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Soil Pollution - Science topic

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I would like to know: 1. researches and published papers about the probable pollution glass pieces make into the soil, and 2. the successful detection of glass pieces in municipal wastes before the process of compost production.
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Yes absolutely
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Nowadays microplastic pollution increases in soil, is there any chance microplastic is present in vermicompost obtained from decomposition/vermicomposting of organic waste?
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Yes, it can be present. As worms tunnel, they consume almost everything in their path, including microscopic plastic pollution.
Earthworms can be significant transport agents of microplastics in soils, incorporating this material into the soil, likely via casts, burrows, egestion, and adherence to the earthworm exterior (Rillig et al., 2017). However, in common sense, vermicomposting is the method of making compost (humus-like material known as vermin-compost) from biodegradable waste by using earthworms.
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Here I want to know the opinion of dear researchers about the role of soil micofauna in decomposing the microplastics in the soil system and also its relation to the role of meso- and macrofauna in the case of degrading the microplastics particles in the soil.
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Hi everyone,
I am trying to look for the maximum trace element concentrations that are allowed in soils in the USA. Do you know if such a regulation exist at the federal level?
Thank you immensely,
Xavier
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Of course, the EPA website (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
) will help you find what you are looking for.
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Hi. I have a dataset of 610 points with columns x and y and one more column for soil pollution weights. I want to use SVM to select the best places for monitoring soil contamination. Could I use SVM for this optimization problem? And if yes, How should I insert the x,y coordinates in the model.
Thank you for your response
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I am not an expert in the field BUT, the following link may help please:
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Hi
I want to know about the guideline values and limits related to heavy metals (e.g. As, Hg, Cd, Co, Pb, Ni,... ) in soil in different countries.
I would be glad if you share the information about it with me.
Thanks a lot.
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Yes, there are quite a few standards for different soils with regard to heavy metals. But , they need reoriented exercise in order to establish , since such heavy metal contamination is high varying in nature...and tolerance to crop response ..as an example
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Electric cars have been introduced world wide with the idea that there will be some decrease in carbon footprints along with decrease in air pollution. But we have to charge an electric car on regular basis. From where that energy will come, is a big question. Some countries have hydel power generation, and some have thermal energy, the other may have solar also.
Second question is about water, air and soil pollution? If we shifted from air pollution to water and/or soil pollution, we have the ability to handle such mega scale pollutions?
In the light of the above, what is your analysis and views?
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Hi. Mainly yes.
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Please explain how does surface mining (all the surface mining methods) causes soil pollution?
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Mining's impact on the environment is largely due to the physical damage on the landscape, and the production of a large volume of harmful wastes. Only a small fraction of the ore is valuable, the remaining large part is waste or tailings.
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Worldwide, Unplanned Industrial Growth is highly responsible for the deterioration of environmental health. With industrial activities, like, burning coal ,burning fossil fuels, unsustainable uses of various chemical solvents, improper disposal of solid, liquid and highly toxic wastes, are threatening environment badly. This Unsustainable practices are contaminating several natural resources , such as, air, water, and soil all over the world. We became familiar with these term,"Global warming climate change, wildlife extinction, biodiversity loss, sea-level rise etc." after the industrial evolution mainly. Development and proper management in industrial sector is keenly needed worldwide to ensure sustainability.
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Dear @Sumathi Malairajan, @karim omar, and @Zinah A. Alshefy,
Thank you for your valuable discussion.
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As an invited editor I invite those who wish to submit a paper in a special issue of Water (IF=2.54, Scopus, WoS) under the title "Geochemistry of Landscape and Soil" https://www.mdpi.com/journal/water/special_issues/geochemistry_landscape_soil?fbclid=IwAR3CnZxuiPWHsbv9KawJ1HEmq-sTIb1kul5-9vg-qCwRDi-pPzjt178LetE
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MDPI journals, 100s of them now, largely fall into the "predatory" journal category, promising editors of special issues that they do not have to deal with editing, since the journal does this. They do not have technical staff, just those who use an algorithm to choose reviewers and ask for a quick reply, then return these quickly to the author and accept whatever the author returns. A colleague reviewed one paper and requested major revisions; she saw the paper published a week later, none of her comments incorporated. This publisher is in business to publish lots of papers and make money on OA fees from most of them. Do your science a favor, and submit manuscripts to journals with serious reviewers and editors that will improve the quality of your research and the published papers.
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There are reports and complain on the non implementation of rulings of the courts and other dispute settlement bodies which are in favor of the local communities affected by these environmental pollution in the Niger Delta Nigeria. Does any one has any information on the above assertion. Whether in the form of book or Article, journal or caselaws.
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@ Olalekan Adekola, please I need a copy of these article "Adekola, O., Whanda, S., & Ogwu, F. (2012). Assessment of policies and legislation that affect management of wetlands in Nigeria. Wetlands, 32(4), 665-677" It is not free online.
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Beside lower pH levels, acid soils, in particular soils of coniferous forests, are characterized by the presence of metals in dissociated (thereby bioavailable) cationic form (aluminum, heavy metals), small organic molecules in undissociated (thereby bioavailable) form (e.g. phenolics, terpenes), the toxicity of which has been attested. All these features are shared by soils contaminated with heavy metals and/or hydrocarbons, known for their poor functional biodiversity and, as a consequence, the accumulation of undecayed organic matter, another feature they have in common with acid soils:
However, the pH of polluted soils is often much higher (around 3 pH units higher), among other reasons because these soils are to be found in or near human settlements, thus far from geological substrates prone to the development of acid soils (there are many exceptions to this rule, in particular in nordic countries). My idea was that organisms living in acid soils were pre-adapted (exaptation) to soil pollution, but were absent from these soils because of dispersal limitation, and thus could not contribute to the restoration of functional trophic links. This idea was reinforced by analysing the evolution of stress tolerance along phylogenetic trees, which demonstrated the ancestral nature of this trait among a springtail lineage:
Our attempts to inoculate acidophilic springtail communities in soils polluted with heavy metals failed to demonstrate this property:
Among other possible reasons invoked to explain the observed failure or incomplete success of the inoculation, an acidity (oxidative) shock was thought probable. This could be circumvented by allowing the soil community to be accustomed to a higher pH level before inoculating it to a polluted soil at neutral pH (as commonly observed). Unfortunately, researches were discontinued, and I retired a few years after. However, the research subject is still open to the scientific community. Catch as catch can...
