Science topic

Soil Science - Science topic

An open discussion board on issues related with Soil Science
Questions related to Soil Science
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
7 answers
Hi,
The Soviet Soil Science (SSS) journal seems to be defunct. Vladimir Volobuev published numerous articles in that journal that I'd like to read. It appears that the Eurasian Soil Science journal supplanted SSS but there is no record of Volobuev's publications on their website.
Does anyone have access to Volobuev's work published in the SSS and mind sharing, or perhaps can advise on how to obtain the articles specifically published in the SSS?
Thanks,
Eron
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Jonathan Phillips. What I've seen published in SSS is all in Russian but I've not searched beyond Volobuev. From my experience thus far, it seems interlibrary loans may be the best way to proceed. I hope that this a workable solution for anyone reading.
For anyone interested in a possible solution, software exists that can convert a scanned document (that you may have obtained via an interlibrary loan) into a digital format. Once digitized, other software exists that can then attempt a translation of the document. I won't post specific software names publicly but what software to use is easy enough to figure out with a quick web search for how to do those two processes. Alternatively, there are smartphone apps that similarly attempt a translation on the fly (that are also super helpful when travelling).
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
Hi, I was hoping someone could recommend papers that discuss the impact of using averaged data in random forest analyses or in making regression models with large data sets for ecology.
For example, if I had 4,000 samples each from 40 sites and did a random forest analysis (looking at predictors of SOC, for example) using environmental metadata, how would that compare with doing a random forest of the averaged sample values from the 40 sites (so 40 rows of averaged data vs. 4,000 raw data points)?
I ask this because a lot of the 4,000 samples have missing sample-specific environmental data in the first place, but there are other samples within the same site that do have that data available.
I'm just a little confused on 1.) the appropriateness of interpolating average values based on missingness (best practices/warnings), 2.) the drawbacks of using smaller, averaged sample sizes to deal with missingness vs. using incomplete data sets vs. using significantly smaller sample sizes from only "complete" data, and 3.) the geospatial rules for linking environmental data with samples? (if 50% of plots in a site have soil texture data, and 50% of plots don't, yet they're all within the same site/area, what would be the best route for analysis?) (it could depend on variable, but I have ~50 soil chemical/physical variables?)
Thank you for any advice or paper or tutorial recommendations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you!
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
3 answers
I want to know about the soil science journal names. Impact factor should be above 6. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can check Google. Regards
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
In which SCORPAN factor do the Landsat bands fit into? Without any ratios/indices, just the "pure" bands.
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on what can be seen on the respective images. This in turn depends on the location the image shows and the time the image was taken. The scorpan factors can therefore be s (bare soil), o (vegetation) or p (parent paterial).
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
9 answers
There is a current upsurge in research into microbial fertilisers and carriers of microbial inoculants to boost soil fertility, e.g. the use of biochar and compost. After treating the soil, how can we effectively measure the successful establishment of the beneficial microorganisms?
Relevant answer
Answer
I am totally agree with @ J.C. Tarafdar Sir. Apparently soil Respiration and dehydrogenase activity measures the microbial activity in soil. For soil Respiration we can go for either alkali trap that has been discussed or we can go for rapid techniques by comprehensive analysis of soil health by Cornell University.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
3 answers
Does any historian of the soil science match with colloidal prpeties of soil?
Relevant answer
Answer
I would suggest you try books by Nyle C. Brady.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
6 answers
We are planning to extract phosphorus from biochar by organic acids. If anyone has some procedure (concentration of organic acids & steps) please inform.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
Nowadays microplastic pollution increases in soil, is there any chance microplastic is present in vermicompost obtained from decomposition/vermicomposting of organic waste?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, it can be present. As worms tunnel, they consume almost everything in their path, including microscopic plastic pollution.
Earthworms can be significant transport agents of microplastics in soils, incorporating this material into the soil, likely via casts, burrows, egestion, and adherence to the earthworm exterior (Rillig et al., 2017). However, in common sense, vermicomposting is the method of making compost (humus-like material known as vermin-compost) from biodegradable waste by using earthworms.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
Soil scientist with experience in vis-NIR spectroscopy, what would be the loss of quality of texture and organic C models when using equipment with spectral resolution of 5, 10 and 20 nm in the NIR (from 1300 to 2500 nm)? Does anyone know of any scientific study that has tested equipment with different resolutions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Good replay
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
24 answers
If soil is being irrigated with saline water (Chloride dominated), how does the presence of chloride ions reduce availability of soil P to the plants ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Strongly Negative correlation
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
6 answers
We can measure exchangeable K, Ca using flame photometer. Is it possible to analyse these ion using spectral analysis
Relevant answer
Answer
You can measure the exchangeable cations using Ammonium Molebdate solution under spectroscopy.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
8 answers
While many businesses are aiming for net-zero goals, do we have sound evidence that net-zero farming is possible or has already been achieved?
Examples, sources.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Also check please the following useful link: https://www.agdaily.com/insights/net-zero-mean-farmers-ranchers/
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
Surfactants in soils and substrates reduce surface tension and increase capillary rise.
Relevant answer
Answer
By adding surfactants surface tension of water molecule is lowers due to decrement in cohesive forces acting between water molecule. Due to this loss of water from plant canopy surface reduces which turns reduces in transpiration rate.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
12 answers
I am planning a field project to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost application on crop productivity by studying soil fauna. I would like to understand that how much such plans can help us to understand the sustainability in agriculture and soil science.
Relevant answer
Answer
Also check please the following useful RG link:
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
15 answers
I have known the formula to calculate the TOLR (kgCOD/lit/year) is =
[(COD mg/lit) x (Volume m3/ year) x (1000lit)]x 10-6 .
Is it correct?
