the end, the mathematician found the answer. He noticed that the shiny surface of the roulette wheel reflects light unevenly. The Spaniard calculated the approximate slope from the glare. To detect unstable rotation, it was necessary to count the revolutions. If the tape made a different number of turns to the left and to the right, the drum was defective. After collecting statistics, it was possible to determine the "lucky" numbers.
Garcia-Pelayo is not the first player to beat the casino. He borrowed the technology from Joseph Jagger. The grandfather of the famous musician Mick Jagger was the first American to cheat the roulette wheel. Joseph worked as an engineer in a cotton mill. Once he realized that casino roulettes simply cannot have a perfect design. To test the theory, he asked five friends to go to the casino and watch the roulette wheels. As a result, Jagger identified nine winning numbers.
The Spanish court issued a non-appealable decision. Moreover, the judge advised casino owners to better monitor their equipment. The Spaniard was not recognized as a fraud, as the prosecutors wanted. The money won entirely remained with the former sound engineer. Gonzalo's rich roulette experience and hours spent in the casino was a wonderful experience. Together with his children, he opened a gambling analysis agency. The Spaniard also conducts an expert assessment of virtual casinos.
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You are most welcome dear Boris Menin . Wish you the best always.
I will win when I have the lucky number. hahaha 😆😆😆
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Hi,
Can someone please provide me experimental values of the longitudinal or Transversal sound speed for Single Crystal Tantalum and Copper, along with the directions (100), (110), and (111)? I have limited access to journals, and I'm no longer affiliated with a University. There is a paper titled Elasticity of BaFCl single crystal under hydrostatic pressure, which tells elastic constants are related to the speed of sound. It is also well-known people in Geophysics use the speed of sound to find the elastic constants (inverse process) https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6762076/
Anyways, I need the experimental values of the speed of sound for the crystals mentioned above. I'm trying to publish a final paper of an algorithm for finding the speed of sound for any K direction and a given pressure P . It would be awesome if the results I obtain are close to the experimental data available. I presented part of my work a long time ago at https://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/TSF16/Session/H4.4
Thank you
Oscar Guerrero
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Dear Oscar, sorry to see that your very interesting question has not yet been answered by experts in this field of research. As a synthetic inorganic chemist I would not call myself an expert enough to give you a qualified answer. However, I can recommend to you the following potentially useful literature references which hopefully help answering your question.:
High Pressure Thermoelasticity of Body-centered Cubic Tantalum
This paper is freely accessible as public full text on RG.
For copper please see:
Atomistic shock Hugoniot simulation of single-crystal copper
In this case you can easily request the full text of the paper directly from one of the authors via RG (four of them have RG profiles).
Some basic information can also be found in the respective Wikipedia entry at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speeds_of_sound_of_the_elements
Good luck with your work!
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We are using a horn-type ultrasonic transducer for cavitation and cleaning purposes.
We experimentally found that the cavitation effect and cleaning effectiveness were decreased when input power was higher than a certain value.
The sound pressure measured by the hydrophone showed a periodic wave pattern when we applied proper input power, but it showed an irregular wave pattern when the input power is high (maximum value of sound pressure was high, but RMS value was low).
I have two questions
1. Does cavitation is promoted when the acoustic field shows a uniform and periodic pattern?? (even the maximum sound pressure is lower). Why??
2. Does the tip of the ultrasonic horn irregularly vibrate when high power was applied?? If not, why does the measured sound pressure showed an irregular pattern??
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Please read carefully the discussion https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_is_the_relationship_between_the_acoustic_pressure_and_the_amplitude_of_ultrasound as your question on the loss of cleaning efficiency when you exceed some intensity levels is largely similar...
At high level, the ultrasonic generator becomes largely non-linear meaning widening the frequency spectrum, including low frequency components able to induce unstable horn vibration, but also large fluctuations of pressure in the fluid and unstable cavitation bubbles size.
The only way to remain under control is to stay in the quasi-linear electric power/piezo-electric conversion/fluid coupling domain...
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Is it ethically sound to study genetics of a particular community and whether approval from a regulatory authority is required?
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Four general ethical and social issues in genetic research studies are considered:
  • privacy
  • access and ownership of genetic information and materials
  • psychosocial risks of participating in genetic research studies
  • potential group-related inflictions
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What is a real-life example of the inverse relationship between frequency and (power/energy/pressure)?
