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Soil Fertility - Science topic

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I would like to know about publications and researches have been done to investigate the impact of mud in improving the degraded soils and making them optimal for agricultural cropping.
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Basically saline, saline alkali and alkali soils are highly dispersed, as a result Na may be adsorbed on fine mud particles creating unfavorite leaching and infiltration conditions in fine textured soils. Otherwise it could be a suitable remediation for course textured soils.
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I would like to know the rate of biochar in combination with organic matter to be applied in agricultural fields for increasing soil fertility.
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Thank you @Aref Wazwaz for sending such useful and relevant links.
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Cation exchange capacity is a critical indicator of soil health. I would really like to know which nature-based solutions such as biochar, compost, and others can help to increase the soil cation exchange capacity and how this can be done.
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Dear Elaheh Daghighi . This can be done by improving CEC in weathered soils by adding lime and raising the pH. Otherwise, adding organic matter is the most effective way of improving the CEC of your soil. See the useful link: https://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/soils/guides/soil-nutrients-and-fertilisers/cec
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Additionally, how to manage P fertilisation in such soils? Continuously apply P fertiliser even though there is a big chance it might be fixed by sesquioxides?
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Portia Phohlo We compared ten P-tests to extract P from acidic soils (Podzol) managed under forest and managed fields with different fertilizer application histories. Water, citric acid, ammonium bicarbonate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA), Morgan, Olsen, Bray-1, Bray-2, Mehlich-1 and -3 solutions were used to extract and analysed with ICP and colorimetric techniques. The studied soils had a pH range from 3.4 to 6.9; clay contents ranged from 6% to 38%; SOM varied between 0.5% and 47%. We found that Water ≤ Morgan < AB < M1 < B1 < M3 ≤ Olsen << B2 <<<citric acid. B2 extracted 2-folds, and citric acid extracted 4 to 6- folds more P than M3. Proper selection of P-test is required based on the soil properties such as Al, Fe, and SOM content and pH, of course, calibration against nutrient removal or crop yield is very important.
Note: if the acidic soil is currently converted from forest or low in SOM, M3 will overestimate P; if it has been under the management and has higher SOM (5%), M3 might underestimate P.
I will share the manuscript after the final decision of the editor.
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I like to know what your suggestion is to implement an intercropping system in a date palm orchard to avoid bare soil in the distances between trees.
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Crops such as cowpea, groundnut, beans, bambara groundnut and other leguminous crops have roots that are able to make soil nitrogen available to other plants.
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I need to know which tree species can be beneficial to be planted close to date palm trees for better yield and soil improvement (with references).
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Thank you @Shuraik Kader for sharing this useful paper.
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Dear, is there a measurable effect on soil bioma of antibiotics, used on veterynary medcine and medcine?
Or even on soil fertility?
Regards!
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There is a current upsurge in research into microbial fertilisers and carriers of microbial inoculants to boost soil fertility, e.g. the use of biochar and compost. After treating the soil, how can we effectively measure the successful establishment of the beneficial microorganisms?
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I am totally agree with @ J.C. Tarafdar Sir. Apparently soil Respiration and dehydrogenase activity measures the microbial activity in soil. For soil Respiration we can go for either alkali trap that has been discussed or we can go for rapid techniques by comprehensive analysis of soil health by Cornell University.
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What is the role of microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility and crop productivity?
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Symbiosis
K and P solubilization
Decomposition of OM
Mineralization
Immobilization
Nitrogen fixation
Nitrification
Transformation of Nutrients
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Which is better indicator for soil fertility and soil quality
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Organic matter is commonly and incorrectly used to describe the same soil fraction as total organic carbon. Organic matter is different from total organic carbon in that it includes all the elements (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc) that are components of organic compounds, not just carbon.
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It has been reported that organic P can be as high as 70% of the  total P in soils. And if we fertilize with animal manure or compost, we add a lot of organic P. How can we estimate how fast and how much of that organic P to become inorganic P, and to be available for plant uptake?
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Organic P is located mostly in the fulvic and humic acid fractions of the soil humus. There is a strong relationship between phosphatases activities in the soil and amount of organic P mineralized from the organic to plant available inorganic forms. Phosphorus' primary role in a plant is to store and transfer energy produced by photosynthesis for use in growth and reproductive processes. Soil P cycles in a variety forms in the soil. Adequate P levels promote root growth and winter hardiness, stimulate tillering, and hasten maturity. Provides essential nutrients for plants phosphorus as it is decomposed by microbes. Feeds and provides habitats for diverse soil organisms, including those that help fight plant pests and diseases.
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What are the main disadvantages of using biochar as a soil fertilizer?
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Have a look at this useful RG link.
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If soil is being irrigated with saline water (Chloride dominated), how does the presence of chloride ions reduce availability of soil P to the plants ?
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Strongly Negative correlation
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How manure acts as a better fertilizer for increasing crop yields than synthetic fertilizer does by improving soil fertility?
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Hi!
I am looking for a laboratory protocol for the determination of dissolved carbon in soil by measurement with a spectrophotometer. Could please send me the procedure that do you use for this type of analysis?