Relevant answer
Answer
Muthucumaran Sugirtharan i cam eacross the water chemistry link and felt like sharing with you where it is clearly explained how the OLR and the COD is linked and how it can be calculated as well so in other words I can explain like - Two things must be known to determine the organic loading on the trickling filter: the pounds of BOD or COD applied to the filter media each day and the volume of the filter media in 1000 cubic feet. The organic loading does not include the recirculated flow's BOD and COD contributions.
Link of the water chemistry document for your reference
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
32 answers
we take samples from field that have sandy soil very lose soil and dry soil after measurement moisture content we find low bulk density around 0.8 g/cm3  , 1.3 g/cm3  and 1.7 g/cm3  
Relevant answer
Answer
As you know bulk density is mass of solid divided by total volume of soil. So in Sandy soil total volume is high as volume of solid + volume of pores are there. So as a result bulk density of sandy soils reduces.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
91 answers
RG members please discuss it...
Relevant answer
Answer
Directly inorganic fertilizer application won't increase OM in soil.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
49 answers
Hi,
I am interested about how quickly SOM can deplete over time, and would like to start a discussion on the topic. Please pardon me if my question is broad.
In temperate systems, it is common to find annual decomposition coefficients around 1-3% (i.e., 1-3% of the SOM stock is lost after a year). However, I wonder how quickly can SOM mineralization occur.
While reading the literature on SOM changes after deforestation in the tropics, I found values suggesting that SOM stocks can decline by 10-50% in a few years (5-10 years) after a forest is cleared for cultivation.
Also, while looking at the AMG soil organic matter model, I noticed that the potential (maximum) SOM mineralization rate (k0) was set to 29%!
Have you ever asked yourself this question?
Related to this topic, I was thinking of a simple experiment that could shed some light on this question. Let's imagine pots with freshly collected soil or a plot of land, which is outside, and for which any plant development is precluded (removing seed, young seedlings manually). I would be curious to see how quickly SOM changes over time (considering that we would regularly monitor it or regularly SOM contents), given that no plant can inject organic matter. Of course, this soil would be exposed to environmental changes (such as regular water inputs from rain or manual watering, not to let it dry).
Any thoughts about this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Oxidation and microbial proliferation leads to SOM loss. So as long as it is safe from oxidation and microbes there will be no loss of SOM. But still if tillage is done in soil and exposure of surface soil to sunlight is happen then it will take very less time for SOM to loss.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
Soil profile presents a two-dimensional view of the soil body. According to Hartemink (2009), the first depictions of soil profiles were made in the late 1700 long before soil science was established. The soil profile may also be taken as one side of a pedon, the three-dimensional conceptual soil body used as the basic unit of classification in the Soil Taxonomy of USDA. Simonson and Gardner (1960) who proposed the pedon concept compared it to the cell in biological systems. This comparison, however, has been criticized since cells are functional units with real boundaries (cell walls) while pedons have no boundaries since the soil is a continuum. The French pedologist A. Ruellan, past president of the International Union of Soil Sciences, has summarized the criticisms against the pedon concept, as follows: it is not a natural unit of the soil cover but only an abstraction, its morphological lateral limits are artificial, and its genesis is interpreted vertically without looking at the lateral dynamics and relationships (Ruellan, 2002). What is your opinion on this? Which is a better unit or model to use in the study of soils?
References
Simonson, R.W. and D.R. Gardner. 1960. Concepts and function of the pedon. Trans. 7th Intern. Congr. Soil Sci., Vol. 4, Madison, pp: 127-131.
Hartemink, A.E. 2009. The depiction of soil profiles since the late 1700s. Catena 79: 113–127
Ruellan A. 2002. Classification of pedological systems: a challenge for the future of soil science. Trans. 17th World Congr. Soil Science, Bangkok.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would say soil profile. Bcz it gives a comprehensive idea regarding horizons, and various elements present only by visual effects.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
45 answers
Nitrogen fertilizer is an important fertilizer in world as well as in India
Relevant answer
Answer
Undoubtedly Urea
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
I have the FTIR spectra of some OM samples. I am trying to calculate some peak relationships (1650/2920, 1650/1540 etc.) but I have some doubts. The relationship is the simple ratio between both peaks absorbance? Or something else (integralization)? I couldnt find this information in the most recent articles.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
I do agree with Paul Milham.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
6 answers
It becomes obvious that use of manure composts as organic amendments and adoption of conservation agriculture could improve soil properties (physicochemical and biological properties) and prevent natural resources.
I would like to start this discussion with a large public of researcher from different fields whom are specialized in Soil sciences, composting andAgrienvironmentalist.
Relevant answer
Answer
Below you can find the link to two recent published papers:
The first one is recommending the best performing dosage of biochar in co-composting in improving the quality of compost and reducing nitrogen loss. Here it is emphasized on the point that composting can be used to transform the layer manure, nitrogen rich solid wastes generate in poultry breeding and agricultural production, into a environmental-friendly and more stable fertilizer product.
The second one is recommending the best conservation agriculture wheat-rice production strategy accelerating soil carbon pools and hydrolytic enzymatic activities and also the best idea for its overall adaptation to appropriately carry out the ecosystem functions.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
48 answers
Hi,
I wonder if it is possible to find natural soil carbonates (calcite, dolomite, etc.), not coming from liming, in soils naturally having a low pH (4-5.5).
Is it possible to find these mineral forms of C in acidic tropical soils?
I am asking because while measuring both total C and inorganic C (after acid dissolution) of tropical soil samples from Indonesia with an Elementar, I sometimes get a gap between the two measurements.
Sometimes the gap is positive (total C > organic C), and other times the gap is negative (organic C > total C !?). Generally, total C is equal to organic C, meaning most samples do not show these confusing 2-way gaps, and suggest the absence of inorganic forms of C.