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Dear Gabin, I am glad to see that the importance of the humus form and associated feedbacks becomes fully recognized in the assessment and remediation of pollution. Yes, you are right, if trace elements cannot be extracted from a polluted soil (e.g. through phytomining like this had been done in Chenobyl), we have to decrease their mobility. The addition of alkaline compounds, e.g. hydroxyapatite or basic slag is a solution, by increasing pH and precipitating metals, but we can also search for a biological treatment. My former view was to favour humification, in order to stabilize metals within humic assemblages, hence my idea of introducing saprophagous invertebrates thought to be tolerant to heavy metals like those living in soils at pH < 5. This was a complete failure because most of them were probably killed (or repelled) by neutral pH values. However, more experiments could be conducted by considering that tolerance to heavy metals is not necessarily related to life in acid soils. We know that there are areas where selection for heavy metal tolerance occurred for a long time and where we can probably find some organisms which could be introduced in more recently polluted areas in which they had not enough time to appear by natural selection of dispersal. In particular I am thinking of those areas where there are naturally anomalous high contents in cadmium. See for instance http://www.afes.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/EGS_6_2_BAIZE.pdf. What do you think of that? Best regards. JF
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There are several method for determining organic matter in soil such as black and walkley and Tyurin method. Among them which on gives the most reliable results?
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Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method (1934) is best method.
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Can anyone suggest the detailed procedure for pollution load index for sediments, and similar index methods?
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The pollution load index (PLI) was defined by Tomlinson et al. (1980), as a geometric mean. It is defined from the concentration of heavy metals and corrresponding background values. For details, you can consult, for example: Science of the Total Environment 700: 134343. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134343; doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-1387-z ; doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.02.018
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With respect,
If we look at the increasing energy needs for different production, heating or cooling processes that can produce air, water or soil pollution, what technological solutions can be sustainable with renewable energy?
Thanks in advance!
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Hi Njegoš,
It really depends on the scenario for which the implementation of renewable alternatives is being evaluated. Such a scenario can be extremely variable between regions. The availability of renewable resources, temperature, rainfall, humidity, , current state of the energy matrix, legislation, population and land use in the region are just some of the conditions for the evaluation of the best renewable sources for a given location.
Sources that have traditionally been considered with low economic viability due to high installation costs, such as solar, have been the most favorable option in countries such as Malaysia, for example, when conducting hierarchical analyzes that consider a variety of decision criteria. AHP and FAHP for the evaluation of options in decision-making, among many other methodologies, are useful tools considering the multidimensional and variable nature of the conditions for implementing renewable energy sources.
J.
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What are the permissible limit of heavy metals in the soil, beyond which these become toxic to various life forms?
Please share some literature.
Thanks.
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Permissible limits can very easily be found in websites of FAO/WHO, EPA, EU etc.etc.
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nanomaterials used in soil pollution treatment
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Please have a look at this useful RG link and PDF attachment.
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I want to estimate the environmental costs of the soil pollution and degradation in an industrial area consisting of some refineries and petrochemical plants. soils and ground waters in some parts of my study area have polluted as a result of pipeline failures and leakage of oil and other chemicals. I' m looking for a good reference (preferably book) for economic cost estimation of pollution.
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I hope you will be getting required results with these references:
(1)Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World http://www.springer.com/series/11480
(2) Sustainable Agriculture Reviews
(3) Soil Pollution - An Emerging Threat to Agriculture
by: Jayanta K. Saha • Rajendiran Selladurai M. Vassanda Coumar • M.L. Dotaniya Samaresh Kundu • Ashok K. Patra
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The paddy soil is acidic.
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https://pubs.rsc.org › content › articlelanding
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Especially in metropolitan areas.
Which one has the highest impacting today?
Which heavy metal have the highest pollution rate in urban soils todays?
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Excellent question and answers, according to our team study in Iran: lead in water pipes , traffic intensity , residential wastes , vehicles and urban industries !
Please kindly see the attached article!
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Soil is an important source for heavy metals in crops and vegetables since the plants’ roots can absorb these pollutants from soil, and transfer them to seeds which through this can effect on humans, but what about soils in urban areas?
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Human Nutrient Supply from Soils
A mere 11 elements constitute 99.9% of the atoms in the human body. These are typically divided into major and minor elements. The four major elements, H, O, C, and N, make up approximately 99% of the human body, and seven minor elements, Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, and Cl, make up another 0.9% of the body (Combs 2005). Approximately 18 additional elements — called trace elements — are considered essential in small amounts to maintain human life. However, human health experts do not universally agree on the exact number and identity of these trace elements. Out of the approximately 29 elements considered essential for human life, 18 are either essential or beneficial to plants and are obtained from soil, and most of the other elements can be taken up from the soil by plants (Brevik 2013a).
Negative Health Effects
Heavy Metals
Exposure to heavy metals through soil contact is a major human health concern. Arsenic is a metalloid, but it is commonly grouped with the heavy metals. The heavy metals of greatest concern for human health include: As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn (Fergusson 1990). Heavy metals enter soils naturally through the weathering of rocks, but they have also been introduced into soils through human activity. Heavy metals are the by-products of mining ores, and they are present in mine spoils and in the immediate surroundings of metal processing plants. Heavy metals are released into soils from landfills that contain industrial and household wastes and from sewage sludge that comes from wastewater treatment plants. E-wastes, or wastes associated with electronic appliances, are an increasing source of Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, and Ni in the soil (Robinson 2009). Urban soils are particularly susceptible to significant accumulations of heavy metals from automobile exhaust, coal burning, erosion of metal structures, and refuse incineration. In agricultural settings, the use of fertilizers, manures, and pesticides has also contributed to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils (Senesi et al. 1999). Arsenic has been used in pesticides, and the build-up of arsenic in orchard soils is problematic since it may persist for decades (Walsh et al. 1977). The heavy metals with the most toxicity in humans, including Cd, Pb, Hg, and As, are those with no biological function that disrupt enzymatic activities commonly affecting the brain and kidneys (Hu 2002).
