Science topic

Solar Energy - Science topic

Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
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If the home is heated and supplied with electricity from various renewable, carbon-free and possibly also non-renewable energy sources, to what extent can energy consumption savings be generated through the use of computerised, integrated management systems for various heating, lighting, white goods, white goods, white goods, etc. smart home systems?
If the house is heated and supplied with electricity from various renewable, emission-free and possibly also non-renewable energy sources, when on the one hand the energy for heating water can be generated from the sun, heating the house can be generated through heat pumps powered by photovoltaic panels, possibly from geothermal sources, etc., the energy for heating the house can be generated from the sun, the energy for heating the house can be generated through heat pumps powered by photovoltaic panels, possibly from geothermal sources, etc., etc. Electricity can be generated from home solar and/or wind power and any shortfall can be made up from external energy suppliers. However, when there is too little sunshine and no wind, the shortfall in electricity must be made up from other energy sources to power the heat pumps that heat the house. However, when there is an energy crisis and high energy prices from external suppliers, powering the heat pumps can become highly expensive. In such a situation, a modern, low-emission wood-burning cooker or an eco-friendly fireplace fuelled by biofuels can be run as an emergency. As the weather aura changes and the price of electricity from external suppliers (energy companies supplying electricity and/or system heat) changes, this type of complex, multi-source heating and electricity supply system for the home needs to be managed continuously. It may then be useful to use computerised, integrated systems to manage the various heating, lighting, white goods, white goods, etc. smart home. Computerised, integrated systems for the management of various heating appliances, lighting, white goods, consumer electronics, etc. smart home can make use of a specific generation of artificial intelligence technology and other Industry 4.0 technologies. Through such solutions for the improvement of smart, computerised, integrated home energy risk management systems, savings can be generated in terms of thermal and electrical energy consumption.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
In a situation where the home is heated and supplied with electricity from various renewable, carbon-free and possibly also non-renewable energy sources, what energy consumption savings can be generated through the use of computerised, integrated management systems for various heating, lighting, household appliances, white goods, consumer electronics, etc. smart home?
What do you think about this subject?
Please respond,
Please answer with reasons,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Sir, I recall that a month ago I responded to your query on RG on energy saving for a climate disaster in relation to smart home and industrial devices. I'm delighted to have another opportunity to answer in the energy context. There are several smart home gadgets available, but the ones that save energy on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning fascinate me (also you, perhaps). Most of the average energy bill goes to heating, cooling, and space heating. Heating and cooling make up 15-17% of the average energy bill, and space heating is another 14-15%. This does not account for water heaters, which require an additional 12-14% of electricity.
At this point, it should not be any surprise that a smart thermostat will result in the greatest cost savings. According to Energy Star, the average American home spends over $900 a year on heating and cooling alone. By implementing a smart thermostat, the govt strategy estimates users may save $100 a year or 11% of heating and cooling expenditures. It is kinda interesting to see that the Nest home automation company sells a smart thermostat that can offer a 10%–12% gain in heating efficiency and a 15% gain in cooling efficiency for the average homeowner. These numbers show annual cost reductions ranging from $131 to $145. That signifies that a smart thermostat would then pay for itself in merely 2 years, rendering it the right smart home device users can invest in to save energy and money. Still, not every house can benefit from a smart thermostat, coz setting one up is a hassle. I'd also want to add that it's troublesome to claim the smart thermostat as a universal gadget when considering diverse geographical zones.
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What are the currently created eco-innovations and implemented green technologies for the utilization of used photovoltaic panels?
One of the important factors limiting the development of solar energy may be the still existing lack of eco-innovations and green technologies for the utilization of used photovoltaic panels, implemented on an industrial scale. In many countries, many new photovoltaic panels are currently being installed on buildings. The current energy crisis may additionally accelerate the development of renewable and zero-emission energy sources. However, for a few, a dozen or a max. Several dozen years, millions, and globally billions of photovoltaic panels will be dismantled due to wear and tear and should be disposed of, not landfilled. This is an important issue taking into account the potential contamination of the natural environment with toxic substances contained in photovoltaic panels.
In view of the above, I would like to address the following question to the Distinguished Community of Researchers and Scientists:
What are the currently created eco-innovations and implemented green technologies for the utilization of used photovoltaic panels?
What innovative technologies for utilization of photovoltaic panels are currently working on by scientists and researchers in laboratories, which can become new eco-innovations and green technologies and can be implemented on an industrial scale?
What new eco-innovations and green technologies can solve the problem of recycling used photovoltaic panels in the future?
Please reply,
I invite everyone to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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There are several questions in your description. What I would like to mention does not directly answer the main question, but could be one reply to a question you mention: What new eco-innovations and green technologies can solve the problem of recycling used photovoltaic panels in the future?
That is mainly because I expect lightweight solar cell films, like the two described below, would allow to save materials and make recycling easier. Hopefully this can at least partially answer your question.
A technology is presented on https://tecsol.blogs.com/files/cigs-whitepaper.pdf. Page 2/4: Complete recycling of end-of-life modules is technically feasible and will be exploited in future once significant volumes are available.
Ultra-light solar films with only 60 g /m2 or 2.000 W per kg
Application platform for:
• Foldable or rollable ultra-light solar sun sails for space applications
• Ultra-light solar films for covering airship and stratospheric balloons
• Ultra-light Solar films for integration into drones and Aircrafts
• Solar blimps
• Fast deployable Military and Emergency respond solar applications
• Off-grid and Mobility solar solutions
• Solar automotive integrations into sunroofs
• Solar blinds, awnings and solar sunshades
• Integration into BIPV facades
• Integration into glass tubes for agricultural PV
• Integration to power IoT and sensor devices
• And many more ideas
The more applications there are in the industry, the greater the savings in material to be recycled.
As an accessory I would mention an idea for an application I just imagined (attachment): untethered airborne solar energy systems (untethered ASES) to refuel the fleet of electric aircraft in the area (sketch below).
