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Sociolinguistics - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Sociolinguistics, and find Sociolinguistics experts.
Questions related to Sociolinguistics
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How many languages are written in Arabic characters ?
like persian, urdu, kurdish, sindhi, pashto, ...
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How many sign languages are there in the world? Considering national and indigenous sign languages, how many sign languages are there in the world? Are they part of the same language family? Are there subfamilies? Has any researcher studied this?
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Ethnologue: 157 sign languages and counting... Glottolog 215 sign languages and counting... Usually, indigenous sign languages are considered isolates.
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Language contact has always existed. This also happens between sign languages and spoken languages. How do spokenl languages influence sign languages? How do sign languages influence spoken languages? Is there research on this?
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Thank you very much, Akhter Al Amin!
I was interested in language contact and how one language can influence another. For example, in the case of Libras (Brazilian Sign Language) we have many linguistic borrowings from the Portuguese language. Some signs are spelled using the sign alphabet and others use a hand configuration that refers to the initial letter of the Portuguese word. In addition, we can also observe a lot of influence on the Libras syntax. Now about the other question, could a sign language also influence an oral language, in a small community, perhaps influencing prosodic or even pragmatic aspects of the oral language?
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Hello,
I am doing a sociolinguistic research project for an English master course.
I want to study the verb usage of ESL speakers, more specifically whether they usually opt for easier verb constructions (non-periphrastic verbs) or more complex verb constructions (periphrastic verbs).
Is there any interesting literature about this subject, which I can use for my project?
Kind regards
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Nothing springs to mind at the moment, but I imagine there are significantly different variables that could impact this. For instance, one of my colleagues speaks Farsi as his first language, and he oftentimes relies on "make" and "do" in English as light verbs in V+N constructions to mimic the Persian-language structure. With that being said, it might be worthwhile to look into research that presents more prescriptive-based "issues" when studying English as an L2--not because it's correct but, rather, because it might shed light on some common verbal patterns.
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Sociolinguistics started in the 1950s with Fishman focussing on language choice , maintenance and shift studies. Since then it has moved on to encompass more and more areas of study
can you let me know which area/ aspect of Sociolinguistics you are focussing on / working on?
thank you
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As Sociolinguistics focuses on the relationship between language and society, this relationship being multilayered has led to the emergence of all those subfields which connect language with the sociocultural fabric of any society. Whether one looks at cross-cultural linguistics, language and gender, dialectology, contact linguistics, multilingualism or language endangerment, all these areas fall under the domain of Sociolinguistics.
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Sociolinguistics is defined as the study of language in society so as to know how language fulfils in our lives, One of the first branches of sociolinguistics is variationist sociolinguistics that applies quantitative approach to data analysis. Earlier variationist studies were not concerned with statistical methods and tend to relate two or more variables, for instance certain linguistic forms and social class as well as focusing on social variation in language than in regional variation.
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Exactly Dr. I appriciate your answer , i do agree with you
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l want to write on sociolinguistics
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Hello
It is easier to finalize a research topic if you follow these steps.
1- Choose the area of your interest in which you can perform better
2- Narrow down the area focusing on the a specific aspect
3- Highlight the problems in that particular area
4- Choose a problem that is very important and you want to solve it
5- Think of how you will solve the problem
6- Write a question about the problem and how you will solve it
7- Google your topic/question and find the research gap before you finalize the topic
8- Rephrase the topic and add some variable[s] that the topic has not yet been studied
9- Ask your research supervisor to help you polish the topic
10- Reading the papers in your area of interests can hep you decide the topic for research
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Due to COVID-19 restrictions, my project got postponed for one year. My sociolinguistic research focus is on face to face\focused group interviews to examine identity construction + accent\sound production. Unfortunately, I don't think I'll manage to conduct face-to-face interviews anytime soon (apparently COVID 19 restrictions is still developing) and postponing my project is no longer an option. So, I intend to replace face-to-face interviews with online interviews. I'm looking for recent studies that used online interviews - I hope you can recommend some.
Thanks in advance!
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My research work is on language contact between kashmiri urdu and english and I need to develop a methodology for developing a questionnaire and carrying out the study so I need to know what can be my methodology for the study and questionnaire development with a sociolinguistics approach
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Thefollowing researches are relevant tp your study:
1.THE LANGUAGE CONTACT PROFILE
Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 April 2004
Authors: Barbara F. Freed, Dan P. Dewey, Norman Segalowitz and Randall Halter
2. The Language and Social Background Questionnaire: Assessing Degree of Bilingualism in a Diverse Population
Authors: John A. E. Anderson, Lorinda Mak, Aram Keyvani Chahi, and Ellen Bialystok
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Dear researchers,
I'm going to look at gender roles in a few novels from a sociolinguistic standpoint. What approaches do you recommend to analyze such roles?
warm regards,
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Very good question. As I understand that there are six main theoretical approaches include: “(1) the welfare approach; (2) women in development (WID); (3) women and development (WAD); (4) gender and development (GAD); (5) the effectiveness approach (EA); and (6) mainstream gender equality (MGE). You can opt as per you study perspectives.
