Questions related to Soil Science
The Soviet Soil Science (SSS) journal seems to be defunct. Vladimir Volobuev published numerous articles in that journal that I'd like to read. It appears that the Eurasian Soil Science journal supplanted SSS but there is no record of Volobuev's publications on their website.
Does anyone have access to Volobuev's work published in the SSS and mind sharing, or perhaps can advise on how to obtain the articles specifically published in the SSS?
Hi, I was hoping someone could recommend papers that discuss the impact of using averaged data in random forest analyses or in making regression models with large data sets for ecology.
For example, if I had 4,000 samples each from 40 sites and did a random forest analysis (looking at predictors of SOC, for example) using environmental metadata, how would that compare with doing a random forest of the averaged sample values from the 40 sites (so 40 rows of averaged data vs. 4,000 raw data points)?
I ask this because a lot of the 4,000 samples have missing sample-specific environmental data in the first place, but there are other samples within the same site that do have that data available.
I'm just a little confused on 1.) the appropriateness of interpolating average values based on missingness (best practices/warnings), 2.) the drawbacks of using smaller, averaged sample sizes to deal with missingness vs. using incomplete data sets vs. using significantly smaller sample sizes from only "complete" data, and 3.) the geospatial rules for linking environmental data with samples? (if 50% of plots in a site have soil texture data, and 50% of plots don't, yet they're all within the same site/area, what would be the best route for analysis?) (it could depend on variable, but I have ~50 soil chemical/physical variables?)
Thank you for any advice or paper or tutorial recommendations.
There is a current upsurge in research into microbial fertilisers and carriers of microbial inoculants to boost soil fertility, e.g. the use of biochar and compost. After treating the soil, how can we effectively measure the successful establishment of the beneficial microorganisms?
We are planning to extract phosphorus from biochar by organic acids. If anyone has some procedure (concentration of organic acids & steps) please inform.
Nowadays microplastic pollution increases in soil, is there any chance microplastic is present in vermicompost obtained from decomposition/vermicomposting of organic waste?
Soil scientist with experience in vis-NIR spectroscopy, what would be the loss of quality of texture and organic C models when using equipment with spectral resolution of 5, 10 and 20 nm in the NIR (from 1300 to 2500 nm)? Does anyone know of any scientific study that has tested equipment with different resolutions?
If soil is being irrigated with saline water (Chloride dominated), how does the presence of chloride ions reduce availability of soil P to the plants ?
While many businesses are aiming for net-zero goals, do we have sound evidence that net-zero farming is possible or has already been achieved?
I am planning a field project to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost application on crop productivity by studying soil fauna. I would like to understand that how much such plans can help us to understand the sustainability in agriculture and soil science.
I have known the formula to calculate the TOLR (kgCOD/lit/year) is =
[(COD mg/lit) x (Volume m3/ year) x (1000lit)]x 10-6 .
Is it correct?
we take samples from field that have sandy soil very lose soil and dry soil after measurement moisture content we find low bulk density around 0.8 g/cm3 , 1.3 g/cm3 and 1.7 g/cm3
I am interested about how quickly SOM can deplete over time, and would like to start a discussion on the topic. Please pardon me if my question is broad.
In temperate systems, it is common to find annual decomposition coefficients around 1-3% (i.e., 1-3% of the SOM stock is lost after a year). However, I wonder how quickly can SOM mineralization occur.
While reading the literature on SOM changes after deforestation in the tropics, I found values suggesting that SOM stocks can decline by 10-50% in a few years (5-10 years) after a forest is cleared for cultivation.
Also, while looking at the AMG soil organic matter model, I noticed that the potential (maximum) SOM mineralization rate (k0) was set to 29%!
Have you ever asked yourself this question?
Related to this topic, I was thinking of a simple experiment that could shed some light on this question. Let's imagine pots with freshly collected soil or a plot of land, which is outside, and for which any plant development is precluded (removing seed, young seedlings manually). I would be curious to see how quickly SOM changes over time (considering that we would regularly monitor it or regularly SOM contents), given that no plant can inject organic matter. Of course, this soil would be exposed to environmental changes (such as regular water inputs from rain or manual watering, not to let it dry).
Any thoughts about this?