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Interesting question.
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Legumes are huge potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen biologically and share biologically fixed N with non-legumes in association with non-legume intercrops or provide to the succeeding non-legume crops in sequential cropping. Besides, legume create above and below ground diversity, higher ground cover and checking of soil erosion, more yield in inter-cropping and sequential cropping, change pest-pathogen population dynamics and host range, greater utilization of available natural resources. Moreover, in organic agriculture, crop rotation with legumes are considered as suitable options for restoration of soil fertility. My question is : "Is legume in association as intercrops or in sequential cropping with non-legumes can lead towards agricultural sustainability for small holders in developing countries?"
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Food security, lowering the risk of climate change and meeting the increasing demand for energy will increasingly be critical challenges in the years to come. Producing sustainably is therefore becoming central in agriculture and food systems. Legume crops could play an important role in this context by delivering multiple services in line with sustainability principles. In addition to serving as fundamental, worldwide source of high-quality food and feed, legumes contribute to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, as they release 5–7 times less GHG per unit area compared with other crops; allow the sequestration of carbon in soils with values estimated from 7.21 g kg−1DM, 23.6 versus 21.8 g C kg−1 year; and induce a saving of fossil energy inputs in the system thanks to N fertilizer reduction, corresponding to 277 kg ha−1 of CO2 per year. Legumes also perform well in conservation systems, inter cropping systems, which are very important in low-input and low-yield farming systems.
Also please check the following link:
Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability
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In the conventional agriculture high crop yields are obtained and soil fertility and productivity are maintained by following improved practices including good seed, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide application ,machinery use and good crop management.The conventional agriculture is now meeting the food and nutritional requirements of the current high populations in countries like India.The low input agriculture basically relies on low nutrients inputs especially based on animal dung and urine like solid manures, slurries and dung and urine based liquid preparations. As these preparations are applied in a limited quantity, they may not meet the full nutritional requirement of crops in high yield environment. So the crop utilizes more of soil nutrients and in the long run the soil fertility may go down and crop productivity may fall.So , can the low input agricultural systems sustain both soil and crop productivity in long run?
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My experience is that nutrient stripping inevitably results in decreasing crop yields. What we need is less erosion and improved recycling.
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Soil is one of the most important life sustaining materials on the earth. It is an essential medium for plants growth that initiate the ecosystem and provide food, either directly or indirectly, to all living organisms. Therefore, maintaining soil fertility is perhaps the foremost concern especially of the farmers. So, it must be clarified that how the soil fertility and sustainability can be maximized and which method is best one to do this considering the economic viability as well.
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Minimum disturbance of soil. Application of green manure along with FYM and less focus on synthetic and chemical pesticides and herbicide. Plant based pesticides can be a good option. Soil cover with cover crops. Crop rotation with legume crop which can fix atmospheric nitrogen.
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Soil organic carbon is undoubtedly claimed to be the key driver of soil fertility , the consequential effect of which is visible on a whole range of soil properties , thereby, possibly  ensuring the better crop performance . Regulating soil carbon is most stupendous task, though , it looks easy ( many would advocate simple application of composts and manures)  . In this background, , i propose following questions to our learned colleagues to please enlighten us with your shear wisdom of knowledge :
* How should we enrich the organic matter content of the soil and to retain it as legacy carbon ?
* How shall we regulate different  carbon pools of soil vis-a-vis choice of crop?
*  How does fallow period jeopardises the net gain in carbon through preceding crops ?
* What are the options of more recalcitrant forms of carbon and their potential  role in long term sustainability in  crop production ? 
Thanks and kind regards
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Anoop Kumar Srivastava Yes i do feel that Organic Matter is a must and have as Humic materials and Humus is a must and I have personally seen changes in few crops in the agricultural fields and believe me overall enhancement is more than 30-35%
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In soils normally the erosion losses of soil phosphate -P are considerable and they are monitored.The leaching losses are presumed to be  negligible. Under what soil crop  conditions the leaching losses of phosphate are considerable and need monitoring? 
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According to the literature review and due to the nature of structure and function of phosphorous cycle in soil in various ecosystems and when the vital activities of some organisms is endangered due to its fluctuations, it should be considered a series suitable management decisions to prevent diminish of that. In fact, the balancing/equilibrium building of this macro element/ion as a conventional approach is proposed in soil science. Among that, the pH of soil is decisive role that should be considered.
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Which is the best way to improve the properties of the soil ( Physical, fertility, chemical, mineral and salinity) .? Do we leave the straw and use zero tillage, or tillage the soil and mix it with straw, or burn the straw and mix it with the soil by tilling?
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According to the potential capacity of the lands and considering product ecology requirements and rely on the agronomy management requirements and considerations Ley-Farming cropping pattern is better than the mono-culturing.
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Cation exchange is an important reaction in soil fertility, in causing and correcting soil acidity and basicity, in changes altering soil physical properties and as a mechanism in purifying or altering percolating waters.
