Science topic

Songbirds - Science topic

Songbirds are pASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
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Any new innovations other than First-Come, First-Served (FCFS) / Shortest-Job-First (SJF)/ Round Robin (RR) or mix-development of those?
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Modern OS CPU Scheduling Iaka Dispatching or Thread Switching) can be all of the ones mentioned but some of the ones used in large mainframes successfully are workload related. OS2200 from Unisys (Formrerly Sperry Univac) used a n I/O load preferential method that would favour a User thread that initiated an I/O operation prior to the expiration of its previous CPU Quantum value. This tended to favour those user applications that were not CPU Dominant. Later in our development of the Operating System where NUMA architectures with large numbers of Cores, clustered on a NUMA Node sharing memory, we found there was an advantage to keep threads working on similar memory data sets together that used IP acceleration caches to avoid repeated trips to the memory module to fetch data for operations by the instruction processor. Mapping Instruction processors (Cores) by their respective NUMA Chip allows minimizing data collisions and refresh cycle losses. The Affinity manager in the Dispatcher Kernel code manages the position of the threads relative to their respective cores and nodes. Some Patents were issued on this architecture change that resulted in significant price/performance improvements for the systems in general
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Hi everyone
I am looking for gape sizes of the following species. I would be grateful if you have data or references that specifically mention these species (I am not tlooking for references to general papers on gape size).
Auriparus flaviceps (Verdin)
Brotogeris versicolorus (White-winged Parakeet)
Onychognathus tristramii (Tristram's grackle)
Psittacara holochlorus (Green Parakeet)
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)
Pycnonotus xanthopygos (White-spectacled Bulbul)
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian Fruit bat )
Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)
Sialia currocoides (Mountain Bluebird)
Any help is much appreciated
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Have you checked the public trait database AVONET?
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Please provide me references where I can get the answer.
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HI all please find my latest research:
@Guanotr
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While doing a risk assessment for cross-sectional non-interventional studies, which is better- Robins or Axis or Newcastle-Ottawa?
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Thanks. will go thorough. can you share its citation if possible.
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Until this morning, when I viewed a 5-second film clip of a coral growing as tall as the Empire State Building on a national network television "Today" news broadcast, I thought that Global Warming is causing ocean waters to get too hot, as evidenced in the destruction of major coral reefs, which have already turned white, and presumably died, because of higher temperatures caused by Global Warming. Does this finding of an exceptionally tall coral formation indicate a different or new species of coral? Or is this thriving coral evidence of a positive result from the increased levels of carbon in Earth's atmosphere, or from some other factor that is not related to Global Warming? For more information, please see the Internet: " Standing taller than the Empire State Building’s 443 metres, the reef rises up to 40 metres deep. Research leader Robin Beaman, from James Cook University (JCU), described the pinnacle of the reef as a ‘thriving coral community.’ "
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I thank you very much for sharing your expertise as a scientific researcher and I am pleased to answer your question regarding the thriving coral reef. You are absolutely right in asking if this healthy coral reef is "of a different species"! It has been steadily growing upward, and has the shape almost of a gigantic cactus, while, in striking contrast, the main barrier reef that is losing its characteristic color covers the sea floor horizontally. I do not know if its flat configuration is the same as it was when it was healthy, but it is clear that it was never as tall as the adjacent coral reef that is still growing in its midst. Your mentioning of the temperature in this particular environment certainly appears to be a strong factor in the new reef's ability to survive even when water temperature is rising. Although it seems to be a remote possibility, I wonder if the new reef might be an example of Darwin's theory of adaptation. Maybe an "offspring" of the old reef underwent a genetic adaptation to the heat stress, which caused it to avoid the heat stress caused by rising water temperatures by growing vertically, more like a cactus in the desert might grow upward to counteract the hot ground at night and process stout and sturdy vertical growth via photosynthesis activated during the daytime. Your comment about the sensitivity of coral reefs to even a small rise in water temperature may help to explain why the new coral grows in extraordinary spurts upward without taking time to be stout and sturdy like the cactus typically does. The precipitous snake-like shooting upward growth suggests almost an emotional response, one of fear followed by flight, in the old and dying coral reef, which generated a new species by altering the deoxyribonucleic acid code, which succeeded on a small scale for some of the molecular matter contained in the old coral reef. Thus, can a coral reef species regenerate some cells that are not typically differentiated, like in humans that may propagate offspring with different hair and eye colors, but, because of the heat stress, genetically adapt by generating a slightly altered, hence new species of coral reef that is coded to organize propagation of cellular growth vertically up into the air, instead of growing laterally and remaining submerged in the life-threatening hot water?