Soil profile presents a two-dimensional view of the soil body. According to Hartemink (2009), the first depictions of soil profiles were made in the late 1700 long before soil science was established. The soil profile may also be taken as one side of a pedon, the three-dimensional conceptual soil body used as the basic unit of classification in the Soil Taxonomy of USDA. Simonson and Gardner (1960) who proposed the pedon concept compared it to the cell in biological systems. This comparison, however, has been criticized since cells are functional units with real boundaries (cell walls) while pedons have no boundaries since the soil is a continuum. The French pedologist A. Ruellan, past president of the International Union of Soil Sciences, has summarized the criticisms against the pedon concept, as follows: it is not a natural unit of the soil cover but only an abstraction, its morphological lateral limits are artificial, and its genesis is interpreted vertically without looking at the lateral dynamics and relationships (Ruellan, 2002). What is your opinion on this? Which is a better unit or model to use in the study of soils?
Simonson, R.W. and D.R. Gardner. 1960. Concepts and function of the pedon. Trans. 7th Intern. Congr. Soil Sci., Vol. 4, Madison, pp: 127-131.
Hartemink, A.E. 2009. The depiction of soil profiles since the late 1700s. Catena 79: 113–127
Ruellan A. 2002. Classification of pedological systems: a challenge for the future of soil science. Trans. 17th World Congr. Soil Science, Bangkok.
I have the FTIR spectra of some OM samples. I am trying to calculate some peak relationships (1650/2920, 1650/1540 etc.) but I have some doubts. The relationship is the simple ratio between both peaks absorbance? Or something else (integralization)? I couldnt find this information in the most recent articles.
It becomes obvious that use of manure composts as organic amendments and adoption of conservation agriculture could improve soil properties (physicochemical and biological properties) and prevent natural resources.
I would like to start this discussion with a large public of researcher from different fields whom are specialized in Soil sciences, composting andAgrienvironmentalist.
I wonder if it is possible to find natural soil carbonates (calcite, dolomite, etc.), not coming from liming, in soils naturally having a low pH (4-5.5).
Is it possible to find these mineral forms of C in acidic tropical soils?
I am asking because while measuring both total C and inorganic C (after acid dissolution) of tropical soil samples from Indonesia with an Elementar, I sometimes get a gap between the two measurements.
Sometimes the gap is positive (total C > organic C), and other times the gap is negative (organic C > total C !?). Generally, total C is equal to organic C, meaning most samples do not show these confusing 2-way gaps, and suggest the absence of inorganic forms of C.
In both cases, I wonder if discrepancies are just technical (noise), or if the gaps between samples are due to the natural variability of my samples, or in some cases, there could be some carbonates present in those soils (which have a relatively low pH of 4-5).
There are numerous methods of dry and wet ashing. For plant material – most of them are equally effective. But soil samples are usually a problem. Could you please share the methods of ashing you continuously use in your lab for soil samples and to explain why?
Most of the springer journals (e.g., Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition or Journal of Plant Growth Regulation) didn't publish any new articles (Online first) after 3rd December! is there any problem? or updates?
Models focus on multidisciplinary aspects, b/se focusing on only one subject matter without giving due emphasis to the others is finally just a failure. Crop models avoid the bad culture of focusing on only one subject matter, called one-eyed subjects. In previous times, e.g. crop breeders often focus on improving the genetic makeup of the crop without seeing the farmer's problems, demand, capacity, etc., and also without due knowledge of the newly formed crop for disease resistance, fertilizer, environment, health (GM crops), sustainability and many other issues.
All the other fields (e.g. agronomy, entomology, climatology, weed, food science, soil science, etc.) were too one-eyed subjects.
Now thanks to modelers, we had models that included all-subjects-in-one. So the problem with regard to models is "they need huge data" on agronomy, climate, soil, breeding, etc.
In today's science due to MDGs and sustainability issues, any agricultural practice, technology, innovation, or else is said to be sustainable, if and only if (IFF) it is:
- socially acceptable
- economically feasible
- environmentally friendly
- ecologically sound
- yielding reasonably
So, could we really apply these sophisticated models in poor countries? Could these beautiful models reduce our ugly fact (the acute poverty we are facing in Africa or elsewhere)? Is there a scale to measure the applicability of models for solving farmers' problems? Which should come first, models or farmers' problems?
My context is SSA (Africa South of Sahara)
- What is crop modeling?
- Are models theory or practice?
- Could crop models feed the world?
- How can we make the application of models a reality?
- Why do we have so many beautiful models but heartbreaking and ugly facts (e.g. poverty, hunger, malnutrition, etc.)?