The plant nutrients calcium, magnesium and potassium are supplied to plants in large measure from exchange forms.
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Cation exchange capacity
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a useful indicator of soil fertility because it shows the soil's ability to supply three important plant nutrients: calcium, magnesium and potassium.
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Sulphate composts are useful for alkaline soils. There are huge amount of sulfur production during refinery processes. Sometimes these amounts of sulfur can not be directly used and should be converted into some other by-products. What is the easiest way to convert organic S into SO4 compost?
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Please find the attachments.
Regards.
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Though the earthworms are known to improve the soil fertility and physical properties that also help in making soil porous and higher yields. But, excessive earthworms especially in kitchen garden causes loss to the vegetable seedlings and other kitchen garden crops. Kindly suggest any organic or non-chemical way to control excessive earthworms in the kitchen garden or cultivable land.
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I respect the opinion of colleagues here, but I am in agreement with Robert. Earthworms make hollows in the soil, always remove soil particles and their secretions are highly useful for soil chemistry and structure and finally all these actions help the soil to be in a healthy cycle to make a very appropriate bed for plant and tree growing. Last but not least, in my opinion controlling the population of earthworms should be done very cautiously.
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I recently demonstrated an industrial sized horizontal centrifuge at a food manufacturing plant on their waste coming from their wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).  The WWTP plant manager now wants to know what the BOD coming from the centrate off the centrifuge, back to the WWTP would be.  We did not measure BOD or COD at the time but only total suspended solids (TSS mg/l) in the centrate going back to the WWTP.  Is there a way to maybe correlate the BOD from the information gathered from the influent coming from the manufacturing side to the WWTP, if the TSS and BOD were recorded, to our centrate TSS? 
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In fact there is no direct relation between TSS and BOD. However, some sense is also required based on the type of your waste water (domestic or industrial, or from commercial buildings ) or grey water, taking into consideration the level of treatment. For example after secondary treatment, BOD would be greater than the TSS as the major BOD is coming from dissolved proteins, sugars, and other dissolved organic matter.
Best regards,
Dr. Samir Alnahhal
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Use of botanicals is very highly rated in today's agriculture represented by a variety of forms. Residue free agriculture prompts use of botanicals still highly used. Unfortunately botanicals don't have knock down effects on pests and diseases but still very effective. In this background , I have few quarries to addressed :
# Why don't we use botanicals active ingredients for different targeted problems , soil health vis- a- his plant health ?
# How does foliar spray of botanicals strengthen the plant immune system with respect elevation in accumulation of nutrients ?
# Is there systematic study on effect of botanicals on changes in soil fertility and soil biology ?
Quite appreciative of your time and interest..
Thank you and great regards
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The botanicals registered so far for commercialization in agriculture are neem kernel extract, neem oil, eucalyptus oil, carathamus, leaf & flower extracts and few other extractives, which are mostly used for controlling pests, not for improving soil fertility and plant nutrition. If label claim for botanicals have been asked for pest management only it means they are not for soil fertility improvement.
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Please anyone help me in data analysis.
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please read my paper in MAYDICA (foliar Ti for corn)
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Which is the important soil fertility or soil productivity?
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Soil fertility increases soil productivity .It is not at all a question .
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How can I calculate lime requirement for increasing soil pH without Lab determine? or which methods are faster and easier than woodruff buffer solution?
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I'd recommend the answer of Salvatore S. Mangiafico
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Normally nano fertilizers are recommending as foliar application along with basal dose of RDF (Recommended Dose of Fertilizer).
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What you both Santosh and Vipendra seem to miss is the catalystic promotion of nano application leading to a better growth, please.
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The use of indigenous microorganisms or IMO has been advocated by some non-government organizations and farmers groups to improve soil fertility. Some groups claim that there is no solid scientific basis. What is your opinion about the use of indigenous microorganisms to improve soil fertility?
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No doubt about its utility, infact it is call of the day to use indigenous microbes, rather crop rhizosphere specific microbes to engineer rhizosphere for bioprospecting soil health and plant health in tandem.
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With respect to soil fertility and Nutrient content of plant (Quality) because it is recommended as foliar spray and our basic principle is to feed the soil instead of plant.
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the nanoparticles will enter the groundwater. we do not yet know the consequences of this process
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I took a sample to the laboratory and got a shocking result that shocking result.
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Hi all! Could anyone recommend some reading materials on this subject matter? Thanks!
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Hello everyone,
The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is often said to increase during the composting process. From what I have read, it seems that this increase is mainly explained by aromatic oxidation reactions increasing the number of reactive functional groups (mainly carboxylic and phenolic).
However, the compositing process also implies a physical fragmentation of the organic material. This fragmentation should therefore result in an increase in the specific surface area (SSA) of the organic material with potentially more available fuctional groups at the molecular level.
Would you say that the SSA increase play a determining role in CEC increase witnessed during the composting process?
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Yeah
The CEC is like the bank in which you save money
The bank is the CEC, and the money is the mineral
CEC can also be increased with biochar
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Soil fertility, plant nutrition
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Experts have already answered the question However,
Ni addition stimulates the methane content of biogas, while excessive addition of Ni causes inhibition of methanogenesis.