Organic Chemicals
Organic chemicals have been deposited into the soil both naturally and anthropogenically, and many of the organic chemicals deposited into the air and water eventually end up in the soil. Soil contamination with organic chemicals is a serious problem in all nations (Aelion 2009). A large amount of these organic chemicals come from the agricultural application of herbicides, insecticides, and nematicides (Figure 2). Soil pollution with organic chemicals is not limited to farming areas. Soils in urban areas are also polluted with organic chemicals as a result of industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration, and sewage and solid waste dumping (Leake et al. 2009). Both farming and urban areas have soil contamination that includes a complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals, and microorganisms caused by municipal and domestic septic system waste, farm animal waste, and other biowastes (Pettry et al. 1973). A more recent health concern includes pharmaceutical waste derived from antibiotics, hormones, and antiparasitic drugs used to treat humans and domestic animals (Albihn 2001).
The most common types of organic chemicals found in soil include polyhalogenated biphenyls, aromatic hydrocarbons, insecticides, herbicides, fossil fuels, and the by-products of fossil fuel combustion (Burgess 2013). These organic chemicals are highly diluted in the upper layers of the soil, and they form chemical mixtures used in reactions involving microorganisms. We have very little toxicological information about the health effects of these chemical mixtures (Carpenter et al. 2002). Studies of the health effects of low concentrations and mixtures of these chemicals in soil have been very limited (Feron et al. 2002). Due to the very long half-lives of many organic chemicals, they are referred to as "persistent organic pollutants." These persistent organic pollutants are organic chemicals that resist decomposition in the environment and bioaccumulate as they move up the food chain. An example of this is 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), which was shown to disrupt the hormonal systems of raptors (Vega et al. 2007).
Airborne Dust
Airborne dust can impact human health, especially when the particles are less than 10 microns in size (Monteil 2008). The main direct health effect of inhaled dust is irritation of the respiratory passages and diseases, such as lung cancer. However, airborne dust can carry additional materials, such as pathogens, harmful gases, organic chemicals, heavy metals, insects, pollen, and radioactive materials, that can cause other health problems (Bartos et al. 2009). Humans can breathe airborne dust containing toxicants into the lungs, where the toxicants may enter the bloodstream. Cultivation for agricultural production and deflation (wind erosion) from unpaved road and work sites and denuded fields can introduce dusts into the atmosphere. Airborne dust from Africa is a significant health concern for North American soils. Clouds of dust from the Sahara and Sahel deserts follow the trade winds across the Atlantic Ocean, and African dust has been linked to elevated levels of Hg, Se, and Pb in North American soils (Garrison et al. 2003). The number of asthma cases in the United States more than doubled between 1980 and 2000, and asthma rates have also increased in the Caribbean (Brevik 2013a). Airborne dust from Africa has been tentatively linked to increased asthma in North America (Monteil 2008).
Soil Pathogens Although most organisms found in soil are not harmful to humans, soil does serve as a home for many pathogenic organisms. Bacteria are the most abundant type of organism in soil, and they are found in every soil on Earth. Most fungi are saprophytes that absorb nutrients by aiding in the decomposition of dead organisms, but approximately 300 soil fungi species out of the more than 100,000 total fungi species are known to cause disease in humans (Bultman et al. 2005) (Figure 3). For example, the soil fungus Exserohilium rostratum was responsible for the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States (Brevik & Burgess 2013a). Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms. Most protozoa found in soil feed on bacteria and algae, but some cause human parasitic diseases such as diarrhea and amoebic dysentery (Brevik 2013a). Helminths are parasites that may inhabit the human intestines, lymph system, or other tissues. Diseases caused by helminths require a non-animal development site or reservoir for transmission, and the soil is a common development site. Billions of people are infected by helminths worldwide each year, with an estimated 130,000 deaths annually. Helminth infections generally occur through ingestion or skin penetration, and in most cases involve infection of the intestines (Bultman et al. 2005). The soil is not a natural reservoir for viruses, but viruses are known to survive in soil. Pathogenic viruses are usually introduced into soil through human septic or sewage waste. Viruses that cause conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, polio, aseptic meningitis, or smallpox have all been found in soil (Hamilton et al. 2007; Bultman et al. 2005).
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The physical and chemical properties,
Toxicity,
Impacts on human, animals, plants, soils, waters, ...
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Well, According to WHO, 2011
Guideline value; 0.02 mg/l (20 µg/l) Occurrence; Concentrations in groundwater less than 0.001 µg/l; concentrations in surface water less than 0.2 µg/l; concentrations in drinking-water appear to be less than 5 µg/l .
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) 6 µg/kg body weight, based on a NOAEL of 6.0 mg/kg body weight per day for decreased body weight gain and reduced food and water intake in a 90-day study in which rats were administered potassium antimony tartrate in drinking-water, using an uncertainty factor of 1000 (100 for interspecies and intraspecies variation, 10 for the short duration of the study).
Regards
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  1. I have studies 15 water samples for the period of 24 months for 8 Metals and 7 physicochemical parameters.
  2. Similarly I have studied 15 soil samples before monsoon and after monsoon for 8 Metals and 7 physicochemical parameters.
  3. Please suggest me the statistical tests for the water analysis and soil analysis
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Kindly go through the attached file. Here you get your expected answer, here methodology is fulfill your demand.
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My understanding for a documentary I watched a while ago is that vegetables/crops grown in polluted soil have higher concentrations of toxins.
I know of a farmer who sells carrots grown on his farm that is in the vicinity of iron ore mines. the soil and water in the area is known to be polluted. How safe are these vegetables? Are there any publications / research papers on this topic?
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Some countries who are using treated waste water for irrigation obligate the farmers not to use such type of water to irrigate vegetables that its edible parts not to be in direct content with irrigation water (tubers, root vegetables ect.) . this is to reduce the contamination with microorganisms. but heavy metals are not avoidable if the soil is already contaminated with it.
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We measure heavy metals in each and every thing and compared it with standard Guidelines. If the total concentration in water, soil or crop is high, straight away we declared that as hazardous and recommend treatment. For example Chromium is present in the environment in several forms. Chromium III (Cr III) and Chromium VI (Cr VI) are common forms. Cr III is comparatvely safe, while Cr VI is hazardous. We discuss this irrespectively of it's oxidation state. The same is the case with other heavy metals also. If look into the present status of research, every thing is hazardous.