So we would have a solar thermal and photovoltaic balloon using the above mentioned e-film floating in the air, and equipped with motors to counter the (weak) winds and to ensure a correct orientation to the sun if needed, and some plugs for attaching to electric planes. At night, the balloon would go down of about ten km, passing from 25 km of altitude to 15 km, just like MIR (https://www.ae.utexas.edu/courses/ase261/balloon/MIRBalloon.pdf), remaining still well above the flight paths of the airliners.
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I welcome reviewers who are willing to review the article based on designing and development of robots submitted to the Journal of Computers, Mechanical and Management, an emerging open access journal. Please message me back here with your email id so that i can request a review from you.
Journal Website: https://www.jcmm.co.in
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The goal is to publish the results in reputable scientific journals.
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@Sumit Verma can we collaborate on a similar project?
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a. Considering shadowing
b. PVsyst answer is 425000-panel (without considering shadowing)
c. coordinate system : X=53.2054 Y=30.6173
I'm looking for a practical solution that has been applied on a real scale.
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Dear Meysam Asadi:
At the first, and as you know we can say the following:
-- Solar panel output per m2 (square meter):
The most popular domestic solar panel system is 4 kW. This has 16 panels, with each one:
around 1.6 square meters (m2) in size
rated to produce roughly 265 watts (W) of power (in ideal conditions)
To work out the output per square meter, use this formula:
Number of panels x Capacity of the solar panel system
Capacity ÷ Total size of the system (number of panels x size of one panel)
For Example:
16 panels of 265 W each:
# 16 x 265 = a capacity of 4,240 kW.
# The total size of the system (16 panels of 1.6 m2 each).
# 4,240 ÷ 25.6 = 165 W per m2
-- Factors affecting the solar panel output:
The amount of electricity produced by a solar panel can vary based on these factors:
1- Solar panel efficiency
2- Solar panel size
3- Type of solar panel
4- Capacity
5- Location
6- Solar panel direction
You can benefit from these online calculators:
I hope it will be helpful ...
Best wishes ...
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What are the factoery problems with gel lead acid battery ?
My second question: we have gel battery. Under charging, the voltage increases to 17 in the first minute of charging.
​Then the voltage dropped to zero after 3 seconds of discharge. Which thing make this problem?
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Hasan A Al-Asadi Because it is made of gel rather than liquid, overcharging can generate holes in the electrolytes, which can cause permanent damage and shorten the battery's life.
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Which type of renewable and zero-carbon energy sources will develop most rapidly in the future in connection with the currently developing energy crisis and the long-term, multi-year global climate crisis?
In the shorter term (a few quarters), the energy crisis is developing, fossil fuel prices are rising, and the price of energy produced from burning fossil fuels is rising. In the longer term (many years), a global climate crisis will continue to develop as a result of the continuing process of global warming resulting from the still high levels of civilisational CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What kind of renewable and zero-carbon energy sources will develop most dynamically in the future in view of the currently developing energy crisis and the developing global climate crisis in a multi-year perspective?
What is your opinion on this?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Solar photovoltaics are the fastest growing electricity source. In 2020, around 139 GW of global capacity was added, bringing the total to about 760 GW and producing almost 3 percent of the world's electricity.
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For high efficient energy sourse
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You are welcome!
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I want to make a surface map combining rain and solar power data and dew data. Both are open access, but I don't know how to combine them into one single map showing the peaks of rain, dew and solar power.
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Igor Luketina Overlay analysis may be performed in two ways: feature overlay (overlaying points, lines, or polygons) and raster overlay. Some overlay analyses lend themselves to one of these procedures or the other.
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I am looking for alternatives to FTO and ITO to be able to use in DSSC. I know they are using AZO but I can't find any other reports of other oxides. I thank you in advance for the help!
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Lucas Melia Titanium dioxide is utilized in DSSC. Because of its low cost and simplicity of manufacture, TiO2 semiconductor is the most often utilized electron conductor in Grtzel-type photovoltaic DSSC.
Chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and beta-carotene are three dyes that are often utilized as DSSC sensory materials. The first is chlorophyll, which is found in the leaves of all plants. Chlorophyll can absorb light with wavelengths ranging from red to blue to violet.
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I have put together this simple combined solar/natural gas turbine power plant model as an Excel spreadsheet. The demand (electric power consumed) is actual data from DoE (you can download more from their site). The incident solar irradiation is calculated from solar position (you can input the latitude and longitude). The cloudiness is random, based on the mean and standard deviation. The CCPP heat rate is approximate, though realistic (you can elaborate to make it more accurate). Natural gas is consumed as needed to meet demand not derived from the solar panels. The maintenance and initial unit costs are user inputs, as is the lifetime and interest rate, and fuel price. Push the button and it adjusts the rate ($/kWh) so that the plant breaks even for the year. You can add more buttons and calculations to investigate other scenarios. All of the inputs and outputs are reasonable and based on values readily available on the Web. Enjoy!
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Dudley J Benton Great, Thanks for sharing, The Value of Solar Methodology takes into account the unique characteristics of solar PV production, in which systems create energy on the peak, provide power at the point of use, do not require continual fuel purchases, and offer considerable security and environmental advantages over fossil fuels.
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Hi there,
any independent research available regarding the storage of energy in a very efficient battery for retail solar panels vs home wind turbines? Cherish your feedback.
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Thomas Schuermann The most efficient solar panels will be able to convert roughly 22% of the energy collected from sunshine into actual electrical energy, which doesn't sound like much. Wind turbines, on the other hand, may convert up to 60% of the energy they capture from the wind into useful electrical energy.
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Please how I can done the simulation for the system multi effect distillation with solar energy(what software use it)
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You can use Matlab/Simulink Model.
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Is it possible to design Integrated Circuit that will not required any external power to operated ie can we design an IC that will operate on solar energy, so that we can Design inteligent machine that do not required any external power.
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Dear sir:
At the first, you can benefit from this valuable article about your topic:
"THE ZERO-TRANSISTOR IC, A NEW PLATEAU IN IC DESIGN"
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Then you can take a look at these links:
Best wishes....