In both cases, I wonder if discrepancies are just technical (noise), or if the gaps between samples are due to the natural variability of my samples, or in some cases, there could be some carbonates present in those soils (which have a relatively low pH of 4-5).
Best,
Thomas
Relevant answer
Answer
Thomas Fungenzi Tough question but i dont think that the carbonates can be found in the acidic soils as it is found or in fact present in the alkaline soils
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
14 answers
There are numerous methods of dry and wet ashing. For plant material – most of them are equally effective. But soil samples are usually a problem. Could you please share the methods of ashing you continuously use in your lab for soil samples and to explain why?
Relevant answer
Answer
Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia was used as a decomposition method in accordance with ISO 11466: 1995 E.
1 g sample was weighted accurately in a reaction vessel; 0.5 ml of tri-distilled water was added to obtain a slurry, followed by 9 ml of HCl (12 mol l-1) and 3 ml nitric acid (15.8 mol l-1) .Then 10 ml of 0.5 mol l-1 was added to the absorption vessel which was connected to the reflux condensor. Both apparatus were placed on the top of the reaction vessel. The samples were allowed to stand for 16 h at room temperature in order to reduce the produced during the subsequent heating cycle. They were heated under reflux until boiling for 2 h and allowed to cool slowly at room temperature. The contents and the following rinses of the absorption vessel were passed through the condenser into the reaction vessel. The content of the reaction vessel was transferred quantitatively to a 50 ml graduated flask and filled up to the mark with nitric acid (0.5 mol l-1). After the undissolved material has settled, the supernatant solution was subjected to analysis by ICP-AES.
A blank sample containing the acids used for digestion was prepared in the same way.
In general wet digestions excluding hydrofluoric acid do not attack the silicate matrix. Hence, the separation of the silicate matrix as an insoluble residue from the soluble elements lead to both lowering the dissolved solid concentration in solution and the detection limits for analytes, respectively.In addition, the procedure is carried out in closed system and losses of volatile elements can be eliminated.
With kind regards, N Daskalova
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
Hi everybody,
Most of the springer journals (e.g., Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition or Journal of Plant Growth Regulation) didn't publish any new articles (Online first) after 3rd December! is there any problem? or updates?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, Adil Mihoub
Maybe because of Christmas festivals, you can contact the journal office.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
8 answers
Models focus on multidisciplinary aspects, b/se focusing on only one subject matter without giving due emphasis to the others is finally just a failure. Crop models avoid the bad culture of focusing on only one subject matter, called one-eyed subjects. In previous times, e.g. crop breeders often focus on improving the genetic makeup of the crop without seeing the farmer's problems, demand, capacity, etc., and also without due knowledge of the newly formed crop for disease resistance, fertilizer, environment, health (GM crops), sustainability and many other issues.
All the other fields (e.g. agronomy, entomology, climatology, weed, food science, soil science, etc.) were too one-eyed subjects.
Now thanks to modelers, we had models that included all-subjects-in-one. So the problem with regard to models is "they need huge data" on agronomy, climate, soil, breeding, etc.
In today's science due to MDGs and sustainability issues, any agricultural practice, technology, innovation, or else is said to be sustainable, if and only if (IFF) it is:
  • socially acceptable
  • economically feasible
  • environmentally friendly
  • ecologically sound
  • yielding reasonably
So, could we really apply these sophisticated models in poor countries? Could these beautiful models reduce our ugly fact (the acute poverty we are facing in Africa or elsewhere)? Is there a scale to measure the applicability of models for solving farmers' problems? Which should come first, models or farmers' problems?
My context is SSA (Africa South of Sahara)
  • What is crop modeling?
  • Are models theory or practice?
  • Could crop models feed the world?
  • How can we make the application of models a reality?
  • Why do we have so many beautiful models but heartbreaking and ugly facts (e.g. poverty, hunger, malnutrition, etc.)?
  • Is there a scale to measure model applicability (e.g. poverty reduction)?
Many thanks to all RG members and scientists for your valuable contributions!
Alem
Relevant answer
Answer
Crop models can assist in preseason and in-season management decisions on cultural practices, fertilization, irrigation, and pesticide use. Crop models can assist policy makers by predicting soil erosion, leaching of agrichemicals, effects of climatic change, and large-area yield forecasts.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
23 answers
Following topics: climate change, AI in Agriculture, farming systems, soil science, agro ecosystems, etc. so we can work on a paper together and get it published
Relevant answer
Answer
I would also be glad to come in with climate change, farming systems and soil science. Thanks.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
16 answers
Water management or Agronomist, Soil scientist
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Proportional mixing of good quality water (If available) with saline water.
2. Addition of FYM and compost can reduce the salt effect by producing organic acids on decomposition.
3. Use of salt tolerant variety's (Best option among all)
4. Application of Gypsum in saline water can reduce the Na to Ca ratio and SAR and facilitates good infiltration.
5. Mulching with locally available material can reduce the evaporation by that salt accumulation can be reduced.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
2 answers
how we can find poisson's ratio using resonant coulmn (detail procedure )..??
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
2 answers
multi angular TerraSAR-X images are available 
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
2 answers
We develop a probe for soil moisture sensing. But we have shield layer for noise detection (as shown in picture). We want to simulate equal capacitance of probe. How can we simulate ?
thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
3 answers
I have to implement Green Ampt Infiltration equation for daily time step with regional scale over different Land use/Land cover conditions. The Green Ampt parameters are estimated using soil properties, how the equation could be improved for different LULC conditions and what could be the effect of varying spatial and temporal resolution in model performance.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is a good question.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
9 answers
I have come to know that 5:1 ratio of NO3:NH4 makes the melon most sweet in hydroponics? But what about field crops? Here, Nitrate fertilizers are banned. So the only option for inorganic N source is Urea or DAP. From the internet, I have learned that, plant can only uptake N in nitrate form. In that case, Is there any difference if I cannot provide Nitrate fertilizers? Also, I am providing plants with mustard cake fertilizer and fish fertilizer to provide ready nitrates .