I am just really confused about how to correlate Power/Energy/ Pressure in ultrasound towards its frequency. Based on what I have been researching, Ultrasonicator usually uses a high frequency with low (Power/Energy/Pressure) and otherwise, the low frequency with high (Power/ Energy/ Pressure). Why do I mention power/energy/ pressure? it is because apparently, they are related. Power is related to pressure in the Intensity equation where it seems to be the pressure amplitude square (based on the equation), while energy is related to amplitude (kinetic energy). I would really appreciate it if somebody can help me explain why there is an inverse relationship between frequency and (power/energy/pressure) and surely give me a real-life example about it. If the relationship between frequency and pressure appears to be independent, please give me a real-life example of it.
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Frequency is a global parameter describing the cyclic part of the waves, one round in the unit circle for both pressure and the pariticle velocity. The pressure and particle velocity is out of phase in a plane wave field. Energy is related to both pressure and particle velocity. The frequency is just the «carrying oscillation» describinbg its peridocity f = 1/T. The frequency is present in both the pressure wave and the particle velocity vave part.
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I'm beginner at comsol modeling. I tried 2D modeling of wave propagation, PZT simulation in time domain  by comsol , But I couldn't make it. I attached a file which I tried on.
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Thanks Qamar Ul Islam Sir
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A menudo un investigador se basa en los instrumentos exteriores o en el corpus de datos generados por una cultura particular. ¿Es suficiente utilizar los criterios establecidos para reconocer y validar una publicación, conducta, sociedad , cultura o espiritualidad como buena?. Buena, entendiendose como válida, saludable a nivel universal y duradera. El dialogo constructivo es necesario para la consolidación de una realidad, pero ¿ Y si los que conforman este diálogo no tienen en sí mismos la visión correcta?. Ejemplos de ello son los grupos culturales y de investigación que no han mantenido una base etica y espiritual correcta (Eugenesias, Investigacion cruel con animales, periodos historicos violentos, etc.). ¿ Es necesario revisar el propio sistema de valores no como una base de creencias sin como guia de conducta en la praxis diaria?
Often a researcher relies on external instruments or the body of data generated by a particular culture. Is it enough to use the established criteria to recognize and validate a publication, a conduct, society, culture or spirituality as good? Good, understood as valid, healthy on a universal and lasting level. The constructive dialogue is necessary for the consolidation of a reality, but what if those who make up this dialogue do not have the right vision in themselves? Examples of this are cultural and research groups that have not maintained a correct ethical and spiritual basis (Eugenics, Cruel research with animals, violent historical periods, etc.). Is it necessary to review the value system itself not as a basis of beliefs without as a guide to behavior in daily practice?
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1) Hay que aclarar primero si es una cuestión a dilucidar "históricamente" (desde un punto de vista diacrónico) o bien -digamos que por el contrario- a dilucidar "actualmente" (desde un punto de vista sincrónico). Porque como se mezclen ambos puntos de vista puedes llegar a callejones sin salida o a preguntas que provoquen respuestas que lleven al absurdo.
2) Si es diacrónicamente: hay que ver qué puntos de lo social se admitían en cada momento (por ejemplo: el esclavismo, que duró siglos) y cómo se veían influidas las espiritualidades en momentos diferentes respecto de esos puntos (por ejemplo: en el cristianismo, hay respuesta desde los primeros años -siglo I- hasta el final del esclavismo, pero no siempre coherentes entre sí) y si, más allá de esos puntos concretos, se puede 'salvar' (puede ser buena) esa espiritualidad o no.
3) Si es sincrónicamente: una vez alcanzado el conocimiento actual, habiendo conquistado los derechos humanos, en una sociedad globalizada, etc., etc., la respuesta toma otro cariz más global y globalizador, que va de lo concreto y particular (de cada espiritualidad) a lo general y colectivo (en relación unas con otras espiritualidades): de modo que se podría hablar de 'pautas' para distinguir entre lo bueno y lo malo en las diversas espiritualidades.
4) Yo me decantaría por una pregunta de tipo sincrónico, con sus múltiples posibles respuestas (yo daría una al respecto); para, una vez teniendo claro lo que 'hoy' entendemos por bueno o malo (respecto de una espiritualidad), poder analizar -en el plano diacrónico- los diversos momentos por los que la humanidad ha ido atravesando y cómo las diversas espiritualidades han ido respondiendo en cada caso (a veces, de múltiples y contrapuestas maneras).