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Can this algorithm be applied?
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Sure this Algorithm could be applied; it is a natural algorithm based on salp swarm.
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I have a paper in solar radiation and solar energy and i need to puplish it in scopus journal.any one can help me how to find the best journal.
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Dear Ashraf Khamees:
You can benefit from these Links about your topic:
I hope it will be helpful...
Best wishes...
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I am trying to find out how to find how much thermal energy is generated at the receiver of an SPT system. I believe it is dependent on the DNI of the location and the number of reflective surfaces (total area of reflective surfaces), among other variables. Still, I have no idea how they relate with each other, and I am finding it difficult to find helpful information.
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Hello dear researcher, you can use the following paper :
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I have previously conducted laboratory experiments on a photovoltaic panel under the influence of artificial soiling in order to be able to obtain the short circuit current and the open-circuit voltage data, which I analyzed later using statistical methods to draw a performance coefficient specific to this panel that expresses the percentage of the decrease in the power produced from the panel with the increase of accumulating dust. Are there any similar studies that relied on statistical analysis to measure this dust effect?
I hope I can find researchers interested in this line of research and that we can do joint work together!
Article link:
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Dear Dr Younis
Find attached:
1-(1) (PDF) Spatial Management for Solar and Wind Energy in Kuwait (researchgate.net)
2-(1) (PDF) Cost and effect of native vegetation change on aeolian sand, dust, microclimate and sustainable energy in Kuwait (researchgate.net)
regards
Ali Al-Dousari
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The aim of this dissertation is to advance research on green hydrogen production by synthesis, characterization, and modeling of promising earth-abundant semiconductor CuFeO2 and MoN catalyst.
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I am looking for a postdoc position in the same area. Please, let me take the position post.
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For example, the wind is related to wind speed, temp, pressure and humidity and so on. likewise solar is related to GHI, DNI, DHI and temp, pressure and so on.
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Regarding the results of thousands of reports on the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) on human and animal health, plant growth, etc, and if we imagine a scenario of increasing the level of hydrogen gas in the earth's atmosphere to levels near 1%:
1) What will be the consequences (advantages vs disadvantages) of this idea on the earth, environment, plants, animals, and humans?
2) What will be the best hydrogen production method to achieve this goal? for example, will the electrolysis of seawater using solar energy be a realistic method?
3) Is this idea realizable or possible?
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That is really interesting, however I believe the question should remain purely academic - as not only would electrolysis of sea water be very expensive, we cannot fully understand the longterm implications of such an activity . As well as- where could it take place, who 'owns' that ocean, etc. Furthermore, it is likely atmospheric h2 will contribute to the greenhouse effect - see below.
Another paradox, great for living organisms but not for all planetary systems it seems!
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When using Wasserstein balls to describe the uncertainty set in distributionally robust optimization, can multiple sources of uncertainty be considered at the same time, such as wind power and solar power forecast error?
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Most of the saving methods in the construction phase of buildings are to convert fossil fuels to electricity or other items. How can construction equipment be changed so that they can use renewable energy such as solar and wind?
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You can convert solar energy directly to electric energy using panels and batteries or convert it to heat and used to power a steam generator. First you to put cost and efficiency into consideration.
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15 power plants are geographically spaced and what is required is the combination of any of the 15 that would give the least variability in total power output. The hourly power output for each power plant is available for a period of one year.
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Interesting information
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The unavailability of this software makes me difficult to design this system.
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You can try the PVsyst software:
Regards,
K
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  • As we know that energy demands is increasing day by day globally and also to fulfill this demand we are using fossil fuels which are going to impact our atmosphere drastically hence Renewable Resources of energy are promising solution of the above issue and Solar Energy is available in abundant form as we are in Solar belt region using PV we can convert solar energy to electricity but dust accumulation is the major issue with efficiency with Conversion efficiency of Solar PV modules so I would like to work on Synthesis of the Self cleaning Surfaces for that Application.
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You may check the following paper:
Hussein A. Kazem, Miqdam T. Chaichan, Ali H. A. Alwaeli, K Sopian, “A review of dust accumulation and cleaning methods for solar photovoltaic systems”, Elsevier-Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 276, December 2020, pp. 123187.
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Impact of EV and Solar
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In the near future, electric vehicles are likely to gain a significant market share. Apart from the numerous benefits of massive usage of electric vehicles, this can lead to some problems in the electrical system, such as the power quality and reliability of the electric distribution system. For example, when the battery is charged, the transformer may get overloaded and a faster-aging may occur. The use of solar photovoltaic (PV) in electric vehicle charging stations or in car parking spaces could be a solution. While intelligently coupling photovoltaic system and electric vehicles on the electric grid have the advantages like a significant reduction in energy and carbon emissions of the transportation sector, increased reliability of the system
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CSP systems employ mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers, which collect the energy and convert it to heat, which may then be used to generate electricity or stored for later use. It's mostly employed in very big power plants. Solar energy technology isn't just about generating power using PV or CSP systems. Solar energy systems must be incorporated into homes, businesses, and existing electrical networks using a variety of traditional and renewable energy sources. Solar energy systems come in a variety of sizes and designs. Solar panels are being installed on rooftops around the United States, and companies are increasingly choosing for solar panels.
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This is not a question, this is just a discussion@Chris Gueymard
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In the process of producing hydrogen by the photocatylst method, which is a simple method and depends on the conductive materials that enter it, as well as solar energy, so how to calculate the efficiency
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Dear all Dr.
Thank you very much for your help
My Regards
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Smartbox or energy is an important item of a solar power system. I would be grateful if someone can help me/suggest a literature source to find life cycle inventory of the smart box. Thanks.
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In the current energy context, which would be the best energy alternatives for Latin America and the Caribbean in the future? I very much appreciate your participation in this discussion.
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In short term future all forms of energy conversion into electrical energy should be considered, but more effectively renewable energy. Here in Brazil, there are several regions with better hydro, solar and wind power, which, even if distant and watertight, can still be easily integrated into the country's energy matrix and serve the country and its neighbors countrys in a broad way. That is until more efficient energy sources (Nuclear Fusion) are available in long-term future.