Furthermore, if this pattern that I am trying to articulate is possible, might this coral reef genetic modification example, if it is hypothetically possible, also be consistent with the idea that birds evolved from fishes that adapted to their environmental changes by metamorphosing their fins into wings, which permitted them to vacate adverse conditions in their water habitat and to survive in the form of birds empowered to take flight and inhabit the air?
Thank you for your patience, and, I hope, your comprehension.
Best regards and wishes.
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Hi everyone,
It is all in the title. I added a preprint when my paper was accepted but in press. Then, I added the published article on my profile. Surprisingly, RG does not merge them automatically. Is there a way to do it by myself?
Thank you for your answers.
Robin
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I agree with Robin. It is not possible to permanently delete preprints. My preprints are automatically doubled for some reason, and I cannot merge or delete them. RG needs to address this.
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I need help from you who do have a MATLAB code for large time delay. Also, I prepared hybrid scheme for solving singularly perturbed time delay parabolic problems with Robin boundary conditions, that is, one scheme in the left and right layer and another scheme in the regular layer.
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Hello, can you send me your scheme?
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Does anyone have flight speed data for the follwoing species? I need species-specific data or references that contain data for these species (not general papers of flight speeds in birds):
Auriparus flaviceps (Verdin)
Brotogeris versicolorus (White-winged Parakeet)
Onychognathus tristramii (Tristram's grackle)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)
Psittacara holochlorus (Green Parakeet)
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)
Pycnonotus xanthopygos (White-spectacled Bulbul)
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian Fruit bat )
Setophaga coronata (Yellow-rumped Warbler)
Sialia currocoides (Mountain Bluebird)
Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)
Carpodacus mexicanus (House Finch)
Callipepla gambelii (Gambel's quail)
Mimus longicaudatus (Long-tailed Mockingbird)
Sialia mexicana (Western Bluebird)
Catharus guttatus (Hermit Thrush)
Strepera graculina (Pied Currawong)
Bombycilla cedrorum (Cedar Waxwing)
Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)
Any help would be much appreciated
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can you please share the police photo with the speed with me?
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Dear Everyone,
I am investigating the effect of reviews on purchase intention and especially differences between products and services and reviews -->
RQ:
‘’What is the impact of CGR on making a product or service choice in the pre-purchase phase of a customer journey and especially between making a choice of buying a car or use a shared car?’’
Furthermore, see the model attached...I would like to do a questionnaire for further analysis...
IV: (volume) high/low - (valence) positive/negative - (product/service) situation where someone chooses for purchasing a car or hire a shared car..
I could do some moderation as well as 2x2x2 ANOVA. Does somebody has insights in order to set up the right survey questions etc...
(if it is not clear, i'll explain deeper) Tips are welcome? For a three-way ANOVA manipulation is necessary?
Kind Regards,
Robin
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Hello Dear Scientific Community,
This is a question I ask out of interest, and not because it involves my own work. Currently, there is a lot of news about the new coronavirus (COVID-19), which states thates that there is a shortage of "testing kits". Corona Virus is tested with a simple qPCR reaction, which is a well established proceedure. Apart from the actual testing machines (which are available in every hospital and also research institutes, allowing high throuput analysis, therefor should not be a limitation), the reagents needed include Primers for viral RNA, a polymerase and RNA extraction reagents (e.g. TRI-Reagent, supplied by Thermo Fisher). My question is: Which of these reagents could be actually of shortage right now? Given the routine production of all of these components, I find it hard to understand how there can be an undersupply. If anyone has answers or links to understand this better, i would be greatful.