- Is there a scale to measure model applicability (e.g. poverty reduction)?
Many thanks to all RG members and scientists for your valuable contributions!
Following topics: climate change, AI in Agriculture, farming systems, soil science, agro ecosystems, etc. so we can work on a paper together and get it published
I have to implement Green Ampt Infiltration equation for daily time step with regional scale over different Land use/Land cover conditions. The Green Ampt parameters are estimated using soil properties, how the equation could be improved for different LULC conditions and what could be the effect of varying spatial and temporal resolution in model performance.
I have come to know that 5:1 ratio of NO3:NH4 makes the melon most sweet in hydroponics? But what about field crops? Here, Nitrate fertilizers are banned. So the only option for inorganic N source is Urea or DAP. From the internet, I have learned that, plant can only uptake N in nitrate form. In that case, Is there any difference if I cannot provide Nitrate fertilizers? Also, I am providing plants with mustard cake fertilizer and fish fertilizer to provide ready nitrates .
I recently demonstrated an industrial sized horizontal centrifuge at a food manufacturing plant on their waste coming from their wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP plant manager now wants to know what the BOD coming from the centrate off the centrifuge, back to the WWTP would be. We did not measure BOD or COD at the time but only total suspended solids (TSS mg/l) in the centrate going back to the WWTP. Is there a way to maybe correlate the BOD from the information gathered from the influent coming from the manufacturing side to the WWTP, if the TSS and BOD were recorded, to our centrate TSS?
We know the beneficial effects of residue retention in soil. But both the system ( residue in surface and residue incorporated) have some pros and cons, in the point of GHG emission which one is sustainable.
For example, total acidity decreased from 1.15 to 0.8 cmol∙kg-1 after 30 days and even less after 60 and 90 days. Exchangeable Al content dropped from 1.02 to 0.4-0.6 cmol∙kg-1 during incubation, that is more than 50%. At the same time, exchangeable H demonstrated 2-3-fold increase. CEC showed about 25% decrease.
We are trying to get the best compression and consolidation in making Compressed Earth Blocks. Any suggestions on how to optimise the soil composition to get best packing density will be most appreciated.
I have been working with melon TSS% level in Bangaldesh for four years. Here melon become very low in brix in soil plantation. I ahve tried many ways to improve ssc%. We do not have nitrate fertilizers available here. We have to use urea or DAP as a source of nitrogen. I believe, if I can use nitrates, it might change the result! This is why i am interested in making organic liquid fertilizers rich in nitrates. I am making mustard cake liquid fertilizer as well as fish fertilizer.Can I add nitrifying bacteria culture to the drums of those fertilizers to increase N?
How can I calculate lime requirement for increasing soil pH without Lab determine? or which methods are faster and easier than woodruff buffer solution?
I am trying to find reference values on annual soil rhizodeposition rates for different kinds of forests, with a particular interest for tropical rainforests.
Do we have an idea of the amount of organic material deposited annually in the soil for this kind of ecosystems?
I am doing a literature search in parallel and will share my findings in this post.
Feel free to contribute and to use this question as a data compilation nexus!
Almost all the literature shows that the vertical distributions of soil organic carbon (SOC) & available nitrogen (N) is found decreasing with increased value of bulk density with respect to depth and all those values show uniformity in each layer of 20 cm and up to 1m depth, increasing or decreasing of such values are uniformly distributed for the soil samples found in the literature, is that uniformity maintained at every where, soil layer of the mother earth is so unique and maintain such identical uniformity, though I am waiting for the report for the values of distribution of these chemical parameters from the soil test laboratory, if the obtained values are uniformly distributed with depth, it will be really unique and identical.
It would envisage communication between soil science and other disciplines on the one hand, and farmers, foresters, industrialists, artisans, traders and local residents on the other.
Please If one can let know the soil taxonomy for vindhyan region falling in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Sediment is relatively younger than the soil in the depositional environment as the sediments are consequence of the accretion of particles transported either by waters or by winds, whereas, soil profile is stable lacking any sort of movement. Soil profile is developed with time span which is a stable one, but the movement of the sediment particles developed those soil profiles in so many physiographic set up, are they (soils and Sediments) differed chemically, do they possess different chemical environment?
Many researchers have given the values of OMC and MDD for bentonite based buffer materials corresponding to heavy compaction (higher compaction energy).
I am doing some literature review to better understand the processes governing the biological fixation of nitrogen by non-symbiotic micro-organisms (associative, endophytic, free-living...).