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hello,
--- Is it possible to always get the maximum power that can be fed from a pv panel if i am imposing a stable voltage at a certain value on DC bus (by a certain controller) ?
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Yes Dear Sarah Kassir , I completely agree with my colleagues Bashar Hamad Ameer L.Saleh , it can be done.
Best regards
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These days, the more technology is growing, the more experts work on greenways to desalinate seawater to produce drinking water. One of the most notable of them is undoubtedly solar desalination.
But, besides a lot of advantages of the solar method, there are weak points that prevent this technology from maturing compared to conventional methods such as electrical energy, fossil fuel, etc.
Please give your idea and thoughts about these limitations.
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People have strong opposing views against solar desalination due to following reasons:
  • Solar plants and solar desalination process are expensive
  • It requires a lot of energy to process which could also lead to environmental impacts
  • It is a passive contributor for global GHG emissions
  • The resulting brine would contaminate the environmental water bodies and lead to the destruction of aquatic species
  • Solar desalination requires highly skilled professionals.
For more clarifications, feel free to contact me @shuraik10@gmail.com
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Schumpeters theory of "creative destruction" states that capitalism is never static, it is always evolving and old products are replaced by new ones. There is however a lag, or overlap where the old product still exist and people cintinue to invest in its development , but also at the same time a development of newer and better products.A prime example is the issue of type writers that was evolving even though computers started to overtake typewriters in sales and even as computers became the dominant product. Some as a well known Swedish manufacturer named Facit invested so heavily and could not see what was happening that they didnt seek to develop new and different products. In some cases governments are seeking to protect the old by regulation or other supportive meassures. One example of this is the use of fossile fuel in the US. Something critics fear will prevent the development of greener and more effective sources of energy. My question is, should governments like this support industries for the sake of employment or other reasons, or should Darwinism take its course? Is the developlent of new products always a good thing? Maybe we will have a rise of the Maschines and Terminators roaming the streets, or perhaps the development of new techlologies is a good thing in most cases and should not be hindered. What are your thoughts? The word is free!
Best wishes Henrik
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Kindly visit..
Leaders 2 TimeSuccession_TermLimitsGoldenP_J,AppS0cSci_Publihsed 21.9.2019
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Although there are a lot of solar photovoltaic projects. Many researchers are still using simulation software. What is the reason for that?
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Is there any research prospect to improve the efficiency of heat pumps through the different coupling modes of solar energy and air source heat pumps?
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This is a good field of study. Know that many of the easy and obvious things have been tried but that doesn't mean that there aren't new and innovative approaches to be discovered. Don't let the current technology discourage you; rather, let it motivate you to press on for more. Master the scientific foundation and then build upon it!
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I am currently studying for a doctor in Jilin University, China. My doctoral research topic is photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction. There is still a year and a half for a doctor to graduate normally. I think this topic is very interesting. Facing the goal of carbon neutralization and carbon peak, using solar energy is a good way. Postdoctors want to continue to study this field and go abroad to study postdoctors. Any recommendation?
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Try Cornell University
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How the condition is achieved for maximum power operation in solar panels?
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Dear Niva Jayswal , you can install the solar PV MPPT charge controller to be achieved for maximum power operation in solar panels.
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If we keep increasing the tower height, the optical efficiency increases. It reaches a maximum at tower height of 120m. Then, on increasing the tower height the efficiency reduces.
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Dear Kinshuk:
first of all, and as you know the “heliostats” are basically large mirrors equipped with computer controlled sun tracking mechanisms that keep the mirrors aligned so the reflected rays of the sun are always aimed at the blackened heat absorbing receiver creating a focal point. For multiple mirror heliostats, the position and orientation of the individual mirrors on top of the supporting structure is different for every heliostat within the same heliostat field to take account of its relative position and angle towards the tower.
However, heliostats placed far away from the solar tower are less efficient as the strength of the reflected solar energy reduces the longer the distance traveled. The outer heliostats have to be installed further away from their neighbouring heliostats to eliminate shading and require highly precise tracking mechanisms to keep the reflected sunlight at the correct position on the tower.
and here we can say the following:
The height of the solar tower on which the central receiver is mounted also plays a role in the layout of the heliostat field. Higher towers of between 80 to 110 metres (250-to-350 feet) are preferred as larger denser heliostat fields can be used reducing the effects of shading and also of land usage. However, this is offset by increased tower and installation costs, as well as the expense of extremely precise tracking requirements for a large majority of the heliostat field, and not just the ones furthest away.
high temperature heat transfer fluid or working medium in the central receiver absorbs the highly concentrated radiation reflected by the heliostat field and converts this thermal energy into super-heated high pressure steam to be used on the ground to spin a series of turbines, much like a traditional power plant to generate electricity.
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Also you can benefit from these valuable articles:
1- "Optimum Height and Tilt Angle of the Solar Receiver for a 30 kWe Solar Tower Power Plant for the Electricity Production in the Sahelian Zone".
2_https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/solar-power-tower.
I hope it will be helpful..
With my best regards...
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what are the most needed devices or measuring device needed in a renewable energy lab. for education and research in
solar energy
biogas
wind energy
others
related to agriculture and agricultural engineering
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thanks in advance
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Ashrf Abdel Galil Anwer the experts above have already cited and for solar equipment, one can easily understand the requirements for the laboratory related to solar products and these are available online as well meanwhile there are laboratories in every city for this requirement
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I am trying to simulate a problem, where I need R1, R2, H1, H2 and concentrated flux on the absorber. The nomenclatures are shown in the attached figure.
I will be thankful if someone helps me in getting the aforementioned data for a power plant.
Thank you
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Manoj Kumar Sharma
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Hi,
I am analysing ground measured solar irradiation data for photovoltaic applications. for some days, I noticed that DNI is higher than GHI. Can someone please explain why?
Consider that there was no flag during these data points. Please see the attached figure. The sun Elevation angle at noon was 45 degree towards South.