Thank you,
Robin
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У каждой страны – свои причины.
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I am planning to use radio telemetry in a study of grey-headed robins (Heteromyias cinereifrons). These birds weigh around 35 g and I have sourced glue-on transmitters weighing 0.9 g (<3% of body weight). Grey-headed robins are largely rain forest species that forage mostly on the ground among leaf litter. I'm looking for advice on transmitter attachment particularly what type of glue to use and whether attachment to the back or tail would be preferable.
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No, I'd just glue to the top of the feathers. Superglue.
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Hi,
I was wandering if I need balanced control variables if I use balanced panel data.
My variables are all balanced, except for some missing control variables, is this a problem?
Kind regards,
Robin
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Hi
I believe this is not problem. you can use unbalance panel data analysis.
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You have confused two authors: Robin Klein and Rudi (Rudolph) Klein. The author you have asked me to confirm authorship of some articles/conference papers is Rudi Klein - I have raised this issue previously with no resolution. Rudi Klein has been a co-author of several of my publications. Please correct the error.
Thank you
Peter Rich
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Kindly contact RG Help Centre
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Hello everyone!
There is difference between songbird singing from different regions in the same country, and I guess, differences between songbirds from different countries.
BUT
Is there any difference, for a same bat species, between acoustic signals of two individuals living in separated region? Like, between a Spanish Pipistrellus pipistrellus and a Greek or Danish one?
This question may appears a bit dumb, but I don't find info about it. It may never have been discussed before, or already been discussed and determined, I don't know.
Hope you can enlighten me about this. :)
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Hi.
We know that in the Canary Islands there are some differences in the social calls of some bat species compared with nearby continental populations, like in the case of Hypsugo savii. Logically, this is a result of insular evolution.
Best regards.
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Does anyone have experience using the Single-Item Measure to measure self-esteem? I have seen the proposal of Robins and it seems to work well, and I know that the current trend is to ask directly instead of using long questionnaires ... but before deciding, I would like to know your experience.
Thank you!
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I think it really depends on your purpose of assessing. If it's for measuring global self-esteem, I think it would be a good decision to use a single-item measurement. However, as an individual might have different assessment of himself in diverse settings (e.g. high academic self-esteem but low in physical), if the purpose is to assess specific areas, I think there might be other alternative measurement to use.
That being said, I am curious to see how this single item measurement will work compared to the other measurements of self-esteem (e.g. Rosenberg's). Good luck for your research!
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I study Grey Fantails that only weigh around 8 grams as adults. I am interested in paternity and want to get there DNA. However, these birds have high rates of predation and often don't survive long enough to wait until they are large enough to take blood.
I have see buccal swabs as a method used to get DNA and was wondering if people have been successful on such small birds? Or do you know of any better methods? Thanks.
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Dear Nadya,
I have the same experience as Sergei: plucking (not cutting!) one or two breast feathers has a relatively low impact on birds, and these feathers hold a wealth of information. They can be used for several types of analyses (we analysed mtDNA and sex). I never tried it on passerine chicks, but I did use this method (a lot) on chiffchaffs - these are around 8 grams. While this species seems to be relatively vulnerable to handling (compared to species of the same size) in the first place, I never witnessed any problems plucking feathers.
I store the feathers in small parchment envelopes, in a cool and dry place, but not even in the freezer. Make sure you do not touch the base of the feather, in order to avoid contamination with human tissue.
If you need more info, do not hesitate to contact me.
Good luck!
Vincent van der Spek
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I have used RAVEN software auto detect filters to identify (label) the notes of a single bird species that imitates other birds. Thus I'm working with a large data set (hundreds of thousands of notes within thousands of songs) and am attempting to label all the sounds (notes, syllables, phrases) accurately within the songs of
a bird species and found:
1) it is very time consuming to tweak the parameters to even get it to 'work'
2) when it is 'working' it returns with numerous false positive and negative results
I'm curious if those interested in identifying (labeling) large data sets of animal sounds have found a software that will sift through the spectrograms with accurate identification (labeling) of sounds?