Relevant answer
Answer
Tomato blossion end rot increases under ammonium fertilization it is related to boron calcium deficiency.
Boron can be deficient in many global soil situations and the boron content optimized by address acid soil aluminum toxicity.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
7 answers
I recently demonstrated an industrial sized horizontal centrifuge at a food manufacturing plant on their waste coming from their wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  The WWTP plant manager now wants to know what the BOD coming from the centrate off the centrifuge, back to the WWTP would be.  We did not measure BOD or COD at the time but only total suspended solids (TSS mg/l) in the centrate going back to the WWTP.  Is there a way to maybe correlate the BOD from the information gathered from the influent coming from the manufacturing side to the WWTP, if the TSS and BOD were recorded, to our centrate TSS? 
Relevant answer
Answer
In fact there is no direct relation between TSS and BOD. However, some sense is also required based on the type of your waste water (domestic or industrial, or from commercial buildings ) or grey water, taking into consideration the level of treatment. For example after secondary treatment, BOD would be greater than the TSS as the major BOD is coming from dissolved proteins, sugars, and other dissolved organic matter.
Best regards,
Dr. Samir Alnahhal
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
We know the beneficial effects of residue retention in soil. But both the system ( residue in surface and residue incorporated) have some pros and cons, in the point of GHG emission which one is sustainable.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes! returning the residues to the soils is very vital to improve the levels of soil organic matter since inherent OM is influenced by C addition and decomposition rate. When I came to your question incorporating plant residues into the soils can aggravate the decomposition process and thus, C in the form of carbon dioxide will escape to the surrounding environment therefore surface retention is more suitable to minimize GHG emission.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
For example, total acidity decreased from 1.15 to 0.8 cmol∙kg-1 after 30 days and even less after 60 and 90 days. Exchangeable Al content dropped from 1.02 to 0.4-0.6 cmol∙kg-1 during incubation, that is more than 50%. At the same time, exchangeable H demonstrated 2-3-fold increase. CEC showed about 25% decrease.
Relevant answer
Answer
Your explanation is insufficient for any observation. Request you to be a little more elaborate on your experiment.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
7 answers
I am trying to minimize single use plastics and waste creation in soil sampling fieldwork/laboratory analysis!
Can anyone share some tips for setting up research projects to be low to zero waste? Any resources? Successes?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Anna,
The link below leads you to a project emerging a promising solution in mitigating the accumulation of plastics in the environment. You may also follow the works of the project coordinator.
I hope this helps you to persuade your scientific goal.
Best, Elaheh
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
12 answers
We are trying to get the best compression and consolidation in making Compressed Earth Blocks. Any suggestions on how to optimise the soil composition to get best packing density will be most appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Clay loam soil. Theoretically, for maximum compaction there should be an equal proportion of sand, silt and clay fraction, i.e. 33 per cent each. But in nature, it hardly happens. Therefore, try to have proportion within 10 per cent deviation among these fractions to have maximum compaction. Yes type of clay particularly, swelling type is also the factor which determine maximum compaction at given moisture content. Proctor moisture shall be used for achieving highest compaction. May contact further on vkphogat@gmail.com. thanks
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
Research on the growth and development of aloe vera, seeking to determine the optimum point of harvest.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi! do you have literature about the identification of leaves maturity in every branch?
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
8 answers
I have been working with melon TSS% level in Bangaldesh for four years. Here melon become very low in brix in soil plantation. I ahve tried many ways to improve ssc%. We do not have nitrate fertilizers available here. We have to use urea or DAP as a source of nitrogen. I believe, if I can use nitrates, it might change the result! This is why i am interested in making organic liquid fertilizers rich in nitrates. I am making mustard cake liquid fertilizer as well as fish fertilizer.Can I add nitrifying bacteria culture to the drums of those fertilizers to increase N?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yesterday, I attented in a seminer on the use of vermicompost and cowdung. The results showed that vermicompost was better both in rice field and vegetable crops.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
6 answers
How can I calculate lime requirement for increasing soil pH without Lab determine? or which methods are faster and easier than woodruff buffer solution?
Relevant answer
Answer
I'd recommend the answer of Salvatore S. Mangiafico
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
15 answers
Permissible limit of different metals in soil, with reference to Indian standard
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you, Dr. Frank T. Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
.
Relevant answer
Answer
To be frank, I believe the answer is relative to this issue. Only textbooks that I am familiar with or have come across can be recommended. However, you are the only one who knows what study areas you are passionate about.
Rather than relying on a single textbook, I believe you can find knowledge by searching online databases, books, journals, and other serial blocks using keywords from your research objectives.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
it is a model that is used by environmentalists and soil scientists in contaminant transport in soil
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Dr- Abhishek Raj for your response.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
3 answers
Hi all,
I am trying to find reference values on annual soil rhizodeposition rates for different kinds of forests, with a particular interest for tropical rainforests.
Do we have an idea of the amount of organic material deposited annually in the soil for this kind of ecosystems?
I am doing a literature search in parallel and will share my findings in this post.
Feel free to contribute and to use this question as a data compilation nexus!
Best wishes,
Thomas
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
9 answers
We begin an experiment with availability of some compounds from soil and we need to buy some standardized clay soil. Is here anybody to help us?