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The continuous normal incidence on a flat surface is the highest power recieved from the sun radiation. Therefore the solar panels are made to track the sun to maximize the sun radiation incident on them. If the flat plate is horizontal it will receive only the horizontal components of the incident solar radiation which is I cos theta where theta is the incidence angle of the radiation with the vertical direction to the horizontal plane.
I is the intensity of the incident radiation.
Best wishes
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I need a clear information on countries with the highest Installed Solar Capacity....
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You will find that China is the country with most installed PV stations then comes the USA.
best wishes
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We are working on an automatic self-tracking solar panel (it's patentable work). If anyone is interested in collaborating, please let me know.
NB: Image added for reachability, it's not the real work.
#patent #patents #research #solarenergy #solarpv #self #tracking #trackingsystems #trackingsolutions #trackingsolutions
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Can you explain how the collaboration will be organized and carried out.
For example, if one has a design then one can send you the design where you review it, implement it and test it and give feed back to the designer such that one finally get a professional two axis tracking system.
Then the design will be patented in common with you at your university.
What is the period of this project?
Are you working also on new encapsulation technologies for solar panels?
Please inform me as I have interest in such collaboration.
Best wishes
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I mixed 0.089 ml of titanium isopropoxide, 21 μl of acetyl acetone with 1 ml of butanol on a magnetic stirrer for 30 minutes. I filtered the solution through a 0.45 µm PVDF filter. I dripped ITO on glass, 6000 rpm, covered in 60 seconds. I annealed at 100 C for 10 minutes. I calcined in a tube furnace at 500 °C for 30 minutes (with a temperature increase rate of 1 °C/minute) (I did these operations under 35-40% humidity). I didn't make smooth and homogeneous TiO2.
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You are most welcome dear Ece Çetin . Wish you the best always.
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Not all the solar energy that fall on the parabolic trough collector is been utilized. Some are being scattered while others are absorbed.
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You could check this paper "Exergoeconomic optimization and sensitivity analysis of a commercial parabolic trough collector"
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Which energy source you prefer for cooking, considering sustainable future? And why?
Electricity, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Biomass Energy, Gas/Propane/Heating Oil, kerosene, methanol, ethanol and plant oil, etc. or any other.
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Here is my little effort for answering this question during 2021 SITOPARA Research Conference (New Zealand, 15 Oct):
Please share your comments!
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If you can get 6 times the yield from a vertical farm that means that the photosynthetic process in vertical farms is 6 times as efficient as in horizontal ones. I would like to see some evidence of this. The efficiency of photosynthesis is fixed by physics, not the orientation of leaves.
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To assess the degradation of PV modules in a large PV plant, we compute the performance parameters degradation rates (Pmax, FF, Voc, Isc..), but which one is more accurate? the mean value of individual modules degradation rates, or the median?
I think the Median value can be more realistic because some modules can have catastrophic failures, such as cell cracks, hotspots, PID... and when using the mean value, the DR will be affected significantly. However, if the median value is used, the modules with severe degradation modes will not affect the degradation rate significantly and the value will reflect the natural degradation of PV modules.
I will be glad to receive your suggestions on this topic.
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Asymmetric aging between the PV array causes energy loss and mismatch in the production of PV modules, which in turn accelerates the aging process of the modules. An optimal understanding of the mechanisms behind degradation is very important from a technical point of view. Rapid degradation or a high rate of degradation may cause the failure of the plant before completing its estimated age. Therefore, the identification of the main mechanism causing degradation, whether experimentally or by adopting modelling and treating it, gives improvements all over the planet life. From here, important information must be provided about the aging process in the system, its causes, used performance parameters, and methods of treatment. I advice to read my paper, which contains evaluation of PV system ageing for seven years:
Kazem, Hussein A., Miqdam T. Chaichan, Ali HA Al-Waeli, and K. Sopian. "Evaluation of aging and performance of grid-connected photovoltaic system northern Oman: Seven years’ experimental study." Solar Energy 207 (2020): 1247-1258.
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I am looking to assess the roof top solar energy potential for an approximate area of 250000 sq.m with an annual average solar irradiation of 1266.52 W/sq.m and related size of Solar power plant.
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I am obtaining very high resistance in a solar(pv) system.
Instead of getting around 1 M ohm, i have it around 20 M ohm.
The plant is around 500 kw and recently had been cleared of a lot of moss on the rooftop(but nothing was on solar modules). I want to know what are the probable reasons for the errors in insulation.
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Dear colleague you also could benefit from this practical research about your topic " What happens when… insulation fails?" in PV Magazine at:
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I am trying to simulate the heat transfer and fluid flow in a volumetric (porous) solar receiver in COMSOL Multiphysics. I know the material porosity, PPI and thermo-physical properties, however, the exact structural properties, i.e., pore size, solid wall thickness, pore shape, etc., are unknown.
Will it be correct to simulate the computational model as a single domain with given porosity instead of considering the detailed internal structure of the material?
If there is any research article where a similar procedure is adopted, kindly share it with me. I will be thankful to you.
Thanking you
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Manoj Kumar Sharma
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Hello Everyone. I would like an expert to explain to me the difference in terms of variable solar power injection into the grid and high penetration of solar power into the grid. Which one affects grid dynamic stability which one affects transient stability of the grid.
In my own understanding I am of the view that varying power injection into the grid affects the dynamic stability while the high power penetration specifically affects transient stability.
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I think it depends on: impact area: microgrid, region, country
and the share of solar energy production in relation to total energy needs.
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I am trying to simulate the heat transfer and fluid flow in a volumetric (porous) solar receiver in COMSOL Multiphysics. I know the material porosity, PPI and thermo-physical properties, however, the exact structural properties, i.e., pore size, solid wall thickness, pore shape, etc., are unknown.
Will it be correct to simulate the computational model as a single domain with given porosity instead of considering the detailed internal structure of the material?
If there is any research article where a similar procedure is adopted, kindly share it with me. I will be thankful to you.