I am not interested in symbiotic relations like legumes (which have their use), but rather to find solutions to promote this fixation throughout the cultivation (perhaps through composting?).
So it could be in the field or in a compost pile on the farm.
Could you share some insights?
I am looking for some good datasets related to land use and agricultural practices such as conventional and conservation agriculture and their contribution to soil erosion and health on global scale. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
More I am reading, more I am getting confused to define Soil Health ? So, What is Soil Health? And How you can categorize or classify lands based on soil health? Can you define soil health in quantity or index, lets say field A has soil health 6 and it can sustain for next 6 years or field B has soil health 4 and it will sustain next 4 years? What score is good or what score is bad and how to get the score?
So, How to define soil health and use it in classifying particular farm land ? How we can use soil health to define sustainability or vitality of a cropping land to host or sustain the ecosystem for year after year?
There is a growing interest in developing means of early detection of crop nutrient deficiencies. It has held that by the time a deficiency shows up in a soil sample, the crop is already under stress. Does crop sap analysis help to resolve this information gap? If so, how can we expand the use of this from high margin specialty crops to commodity crops?
I have to isolate actinomycetes from soil, for which soil extract agar is required..It would helpful if a protocol is available to prepare soil extract. Not for soil extract agar
I am goin to collect soil samples for P. brassicae inoculum density quantification, however I am not sure why some articles say that those samples should be kept at 10ºC or -20ºC for no longer than two weeks, so I would like to know if I can keep my soil samples for longer and under which conditions before extract the soil DNA
• When we apply granular basal fertiliser such as compounds fertiliser like Compound D in maize we apply it per plant using fertiliser cups. Usually we divide the amount of fertiliser in grams per hectare by the plant population to get the amount of fertiliser in grams per plant.
e.g. 300kg per hectare of compound D in a maize crop spaced at 75 cm inter-row and 25cm within the row 300 000g/53 333 plants = 5.6 grams per plant. If I wanted to conduct a maize experiment in a pot I would just apply this amount of fertiliser per pot.
• However I could weigh the soil that the pot can carry and do a simple proportion as follows assuming that a hectare furrow slice weighs 2 200 000 kg of soil as follows:
300 000g fertiliser →→ 2 200 000 kg soil
X g fertiliser →→ 10 kg soil
= 1.36 grams per pot
In the first method a maize plant receives 5.6 grams whether it is growing in the field or in a pot with 2 kg soil or a pot with 10 kg soil. In the second method for a maize plant to receive the same amount of fertiliser as in the first method it has to be grown in a pot that carries 41 kg of soil. The amount of fertiliser increases with increase in pot size.
How can we reconcile this?? Which is the correct method for the determination of fertiliser per pot?
I have found controversy:
Soil water salinity can affect soil physical properties by causing fine particles to bind together into aggregates. This process is beneficial in terms of soil aeration, root penetration, and root growth. Increasing soil solution salinity has a positive effect on soil aggregation and stabilization.
Sodium has the opposite effect of salinity on soils. The primary physical processes associated with high sodium concentrations are soil dispersion and clay platelet and aggregate swelling. The forces that bind clay particles together are disrupted when too many large sodium ions come between them. When this separation occurs, the clay particles expand, causing swelling and soil dispersion. Soil dispersion causes clay particles to plug soil pores, resulting in reduced soil permeability.
So, could you please anyone clarify about this issue with mechanism.
Soil fertility management (SFM) is a prerequisit for resilent farming and agriculture and food systems. However, adoption of technologies remain rather poor in the context of African small-scale farmers. Our research aims to shed light on its causes.
We want to include basically factors from soil sciences, agronomy and agricultureal sciences, economics, communication sciences and sociology.
Dear Sir/ Madam,
Greetings of the Day.
Hope you all are doing well. As a beginner I want to know the what are the recent development made by soil scientist in the 21st Century ? Specifically in the field of Soil Fertility, Soil Chemistry, Soil Microbiology. Out of which how efficiently such Novel practice adopted by farmers. Although its contemporary debate but as per your expertise and field experience please share your views.
Thanks in advance
Hanuman Singh Jatav
I was wondering which methods could be considered the best for a good assessment of soil pH.
Namely, which extraction (saturated soil paste; 1:1; 1:2 soil to water extractions) could be used without errors (and if they are convertable between each other) and also how and when to apply extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 or 1 M KCl.