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Sometimes in aquatic deposits a giant amounts of organic forms of metals are stored (like in large reservoirs or lakes). Actually no any reason or just a possibility to move them as they are immobilized. But it appear danger if environment change into acidic pH. As well we know that the most toxic are Hg and Cd. As well eg Fe presence can decrease a bad influence of previous two. So, the question isn't so simple!
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Dear Colleagues: FAO/GSP has launched a survey on soil pollution for the Assessment of the global status and regional trends of soil pollution, please fill it up and feel free to share it. This will be a first step to coordinated efforts for risk mitigation, remediation and will contribute to achieve several of the sustainability development goals.
Deadline to fill up the survey is 10 May 2019
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Yes, pollution is a critical problem today.
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In the last few years, Nano-fertilizers are increasingly been used as alternates to the conventional fertilizers. However, what about the environmental hazards and soil pollution? Are they safe
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Have look the following link
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Krishna
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A first step to remediating soil pollution is for us to aware of it, mapping the sources and understanding the possible paths of pollution and the dynamic in the ecosystem. In order to make the mapping of soil pollution, it would be necessary to check the contamination levels. However many countries in the developing world do not count with all the instrumentation and techniques. It is clear to me that pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, macro and micro components, hydrology conditions, type of soil, OM %, etc would allow knowing the conditions in which the pollutants would be metabolized and ultimately present toxicity.
My question is limited to your own experience and your own country. What seems to be the most important soil pollutants for which to be a concern (namely POPs, harmful metal/metaloid chemical species, microorganisms, etc), which techniques and instrumentation would be recommended?
Reporting content that is normalized or not? bio available content? etc. What are your ideas in this respect?
For instance, would GC-MS be capable to identify and quantify POPs of your concern? which software do you use on your own facilities to model this pollutant?. What about ICP or AA for metal/metaloid conc? Do you use some kits for this instead?. Do you use a soil Standard Reference Material?.
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Vit Mateju , Nafees Mohammad, Mahmood M. Barbooti , Omar Ali Al-Khashman Mala Babagana Gutti and @ thanks very much for your reply, thinking on your countries of origen, would you agree with William McMinn that :
  • "A basic minimum would be Soil fraction OM, silt/clay content, Hg, Cd, Cr (3 + 6), Ni, (phytotoxicity Zn, Cu) , Pb with speciated PAH's or to recuce costs simply look at BaP ehich accounts for 96.8% of the toxicity for the whole group of PAH (unpublished work by Health Protection Agency UK 2003). Cation exchange capacity would also be useful.
  • Effectively you could apply the regional risk apprroach as outlined in REACH"
?
On the other hand, regarding about what to measure?, the remediation work would be to safeguard the ecosystem and therefore it would be important to measure Bioavailability and model the possible flow in the system, otherwise the toxicity and risk assestment wont be realistic. Moreover, even when toxic substances are on the natural level for a region, that does not mean they are not a danger.
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Hi !
Can anyone provide me any insight about availability of published/open access data of soil heavy metal/ trace element concentration with the GPS location? We are developing a model and need a good amount of spatial data to test the model.
However, it will be extremely helpful if any researcher/individual/ research group is having such data with them and is ready to share it with us for the above purpose. We will be citing the paper with due acknowledgement for the help extended.
For any further details please feel free to drop a message.
** N.B. : Data with concentrations above the permissible limit will be of much help.
Thanks in advance.
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@Kajori Parial.....A colleague of mine has a day like that in Ghana. You can contact him on daikins@umat.edu.gh
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I am working on waste water and soil pollution. Is there any good open source software from where I can simulate my given conditions and it's aftereffects.
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For air pollution, AERMOD from the USEPA is widely used, however, it has a high learning curve. SWAT also from the USEPA could be used for soil and water assessments, but again has a high learning curve. I appreciate that you want to try and consider several complex pollutants (maybe consider a life cycle assessment, if this is the case) but possibly limiting your evaluation to a smaller set of pollutants may be a good place to start before selecting models.
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Dear all,
I would like to know how soil amendments (e.g., lime, wood ash, EDDS, EDTA) improve tree physiological parameters such as CAT, MDA, SOD when plants grow in contaminated soil. How these parameters help to improve metals accumulation in plants? How soil amendments improve metals accumulation in plants?
Thanks for your help.
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Do you mind sharing privately with me please?
Thanks
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There is define limit by any Gov. body in India for (Nutrient, Metal, pH etc.)in soil to reference of soil/environmental pollution. How we can define the soil is polluted or not ?
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Oh my dear Dr Prem Baboo very satisfactory answer and also in detail. I fully agree with you, Sir
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I'd like to know if there are studies about mitigation of lung diseases asociated to anaerobic digestion technologies.
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Prevention is better than cure and here the role of Environmental Scientists/managers to prevent the health hazards by introducing the appropriate technologies for cleanup. By this way Anaerobic digestion is helpful for decontaminating the environment and breaking the chain of disease. Conclusively it will help to minimize the risk of disease. I am also curious about to know if any other direct linkage in between.
Thanks and regards
Dr Shankhwar
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The balance fertilization is the key for sustaining the good soil health.
In spite of other regions of India like western, eastern and southern region, north Indian agriculture is more dependent on Urea only, which destroying their soil health as well as physical health of the people of that region. If you see NPK Utilization ratio of the all northern states are very abrupt-ed than normal, scientist are only writing paper and alarming about this situation, which is bad for soil health and human health of the region. But what is the boundary limit where government should start action to protect such bad situation, no state government are showing willingness to control the situation, until in future it become disaster for the society and soil.         
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The pressure on Indo-Gangetic plain is huge in reference to the National production of the rice and wheat. Majority of the farmers applying N in huge quantity with some P and K. Huge removal of nutrients in rice - wheat system leads continuous break down of organic matter both native and what ever is added not only for the need of N but, for other elements also . The loss of organic matter resulting loss of soil health.
Secondly the time has come to rethink whether Punjab and Haryana to continue with rice cultivation. Are these areas niche for rice. Huge planning and implementations required to regroup the crops according to their geographical niches. This may and will evade the soil health problems with time.