Con todo, es muy buena pregunta. Porque el mundo futuro será espiritual o no será. Y no soy yo quien lo dice...
Muchas gracias por invitarnos a la reflexión profunda. Hace falta.
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I am building a 5KV DC low current power supply using a full wave rectifier setup (not a bridge rectifier) and a shell type 5kV step up transformer. But cannot operate it more than 2.5kV as the transformer produce humming sound. I am not sure whether the value of C (~17microFarad)and R(~5MegaOhm) I am currently using is correct. So how does one determine the value of R and C, and also the component required for smoothing the output voltage to obtain pure DC.
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W.R. Kampinga Thank you.
Gheorghe Zaharia . Yes, the frequency is 50Hz. Please find attached image for reference. I don't quite understand what you mean by direct voltage and therefore the peak to peak variation of the voltage. Does this mean the required DC voltage? The degee of requirement would be a near perfect DC voltage.
Nikolay Pavlov Please find the attached circuit diagram.
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Have your manuscript been rejected by these so called reputable International journals because its addresses a local issue or content? I have and a couple of my friends. But have you noticed that some scientists are allowed to get away with it. For instance a dairy problem in USA will be described as such, and a methodology will be sought to solve it and results presented. However, work from other regions of the world would be turned down because it does not sound like it will be beneficial to other part of the world or of no interest to other scientists.
How many times have you read a article which may not necessarily be applicable to you lab, country or region; but still find it interesting? I think this kind of assessment of submitted manuscript is unfair and discriminatory and should stop.
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It is indeed discriminatory. This kind of practice will unfortunately kill creativity and the freedom to search wide, because we will all thrive to comply for the sake of publication
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Hi,
I am looking for a scale to measure psychological health, sort of like the Brief Symptom Inventory or the General Health Questionnaire, both of which are excellent but pretty costly for a student like me. Ideally I would want a tool that is in English, can be used on a young adult population, psychometrically sound AND has multiple domains or subscales (like these both do). I don't want to use different scales to make a composite dependent variable.
Any leads or ideas would be greatly appreciated.
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At least, in Spain and several other European countries, they are accessed free of charge by Google and / or by the attached WEB pages. Thanks
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Sound boom happens when the speed of of a flying object exceeds that of the sound traveling in air. It's not easy to generate such a linear speed. However, this can be relatively easily generated by rotational motion. In other words, if we rotate an object, let's say a disk, fast enough, the speed of disk at the edge can easily be supersonic.
So here are my questions: Has anyone tried similar experiments? What happens when the speed at the edge of the disk exceeds that of sound?
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Thank you Robert. Your reply is very informative. So "the relative speed of earth with respect to ether" is not even a valid question, because the earth drags ether with it. In other words, the Michelson-Morley experiments could be pointless. I cannot help but thinking the rippling effect of this conclusion -- taking off this cornerstone of modern physics.
I guess you are probably right about sound boom effect of a spinning object, but I'm still optimistic about options that make this happen. You might wonder why I'm looking into this. I vaguely feel that this might provides a mechanism to generate lifting forces for flying disks.
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Dear Friends,
Greeting.
Happy New Year. I wish everybody a prosperous New Year.
I'm thinking of a project for checking the sound (phonetics) that will lost or promoted while switching from one set of alphabet to another. For example switching from Arabic letters to Latin in Turkey; does the set of Latin letters saved all Turkish phonetics (sound)? What is the advantages and/or disadvantages of such switching?
Did such work carried out anywhere?
Best Regards,
ABDUL-SAHIB
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Dear عائشة عبد الواحد thank you for the invaluable answer.
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Voy a comenzar a hacer una serie de declaraciones controvertidas sobre el manejo forestal. Estas no son declaraciones que necesariamente puedo defender, pero les agradezco y me dan argumentos a favor o en contra y con citas de buena ciencia y buen juicio. La buena ciencia y experiencia pueden probar hipótesis. El respeto es apreciado y por favor, dejen de lado la bilis cuando respondan.