Thanking you
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Manoj Kumar Sharma
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Dear Manoj, I would suggest rereading Section 2.2.1 in the following review paper where it compared the continuum model versus the discrete model:
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Hello Experts. Generating solar energy using PV systems results always in the variable power generation due to the effects of intermittency. What parameter is mostly affected by solar intermittency on the grid and what techniques do grid operators use to mitigate such effects.
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Dear Amashisha:
At the first, I think the following link contains all the articles on the topic of your research:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
And you could benefit from this article about your topic:
"Renewable Energy Intermittency Explained: Challenges, Solutions, and Opportunities".
++++++++++++++expert's opinion++++++
Finally, I thought to add the following:
This illustrated one of the big challenges to renewable energy: they are intermittent energy sources. A coal power station can run as long as you have coal to shovel into its furnaces. Wind power only operates when the wind blows, and solar photovoltaics need cloudless skies to reach their full capacity. Surely, say the critics, too much renewable energy puts us at the mercy of the elements? The greater the percentage of wind or solar in our energy mix, the more likely we are to end up with rolling blackouts. It’s a logical question, but there are the following solutions:
1- The grid itself:
The first and biggest answer to this problem is the grid. Power stations feed into a national grid that balances inputs and outputs across the whole country. When demand rises, new capacity is brought online. At night, demand drops off and supply drops accordingly. It’s a highly versatile system, able to handle massive spikes in demand. The famous example is half-time during big football matches. The whistle blows, and everyone goes into the kitchen to switch on their kettles for a cup of tea, or opens their fridge for another beer. The National Grid refers to these as ‘tv-pickups’ and plans ahead for them so that the lights don’t go out.
It’s easy to take functioning power infrastructure for granted. If you’ve lived off-grid or in a developing country, you’ll know the luxury of not having to think about it. When I lived in Madagascar, the power levels dropped so low at night that we couldn’t switch on the TV. If you wanted to watch something that night, you had to remember to turn it on at about five o’clock and leave it on standby. By the time it had got dark and everyone had turned on their lights, there would be enough power to run it but not to turn it on. By day, you had to holler if you were going to boil the kettle. If you forgot, there would be wails from the office as someone lost their homework as the computer blinked off.
Those sorts of eccentricities don’t happen in Britain. At least not any more. The idea of balancing power supplies across the country goes back to 1926, and today the grid incorporates 181 major power stations and thousands of smaller installations. This infrastructure allows us to plug in a variety of variable energy sources, and the broader the network, the easier it becomes.
2- The super-grid:
You can broaden the network beyond our own borders too. Interconnectors already link our grid with France, Ireland and the Netherlands. There are plans to build links to Norway and Belgium too, and a feasibility study was launched last month to see if we could connect to Denmark. Iceland has far more geothermal capacity than it can use itself, and is investigating ways to export it to Britain.
None of this infrastructure is cheap, but the fact that we already have three international links proves that it isn’t prohibitively expensive either. Whether we can afford a Europe wide grid with links to North Africa is another matter, but you can see the advantages of spreading the net as wide as possible. If the sun isn’t shining here right now, it might be in Devon. It might be a calm day in London, but the wind is blowing in Scotland. Expand that principle South to Spain and north to Sweden, and you’ve got a wide variety of conditions.
3- Stabilising demand:
I’ve already mentioned the issue of peaks in demand. Some of these are unusual, like football matches. Others are regular, when people get up and make breakfast, or get home from work in the evening and turn on their lights and cook their supper. Coal power is one of the easiest ways to deal with these large peaks, as they can be switched on quickly. There are renewable energy equivalents, using biomass and incineration (or see hydropower below), but a better approach would be to avoid the extremes in the first place.
That be done through more efficient technologies – if everyone is switching on low-energy light bulbs at twilight, that’s a much lower step in demand than everyone switching on an incandescent. Another way of stabilising demand is through smart appliances that can read demand and respond accordingly. Fridges don’t run constantly, but maintain a steady temperature by switching the cooling mechanism on when needed. A smart fridge would time its cooling cycles to periods of low demand. A smart washing machine would automatically run off-peak when energy prices are cheapest. Samsung, LG and others already offer appliances with this kind of technology.
4- Energy storage:
Those living off-grid with their own solar or wind power rely on batteries to make sure that they capture energy when its there, and can use it later. That would be pretty useful in the national grid too, if we could store the solar energy from a sunny day to use it at night. Currently there’s no form of battery big enough to do that, but there are a few other options. One is pumped storage hydropower. When energy is cheap, water is pumped uphill to fill a reservoir. When needed, gates can be opened and it runs back downhill through turbines, generating electricity. This is the renewable energy way of dealing with demand spikes, and also a way of storing intermittent sources. Dinorwig power station is housed underground inside a Welsh mountain, and can bring 1.8GW of power online in 12 seconds.
If you haven’t got a suitable lake, the same thing could be achieved with rail cars, according to a California company. They’re developing a model where surplus energy is used to haul heavy rail cars uphill when wind or solar power is running at full capacity. When it drops off, the cars are released to roll back downhill, generating electricity on the way.
You can also ‘bank’ energy in the ocean, taking advantage of the pressure of the deep sea. A team at MIT suggest that large hollow concrete spheres could be sunk on the seabed near offshore wind turbines. Excess energy would be used to pump out the spheres. When the wind dropped, water would rush back in through a turbine.
Another form of energy storage is solar thermal. I’ve written about it before so I won’t go into detail here, but it essentially stores heat in molten salt, and allows solar power stations to carry on generating electricity through the night. This turns solar energy into a form of constant renewable energy.
5- Constant renewable energy:
Speaking of which, wind and sunshine are intermittent, but there are other natural forces that are much more predictable. Hydropower is one such source, using the steady flow of rivers. There are countries in the world that generate all their electricity from hydropower, and are thus enjoying 100% renewable energy. Hydropower is often overlooked because while it is renewable and clean, it isn’t always environmentally benign and has large capital costs. Large dams are often hugely destructive and displace entire communities. But there is good hydropower too, and I may have to dedicate a separate post to it.