No doubt at one time it was the need of the country. Now the needs are soil health, environmental factors etc. Blaming N nutrition not going to solve soil health problems.
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In addition to clean up soil pollutants from the earth, I would like to learn plant species effective for air pollution and irrigation water.
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My team is leading some experiments with high biomass producing crops for heavy metal phytoremediation from soils. Some cover crops such velvet bean and hyacinth bean are good for Pb and Cd phytoextraction.
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Various researchers are suggesting biochar treatment for soil, contaminated with heavy metals. Biochar got the ability to adsorb heavy metals and make it unavailable for plant. But for how long biochar can hold heavy metals?
How someone will come to know that a soil need biochar treatment?
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Nice responses from Farhad....
How biochar treatment to soil will demotivate plants to accumulate heavy metals , unless heavy metal accumulating plants ( bioaccumulators) are tested in such contaminated soils....There is no doubt about the recalcitrance of the biochar , regardless of nature of feedstocks used...
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Different approaches have been used or developed to mitigate/reclaim the heavy metal polluted soils and waters including the landfill/damping sites and industrial effluent. Among these phytoremediation has got popularity due to low cost.
Different researchers suggests different plants for different heavy metals under the concept of phytoremediation. It is true that plant uptake heavy metals and make it part of its body. That plant or part of it is disposed off somewhere. But heavy metals will remain is heavy metals and transfer from one place into another. So where is mitigation?
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If you see the philosophy of treatment of waste, we are only changing the form of pollution.
It can not be completely treated. Wastewater is treated, sludge is produced, land pollution is created. Air pollutants are absorbed, water pollution is created. Solid waste are scientifically burnt air pollution is created and so on..
Similar is the case in Phyto- remediation the phyto- accumulation helps saying that heavy metals are reduced.
The treatment technology is basically pollution transformation process.
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Heavy use of copper based fungicides is a big source of soil copper contents. Uptake by plant is generally linked with pH and presence or absence of some micronutrients, such as Zinc, molybdenum. Some researchers suggest use of lime for tuning copper uptake. Question arises, what should be minimum and maximum copper level? When treatment, may be in the form of other micro nutrients, lime or other form of alkalinity is required to discourage its unwanted uptake?
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Adjustment in soil pH is one of the most prudent ways to ensure optimum availability of copper and uptake thereon...
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Are there soil pore water screening values (for the protection of soil ecosystems) available for major ions and trace elements? Screening values seem to be solely based on total concentrations. However, I only have dissolved fraction data available. Thanks!
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You may have a look of the Ph.D. thesis by Di Bonito, Marcello (2005). Trace elements in soil pore water; a comparison of sampling methods. University of Nottingham.
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I am wondering who could I deal with root characteristics especially when it comes to scrutinizing Iron plaques covering roots surface since it's still unclear whether it has the capacity to manage heavy metals acquisition/ uptake and which mechanisms are involved in the process? Who can we go through evaluating such phenomenon in wetland plants?
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Please refer to the following article:
Roles for root iron plaque in sequestration and uptake of heavy metals and metalloids in aquatic and wetland plants
Rudra D. Tripathi,*a  Preeti Tripathi,a  Sanjay Dwivedi,a  Amit Kumar,a  Aradhana Mishra,a  Puneet S. Chauhan,a  Gareth J. Norton*b  and  Chandra S. Nautiyal*a 
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Hello,
I just read about your project that I find amazing and absolutely interesting.
Do you have any plans for adding Chl a Fluorescence as a complementary technique for investigating heavy metal induced stress in plants/trees ?
Ronald
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Hello Dr. Ronald ...I am retired but style alive. Yes, there are some grasses, Brachypodium sp. , cariologically related with the cereals for human consumption (wheet , barley , corn). Would be very interesting to research their performance on heavy metal soils.
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Hello everyone, I want to know how can i be updated on the hot papers/articles in soil science, soil pollution,... any help i will appreciate 
Thanks a lot for your replies.
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AMs and abiotic stress tolerance another widely perused area of research.
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Global warming
Air pollution 
Water Pollution
Soil pollution
Noise pollution
Thermal pollution
Radioactive pollution
Water Scarcity
In my opinion, the higher technology the higher probability of environmental pollution. 
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I present to you below the role of companies working in the field of technology and their methods of reducing environmental pollution
Many technology companies have found that pollution reduction is required from a commercial perspective. Some have found that reducing pollution improves their image among the masses and saves money. Others have developed products or methods that are not dangerous to the environment in order to win consumer satisfaction, and others have developed pollution control systems because they believe that laws will force them to do so, sooner or later. Some companies limit pollution because the operators have preferred to do so.
Waste disposal in the past has been relatively cheap for most enterprises. Today, the authorized sites for waste disposal are rare and the costs of using them have increased. As a result, many institutions have created ways to produce as little waste as possible.
Pollution reduction, or elimination, is expected to be one of the fastest growing industries in the future. For example, some pollution management institutions have developed equipment to remove harmful fumes from chimneys. Vapors can be trapped using filters, or traps that use static electricity. Some institutions and manages recycling and energy conservation programs. Some other institutions are also helping to develop processes that reduce pollutants.
When the cost of eliminating pollution from current production methods is added to manufacturing costs, it is clear that the least polluting roads are economically preferable.
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environmental engineering ,environmental science, soil risk assessments,health risk assessment, chemistry
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Yes, i can possible in highly polluted soils.......
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This includes the soil pH, organic content and to check the metal contents like Fe, Mn etc. 
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If someone is having data related to anti-nutritional factor associated with various agriculture by-product and their concentration & permissible limit to be used as safe feed for fish, please share. 
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I think NRC (2011) could be a good tool to answer your question for plant and animal by-product produced from agriculture sector
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What makes a forest soil to have high levels of Potassium?