Sea tan profesionales como lo requiera el ejercicio. La primera afirnación es:
LA MAYORÍA DE LAS ESPECIES UTILIZADAS EN LA REFORESTACIÓN A GRAN ESCALA EN EL MUNDO SON MONOCULTURAS NATURALES EN SUS SITIOS DE ORIGEN
Por favor responde y comparte. Recopilaré las respuestas y luego las compartiré en un documento sobre el tema, reconociendo los aportes de todos los que hagan comentarios. Esperare un mes para ver sus reacciines antes de poner la siguiente afirmación.
Gracias oor anticipado
Dr. Ronnie de Camino Velozo
________________________________________________________________________________
I am going to start making a series of controversial statements about forest management. These are not statements that I can necessarily defend, but I thank you and give me arguments for or against and with quotes from good science and good judgment. Good science and experience can test hypotheses. Respect is appreciated and please set bilis aside when responding. The first statemet is:
MOST OF THE SPECIES USED IN BIG SCALE REFORESTATION IN THE WORLD ARE NATURAL MONOCULTURES IN THEIR SITES OF ORIGIN
Please respond and share. I will collect the responses and then share them in one document, recognizing the contributions of all the ones that make comments. I will wait one month for your reactions before putting the next statement.
Thank you very much in advance.
Dr. Ronnie de Camino Velozo
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Hola, te comparto mi artículo donde destaco la importancia de especies nativas en los programas de reforestación (monocultivos de pinos).
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Hi there,
I am planning my hierarchical regression model, and am stuck on how to order my variables in different blocks. I have currently planned to add covariates in ordered from those expected to have the least to the most attenuating impact on the effect estimate from the literature.
Secondly, I have added my proposed moderators in together in the final block, and then plan to add interaction terms one-by-one afterwards.
Does this sound plausible? I gather different studies use different approaches.
Thanks a lot,
Esther
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Hello Esther,
If testing for changes in R-squared from a smaller model (fewer IVs) to a larger model (more IVs) is what you're after, then yes: the order of block/step entry matters (that's what Jochen Wilhelm refers to as sequential tests).
The choice of order should be driven by your specific research questions in conjunction with whatever relevant theory is guiding your work (as implied by Marcel Grieger's response). Yes, different folks might use different sequences, but that's in keeping with what questions they seek to address by the analysis.
In the final/full model, it makes no difference as to when a given IV was entered; the estimated regression coefficients are conditional based on all other IVs and the relationships in your data set, and not order of entry. (Both previous responses noted this as well.)
Good luck with your work.
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Fellow researchers, I would like to ask you, does anyone know how to express the sound absorption coefficient in the complex plane? The picture is as the file.
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Hongyu, if you are asking how to make a plot like this one, Matlab has a heatmap function that will do it. You would need to know the transfer function of the absorber and you would need to create a large-ish matrix of complex frequency values, then evaluate the transfer function for each matrix element, then send the resulting matrix to the heatmap function. I am not sure what the matrix size limits are in Matlab but the picture resolution might not be as good as the one in your example.
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Hello, may I know how to compute the overall sound absorption coefficient of 2 or more items together (coefficient for overall system)?
For example,
1. item 34 on the surface of item 28?
2. item 12 on the surface of item 38?
Kindly refer to the attachment to get the item.
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is this a book?
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If a sound is too loud, can an animal dampen down its perceived amplitude by pushing its head/skull against something hard and immovable?
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Dampen means to make wet. Damp would be a better choice of a word.
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Hi,
How the sound absorption coefficient of an acoustic absorber can be calculated using the thermo-viscous module in Comsol? When I tried to calculate the sound absorption of the Helmholtz resonator, it shows lower absorption values than the study done using the narrow region acoustics model. Compared to the thermo viscous model, the narrow region model gives better matching with the analytical model. Can anyone please help in this regard? What are the boundary conditions we have to take care of when we using the thermo-viscous module?
The numerical model and results are attaching here. Thanks in advance.
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K. Mahesh You need a boundary layer mesh.
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We need technology to help and
Reinforcement Teaching skills. Should we really direct our students in the right direction?
  And what is the effective and sound way to use technology in education in order to prepare students to face society and the world around them?
 
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Dear Mr. Aqeel
According to my point of view, I found that E-Learning experience in my country is very useful especially for MA & Ph.D. Students.