There’s also a whole lot of energy to be sourced from the sea. Harnessing wave power is one approach, but doesn’t count as a constant renewable source because waves are variable. Tidal power does count however, as there’s always a tide. So far, tidal power requires a barrage across a suitable estuary. Like dams on land, dams across estuaries are just as controversial – see the running debate about the Severn Barrage. But there are simpler and smaller ways to harness tidal power too, placing turbines on the sea bed, or using the vertical movement of the tides rather than the vertical. Ecotricity are trialling a hybrid sea technology that uses sea swells to pump water onshore, which is a lot simpler than generating the electricity out on the open sea.
Geothermal provides another source of constant renewable energy. Britain has limited geothermal capacity, and is more useful for providing heat than electricity, but there is still untapped potential. The main reason that geothermal hasn’t been pursued in Britain is that it hasn’t been economical so far, but as the price of energy rises, it is becoming more viable. The Eden Project is pioneering a geothermal plant in Cornwall, the first of what it hopes will be a fairly substantial contribution from Cornwall’s ‘hot rocks’.
Biomass and anaerobic digestion (biogas) are two more renewable energy sources that are often overlooked. Biomass is best reserved for smaller and more localised energy generation, and the current practice of co-firing biomass with coal is a short term option. Biogas is generated from waste, so it doubles up as a useful way of dealing with rubbish otherwise destined for landfill, and its main waste product is a liquid that can be used as fertiliser.
6- Lowering energy use:
Even with these various technologies and techniques, renewable energy can never be a direct swap for fossil fuels. Coal, oil and gas are very dense forms of energy, and deliver a high energy return for energy invested. Renewable energy cannot match it, and if we are to rely on renewable energy more in the future, we will have to reduce our energy use. That’s entirely possible, given how inefficient our houses are, how much electricity is lost in transmission and how low our standards are for appliances.
Quite how far we need to reduce our energy use is debateable, but those assuming we can expand it or carry on as usual aren’t paying attention. The Zero Carbon Britain report, which aims for 100% renewable energy by 2030, assumes a 55% reduction.
I hope it will be helpful...
With my best regards....
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I am doing my masters in energy systems engineering, and I am looking for topics to do my thesis on; are there any suggestions?
I am interested in renewable energy.
PS: I have done my bachelor in mechanical engineering.
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Alternative and Renewable energy, solar, wind and geothermal power, brining down prices in the process about free of cost and highly demand world wide is.
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Simulation of multijunction, bandgap grading, tunneling, fermi-level pinning, Voc-temp, Voc-illumination plots, AC simulation (nyquist plots etc), i-v Hysterisis in perovskite, Light soaking in thin films, impact of defects, solar cell device optimisation, Impurity photovolatics IPV (similar to intermediate band solar cell) and many more simulation demos for prospective publications point of view
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Dear Atul Kumar ,
If you find that your youtube is useful as a training materials for SCAPS- 1D then you can collaborate with the founders of such simulation software at Gent university to add it as a training material for the software as many researchers ask about an easy to understand tutorials.
Best wishes
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Simulations showed a 48% rise in #solar #energy accumulation by the #photovoltaic (#PV) panels within the same installation area when installed at a 16° inclined field.
Read more about the research we are doing at the Southern Institute of Technology:
"Optimizing the inclined field for solar photovoltaic arrays."
#solarpv #solarenergy #solarenergysystem #solarpanels #solarinstallation #appropriatetechnology #cleantech #renewableenergy #sustainability #solarnews #newzealand pv magazine Asia Solar PV Magazine NZAID New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade Auckland University of Technology NED University of Engineering and Technology
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Really it is a good research idea is to maximize the recieved solar radiation under with the minimum horizontal area. There are places where the land are not easily available. But in Egypt we do not have such constraints. We have extended Sahara around the Nile delta and valley.
But this can be argument against your study , since the reducing the field will also reduce the cost of cabling and installations.
Best wishes
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You can increase the #solar power generation in your backyard by installing the #PV panels at varying tilt angles and row-spacings. 14% better performance was calculated for a site in #Auckland. This makes our research at the Southern Institute of Technology so significant. Let's find out more about our research: "An optical-energy model for optimizing the geometrical layout of solar photovoltaic arrays in a constrained field (Elsevier Renewable Energy)"
#solarpv #solarenergy #solarenergysystem #solarpanels #solarinstallation #appropriatetechnology #cleantech #renewableenergy #sustainability #solarnews #newzealand
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Hi Sivabalan Kaniapan, thank you for the comment. There might be more or fewer losses at certain times compared to the conventional installation. Therefore, the results are based on energy accumulation over time. In general, the designers are more interested in year-round performances rather than instantaneous ones.
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Normally solar cells are interconnected in series or parallel within a photovoltaic module. Is there a general rule of thumb for this? Does this depend on the technology: poly-Si, PERC, HIT, CPV, Thin-film, or is there another reason? Thank you very much in advance.
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In agreement with Dounia Chlyeh ,The series or parallel connection on the solar cell depends on the ratings of the load. It is defined by the load voltage and the load current. To increase the voltage one has has to increase the number of solar cells connected in series and then the current requirement is satisfied by connecting the series strings in parallel.
However to make the building of the PV generators is an easy and redundant process one divides the array into modules. The modules or panels have standard sizes that is ramped with time. from 80watt peak power up to 240 watt.
The voltage of the modules is matched to the commercial chemical batteries as 12V and 24V and 36V.So the factory deliver panels and the customer build his system according to the requirement of his loads.
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I'm working on predicting solar power and I have some small negative values of irradiance. Is it normal ? should I replace it by zero or the absolute value ?
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You need to be more specific about the kind of instrument that generates such values. If it is a thermopile pyranometer or pyrheliometer, as I surmise, and absolute values are only a few Watts, that is normal. During nighttime, you would also see negative values, down to -20 W/m2 depending on instrument model. All that is caused by their thermal offset.
Larger negative values would be caused by experimental problems with the instrument, datalogger, cabling, etc.