Relevant answer
Answer
Depending on your specific application, I would recommend mixing your own standard soil using kaolite and/or activated carbon as a base. I would especially recommend kaolite (chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4) as it is widely commercially available available either as 'kaolin clay' or 'china clay'. Both kaolite and activated carbon is used in many industrial processes and can be purchased in various sample sizes. Activated carbon is often used I use kaolin clay and activated carbon in standardized soil samples for this reason, and that the particle size range is very well defined in many commercial products.
Below I have included some useful links if you want to investigate further.
(1) Signa-Aldrich Product Comparison Guide for Kaolin
(2) Signa-Aldrich Product Comparison Guide for activated charcoal (often used synonymous with activated carbon)
(3) Open-access article on the chemical composition and particles size of kaolin by Yahaya et. al. (2017)
(4) Open-access article that disusses the adsorption properties of activated carbon by Long et. al. (2017)
Alternatively, if you require a very specific particle ranges and purities, I would recommend silica nanoparticles (SiO2). Silica is can be synthesized in a lab, but are also widely commercially available.
I hope this information can support you in answering your question.
Good luck with your project!
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
15 answers
Please recommend me the best possible source from where I can get expertise in GIS and RS. Specifically for Soil Science graduates.
Relevant answer
Answer
Interested
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
Soil fertility, plant nutrition
Relevant answer
Answer
Experts have already answered the question However,
Ni addition stimulates the methane content of biogas, while excessive addition of Ni causes inhibition of methanogenesis.
Thanks and regards
Srinivas Kasulla
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
41 answers
Please RG members discuss it or any solution of recognig predatory journals...
Relevant answer
Answer
6 ways to spot a Predatory Journal:
1. Always check the website thoroughly
2. Check if the journal is a member of DOAJ, COPE, OASPA or STM
3. Check the journal’s contact information
4. Research the editorial board
5. Take a look at their peer review process and publication timelines
6. Read through past issues of the journal
source:
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
22 answers
Forestry, Agro-Forestry, Agronomy, Soil Science
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Dr. Craig for sharing experiences of grassland ecosystem of desert, USA. You have rightly said earning from grassland through carbon credit. Factually in the India desert, grassland is dwindling due to the rising population demand better livelihood, quality produce and the land for infrastructure and industry.
Therefore we have proposed site specific alternate land uses. It consists of energy plantations on the dunes together with horticulture and dry farming in the inter-dunal plains. It has the dual purpose. On one hand the system preserves the ecosystem services by restricting wind erosion and enriching soil through carbon sequestration.On the other hand it provides better income to the desert dwellers through horticulture and dry farming. It also supports animal husbandry and rearing of small ruminant. Additional earning could be possible through carbon credit from non-arable land. Thus articulating the land use depending upon the local socio-economic condition is the basic idea for conceptualizing sustainable agriculture consisting of selecting land uses and management practices suitable to a specific site. As it is pointed out in my previous reply in the present discussion.
Your second observation regarding carbon in the sub-soils also has the great merit. We also have the similar kind of experience in the Indian desert, concealing the impressions of episodes of climate change in the past. I have mentioned some of them while discussing the topic on climate change.
These are the few points perhaps, it will help you in articulating the study on carbon sequestration in future
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
12 answers
Almost all the literature shows that the vertical distributions of soil organic carbon (SOC) & available nitrogen (N) is found decreasing with increased value of bulk density with respect to depth and all those values show uniformity in each layer of 20 cm and up to 1m depth, increasing or decreasing of such values are uniformly distributed for the soil samples found in the literature, is that uniformity maintained at every where, soil layer of the mother earth is so unique and maintain such identical uniformity, though I am waiting for the report for the values of distribution of these chemical parameters from the soil test laboratory, if the obtained values are uniformly distributed with depth, it will be really unique and identical.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gautam,
In the case of this discussion, I am totally in agreement with the statements and thoughts of Shubham. He explained the issue as well. I am specifically a soil ecologist and zoologist and I am also concerned about issues related to physical and chemical properties of soil. Thank you for your precision. Good luck.
Best, Elaheh
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
12 answers
What is the main differences between soil, land and earth?
Relevant answer
Answer
Earth: is our home, and the only place we know of so far in which living things are inhabited. It is the only known planet to have an atmosphere that contains free oxygen, surface oceans of water, and, of course, life.
Land: it belongs to earth that is not filled with water.
Soil: is the 3-D natural body, composed of organic and Inorganic constituent, formed after alteration of various soil formation processes, provides support for microbial and plant growth.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
8 answers
It would envisage communication between soil science and other disciplines on the one hand, and farmers, foresters, industrialists, artisans, traders and local residents on the other.
Relevant answer
Answer
the topography is a good scale I think
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
21 answers
Please If one can let know the soil taxonomy for vindhyan region falling in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Relevant answer
Answer
No such information is available based on geography. To get soil taxonomic information you may refer to already published literature on soils of your area. Otherwise get your soil examined by a pedologist. Good day!
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
20 answers
Sediment is relatively younger than the soil in the depositional environment as the sediments are consequence of the accretion of particles transported either by waters or by winds, whereas, soil profile is stable lacking any sort of movement. Soil profile is developed with time span which is a stable one, but the movement of the sediment particles developed those soil profiles in so many physiographic set up, are they (soils and Sediments) differed chemically, do they possess different chemical environment?
Relevant answer
Answer
yes its do it
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
Many researchers have given the values of OMC and MDD for bentonite based buffer materials corresponding to heavy compaction (higher compaction energy).
Relevant answer
Answer
In expansive soils, swelling increases with increasing dry density and decreasing moisture content. Therefore, standard compaction is better to be used for expansive soils to reduce swelling problem.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
Thanks in advance for your replies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dissolve it firstly in ethanol or acetone
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
Hi there, 
what is (are) the  benefit(s) of  drawing the zero air voids with the compaction curve(s)  ? 