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May be it will sound anecdotal, but in my country, during an outbreak of chikungunya, we have seen the lowest incidence of dengue and vice versa.
May be some ascertainment issue, may be prioritizing issues, I am not sure. But I am more interested to find out from virologic or ecological view point for an explanation it. Thanks
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In fact, such cases are observed epidemiologically, as with the spread of the Corona pandemic, epidemic influenza infections have decreased significantly...This may be due to the reasons for isolation, social distancing, wearing masks, and other health guidelines that have been applied to maintain public health, in addition to people's generally trying to maintain a healthy diet to strengthen the body's immunity. All these and other factors have affected the spread of influenza.
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I listen to music and it is very rare for me not to have some background music when I am busy (unless I am concentrating on something that takes my whole attention).
But some people listen to non-music programs on the radio, for example, or have the television on in the background.
What do you favour?
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Music
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Sonar imaging or echo location technology.
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Thank you guys for sharing your insights and taking the time to painstakingly looking for answer to such questions. Good luck and may God bless you all.
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I'm curious to know if there are any audio signal processing algorithms existing for estimating the impact of collision through processing the sound generated by the impact
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It depends on what you mean. But if you have a simulation model of the impact, you can use inverse methods to estimate the impact force, and other unknown or hidden things.
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Human binaural sound source localization is complex.
ITD (Interaural Time Differences) and ILD (Interaural Level Differences) are 2 main clues used by humans for binaural sound source localization, but other clues must be used to explain obtained results on experiments trying to evaluate human performance in binaural sound source localization, such as:
- performance difference between the setup where the sound source position/orientation is fixed and (1. the listener can voluntarily move its head) and (2. the listener is not allowed to move its head),
- performance difference between (1. individualized HRIRs) and (2. non-individualized HRIRs),
- performance difference between (1. BRIRs of anechoic rooms) and (2. BRIRs of semi-reverberant rooms)
- performance difference between (1. BRIRs recorded in a room and reproduced, with non-isolating headphones, in the same room) and (2. BRIRs recorded in a room and reproduced in another room which has different acoustic characteristics) (not sure about that, but it is my guess),
- etc.
I know that, biologically, human auditory system does
1) some kind of wavelet analysis, similarly to a CNN in Machine Learning, applied independantly to left and right ear signal, then
2) some kind of (left-right) multi-band temporal encoding (Spike Neural Network) and analysis (multiple delay lines + coincidence detectors), somehow similarly to a MLP with positional encoding in Machine Learning.
Because temporal information between left/right channels is required, I wonder why not much studies are using dirac impulses as sound stimuli, which have the interesting property of guaranteeing the non-distorsion (or destruction) of temporal clues ?
Why, instead of dirac sound stimuli, most of the experiments are based on other sound stimulis, such as short burst noises, human voices, or any other sound stimulis ?
In particular because in my opinion:
1) short burst noises doesn't preserve all -potentially useful- temporal clues (I think it only somehow preserves clues that would be based on signal amplitude envelope due to the short windowing of the stimuli....),
2) human voices or other sounds (if recorded in anechoic environment and with a unique mono-channel microphone) may preserve all temporal clues, but may not have full-spectrum energy.
Are there any technical reasons, except maybe the difficulty to produce a loud enough dirac impulse with headphones, that may justify the non-usage of dirac impulses as sound stimuli in binaural sound source localization experiments ?
Thank you very much !
Best regards,
Jean
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Thanks for your sharing ! In the paper you shared, I was not able to find any paper that uses dirac delta as sound stimuli. However, it gives me the idea to refine my search tems as "dirac delta sound source localization" (instead of just "dirac sound source localization"), and I found this paper, which seems relevant:
The paper seems to investigates sound source localization using 3 different stimulis ("wood", "bongo", and "dirac delta"), with non-individualized HRTF and Sennheiser HD201 headphones. Results are difficult (to me) to interpret, but it seems that the sound source can be localized with dirac delta stimuli with same accuracy (or even better considering Figure 6) than with other stimulis.
In conclusion, it seems that dirac delta is not impractical to sound source localization. I still try to find an explanation why this type of sound stimuli seems to be so rarely used in experiments....