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Dear Abubkari,
When you say " soil K" which soil K type you are referring to?. The reason I raised this question is that in soil there are Five types of K which are: 1. Water soluble K, 2. Exchangeable K, 3. Slowly available K, 4. Unavailable K and 5. Total K. If you agree with this and if you question is related to plant available K,  you are referring to  the water soluble and exchangeable K. The water soluble K is very small and it is the amount of exchangeable K that determines the amount of K available to plants in the soil. As you said plant available or exchangeable K is high in the forest soils than soils of cultivated and agroforestry lands. I agree with most of the answers as to why high soil K in forest systems by scholars above. But one most important reason for high K content in forest soils is due to the fact that forest is a closed system where there is no loss of K by leaching, through crop harvest etc. Moreover, roots of trees in forest go deep soil profile and bring K to their system where it is released when their liters decompose which is not a character in cropping systems.  So these are additional reasons for high K content in soils of forests. 
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I am working on remediation of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW)-naphthenic acid (NAs) using wetlands. Part of the objectives for this work is predict the mechanism of NA removal using kinetic studies and to evaluate the feasibility of the method as a long-term remediation option and possibly adoption by policy makers based on the results and toxicity data
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We should know the current state of the site chemically and biologically and pathologically, by conducting scientific study, such as chemical biological analyses, and relevant experiments, among many others.  Based on regulatory science and engineering approaches, utilizing available data and newly found facts and data, we would be able to establish tentative measures to minimize harms and best available, new regulations, which will be effective in years to come.    
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Dear researchers/ profs/ Dr.,
I`m working on a project to extract the heavy metals from different soils and leaves of the various plantation in Kuala Lumpur- Malaysia. I already extracted the heavy metals from the soil by using modified BCR subsequential extraction procedure and aqua regia. My question now: Can I continue with the same procedure of total acid digestion (aqua regia) or should I follow another way?
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Dear Dr. Al-Doori
If the leaves have not so many fatty acids your method is the best, otherwise you should add  HClO4 and sometimes and the end of digestion after cooling add H2O2 too.
Please mention which plants , in this case it could be clear how to follow the method and which way is better and cheaper.
Best Regards
Parisa Ziarati
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I need it to assessment the sediment of heavy metal .
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I have found ucc value for Fe (from Rudnick & Gao 2004) is 4.09 wt%. but how can I convert it into mg/kg unit?
advance thanks for response and precious time.
kind regards.
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Saif ultimate lelan
4.o9% = 4.09 Gm  Fe  in  100 Gm  crust
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Effect of heavy metal lick Zinc, copper and iron on pathogenicity of plants fungal pathogens
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I have no study in this project.
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In my previous works I use a local standard limit for heavy metal contamination in soil. But I search a generalized limit. Because recently I involve in a number of coal based power plant EIA projects, where it is very much important for my future projection. Thanks in advance for your help.  
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PI = Ci/ Si
In some paper of Portugal they used standard soil quality for portugal. I didn't find values for Italy.
Can I  find this values?
Thanks
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I CSC sono sparsi poi nei vari pareri ISS, citati poi in decreti specifici
es: parere ISS 23/06/2015-0018668 per PFAS nei suoli Veneti (non agricoli) PFOA-Suoli ad uso verde /residenziale CSC: 0,5 mg/kg
PFOA-Suoli ad uso industriale/commerciale CSC: 5 mg/kg
oppure in Dm Ambiente 12 febbraio 2015, n. 31
Regolamento recante criteri semplificati per la caratterizzazione, messa in sicurezza e bonifica dei punti vendita carburanti, sono citati CSC: Il limite proposto da Iss per MTBE ed ETBE nei suoli verde pubblico e residenziali è 10 mg/kg ss e per i suoli industriali è 250 mg/kg ss (Parere del 2001 n. 57058 IA/12).
** Il limite proposto da Iss per piombo tetraetile nei suoli verde pubblico e residenziali e' 0.01 mg/kg ss e nei suoli industriali è 0.068 mg/kg ss (Parere del 17 dicembre 2002 n. 49759 IA.12).
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We are still following very old chemical methods to distinguish the nutrients in soil and water. It consume lot of energy, chemicals, manpower and it also pollute the environment.   
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Here is some more information...
Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destructive quantification of soil properties, including nutrient levels, has been possible with optical diffuse
reflectance sensing. Another approach, electrochemical sensing based on ion-selective electrodes or ionselective field effect transistors, has been recognized as useful in real-time analysis because of its simplicity, portability, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte with a wide range ofsensitivity. Current sensor developments and related technologies that are applicable to the
measurement of soil macronutrients for SSCM are comprehensively reviewed. Examples of optical andelectrochemical sensors applied in soil analyses are given, while advantages and obstacles to theiradoption are discussed. It is proposed that on-the-go vehicle-based sensing systems have potential forefficiently and rapidly characterizing variability of soil macronutrients within a field. Source : Journal of Environmnetal Engineering .DOI: 10.1039/b906634a..PDF enclosed 
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I need literature to build soil quality index, intregating physicochemical and microbiological indicators.
Thank you
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Dear Dr. Srivastava
I agree with your view point. Basically, I think, this type of work must taken up by field staff in agriculture  
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I am collecting soil pollution indices, What can you recommend?
Thank you,
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I have developed two indices that are not using shale or mean crust values. You may see the attached two papers.
karbassi
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The Nemerow's pollution index is an excellent model that generally assesses the magnitude of pollution in the area by virtue of relative pollution indices within each site sampled. However, there are many factors that contribute to the pollution of an area. For example, the effect of heavy metal A may be different from the effect of heavy metal B due to that heavy metal A is more easily solubilized and recruited into the soil thus having a greater pollution factor on the soil. By this, heavy metal A has a greater percentage of effect than heavy metal B. Because of this, are there ways to improve on the Nemerow's pollution index in the aspect of determination of weighted factors? 
Our study is on mycoremediation by tropical, white rot fungi of heavy metal contaminated soil sites in Marilao, Bulacan. And, we're using the Nemerow's pollution index in order to assess soil pollution in the soil sites (samples). But, we are interested in knowing how to use Nemerow's pollution index in determining which specific heavy metal had the greatest pollutive effect on the soil. This will be essential for our results since we can be able to observe different affinities of fungi (as well as other responses) on different heavy metals. :) 
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The Nemerow pollution index (NPI) for a quality parameter (say, air quality or water quality) is the substance ratio relative to an acceptable value, so NPI ≤1 is acceptable.  This is ambiguous, however, for parameters such as pH that do not vary linearly.  Water pH, for example, may change as a result of acid rainfall, but the response of pH is logarithmic relative to the stressor (acid).  In addition, the acceptable pH value is close to neutrality (pH = 7.0), so the NPI value (ratio of actual pH to acceptable pH) is unsuitable because it would form a curve rather than a straight line as one approaches neutrality from (say) below, and proceeds to values in excess of 7.0.