Currently I'm using visual and aural inspection (human) of spectrograms to do this, which amazingly seems to be the only way to achieve accuracy in this task. It's incredibly time-consuming but I appear to be quicker at doing it 'old school' than by using automated (computer based) methods.
Cheers!
Brandi Gartland
M.S., Doctoral candidate in Animal Behavior
University of California, Davis
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There is a highly instructive user manual on the site. The reference for the initial publication is:
Tchernichovski, O., Nottebohm, F., Ho, C. E., Pesaran, B., & Mitra, P. P. (2000). A procedure for an automated measurement of song similarity. Animal behaviour, 59(6), 1167-1176.
I have studied with Olga Fehér who was herself a PhD student of the first author on the paper. I have learned a few things the hard way. First off, the initial setting of this software is designed for the analysis of zebra finch song. If you are working with a different species you may need to adjust them. Also, the detection and classification algorithms are good, but by no means perfect. Therefore I strongly advise that you keep the results by eye!
Greetings from the UK!
Tarandeep
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Craniofacial Embryogenetics and Development by G.H. Sperber, published by :www.pmphusa.com.
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I m worried about tag reliability and functioning and therefore would like to hear about your experiences.
The study species will be Red backed shrikes (Lanius collurio). Their lean body mass is about 22-24 gr. They spend most of their days perching and are exposed to sun and heat which they handle quite well.
Tags will be attached by using glue or a harness that will fall off after about 3 weeks.
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Hi Mike,
thanks a lot for answering. Finally decisions were made and we'll see how it's going.
Thanks again for your response,
Best D.
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See Breeding Bird Atlas protocol for indices of confirmed breeding (i.e. food carrying, nest material carrying, fledgling sightings) 
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i agreed with Gretchen naraf answare. bird's survey techniques are not restricted to only one methodology
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I cannot find any article about incorpotation of newly learned songs or on the contrary, not learning new things after maturation. If you know about some, please let me know.
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Thank you, I suspected that there aren't longitudial studies on this species..
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We use doublecortin (DCX) as a marker to quantify the density of young neurons in adult zebra finches.
Below, I list some technical difficulties we encounter. I very much value suggestions or references addressing one, or more of the following:
We do not get clear, consistent labeling.
In the same bird, we can find clearly labeled, dark staining, and then faint labeling, or dark pigmentation on the neuron's soma contour, but faint colored soma.
How can we determine whether these differences are due to the immunohistochemical treatment?
We have a set protocol for DCX IHC. What are potential factors that contribute to such variability in labeling?
Is it also possible that some of these cells with faint labeling may be due to downregulation DCX expression, and upregulation of other markers of maturity like NeuN?
In songbirds, DCX is expressed in immature new neurons of a largely migratory population. The age of these neurons vary from 3 days old to 3 weeks old. Is it possible that these neurons with faint label are older? Should they be quantified/analyzed separately?
One solution for future studies is to use double or triple labeling. But for these tissue sections that are solely labeled with DCX--what are some ways we can proceed to quantify and measure soma size/shape? 
I appreciate any insight, comments and whatever assistance into these matters.
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I think a pool of young neurons in either organism consists of cells in a number of differentiated states, some being immature and others (partly) maturated. As neurons pass through these different states, it is known (in embryonic development) that expression of DCX changes. DCX is also linked to neuronal migration, and the position of neurons can also explain the observed differences. Because DCX is associated with microtubules, also cell shape can have an infuence on the signal pattern of each cell.
You can always add a negative control to check whether the heterogen signal is due to background staining. Also, there are very good commercial antibodies for NeuN available, and I would suggest to try this. Adding a positive control can help to determine if the staining pattern is biased because off the immunohistochemical method used, cause you know where to expect the positive signal. By combining the DCX staining with for example a NeuN staining, one can determine in which differentiated state a cell is, there should be some kind of balance between the DCX and NeuN signal: Young neurons --> DCX+, NeuN- and more mature neurons --> DCX-, NeuN+. Other neuronal markers can be used as well.