Thank you  
Relevant answer
Answer
In compaction curve, the zero air void line which is a line of 100% degree of saturation drawn on the right side of the compaction curve without touching it. this line helps to check that the plotted compaction curve is correct.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
20 answers
I am doing some literature review to better understand the processes governing the biological fixation of nitrogen by non-symbiotic micro-organisms (associative, endophytic, free-living...).
I am not interested in symbiotic relations like legumes (which have their use), but rather to find solutions to promote this fixation throughout the cultivation (perhaps through composting?).
So it could be in the field or in a compost pile on the farm.
Could you share some insights?
Relevant answer
Answer
following
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
17 answers
I am looking for some good datasets related to land use and agricultural practices such as conventional and conservation agriculture and their contribution to soil erosion and health on global scale. Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
The use of terracing agrotechnology in the foothills prevents irrigation erosion.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
15 answers
More I am reading, more I am getting confused to define Soil Health ? So, What is Soil Health? And How you can categorize or classify lands based on soil health? Can you define soil health in quantity or index, lets say field A has soil health 6 and it can sustain for next 6 years or field B has soil health 4 and it will sustain next 4 years? What score is good or what score is bad and how to get the score?
So, How to define soil health and use it in classifying particular farm land ? How we can use soil health to define sustainability or vitality of a cropping land to host or sustain the ecosystem for year after year?
Relevant answer
Answer
Soil health, refer to quality of the soil, can be defined as the 'capacity of soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals, and humans'. This says about the importance of soils and should be sustainable for future generations.
Important quality of the soil is fertility.
The soil fauna such as earthworms, microbes etc. increase the fertility of the soils as well as indicators of the fertile soil. Both increase the aeration.
It cannot be estimated by number. Only pH of the soil can be indicate by the number.
Check the links you get useful information.
Soil health
Soil health
List of readings on soil healt
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
There is a growing interest in developing means of early detection of crop nutrient deficiencies. It has held that by the time a deficiency shows up in a soil sample, the crop is already under stress. Does crop sap analysis help to resolve this information gap? If so, how can we expand the use of this from high margin specialty crops to commodity crops?
Relevant answer
Answer
Leaf and petiole analysis is an established tool. Protocol for perennial crops have been standardized for nutrient analysis.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
5 answers
I have to isolate actinomycetes from soil, for which soil extract agar is required..It would helpful if a protocol is available to prepare soil extract. Not for soil extract agar
Relevant answer
Answer
I have attached some articles about preparing soil extract media.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
I am goin to collect soil samples for P. brassicae inoculum density quantification, however I am not sure why some articles say that those samples should be kept at 10ºC or -20ºC for no longer than two weeks, so I would like to know if I can keep my soil samples for longer and under which conditions before extract the soil DNA
Relevant answer
Answer
I recommend -80ºC for long term storage
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
16 answers
• When we apply granular basal fertiliser such as compounds fertiliser like Compound D in maize we apply it per plant using fertiliser cups. Usually we divide the amount of fertiliser in grams per hectare by the plant population to get the amount of fertiliser in grams per plant.
e.g. 300kg per hectare of compound D in a maize crop spaced at 75 cm inter-row and 25cm within the row 300 000g/53 333 plants = 5.6 grams per plant. If I wanted to conduct a maize experiment in a pot I would just apply this amount of fertiliser per pot.
• However I could weigh the soil that the pot can carry and do a simple proportion as follows assuming that a hectare furrow slice weighs 2 200 000 kg of soil as follows:
300 000g fertiliser →→ 2 200 000 kg soil
X g fertiliser →→ 10 kg soil
= 1.36 grams per pot
In the first method a maize plant receives 5.6 grams whether it is growing in the field or in a pot with 2 kg soil or a pot with 10 kg soil. In the second method for a maize plant to receive the same amount of fertiliser as in the first method it has to be grown in a pot that carries 41 kg of soil. The amount of fertiliser increases with increase in pot size.
How can we reconcile this?? Which is the correct method for the determination of fertiliser per pot?
Relevant answer
Answer
In short, in pot culture, for attaining optimum plant growth the fertilizer requirements must be based on internal nutrient requirement of the plants rather than the weight of soil per pot or size of the pot. The approached is well tested and highly effective
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
25 answers
I have found controversy:
Soil water salinity can affect soil physical properties by causing fine particles to bind together into aggregates. This process is beneficial in terms of soil aeration, root penetration, and root growth. Increasing soil solution salinity has a positive effect on soil aggregation and stabilization.
Sodium has the opposite effect of salinity on soils. The primary physical processes associated with high sodium concentrations are soil dispersion and clay platelet and aggregate swelling. The forces that bind clay particles together are disrupted when too many large sodium ions come between them. When this separation occurs, the clay particles expand, causing swelling and soil dispersion. Soil dispersion causes clay particles to plug soil pores, resulting in reduced soil permeability.
So, could you please anyone clarify about this issue with mechanism.
Relevant answer
Answer
  1. Sodium has the opposite effect of salinity on soils. The primary physical processes associated with high sodium concentrations are soil dispersion and clay platelet and aggregate swelling. The forces that bind clay particles together are disrupted when too many large sodium ions come between them. When this separation occurs, the clay particles expand, causing swelling and soil dispersion.
  2. Soil water salinity can affect soil physical properties by causing fine particles to bind together into aggregates. This process is known as flocculation and is beneficial in terms of soil aeration, root penetration, and root growth. Although increasing soil solution salinity has a positive effect on soil aggregation and stabilization, at high levels salinity can have negative and potentially lethal effects on plants. As a result, salinity cannot be increased to maintain soil structure without considering potential impacts on plant health. 