Thanks and regards
Srinivas Kasulla
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My greenhouse maize plants are too thin. They have strips on the leaves.
The conditions are 14h day/10h night; 26-28°C day and 20-22°C night; 60% humidity; peat soil mixed with little sand. 
I use Osmocote exact Standard 3-4 for fertilization. It is a granular and should work for 3- 4 month. It contains all important nutrients which dissolve gradually:
16% nitrogen (7,4% nitrate-N and 8,6% ammonium-N)
9% P2O5
12% K2O
2,5% MgO
0,02% B
0,056% Cu
0,45% Fe
0,06 Mn
0,025% Mo
0,02% Zn
The plants are at V4 stage now.
I think that the plants have a nutrition deficite. What is the best fertilizer for greenhouse maize? Du you have any suggestions for improvement?
Thanks!
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In Bangladesh soil fertility decrease day by day. Population is increase. To feed the people, we should maintain sustainable soil fertility. What are the probable factor of increasing soil fertility.
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Soil fertility can be sustained by "land fallowing" and "crop rotation".
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I am doing some literature review to better understand the processes governing the biological fixation of nitrogen by non-symbiotic micro-organisms (associative, endophytic, free-living...).
I am not interested in symbiotic relations like legumes (which have their use), but rather to find solutions to promote this fixation throughout the cultivation (perhaps through composting?).
So it could be in the field or in a compost pile on the farm.
Could you share some insights?
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following
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Application of excess chemical fertilizer reduce soil fertility. So, application of bio fertilizer can increase soil fertility.
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Its effectiveness has been proven, as it is environmentally friendly and beneficial in the agricultural field. Food can be provided to plants, which leads to a reduction in reliance on chemical fertilizers in this field.
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The optimum presence of essential plant nutrient elements makes a soil fertile. Soil fertility is an important factor for becomes a soil productive. On the other hand, a productive soil is obviously a fertile soil which has the potentiality/capacity to produce optimum crop yield. However, soil fertility always does not ensure the productivity of a soil. But why?
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The productivity of soil depends upon soil fertility as well as several associated factors, such as climate and environmental conditions, external inhibitions, pathogenic activities, etc., Thus, it may not be productive always, if other associated factors are not considered simultaneously.
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Fertile soils are an important requirement for agriculture. Basic soil constituents are minerals, humus, moisture and air. Soil ability to grow plants is certainly affected by the increase or decrease in the proportion of its these essential constituents/comments. But how we can measure the soil fertility precisely and what is the easiest way to measure it.
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Since Soil fertility is the ability of soil to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.
The ability to supply essential plant nutrients and water in adequate amounts and proportions for plant growth and reproduction; and the absence of toxic substances which may inhibit plant growth. So plant growth and performance will help in measuring the soil fertility.
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Want to understand the scientific mechanisms to know type of soil suitable for agricultural purpose.
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About urea foliar application is told that agricultural breeded plants can use the nitrogen ad hoc and efficiently. But urea is ambivaltent : it is causing also leaf burning by not proper application in small ranged climatic environment conditions.
Has or knows anyone evidence based trial literature or handbooks about the benefits and the disavantages and of precise and damage avoding urea application in leaf fertilization?
I am also interested on positive reported results for soilless, tropical and green house conditons, besides crops as maize, potatoes, sugar beets, cereals, forage grasses and canola.
Best thanks in advance Johann HUMER, Austria
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Urea containing 46% N is usually applied to wheat crop especially under rainfed conditions at 1-2% urea concentration at tillering and heading stages.Some workers tried upto 4-5% urea concentrations to supply more N to crop.But one should be cautious with application of high urea concentrations with possible leaf injury/burning. To make 2 percent urea solution you have to mix 20 g urea in one litre water (2 g urea/100 ml). Foliar solutions are usually mixed with a surfactant like tween-80 at a concentration of 0.1 % v/v for improving leaf wetting and preventing droplets from immediate drying thereby prolonging the period of N absorption.0.1 percent means 1 ml per litre(v/v).
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Cactus are of two types one have spines and another does not have spine. But both can be used as fodder. It has unlocking potential under Arid climate where moisture as well soil fertility are major challenges. It produces huge biomass with lesser moisture and fertilizers.It can be used after chopping of their leaves and fed to animal. Lets suggest me with ignited view.
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Use of cladodes as a feed can solve the problem of livestock watering, but attention should be paid to their high water content. Ruminants should not consumes large quantities of cladodes, which may lead to diarrhoea. It is therefore recommended to associate a fibrous feedstuff. Also, since cladodes are low in nitrogen and high in energy, it is vital to supplement them with sources rich in nitrogen. Inclusion of nitrogenous supplements (Atriplex nummularia foliage, oil seedmeals, urea) in cactus-containing diets is currently the most widely adopted option and good productivity responses have been observed in ruminants animals.