In the particular case of 1 M KCl, this solution is also used to obtain the exchangeable acidity of the soil. As the name suggests, this extraction, in theory, should, if the soil has a large value of exchangeable acidity, have a lower (or even much lower) pH than an extraction with destilled water.
On the other hand, pH measurement with 1 M KCl is recommended for better and faster results in the pH electrode.
Finally, should the soil solution be filtered or centrifuged prior to pH measurement? Some cite the use of 0.01 M CaCl2 as a method to increase soil flocculation and have a clearer supernatant but couldn't that be substituted with appropriate filtration / centrifugation?
Thank you so much for all your help and I apologize for the very extensive question.
For the analysis of soil organic carbon by WB method,I have used 1 g soil with 10 ml of 0.1667M K2Cr2O7 solution, 20 ml concentrated H2SO4,200 ml water for dilution,10 ml H3PO4,10 ml of NaF solution,diphenylamine as an indicator,0.5M FeSO4 solution as a titrant.
During dilution,different soil sample shows a variation in colour i.e. some are orange and some are dark green,but with the same end point of light greenish colour after titration.Why is this colour variation takes place in different soil samples,Is this not an appropriate procedure for soil organic carbon?
Beside lower pH levels, acid soils, in particular soils of coniferous forests, are characterized by the presence of metals in dissociated (thereby bioavailable) cationic form (aluminum, heavy metals), small organic molecules in undissociated (thereby bioavailable) form (e.g. phenolics, terpenes), the toxicity of which has been attested. All these features are shared by soils contaminated with heavy metals and/or hydrocarbons, known for their poor functional biodiversity and, as a consequence, the accumulation of undecayed organic matter, another feature they have in common with acid soils:
However, the pH of polluted soils is often much higher (around 3 pH units higher), among other reasons because these soils are to be found in or near human settlements, thus far from geological substrates prone to the development of acid soils (there are many exceptions to this rule, in particular in nordic countries). My idea was that organisms living in acid soils were pre-adapted (exaptation) to soil pollution, but were absent from these soils because of dispersal limitation, and thus could not contribute to the restoration of functional trophic links. This idea was reinforced by analysing the evolution of stress tolerance along phylogenetic trees, which demonstrated the ancestral nature of this trait among a springtail lineage:
Our attempts to inoculate acidophilic springtail communities in soils polluted with heavy metals failed to demonstrate this property:
Among other possible reasons invoked to explain the observed failure or incomplete success of the inoculation, an acidity (oxidative) shock was thought probable. This could be circumvented by allowing the soil community to be accustomed to a higher pH level before inoculating it to a polluted soil at neutral pH (as commonly observed). Unfortunately, researches were discontinued, and I retired a few years after. However, the research subject is still open to the scientific community. Catch as catch can...
There are several method for determining organic matter in soil such as black and walkley and Tyurin method. Among them which on gives the most reliable results?
Some researchers found gypsum amendment is a way to reduce salinity, but it is not suitable for all types of soil. Some researcher reported that ash from rice straw and rice husk may mitigate soil salinity, someone oppose this findings. So, which amendments are better for saline soil?
I would like to evaluate the stock of carbon in the National park of Lobéké (Cameroon). And I did not get any protocol
My research work is on application of biochar on soil fertility and soybean yield.
I performed RBD, 3 replication, 8 treatment experiment and studied soil properties, plant nutrients and soybean grain and biomass yield. Study area - different soil and rainfall zones in Maharashtra (western districts).
I wish to publish this work and searching for an Indian Journal
My PhD institute- Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, does not allow students to publish in paid journals. Most of the Indian journals related to agriculture require payment of publication fees. Some of them require on acceptance, some of them require for submission.
Can you please suggest journals which does not have such requirement?
I was given an opportunity a few months back to reflect upon the status of the research on soils, and this resulted in two papers, which are being published by the European Journal of Soil Science. You can gain access to them here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/13652389/0/ja. As you will see, my assessment is that there is currently a tendency by some to "bypass" older literature and also to overestimate the significance of research results, way beyond what would be reasonable. Hopefully, these two papers, which complement each other (one is a factual review, and the other is a personal perspective on causes and possible solutions), will lead to a healthy debate on what we need to do to get the research on soils on a more reasonable track.
I would be happy to hear your comments.
Many investigators well documented that the bio-control agent Trichoderma spp. has the potential to induce growth response in treated plants due to stimulation to release nutrients in soil, which enhance the plant growth.