Ideally, you would evaluate the thermal offset first, using nighttime data, and then scaling up your daytime data by the same amount. For more details, see
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I'm working on predicting solar power output using machine learning, but I can't find a public dabases of solar power output with 1 minute step.
I only find databases with 1 hour step, and an other databases of irradiance with 1 minute step. So I decided to use this databases to calculate the power solar output for each 1 minute, and then use the results to train my machine learning model...
I've seen that there's a linear model that we can use to calculate the power solar output using irradiance.
Does anyone know how to find it ? or another solution ?
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welcome!
In order to get the output power given the input irradiance you need to multiply the input by the conversion efficiency. You can find data for the conversion efficiency
for different commertial solar cells as a function of T and the irradiance G.
It is assumed that Eta is more less independent on G and its dependence on temperature is known.
This could be a possible solution.
Best wishes
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hi I would love to take part in wind and solar energy ongoing project as im doing my msc in renewable energy
thank you
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Nowadays a lot of solar energy is utilized for households as well as an agricultural purposes. It is a good aspect of that and needs an expert view of the people.
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Dear sir:
In addition to the contributions of my colleagues, i would like to add the following:
1- The cost of operation and maintenance of solar agriculture sprayer is negligible.
2- Suitable for remote area agricultural lands for pesticides spraying where conventional energy is not available.
3- Environmental friendly equipment
4- Low cost , economic, efficient compared to other equipment
4- Simple to handle, install, durable
Working principle:
The solar radiations are directly converted to electric power through solar panel based on photovoltaic effect. The same power is supplied to batteries for charging. The stored energy in battery is utilized for pumping system. Power is utilized to spray the pesticides in day and night whenever is required. One charge controller is incorporated in the set up to prevent the battery from overcharging in order to increase the life of battery. Sometimes an additional DC power is generated from dynamos attached to rear wheels and this power is also used to charge the battery. Although the amount of power generation by DC-dynamo is less compared to PV panel it can be employed to supplement the power supply.
**** The compendium is: the weight of sprayer is reduced by incorporating the solar panels in place of fuel tank of the existing sprayers. Also the proposed design is suitable for remote area or region of agricultural land without any conventional energy source and moreover it does not emit any green house gases to the environment. Also the cost of the present sprayer design is minimized by taking the concern of economic conditions of farmers and hence it is quite affordable to village farmers with small and medium level agricultural cultivations. The major merit of the present design is that the farmers do not require any special skill to operate the sprayer.
I hope it will be helpful...
With my best regards...
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Dear ...
I would like ask you about the units conversion in solar energy topic
Regards
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Dear Firas:
In addition to the contributions made by my colleagues, I would like to add the following:
The average daily solar insolation in units of kWh/m2 per day is usually referred to as "peak sun hours". This term "peak sun hours" refers to the solar insolation which a particular location would receive if the sun were shining at its maximum value for a certain number of hours. Since the peak solar radiation is 1 kW/m2, the number of peak sun hours is numerically identical to the average daily solar insolation. For example, a location that receives 8 kWh/m2 per day can be said to have received 8 hours of sun per day at 1 kW/m2. Being able to calculate the peak sun hours is useful because PV modules are often rated at an input rating of 1kW/m2.
I hope it will be helpful...
With my best regards...
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It is required to determine the total area to operate an air conditioner that operates on solar energy and partially operate the air conditioner when the power is cut off.
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welcome!
You must define how long is the interruption time of electricity in one day.
Sat this time is T hours.
Then you need to generate the energy to feed the AC only at the interruption time
Assuming that the power of the AC is P then the energy required = PT
P is given by the colleagues above for one Ton AC as 3517 watt.
Then the energy E of the PV system= 3.517 T kwh
This energy will be generated and stored in batteries.
Then assuming the efficiency of charging and discharging the battery is Etab, then the required energy by the PV is E/Etab.
Assuming the sunshine hour is on the average Td day in hours,
Then the power pf the PV array will be E/ Etab/Td
Assuming that the power of the module is Pmod, then then umber of needed modules Nmod= (E/ Etab/Td)/Pmod
This is the sizing equations of the required pv array for the AC working as you described.
For more information please follow the link:
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Hello,
I am working on the fabrication of perovskite solar cells. I am interested to study charge carrier dynamics and recombination resistance. For that, I need to perform EIS of perovskite films. Please suggest any standard electrolyte for EIS of perovskite films. Thank you!
Kid Regards,
Abdul Sattar
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one of the most used electrolyte is I−/I3 − . Please for more details please follow the paper in the link:file:///C:/Users/Dell/Downloads/materials-12-01998.pdf
Best wishes
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Does the following questions give us answers in favour of solar energy?
1. Vast amounts of energy are required to mine/manufacture solar panels and chemicals which are used during the manufacturing process. Doe these facts equate to solar panels having a net negative impact on environment?
2. Will the energy required to create a solar panel be recouped within a reasonable time frame?
3. Considering the manufacturing and processing stages of solar panels, are the total emissions generated less than that for generating the same amount of energy from other non-conventional energy sources?
4. Does the reduced emissions from using solar energy make the technology really beneficial to the society?
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Have a look at the various publications of IEA PVPV Task12 on PV Sustainability Activities
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I'm seeking the newest technologies about solar energy as a PhD student, and it would be my pleasure if you can help me or give me some valuable clues.
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welcome,
One of the most active area is the inventing and developing thein film solar cells with high conversion efficiency. There are some classes of thin film solar cells from them are the silicon based solar cells. the perovskite based solar cells and the organic solar cells.
The most promising perovskite solar cells in spite of achieving high efficacy, they suffer from instability against environment. Massive efforts are led to solve this problem. Also they contain toxic materials such as lead Pb. This challenge received also intensive research to substitute Pb.
Also there is advancement concerns the organic solar cells by introducing new materials for the acceptor materials called nonflurene acceptors.
You can consult the new review papers in these topics.
As for the waste water treatment nanoparticles from TiO2 can be used to oxidize the organic materials contained in the water by subjecting them to UV light.
I would advice you to refer to the review papers in the intended topics.
Best wishes