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A relação entre o ruido urbano e a forma como os diversos atores sociais com ele se relacionam tem vindo a ser negligenciada dentro do seio académico (em especial dentro de áreas como a sociologia, antropologia e estudos urbanos). Por certo que, dentro do horizonte das ideias, ligada a uma relação bilateral entre as paisagens socialmente construidas e a evolução das cidades, existem algumas produções (como a de Carlos Fortuna; Augoyard e Torgue; Halligan e Hegarty; entre outros), mas ainda existe alguma falta no sentido da normalização (ou naturalização de G. Simmel) entre os sons e o meio urbano.
Assim, gostaria de perguntar se, dentro dos constrangimentos que a globalização permite, conhecem mais produções dentro desta área?
Obrigado pelo tempo.
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One of the rights of a citizen is his peace of mind. Lack of responsibility for this issue leads to lack of concentration, aggression and ultimately mental disorders of citizens. This is stated in Article 6 of the Charter of Citizenship Rights: Citizens have the right to participate in the performance of legal responsibilities and to provide the necessary financial resources, clean air, public green space and parks, clean and waste-free passages and a city without pollution. Have audio and ecology.
The main sources of urban noise pollution include factories, construction works, noises from the air conditioning system and noises from transportation (aircraft engine noises, car horns). Noise inside the home, such as the sound of televisions and vacuum cleaners, is also important.
Different sound levels based on the distance of each noise source.
Below are some frequently heard sounds with their approximate decibel levels at the same distance from the noise source. As you can see in the table below, it is defined in terms of "dB (A)" when the measurement is made on an "A" scale to simulate human hearing.
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A la parution d'un article, le chercheur trouve t-il sa satisfaction dans les recommandations, citations et lecture de son article par ses pairs ou s'attend-il à ce qu'on se sert de ses visions pour faire face au problème rencontré.
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Each of us expects that his article will achieve a scientific and academic resonance and that it will be cited ... Because it is considered the true success of the researcher, although there are many research works that have remained latent and have not been cited for many years, suddenly they got what they deserve, and they got many citations in a short time, so they were called Sleeping Beauty.
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La gamificación es una técnica de aprendizaje que traslada la mecánica de los juegos al ámbito educativo-profesional con el fin de conseguir mejores resultados, ya sea para absorber mejor algunos conocimientos, mejorar alguna habilidad, o bien recompensar acciones concretas, entre otros muchos objetivos.
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Yolanda Baraja , Sergio Nesteriuk , claro que sí, ya se ha demostrado y además en todos los niveles educativos. Muchas universidades han hecho un esfuerzo importante en formar a sus profesores en todo lo relacionado con tecnologías digitales y nuevos métodos de enseñanza y evaluación. La pandemia ha provocado un gran cambio cultural , estratégico y tecnológico.
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What is the best feature extraction tool for (sound wave)? except for mfcc
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Perhaps something to have a look at is the application of scattering networks to classify audio/music signals [Andén et al. https://www.di.ens.fr/~mallat/papiers/IEEESignalAndenLostanlen.pdf]. The paper also bridges the gap between time-frequency analysis (e.g. MFCC, mel-spectrograms, etc) and deep neural networks.
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My design contains three parts.
A silicon rubber membrane is placed between upper and lower part.
I want to calculate sound transmission loss by using comsol Multiphysic.
There are lots of module inside Acoustic section.
Which module will be suitable for this??
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Please consider this publication: An analytical model for broadband sound transmission loss of a finite single leaf wall using a metamaterial: DOI: 10.1121/10.0000923. The main model is there is analytical, but verifications is done with COMSOL.
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Greetings,
I have a data set of measured an air flow signals representing breath waveforms, each is of 6 seconds duration. The signal was sampled at a 100 sample/second. There is an interest to study the spectral characteristics of these breathes using the time-frequency analysis since the breath contains sound frequencies between 20Hz-10Khz. However, the 100 sample per second rate is way too small to meet the Nyquist Frequency for which the sampling rate should have been at least 20Khz. In such case, is there still any chance to perform any useful time-frequency analysis on his signal? Does this signal still include any useful spectral characteristics?
Thanks in advance.
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In order to avoid aliasing distortion due to the subsampling you can easily filter the signal by a filter with a cut off frequency of 50 Hz. Then you can sample the signals at 100 Hz. Accordingly you will get the frequency features of the signal under the cut off frequency of the filter.
I think it may still give you interesting information about the signal as it is basically a low frequency signal.