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
3 answers
Soil fertility management (SFM) is a prerequisit for resilent farming and agriculture and food systems. However, adoption of technologies remain rather poor in the context of African small-scale farmers. Our research aims to shed light on its causes.
We want to include basically factors from soil sciences, agronomy and agricultureal sciences, economics, communication sciences and sociology.
Relevant answer
The farmers' behaviour towards soil fertility management is influenced by following factors:
1. Level of awareness of farmers regarding importance of SFM in enhancing crop yields and in promoting eco-friendly cultivation.
2. Present level of nutrient status of soil
3. Type of crops and varieties under cultivation
4. Availability of locally recycled manures
5. Cost of nutrient fertilizer in the market and their accessibility.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
17 answers
Dear Sir/ Madam,
Greetings of the Day.
Hope you all are doing well. As a beginner I want to know the what are the recent development made by soil scientist in the 21st Century ? Specifically in the field of Soil Fertility, Soil Chemistry, Soil Microbiology. Out of which how efficiently such Novel practice adopted by farmers. Although its contemporary debate but as per your expertise and field experience please share your views.
Thanks in advance
With Regards
Hanuman Singh Jatav
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Jatav,
In the last decade or so, there have been remarkable advances in our knowledge of various topics in soil science. It is not possible to list all of them, so I will try to recall some based on what has been discussed in conferences, and what has been published in soil science journals. These include the fate and effects of antibiotics in soils, 4 per mile initiative, clay-organic matter interactions, soil change due to anthropogenic impact, biological soil health indicators, biochar effects on soil properties, soil variability at the aggregate and soil profile scales, use of non-invasive techniques for soil research, nano-fertilizers, temporal and spatial variability of soil properties, factors controlling nutrient availability in soils, the role of dust deposition on soil development, silicon dynamics in soils and ecosystems, pedometrics, pesticide transport in soil, indicators of soil development, the genesis of technosols, fate of heavy metals in soils, new methods of soil analysis, and many others.
Keep safe,
Victor Asio
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
30 answers
Soil pH
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Take 10 g of soil sample in 50 ml or 100 mL beaker (1:2.5 Soil water suspension ratio)
2. Add 20 or 25 mL of distilled water, stir well for about 5 minutes and keep for half an hour.
3. Again stir just before immersing the electrodes and take the pH reading by using pH meter.
NOTE: Prepare standard buffer solutions of 4.0, 7.0 and 9.2 in distilled water.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
54 answers
I was wondering which methods could be considered the best for a good assessment of soil pH.
Namely, which extraction (saturated soil paste; 1:1; 1:2 soil to water extractions) could be used without errors (and if they are convertable between each other) and also how and when to apply extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 or 1 M KCl.
In the particular case of 1 M KCl, this solution is also used to obtain the exchangeable acidity of the soil. As the name suggests, this extraction, in theory, should, if the soil has a large value of exchangeable acidity, have a lower (or even much lower) pH than an extraction with destilled water. 
On the other hand, pH measurement with 1 M KCl is recommended for better and faster results in the pH electrode.
Finally, should the soil solution be filtered or centrifuged prior to pH measurement? Some cite the use of 0.01 M CaCl2 as a method to increase soil flocculation and have a clearer supernatant but couldn't that be substituted with appropriate filtration / centrifugation?
Thank you so much for all your help and I apologize for the very extensive question.
Best regards.
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Take 10 g of soil sample in 50 ml or 100 mL beaker (1:2.5 Soil water suspension ratio)
2. Add 20 or 25 mL of distilled water, stir well for about 5 minutes and keep for half an hour.
3. Again stir just before immersing the electrodes and take the pH reading by using pH meter.
NOTE: Prepare standard buffer solutions of 4.0, 7.0 and 9.2 in distilled water.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
59 answers
For the analysis of soil organic carbon by WB method,I have used 1 g soil with 10 ml of 0.1667M K2Cr2O7 solution, 20 ml concentrated H2SO4,200 ml water for dilution,10 ml H3PO4,10 ml of NaF solution,diphenylamine as an indicator,0.5M FeSO4 solution as a titrant.
During dilution,different soil sample shows a variation in colour i.e. some are orange and some are dark green,but with the same end point of light greenish colour after titration.Why is this colour variation takes place in different soil samples,Is this not an appropriate procedure for soil organic carbon?
Relevant answer
Answer
1) Take 0.5 or 1.0 g 0.2 mm sieved soil sample into a 500 ml capacity conical flak.2) Add 10 ml of 1 N potassium dichromate solution and 20 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid, gently mixed and keep the contents for 1/2 hour.3) After 30 min, add 200 ml distilled water, 10 ml phosphoric acid, about 0.2 g NaF and 8 to 10 drops of diphenylamine indicator.4) Titrate the contents against the standard ferrous sulfate or ferrous ammonium sulfate till it becomes bright green in colour.5) Run a blank titration by following all the above steps without soil.6) After noting down the burette readings of both blank and sample titrations, calculate the organic carbon present in the soil using the following formula
  1. % OC = 10 x 1 (Blank value - T.V of sample) x 0.003 x 100 / Blank value x weight of soil (g)
  2. % OM = % OC x 1.724
  3. % N (Total) = % OC/10 or %OM/20
  4. NOTE: Before transferring 0.5 or 1 g soil sample into conical flask take about 2 g of 2 mm sieved air dry soil, grind and passed through a 0.2 mm sieve separately.....Thanking you...@
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
Beside lower pH levels, acid soils, in particular soils of coniferous forests, are characterized by the presence of metals in dissociated (thereby bioavailable) cationic form (aluminum, heavy metals), small organic molecules in undissociated (thereby bioavailable) form (e.g. phenolics, terpenes), the toxicity of which has been attested. All these features are shared by soils contaminated with heavy metals and/or hydrocarbons, known for their poor functional biodiversity and, as a consequence, the accumulation of undecayed organic matter, another feature they have in common with acid soils:
However, the pH of polluted soils is often much higher (around 3 pH units higher), among other reasons because these soils are to be found in or near human settlements, thus far from geological substrates prone to the development of acid soils (there are many exceptions to this rule, in particular in nordic countries). My idea was that organisms living in acid soils were pre-adapted (exaptation) to soil pollution, but were absent from these soils because of dispersal limitation, and thus could not contribute to the restoration of functional trophic links. This idea was reinforced by analysing the evolution of stress tolerance along phylogenetic trees, which demonstrated the ancestral nature of this trait among a springtail lineage:
Our attempts to inoculate acidophilic springtail communities in soils polluted with heavy metals failed to demonstrate this property:
Among other possible reasons invoked to explain the observed failure or incomplete success of the inoculation, an acidity (oxidative) shock was thought probable. This could be circumvented by allowing the soil community to be accustomed to a higher pH level before inoculating it to a polluted soil at neutral pH (as commonly observed). Unfortunately, researches were discontinued, and I retired a few years after. However, the research subject is still open to the scientific community. Catch as catch can...