Unlike other fodder and forage crops which need to be stored as hay or silage, cactus is an evergreen crop and can be used round-the-year. Cactus cladodes can be cut and fed directly to animals. Cut-and-carry is the most commonly used technique for cactus feeding. It prevents wastage and excessive grazing. Cactus being rich in water, plays a crucial role in arid environments as a replacement for drinking water. In dry areas there is a scarcity of water and use of cactus as a feed synergises livestock production in such harsh environments.
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Many chemical fertilizers are commonly used to improve soil fertility and productivity. Urea, TSP, MP, Gypsum, Borax, Ammonium nitrate etc. are used familiarly all over the world. Though these can improve the fertility of soil for the time being but in the long run they will become toxic to the soil and make hamper to the microorganisms. Now the question is which chemical is more hazardous to the microorganisms?
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@ Bijay Singh Sir, thanks for attaching the highly informative article. Regards.
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I have planned to start a new research in soil fertility. Now I am looking for new areas to be addressed. Biochar or Organic matter mineralization have being suggested. I need a new area
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Organomineral fertilizer (organic + inorganic fertilizer)
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There are different methods of harvesting rice either manually or by using machines. It has been seen that in some methods of harvesting rice is harvested by cutting at the base and in some areas by cutting in the middle porting of the stalk. The porting of stalk present in the field is decomposed naturally enriching the soil which is very important for sustainability.
In parts of Arunachal Pradesh, India in hill areas it has been observed that some farmers harvest only the panicle part of the rice crop at maturity particularly in highly sloppy hills. It helps in easy transportation, increase profit and also less labour consuming, it helps to reduce soil erosion. At the same time it is also been observed that the stalk portion is allowed to decompose naturally to build up the soil fertility.
Is there any research done for similar practice on its favourable effect on soil fertility, may kindly be shared.
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It is obvious that residue will increase the fertility of land but it will be little complicated to farmer since they will have difficult both in harvesting due to the remaining stalk of rice on field and another it will generate tidioiosness even in ploughing and for the livestock rearer to it is one supplement in lean period...But a lot there is a lot of research supporting soil structure due to the residue.....
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I am looking for an explanation about the relation between soil fertility and the nature of the bedrock.
There is plenty of literature about pedogenesis, but I would like to go a step further and relate basic parent material caracteristics to soil fertility from an agricultural perspective.
From a farmer point of view: "what does it means to have this rock under my soil?"
What key elements should we explain to farmers?
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As Tarafdar said Parent material is initial stage of the soil system. But If the parent material is basaltic in nature soils become more fertile as compared sandy parent material.
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While working in the Subarctic of Western Siberia, we noticed that in places of active thermokarst the biological productivity of vegetation increases. Plants that are absent in nearby ecosystems with stable permafrost grow in thermokarst-affected ecosystems. Thermokarst is usually associated with human influence. What are the typical responses of productivity and biodiversity to the effects of thermokarst in your research area? Why does thermokarst increase vegetation productivity? Is this a thermal effect? Is this the effect of increasing soil fertility? Is this the effect of reducing competition from indigenous zonal flora? Or is it a complex of the listed reasons?
I am attaching a photograph of the community on the thermokarst slope and a photograph of a typical tundra (latitude N70 °).
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Dear Sir/ Madam,
Greetings of the Day.
Hope you all are doing well. As a beginner I want to know the what are the recent development made by soil scientist in the 21st Century ? Specifically in the field of Soil Fertility, Soil Chemistry, Soil Microbiology. Out of which how efficiently such Novel practice adopted by farmers. Although its contemporary debate but as per your expertise and field experience please share your views.
Thanks in advance
With Regards
Hanuman Singh Jatav
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Dear Jatav,
In the last decade or so, there have been remarkable advances in our knowledge of various topics in soil science. It is not possible to list all of them, so I will try to recall some based on what has been discussed in conferences, and what has been published in soil science journals. These include the fate and effects of antibiotics in soils, 4 per mile initiative, clay-organic matter interactions, soil change due to anthropogenic impact, biological soil health indicators, biochar effects on soil properties, soil variability at the aggregate and soil profile scales, use of non-invasive techniques for soil research, nano-fertilizers, temporal and spatial variability of soil properties, factors controlling nutrient availability in soils, the role of dust deposition on soil development, silicon dynamics in soils and ecosystems, pedometrics, pesticide transport in soil, indicators of soil development, the genesis of technosols, fate of heavy metals in soils, new methods of soil analysis, and many others.
Keep safe,
Victor Asio
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Not special anything. Just for learnings
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Urea initially breaks down as ammonium, then turns into nitrate. This breakdown begins immediately after spreading the urea, which is why you must work fast to incorporate it into the soil, preferably within two days. The ammonium might be released as a gas if the granules sit on top of the surface, reducing the amount of material that turns into helpful nitrate in the soil. When you're expecting rain within the next day or so, there's no need to till the fertilizer into the soil. It washes into the soil along with the rain and the moisture helps activate the chemical process that converts urea to a nitrogen compound. This process begins two to four days after the urea touches the soil, depending on the soil's moisture content and pH. With no rain in the forecast, water the urea into the soil with sprinklers or turn it into the top inch of soil with a trowel.