When one addresses multiple pollutants, a ratio is calculated for each pollutant.  An acceptable quality index, then, is achieved when the sum of all NPI values also is less than unity (NPI ≤1).  This would seem to represent a neutral weighting, or non-weighting, of individual pollutants.  One might infer that an exceedance of unity for zinc is just as 'bad' as an equal exceedance of unity for lead (Pb), but this depends entirely on the particular health effects that each pollutant might case.  The NPI is not entirely unweighted, however, because the acceptability values are (or should be!) higher for less toxic substances than for more toxic substances.
To improve the NPI, I have two suggestions.  The first is simply to improve the acceptability values.  Many highly toxic substances (example, perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA) may lack acceptability values, or have inappropriately permissive values, or unenforceable guidance values.  A water quality index based upon an inappropriate acceptability value will be unreliable:  garbage in, garbage out.
My second suggestion is related to the first.  Specifically, one might apply acceptability values that relate to specific health effects, so that (say) drinking water quality might be judged relative to a particular health effect of interest.  That is, drinking water with too much lead (Pb) might pose neurological risks, but not cancer risks.  This strategy is standard in toxicological health risk assessment, in which a hazard quotient (HQ) value is calculated via an exposure level divided by an acceptability level.
When multiple stressors are being considered, each has an HQ value, and the sum of the values is the Hazard Index (HI), which is likewise acceptable if less than unity (HI ≤1).  Separate HI values may be calculated for separate health effects.  Standard setting for individual substances, of course, focuses (or should focus!) on the 'critical effect', that is, the health effect (among many) that can occur at the lowest exposure level.  Standards then are set based upon that critical health effect, with safety and uncertainty factors added as appropriate to the available database.
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Are there any papers which show how one can feasibly "inject" metals into a soil area to imitate a metal contaminated site?
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I would suggest you check with environmental agency in your country, you may need permits, permission.  I would start small with a self-contained system, such as a 100 gallon heavy plastic cattle trough, or perhaps smaller, so you can control inputs to soil and collect water leaving through the drain in bottom.  If you were planning on doing this with hazardous or toxic materials on a real site without containment controls and groundwater protection, I would suggest a plan of operation, monitoring, permit review and acceptance by responsible agency or licenced engineer, and a heafty performance bond if hazardous waste cleanup ibecomes necessary or performance is unsatisfactory.  As a student, researcher or individual, you need to protect yourself too relative to your added liability or potential for accidents, injury, etc. and make sure you have ample hazardous material training consistent with proposal..
There may already be some contaminated sites or industries with heavy metal issues where you could get involved, and they may train and pay you to help them try to remediate the pollution and collect data for reporting.  Unless you are exceptionally successful and accomplished, remediation on a field site of your own making may take years, difficult to predict funding demands, so be sure you, supervisor, University or Company are able to make the necessary committment.  If you could talk to or see a solid waste or wastewater treatment plan in your country, and/or talk with environmental agency, they may give you some added insights to consider.
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I am looking for a reference or the raw data for any chemical characterization of Lufa Speyer soils (in particular Lufa 2.4) other than the particle size distribution provided by the supplier. I am looking for the elemental composition of the soils, trace metal distributions and description of any other parameters which might be useful in modeling the fate of contaminants in these soils. Many thanks
Rich
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Standard soils are used especially for permission studies according to GLP (Good Laboratory Practice) investigating leaching, degradation and metabolism, influence on soil microflora and fauna, adsorption/desorption characteristics of pesticides in soils as well as for pot experiments and other investigations in the laboratory and in the field. In guidelines of the German JKI (Julis-Kühn-Institut) and other relating guidelines (OECD) soils with certain characteristics are recommended. Standard soils are also used in very different experiments not concerning pesticides.
For these purposes LUFA Speyer offers Standard soil types differing especially in their organic matter content, particle size distribution and pH-value.
Analyses Data Sheet for Standard Soils according to GLP:http://www.lufa-speyer.de/images/stories/2016-STB-Bo-data_sheet.pdf
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Especially for Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Co, Cd, Cr and Al elements that can be used to calculate different parameters for quantification of soil pollution. 
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Look on Page 500 at the bottom of first column in (Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia)
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I want to calculate heavy metal Enrichment factor in plants growing at a contaminated site. I have calculated the different metal concentration in soil and roots/shoots of plants growing at different places. Should I calculate different EF for each plant at different places of contaminated site or should i make a composite sample of a particular plant and then to calculate a single EF?
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The average data may be of no use. The absorption of each metal may be from a different mechanism.
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I have questions a bout remote sensing of oil pollution of the soil,does anyone have any information that can help me?i would really appreciate for any help.
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 Hi A.J Jirehnejadian,
please search your subject into following book: 
"Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation , 7th Edition" Thomas Lillesand, Ralph W. Kiefer, Jonathan Chipman
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How to make 50 mg/kg lead concentration from lead nitrate in soil.
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Is product purity not indicated on the product bottle ? At near 100% purity, the mass-percentage of Pb in PbNO3 = 207 / (207+14+3x16) since the molecular weight of Lead (Pb) = 207, that of Nitrogen (N) = 14 and that of Oyxgen (O) = 16. This implies that in 1 kg of PbNO3, 76,95% consists out of Lead
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Re-sodification is a growing concern in the areas where sodic soil reclamation
took place before 2-3 decades in India. Your comments on possible causes of  re-sodification and concerted research efforts made to avoid it, are invited.
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Dear Vasu,
                  Rain-fed agriculture is the only option in SAT clay rich soils that include red and black soils. In such soils  under SAT environment use of ground water often create sodicity in soils. Such examples lie in SAT Maharashtra and the then Andhra Pradesh. It is  very difficult to convince SAT farmers for any conservation method that requires time because they need  quick  good return of their investments to run the livelihood. Use of irrigation  water is partially tenable if such clay soils contain soil modifiers like gypsum and Ca-zeolites. For an elaborate information you may refer to the paper attached. Please refer to  the Section 7.5
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Soil Scientists
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The EU directive on animal feed specified limits for arsenic, cadmium , mercury and lead. Look at the first link.