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gabin, I am glad to see that the importance of the humus form and associated feedbacks becomes fully recognized in the assessment and remediation of pollution. Yes, you are right, if trace elements cannot be extracted from a polluted soil (e.g. through phytomining like this had been done in Chenobyl), we have to decrease their mobility. The addition of alkaline compounds, e.g. hydroxyapatite or basic slag is a solution, by increasing pH and precipitating metals, but we can also search for a biological treatment. My former view was to favour humification, in order to stabilize metals within humic assemblages, hence my idea of introducing saprophagous invertebrates thought to be tolerant to heavy metals like those living in soils at pH < 5. This was a complete failure because most of them were probably killed (or repelled) by neutral pH values. However, more experiments could be conducted by considering that tolerance to heavy metals is not necessarily related to life in acid soils. We know that there are areas where selection for heavy metal tolerance occurred for a long time and where we can probably find some organisms which could be introduced in more recently polluted areas in which they had not enough time to appear by natural selection of dispersal. In particular I am thinking of those areas where there are naturally anomalous high contents in cadmium. See for instance http://www.afes.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/EGS_6_2_BAIZE.pdf. What do you think of that? Best regards. JF
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
14 answers
There are several method for determining organic matter in soil such as black and walkley and Tyurin method. Among them which on gives the most reliable results?
Relevant answer
Answer
Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method (1934) is best method.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
34 answers
Some researchers found gypsum amendment is a way to reduce salinity, but it is not suitable for all types of soil. Some researcher reported that ash from rice straw and rice husk may mitigate soil salinity, someone oppose this findings. So, which amendments are better for saline soil?
Relevant answer
Answer
Organic amendment with rice straw, ash, husk etc. is better than inorganic amendment of saline soil. However, drainage system should be improved to drain out the soluble salts specially Na and Cl.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
4 answers
I would like to have silicic acid by passing sodium/potassium silicate through cation-exchange resin (Amberlite IR-120B, H+ form). Not sure about the procedure of this method. Should I wash the resin with HCL before passing the sample?
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Paul, he want to make colloidal silica, the main method is using cation exchange resin to remove sodium or potassium from sodium and potassium silicate.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
10 answers
I would like to evaluate the stock of carbon in the National park of Lobéké (Cameroon). And I did not get any protocol 
Relevant answer
Answer
The Walkley-Black method is best to estimated the organic carbon analysis in soil
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
23 answers
My research work is on application of biochar on soil fertility and soybean yield.
I performed RBD, 3 replication, 8 treatment experiment and studied soil properties, plant nutrients and soybean grain and biomass yield. Study area - different soil and rainfall zones in Maharashtra (western districts).
I wish to publish this work and searching for an Indian Journal
My PhD institute- Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, does not allow students to publish in paid journals. Most of the Indian journals related to agriculture require payment of publication fees. Some of them require on acceptance, some of them require for submission.
Can you please suggest journals which does not have such requirement?
Relevant answer
Answer
Indian journal of Agricultural Sciences
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
12 answers
I was given an opportunity a few months back to reflect upon the status of the research on soils, and this resulted in two papers, which are being published by the European Journal of Soil Science. You can gain access to them here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/13652389/0/ja. As you will see, my assessment is that there is currently a tendency by some to "bypass" older literature and also to overestimate the significance of research results, way beyond what would be reasonable. Hopefully, these two papers, which complement each other (one is a factual review, and the other is a personal perspective on causes and possible solutions), will lead to a healthy debate on what we need to do to get the research on soils on a more reasonable track.
I would be happy to hear your comments.
Philippe
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi David,
I sympathise with those who do not have access through their institution. I will send a preprint to whoever requests it via e-mail, and I will do the same later when the paper is published. You and I remember a time when we would send "Reprint request cards" in the snail mail to get reprints. I must have sent thousands back in the days... As to the open access journals you mention, I don't have the thousands of euros or dollars they require for publication. At EJSS, it would have cost me around 7000 dollars (!!!!!) to make these two articles accessible to everyone. I think that something is definitely broken with scientific publishing. I used to think that open access was a solution, but I found recently that, there as well, publishing is a way for some people to put tons of money into their (deep) pockets. No different than at Elsevier, Springer, and the other highway robbers. We need research institutions and universities to finally invest in a truly non-profit, open access publishing enterprise, so that the public does not pay twice for the research it needs.
  • asked a question related to Soil Science
Question
60 answers
Many investigators well documented that the bio-control agent Trichoderma spp. has the potential to induce growth response in treated plants due to stimulation to release nutrients in soil, which enhance the plant growth.