A possible way to quantify is to use the program ImageJ which is freely available online, and has some tools to measure cell dimensions.
Hope this helps!
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During the winter months a number of Eastern European Robins can be found in Western Europe (among which The Netherlands). The song of the presumed E-EU birds differs from the W-EU birds. However whether this is a geographical difference ("dialect") I do not know.
So does anyone know whether there is any literature about (geographical) variation in the song of the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula)?
Thanks in advance!
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Which differences do you hear in winter that you also hear in eastern European robins?
Without knowing the sex and origin of the birds, there might be another explanation for hearing differences between wintering and breeding birds. In the breeding season, only the males sing (both sexes are present in the same territory, which the male defends). In autumn/winter, both sexes can be found singing (males and females defend separate feeding territories). The songs of males and females differ; females tend to sing with less variation than males. Thus, in winter quite a few singing robins are females and the difference in song is perhaps noticeable in the field. There is a paper by Hoelzel (1986, Ibis) on this subject.
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I am trying to test for the effects of environmental variables (i.e. precip, mean temp, elevation) on genetic differentiation of a resident songbird, but I am unsure about the GESTE output.  When running all factors individually, the model involving the constant always has the highest probability (i.e. constant = 0.502, factor = 0.492).  When I carry out different scenarios with a subset of factors, the post probs range between 0.1 and 0.4 for the different models.  Is there a cutoff where the model with a certain post prob or higher is significant?  Any help on how to interpret GESTE results would be great!  Thanks!
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As Mr. PEREIRA, I don't if is an answer, but if the question is to know the confidence level to validate a posteriori, it depends on the nature of the random process associated with the variable that we want to correct. In the case of a Poisson process and in the context of engineering, if the level of correlation return of feedback on which to base correction (for the marginal integral presented by Mr. Pereira) is 75% or Moreover, we believe that this is "interested."
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And/or about male songbirds showing preferences for song performance or complexity when they choose a mate?
The only papers I have found are about male quality and female mate choice while males can be as choosy as females, in particular in socially monogamous species.
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Dear Aurélie,
In African black coucals, larger females vocalise at lower pitch in an aggressive context (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00265-009-0836-0#page-1), and the pitch of their vocalisations seems to be perceived as indicator of female quality (http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/6/1147.abstract). This is a bird species with reversed sex roles, a non-songbird species though.
Best,
Nicole
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I need to sample small european passerines (Paridae, Passeridae, Carduelidae, Sylviidae, Turdidae) for virological and serological expertise (from jugular vein). I am looking for the optimal sampling protocol. I need to avoid the harming of sampled birds maximally. Naturally, according to generally small sizes of passerine birds, the samples taken from multiple birds will be pooled. The truth is that the great morphological diversity may exist also among exemplars inside the same taxon and many authors use many sampling protocols. Which is the best way to determine the suitable volume of individual sample from one bird?
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A couple more comments on this issue. In my opinioin, jugular venipuncture of small passerine birds is advantageous over brachial venipuncture for several reasons, including ease of the procedure without assistance, less risk of vein collapsing, and less risk of torn veins due to bird movement in the hand and therefore lower risk of hematoma and subsequent infection. I avoid sampling from the wing on small passerines but I suspect that a jumpy bird and a heavy hand could also lead to a broken wing. I also use small needles. Very small needles (e.g. 30g and 28g) can slow down the process (because of slow flow through the needle) and can also lyse cells releasing heme into the plasma, which could cause problems for some applications. 27g works best in my opinion, and is sufficiently small for jugular vein of most birds, even small ones. One important caveat. Make sure the needle of insulin syringes are designed for "subcutaneous use" (SubQ), not "intradermal use". The intradermal needles are blunt-tipped, specifically designed not to pierce a vein. I have seen hematomas produced from jugular venipuncture because the researcher was not aware of this distinction.