Best wishes
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I'm looking for an open source software that can perform numerical modeling for the side-scan sonar method.
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Dear Dr. Kerem Ozkap
Hello.
I'm interested in the same SW you are searching for.
Do you have any progress in finding any open source simulation tool for Side-Scan Sonar?
If you have, please inform me with my emai, tachyon@strkorea.co.kr .
Thanks in advance.
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Hi
I measured brain responses from 20 subjects to 5 different sound stimuli. Stimuli were presented at 3 different intensity levels in one ear at a time. One of the stimuli is like a "standard" and four other stimuli have different characteristics. What I am interested in is to find out which stimuli (of other four) produce a larger response compared to the "standard" stimulus at each intensity level.
I tried to fit mixed model to my data like this:
lme <- lmer(Amp ~ Level*StimType +(1|Subject) +(1|Ear), data = D);
and now I would like to make a multiple comparison and I do it in this way
lsmeans( object=lme, pairwise ~ Level * StimType, adjust= "tukey")
but I just want to compare these four stimuli with the "standard" stimulus at each intensity level, I do not need the comparison between these four stimuli. I can of course ignore them, but is there a more beautiful way to make a comparison I want?
And another question is about the Bonferroni correction. I tried to find information about the necessity of Bonferroni (or Holm, etc.) in mixed models, but I could not find something. Should it be applied? If yes, is it built into the model or should I apply it manually?
Thanks in advance
Best regards
Anna
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I tried this. It gave absolutely the same results for all types of Level:Stim combination. Example is showed below
Level = 30dBSL, Stim = Type1_PT:
contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
CL - IL -0.302 0.149 448 -2.022 0.0437
And this was for all results :-(
If you have any other suggestions, I will appreciate that.
Best regards
Anna
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Test a gas stove at, e.g., five different powers. Record the acoustic signal and the sound pressure level [this latter will not be a precise value, but their ratios will be]. For the acoustic signal, you can use, e.g., the Spectroid or Spectrogram app (there are a lot of apps out there to do FFT on the microphone signal). For the sound pressure level, you can use, e.g., the Andro sensor app.
need recommendations for above statement..
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I just want to get output of it and also 2-3 pages of of its diagram .
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I am doing a research about glass and conventional cockpits. Research question: " Is there a workload difference between cocpits? I am gonna use 30 pilots in my research. Which one is more sound statistically: 30 pilot flying same pattern on each cockpit then compare these total 60 data or 15 pilot flying same pattern on glass cockpit and 15 pilot flying same pattern on conventional cockpit then compare these total 30 data?
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Thanks for your reply Mr. Anders. I agree with you but also I wonder about is there a difference or would it be wrong using same pilots for both cocpits?
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We know that there are certain materials in the world that can be used to absorb sound or reflect sound or signal . But what if , there any material in which sound or signal which can adsorbed?
Is it possible to adsorb it?
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Aluminum foam or foam structures are commonly used to absorb sounds.
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Hi there,
I am looking for a good sound generator for fear retrieval and extinction experiments, can anyone suggest a cheap, reliable and good one, please?
It should be able to generate 2.5, 5 and 7.5kHz and also need to generate 30-75dB (roughly on this range).
thank you so much in advance,
Rajeev
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Thomas (Dr.Seidenbecher) offered help, they can manufacture it. That device can be triggered using spike-2 sequencer and master-8. All good, thanks for the reply :)
ciao
Rajeev
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Is it true or false? Why?
Do you think the statistics is fair and the evidence is sound?
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this is an important question..
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My study topic is jet mixing noise. I am given a velocity field in Vx, Vy, Vz at x and y coordinates, and would like to find the pressure field, and from that, find the sound level (or at least something related to sound). How should I proceed?
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The p and v are related through the characteristic impedance.
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Any article submitted to any journal goes under review if found suitable and within the scope of that journal. However, after reviewers completed their assignments, the authors do respond to queries raised by such reviewers, it could be once or a series of reviewer-author responses. Finally, the editor in Chief finalizes the decision. In Elsevier, particularly, before this happens, the status of the article shows Decision in Process. My question is how long does it take for this status to change under an ideal situation? And If it took more than the expected time, what should the corresponding author(s) suppose to do?
I hope to get sound and convincing responses from eminent researchers and editors across the platform.