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There are several method for determining organic matter in soil such as black and walkley and Tyurin method. Among them which on gives the most reliable results?
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Walkley-Black chromic acid wet oxidation method (1934) is best method.
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Some researchers found gypsum amendment is a way to reduce salinity, but it is not suitable for all types of soil. Some researcher reported that ash from rice straw and rice husk may mitigate soil salinity, someone oppose this findings. So, which amendments are better for saline soil?
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Organic amendment with rice straw, ash, husk etc. is better than inorganic amendment of saline soil. However, drainage system should be improved to drain out the soluble salts specially Na and Cl.
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What are the relationships (synergistic or antagonistic) between organics input in soil and Cu content in soil and plant, without adding any external source of Cu in soil?
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  1. The order of chelating power of elements to the organic matter is Cu > Ni > Co > Zn > Fe and Mn.. By this we can understand Cu is strongly bound to organic matter. So with increase in organic matter content Cu retention has increased.
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Presently, the scientific communities including NGOs, Governments, Policy makers etc.throughout the world are concerned about soil health sustenance. They also focusing sustainable soil fertility. The words soil health and soil fertility always making confusion hence to clear the doubt, the question is raised.
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Soil quality is the capacity of each soil to function, within its natural or managed ecosystems, to sustain productivity, enhance water and air quality, support human and animal health, and habitation. This is not limited to agriculture, but most work and evaluation has occurred on agricultural lands.
Soil health is the condition of the soil and its potential to sustain biological functions, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health.
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What are the phosphorus release strategies installed from the soil?
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1) By adding organic matter humus can form phosphohumic complexes which is easily assimilated by plants, humate ion can replace phosphate ions and humus can form coating around the Fe and Al ions so that coating prevent P from fixation....
2) There are P - solubilizing organisms a) Bacteria - Pseudomonas and Bacillus
b) Fungi - Aspergillus and Pencillium
3) VAM Fungi can increase the absorption of P from soil by extension of root system
4) Placement (Band placement) of fertilizers (Placing the fertilizer below the seed can reduce the fixation of P by reducing the contact between the soil and fertilizer)
5) Liming of acid soils also release fixed P from Fe and Al compounds
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Soil microorganisms are considered as natural soil labour that keep on working to maintain soil health with out any break. The extent of their work in some cases is more than the work of farmers maintaining their fields. Question arises that what is the exact role and extent of work of microorganisms in maintaining soil fertility and what happens with soil if the role of these organisms is eliminated?
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Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi play an important role in maintaining the soil fertility. Microbial action on dead organic matter releases nutrients in the soil thus raising the fertility status of the soil. Diazotrophic bacteria like Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijerinckia, Clostridium and Klebsiella raise the nitrogen status of soil by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Moreover, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi increase phosphorus availability to plants in the soil. Microorganisms also improve the soil structure which protects the soil against erosive forces.
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Is it possible for symptoms of nutrient deficiency to appear on wild plants?
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Thank you
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Many investigators well documented that the bio-control agent Trichoderma spp. has the potential to induce growth response in treated plants due to stimulation to release nutrients in soil, which enhance the plant growth.
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one of the most indications of soil fertility is total organic carbon. but during determination its concentration there are two methods, 1 is by total dry ash 2. is by conversion factors fro data of organic matter. so which one is best quality data and if there are other methods
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Please check Methods of Organic Matter Determination especially related to ORGANIC CARBON (WALKLEY-BLACK METHOD).
Jones, J .B., Jr. 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Page, A. L., R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney, eds. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbial Properties. Amer. Soc. Agron. No. 9 (Part 2) in the Agronomy Series. ASA, SSSA. Madison.
Best of Luck!
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What are the parameters of changes in soil fertility from the impact of household waste?
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Apart from C:N and concentration of nitrogenous compounds like Dr. Carmen has mentioned, the concentration of metals in waste is also a main factor to impact the soil fertility.
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Can plant nutrition with fertilizers have a negative or positive effect on plant resistance to diseases and insects?
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Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers leads to an increase in incidence of pests, while the application of phosphate and potassium fertilizers reduces the incidence of pests.
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I am doing research on fertiliser formulations and recommendations and seek advice on nutrient ratios that can be calculated to achieve the main objective of the research. To date have collected and analysed samples on different soil nutrient status. So I am kindly asking for help on how best to calculate DRIS indices to check on the limiting and sufficient nutrients in the soil. Moreover, besides DRIS indices which other nutrients ratios can be calculate to describe soil fertility status of an area.
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Ms.Janel has explained under what conditions the DRIS can be applied.As I understand one need not try DRIS for soil available nutrient data.There are other nutrient ratios like K/Ca or K/Ca +Mg which can be calculated.If you mention your study area soil type, soil pH , crop and plant nutrients of your interest I can suggest the nutrient ratiios which you can try/work out for your investigation.
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Latosol has acidic pH and low organic matter and nutrient. I want to improve the soil fertility using the help of microorganism and organic matter.