For soils take a look at the second link.
For human food try the third link.
These may at least be a start
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Welcome to participate in discussion in this topic.
Usually, more events could be occur for petroleum /Benzene tankers that carry this materials to all sites or  Filling Station. Usually in all this events the soils pollute with hazardous liquids and MTBE. Surely, the soils need to modify and clean for the pollution. Bioremediation could be useful and cheap methods for decontamination of the soils. we are looking for the experiences for the Optimum conditions for Bioremediation of Soil polluted with MTBE. If somebody have any experiences or research work in this field, please do not hesitate to participation.
Thanks
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I have experience of spillage of petrol from a service station. The MTBE is much more mobile than the hydrocarbons and therefore the important thing is to act quickly before it has had time to reach the groundwater.
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Dear researchers;
## Can anybody give me geochemical background concentration values of the elements in the Earth’s crust (crustal average).
###  Also, I need a values of elements  trace in :
"Clarke values" n chemical composition of the upper continental crust ( UCC) ( Taylor and McLennan, 1995).
Geochemical background concentration of the heavy metal (crustal average) (Taylor and McLennan, 1985)
I need for these Some papers :
[1] K. K. Turekian and K. H. Wedepohl, “Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 175–192, 1961.
[2] D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics,Geophysics,Astronomy, and Acoustics, Abundance of Elements in the Earth’s Crust and in the Sea, section 14, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla,USA, 2005.
Thank you
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You can look at the article by Taylor and McLenan (1995). DOI 10,1029/95RG00262.
The Geochemical evolution of the continental crust in Reviews of Geophysics, 33, 241-265.
 N.J.Pawar
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Does someone know about field trials with applications of EDTA or DTPA for enhancing the phytoremediation of soil accumulated heavy metals through plant uptake?
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This was looked at in the US in the late 1990 's, where a lead-contaminated field was planted with Mustard, the crop grown to maturity and watered with EDTA. Soil lead levels were measured before and after treatment as well as plant lead content and plant dry matter.  Soil lead levels decreased after treatment.  This could not be accounted for by plant uptake and the difference was taken to be the chelated fraction that was leached into the lower soil horizons and eventually to ground water.  EDTA kills plant roots, removes selective barriers to ion uptake and means that treated plants act as sponge.  Similar results were found in field trials in Poland, where expensively-modified EDTA derivatives were used in conjunction with Sunflowers in a large scale field trial with similar disappointing results.  This is a technology promoted by a now-defunct company and should be thoroughly discredited. Far better to use 'soft' remediation strategies that minimise soil-plant transfers and protect groundwater.  In conclusion, don't bother.
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Does anyone can be write me about role of plants ( Phragmites Australis, and other emergent plants, in pollution removal in subsurface wetlands? How much percent can be role in reduction of heavy metals, N, P, other macro and micro nutrients? How much percent, minimum, mean and maximum, or range of efficiency.
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Dear Bill Paton
I will be delighted to have the percentage of pollution removal that related to the Plant role?
Thanks
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Can anyone give me any ideas what are the limits of exchangeable heavy metals in soil? I want to learn limits of exchangeable heavy metals in soil.
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Dr. Ozkan,
You can check the background levels of heavy metals in soil as standardized by the USA and Canada
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The extraction solvent and chromatographic conditions will be very helpful.
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Thank you for your quick reply
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I think the prediction of leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils is very important for the treatment of these soils, so are there some easy methods to predict their leaching? Thank you very much!
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Hi Jininng,
Three methods come to mind.
1. The EPA's TCLP which mimics the leaching of pollutants from a landfill.
2. The EPA's SPLP (or SA's acid rain test) which mimics the leaching of pollutants from a mono-disposal landfill as a results of acid rain.
3. Column leaching studies where you fill columns with soil samples and leach with deionized water. Collect and analyze the leachates. This method is often used for breakthrough curves.
I hope this helps.
Regards,
Dimpho
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We are characterizing the chemical structure of pig slurry to trying to understend the heavy metals leaching in soil fertilized with pig slurry. The kind of carbon chains and the functional groups presents in the humic acids might play a role in heavy metals dynamic
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Abstract
Organic wastes such as sewage sludge and compost increase the input of carbon and nutrients to the soil. However, sewage sludge-applied heavy metals, and organic pollutants adversely affect soil biochemical properties. Therefore, an incubation experiment lasting 90 days was carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of two sources of organic C: sewage sludge or composted turf and plant residues to a calcareous soil at three rates (15, 45, and 90 t of dry matter ha−1) on pH, EC, dissolved organic C, humic substances C, organic matter mineralization, microbial biomass C, and metabolic quotient. The mobile fraction of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb) extracted by NH4NO3 was also investigated.
The addition of sewage sludge decreased soil pH and increased soil salinity to a greater extent than the addition of compost. Both sewage sludge and compost increased significantly the values of the cumulative C mineralized, dissolved organic C, humic and fulvic acid C, microbial biomass C, and metabolic quotient (qCO2), especially with increasing application rate. Compared to compost, the addition of sewage sludge caused higher increases in the values of these parameters. The values of dissolved organic C, fulvic acid C, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, and C/N ratio tended to decrease with time. The soil treated with sewage sludge showed a significant increase in the mobile fractions of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni and a significant decrease in the mobile fraction of Pb compared to control. The high application rate of compost resulted in the lowest mobility of Cu, Ni, and Pb. The results suggest that biochemical properties of calcareous soil can be enhanced by both organic wastes. But, the high salinity and extractability of heavy metals, due to the addition of sewage sludge, may limit the application of sewage sludge.
biochemical properties calcareous soil compost heavy metals humic substances C sewage sludge
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I plan to test soil pollution near by to the dump yard. For that what are all the list of tests essential to conduct for identifying the pollution level. Any standards are there for collecting and testing procedure. Like buffer distance how many samples have to be collected. Kindly answer if you know about this. 
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Respected Sir,
I can provide you with a paper which may help you to sort out the soil tests necessary to detect pollution levels in soil near solid waste landfill/ dumping yard. I have used it in my research.