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Dear Dr. Umar:
You are welcome. Sometimes, the associate editor handling your paper could be too busy to log in to the system, check the reviewer's reports, and make an editorial recommendation which will be directed to the editor-in-chief so he/she can make the decision (reject, minor, major revision, or accept as it is). Thus in doubt, I recommend sending an email politely asking what could be the reason for the delay.
Best
JP Arenas
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Physically measuring depth of water in a borewell is very difficult. First we need to dissemble the cap of the borewell. Then we need to allow measuring tape inside borewell which is very tedious.
There are SONAR based technologies for this purpose. Based on the time required for sound waves to reflect from the water level, they determine the depth of water level.
How accurate are these methods?
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Audible sound or even infrasound rather than ultrasonic sound is usually used in order to measure a longer distance (no need to be straight) and avoid interfering reflections by the obstacles or well wall along the way. Sound transmission and reception can be done using a laptop PC, table or handphone with a speaker and microphone. MLS (Maximum Length Sequence) signal can be used as the stimulus and the lag time of the echo can be found by the second highest peak of the auto correlation function. Time delay measurement accuracy is in the order of 0.05 ms. The water depth measurement inaccuracy could be mainly attributed to the estimation error in the average air temperature in the well, which is used to determine the average sound speed. For manual measurement, the water depth could simply be measured by tapping the well cover or burst a balloon, see example at https://www.virtins.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=24&t=1842.
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I am interested in input from an expert with a PhD in the area of K-12 students' self-regulation development related to their school mobility experiences. I am studying this topic for my dissertation and would love to obtain additional empirical research or sound experiential insights from this research community. Thank you!
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Dear Ms. Schmidt!
I have not yet reached the PhD but still want to contribute to your question - may I argue that successful engagement with the student should be the priority
1) Green, C., Mynhier, L., Banfill, J. et al. Preparing education for the crises of tomorrow: A framework for adaptability. Int Rev Educ 66, 857–879 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-020-09878-3 Open access;
2) Thurston Domina et al. (2021). Remote or Removed: Predicting Successful Engagement with Online Learning during COVID-19, Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World Volume 7: 1–15 Open access:
3) A case-study: Michael Grätz, Oliver Lipps (2021). Large loss in studying time during the closure of schools in Switzerland in 2020, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, Volume 71, February 2021, Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Staggered grid finite-difference (FD) methods are widely used for elastic wave equation modelling because of their high computational efficiency, smaller memory requirement and easy implementation. I am looking for the mathematical foundation for higher order (8th) of finite difference staggered-grid method on 2D P-SV elastic wave propagation.
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Dear Dr.
Ijaz Durrani
,
Thank you for suggesting me this article to me. I will read it.
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Hi all, I proceed with nucleic acid gel electrophoresis recently several times, but a wried phenomenon is they always melted after running over 30min.
My gel concentration is 1% percentage Agarose, parameters are 90V, 400mA. If the running time is 20min, the gel will safe and sound, but once I prolong the running time, the gel will be melted in the TAE buffer.
Does anyone meet with such situations?
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Thomas J Esparza Hi Thomas, thanks for your answer, I will try your suggestion again and see the result. Wenxin
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Does anyone have a step-by-step example of an underwater Active sonar for detection problem that explains the data preprocessing process well and practically?
Kind of active sonar :‌ FARSOUNDER – FS3 SONAR (forward-looking sonar)
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I recently published a paper on this topic!
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Hola, soy educador social. En mi disciplina se trabaja mayormente desde la educación no formal con fin social; por ejemplo: en centros de menores, residencias de personas con diversidad funcional, ONGDs, asociaciones educativas, etcétera. Cabe detallar que incluso estas acciones educativas cooperan a veces con la educación formal. Pienso que son contextos importantes tanto para practicar la educomunicación como para investigar sobre la misma, ya que así se potencia la finalidad social.
Por lo general, según mi experiencia en estos contextos y de búsqueda de documentos científicos, percibo que existen escasas acciones educomunicativas actualmente.
Espero vuestras interacciones,
Un saludo desde Córdoba (España)
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Con respecto a la pregunta es importante para que la etnoeducación avance mas trabajar en una tipo de pedagogía y didácticas propias, que sin impedir el progreso de las culturas, les permita conservar al máximo su ideario cultural.