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You can get help from this article
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recomended dose of urea and humic acid fertilizers per hecter for soil fertility.
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For soil application rate may be 1-2 kg/ha.
Kindly refer the following paper. It may help you.
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.515241
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Are these equations specific to acidic soils only?
Are there equations for alkaline soils ?
Soil Fertility Index (SFI) = pH + organic matter (%, dry soil basis) + available P (mg kg-1 dry soil) + exch K (cmolckg-1) + exch Ca (cmolckg-1) + exch Mg (cmolckg-1)-exch Al (cmolckg-1)
Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF) = [Exch K (cmolckg-1) + Exch Ca (cmolckg-1) + Exch Mg (cmolckg-1)-log(1 + exch Al (cmolckg-1)] × organic matter (%, dry soil) + 5
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I also agree with Dr Sunita Gaind. Since these are the indices that could be applied in any types of soil. The values may be of different for different types of soils. Accordingly, inferences would also differ as well as explanations.
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I am doing analysis on compost for macro and micronutrients including polyphenol and lignin.
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Stable composts typically have a C:N ratio about 10 or 12 to one. If the material contains stable C sources the C:N ratio can be higher. Your question is very broad and the literature is large. It includes studies on materials with high concentrations of phenolics. As for nutrients, by the time a stable C:N value is approached, enough C has usually been respired so that the medium approaches a composition that will sustain plant growth. For this to have occurred there must have been enough of all the essential elements present. One of the many possible problems that can occur is high concentrations of soluble salts.
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what is the total percent of soil fertilizer that plant benefit compared to foliar fertilizer?
thanks to attached any document related with my require when you answer, please
Best regards
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Soil fertilization is the most efficient and most widely used for all types of fertilizers, while the use of foliar fertilization is mainly used for micro-elements first, as well as for use in cases of rapid treatment for the lack of some nutrients, as well as to avoid cases of fixing some elements in unavailable form on particles of some types of soils.
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Particle size distribution (PSD) aka soil texture is a major feature to understand soils.
Sand, silt and clay classes of mineral particles are so commonly used that they become part of the everyday landscape of agronomists, farmers and others.
However,
Why such size limits have been placed between these categories?
Is there a reason?
In addition, different countries may have different PSD classes (eg., 50 µm or 63 µm between silts and sands).
On which scientific basis has this been made?
To follow up on that,
Don't you think that a more modern approach to soil texture characterisation would be more helpful by measuring soil PSd on a continuous scale? rather than splitting between sand, silt and clays.
Indeed, two soil with the same PSD (lets say 30% sand, 30% silt and 40% clay) could be very different.
Within sands, particles could all be towards th coarse side, or conversely towards the fine side.
Same reasoning for the other classes.
Without solid reasons (physical perhaps?) to set the boundaries between sands, silts and clays, that system seems a bit arbitrary and old-fashioned, isn't it?
Shouldn't it be more useful to represent the frequency distribution of particles on a continuous scale to give a more precise picture of the actual texture of a soil.
New techniques such as laser diffraction seem to be useful to this end, and could give a more representative image of the distribution of the size of soil's mineral particles.
Futhermore, current method to determine soil PSD using sieving and sedimentation is extremely long and prone to errors in measurements.
Any thoughts on this?
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The % of sand, silt and clay in the soil established the nature or texture of soil. Hence, first we have to determine the % of these components of soil.
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Actual plant uptake of nutrients may vary between 5-10% of total applied fertilizers. only one researcher reported his success in replacing soil fertilization with trunk injection of grape and mango (Shaban, 2009). however, his research was carried out on one year old mango seedlings and 2-3 years old grape trees.
Do you think that this technique will be enough to supply all plant needs as it grows older? and what is the suitable EC and pH of the injected nutrient solution?
I have found many commercial companies dealing with injecting micronutrients and systematic pesticides but not macro nutrients.
looking forward for your opinions and sharing your experience.
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thank you all for your valuable opinions.
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I am currently undertaking a study on long-term soil fertility changes and organic matter dynamics in cocoa plantations.
I would like to study the effect of organic amendments and fertilizers on soil, and if possible, on cocoa productivity.
I have access to sites to perform a range of analyses, but given the timescale at which cocoa plantations develops, modelling is a complementary tool to understand how soil have changed in the past, and how they could be changed through different management practices.
I looked into the WalNulCas model, but cocoa is not parametrised yet in the crop library.
There is CASE2, a cocoa physiological production model, but soil changes are not integrated (only water regimes).
There is CENTURY, but I am not sure that a cocoa agroforestry system can be simulated with it.
I am currently going for AMG/Hénin-Dupuis, as a plan B, to look at soil changes, but it won't help me with cocoa growth, development and production.
Any suggestions?
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Hi Karen,
The version I had did not have cocoa fully parametrized. I recently met someone with a newer version, and cocoa has now been parametrized.
Could you share with us the download link of the version you use?
Thanks
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We are detecting Indole acetic acid (IAA) producing actinobacteria according to Bano and Musarrat (2003) method.
The summary of the method is:-
Inoculation of the isolates in LB medium (supplemented with 0.5% glucose and 500 μg/mL tryptophan) -----> Incubation at 28 ◦C for 48 h -----> Centrifugation of the cultures at 10000 rpm for 15 min ----> 2 mL of the supernatant were transferred to a fresh tube to which 100 μL of 10 mM ortho-phosphoric acid and 4 mL of the Salkowski reagent (1 mL of 0.5 M ferrous chloride in 50 mL of 35% perchloric acid) were added ------>incubation of the mixture at room temperature for 25 min and the absorbance of pink color development read at 530 nm -----> Calculation of the IAA concentration in cultures.
Is there any method better than this one? or if any modification?
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My dear friend, the method you have mentioned is the best way to evaluate the production of auxin, but sometimes with a few changes in the method, a good result can be achieved, for example, changing the ratio of the reagent (Salkowski) to the sample (supernatant) and also adding or not adding ortho-phosphoric acid to the mix.
The incubation is also better in the dark.
Wishing you success with you dear friend
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Trichoderma control soil borne fungal disease, and as it has plant promoting activities, may be help to increase soil fertility
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Trichoderma or any type of soil microbes secrete different types of organic acids and enzymes that has ability to solubilse or mobilise nutrients and make them available for plants, which in turn improve crop yield. Besides that through the secretion of various antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, etc. they improve the crop quality.
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Biochar isn't only means for the amendment of soil fertility, but also good option for the reduction of atmosphere carbon (CO2, CH4). If there is a big factory for pyrolysis (and obtaining of biochar), but shortage of soil in vicinity, where biochar can be applied, won't it be a problem? If extra-enriching of soil with biochar deteriorate soil fetility, than produced biochar must be transported on certain distance, where it can be mixed with soil without negative effects for the soil.
P.S. Situation with big pyrolitic factory and shortage of soil can be assumed for wooded islands far from the mainland (for example).
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For the specific case of a far-away island covered by forest we could use the woody biomass for other purposes than biochar if supply is greater than demand. It can be used as a construction material, furniture, cooking utensils, as fuel for electricity generation and cooking. We can produce paper from it, hydrolyse it and make bioethanol for cars or for parties.
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I am trying to estimate phytate-P from soil by enzyme addition method. I consulted several papers and most of them had use malachite green for P determination. I followed the method described in Jarosch et al., 2015 and tried several time for estimating MRP from NaOH-EDTA extract of different soils, after and before enzyme incubation. But I failed to develop color in every cases. Rather I ended up with greenish precipitate inside glassware. I am unable to understand the problem, can anybody please help me?
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I need to get the details of the electro-ultrafiltration method of potassium determination and its efficiency as compared to the other most commonly used methods.
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Following
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Researching organic inputs that improve soil fertility and conflicted about biostimulant
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The brown algae Laminaria digitata contains laminarine a polymer beta/1,3/glucane. This substance is an effective elicitor that stimulates the resistance of plants against diseases. Example: oidium, septosporiose and other diseases of wheat. It also protects (increase of resistance) of apple trees against the bacteria Erwinia amylovora. This product based on Laminaria is sold in France under the name of Iodus-40
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While Integrated Nutrient Management (INM or IPNM) involves combined application of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients, how it differs from Integrated Soil Fertility Management as practiced in sub-Saharan Africa. What are the research priorities in the two nutrient management strategies?
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INM includes management of essential nutrient using differrent chemical fertilizers using different methods of fertilizer application.while Integrated soil fertility management includes application chemical and organic fertilizers .controling and managening soils and preventing the degradation of soil ....etc
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Can bio-fertilizers be considered as a sustainable farming method?
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I believe that natural fertilizers are more effective than synthetic ones.
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1- Outsides "are not authorized to access this page" for the link you listed.
2-When you remove the milk or the cattle from the land and eat them, do you remove soil nutrients??? In California, the average amount of fertilizer I need to put back, so that the native plant seedlings can survive to adulthood, is usually about 2,000 pounds per acre, costing about $5,000 for areas that have been grazed since the Spanish Rancho Grant period, starting about 1820s.
For 25 years, I have been using the Waypoint Lab in San Jose, California and test a one quart (one liter) sample taken from the top 2 inches (5 cm) after sifting through a 1/4 inch (7 mm) mesh screen to remove rocks and vegetable matter. Then, ask for the A-17 test ($50) and the A-19-2 test ($16) to test for nutrients and organic matter, and have the data only put into a bar graph format.
Using this process on individual species of native plants, have been able to set Soil Nutrient and Soil Organic Matter Thresholds, that are needed for that species seedling's survival. You can see the difference between not using fertilizers in grazing-depleted soils, and fertilizing at http://www.ecoseeds.com/good.example.html and the threshold for individual native species at http://www.ecoseeds.com/seed-thresholds.html
Sincerely, Craig Dremann, The Reveg Edge, California USA (650) 325-7333
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Definitely removal of meat and milk may deplete soil but while grazing some nutrient input also adding through dung and urine that may also consider while calculating the exact deplete of soil nutrients.
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