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Hello. I'm currently pursuing a PhD degree in Sociolinguistics.
I want to investigate the area of gender and language but couldn't pinpoint an aspect of language to explore in relation to gender.
Any suggestions are highly welcomed. Thank you.
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Perhaps a study on the challenges for sexual-neutrality posed by languages that have gendered inflections that, unlike English, seemingly have nothing to do with sex? Or perhaps a comparative study of English and such languages?
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I want to write my thesis sociolinguistically about a new linguistic phenomenon, but the main contribution to my study is to solve speaking anxiety.. my thesis will include a question, after explaining the phenomenon from the sociolinguistic perspective, about "how this phenomenon solve the problem of anxiety">... *MY QUESTION IS: does this type of research refer to sociolinguistics or to Language learning and teaching????
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well it refers to both, but you can shed light on the sociolinguistics field more than the other field.
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Recently i'm working on a project of sociolinguistics to identify the relationship between social change and linguistic change amid COVID-19.
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a synchronic investigation of language deals with a language or its parts studied as a fixed phenomenon existing at a given moment of time, whereas a diachronic investigation of language concerns the development of language or its parts over time. The synchronic / diachronic distinction was introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics (1916/1959) and it is a standard part of a linguist’s conceptual armoury. Among philosophers, on the other hand, this distinction is scarcely known and it is rarely used by them in practice
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I wonder if there are studies of how an individual can shape collective behaviour and to what extent. What I mean is the opposite of social influence where a group member obeys collective behaviour, but vice versa how an individual (a politician, a journalist etc.) shapes group behaviour according to his preferences. For example, the capitol riot on 6.01.2021 in Washington and Trump's behaviour -- how Trump manipulated the crowd?
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Individuals change society for good and bad. Individuals get angry at the system and begin movements to change it. Revolutions start with a single person. Sometimes we know their names - Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, Gandhi, Hitler, Trump* - but mostly we don't.
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I think translanguaging style/patterns can vary based on an individual's communicative goals, repertoire, education, and sociolinguistic context. Exploring these patterns can be helpful to the field of forensic linguistics.
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Dear Dr Ameer Ali . Thank you for highlighting this important subject. Translanguaging, as a concept, has gained currency in the last years. It reflects the shift from monolingual ideologies in the study of multilingual education to multilingual ideologies and dynamic views of multilingualism. This shift is clearly related to recent developments in the social context. I believe it would be of great benefit to all fields of linguistics.
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Language teaching and learning, sociolinguistics
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socialization is one of the important factor for language teaching process. Sociolinguistic knowledge helps us to make learning natural and real.
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I have a research and i should analyze the types of code-switching. however, i can't use Poplack's theory because my instructor said that it is too old. Any suggestions of new theories?
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Garcia or Cangarajah's concepts of translanguaging might help you.
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Hi everyone,
Am doing research about strategies families use in the home to support heritage language among family members. I will analyse language interaction between parents and their children using interactional sociolinguistics but I do not have much idea about it. so anyone can help, please?
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Hi Amma,
Interactional sociolinguistics is a really good way. I suggest as a pre-survey a questionnaire identifying most used strategies, for example: "do you do XXX when you interact with your child?" Yes-No. If Yes, can you develop more. There is a very famous questionnaire for child development that can inspires you, the CDI: https://mb-cdi.stanford.edu/referencesEL.html
Then, you have to choose a good software for your transcriptions. I suggest CLAN and ELAN, both free.
Good luck
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It is my first time in doing thesis and I'm confused regarding topic selection. Please give me suggestions in sociolinguistic field.
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Hi Laiba,
SL is a vast and interesting field! One project I did was about politeness. we compared an observation of interactions at a small grocery store to questionnaire results for another set of subjects with scenarios that were witnessed in the observation. We found that the differences in what people say that they do and what people actually do are differentiated along categories like, culture, gender, and socioeconomic strata.
Basically you should ask yourself . . .
"What differences in the way people speak interest me?"
then ask
"How can I study that?"
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I am doing a study on analyzing and interpreting the sociopragmatic features of approximately 350 Facebook posts shared by Kurdish speakers in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. For presenting the different pragmatic intentions or associative meanings behind Kurdish speakers’ posts, the collected corpus will be categorized into social, economic, political, health and religious topics, which will be translated into English for the purpose of study. Also, for assuring the seriousness and danger of COVID-19 among Kurdish speakers, a questionnaire of five questions has been created on www.forms.app and sent to 1185 participants via SNSs, namely Viber and Facebook messenger.
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The concept of Sociolinguistic competence has various theories that date back to the 1960s. But little could I find about the origin and evolution of the idea of sociolinguistic competence. I shall be happy if someone could throw some light on the origin and evolution of the concept of sociolinguistic competence.
Thanks in anticipation.
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Mohialdeen Alotumi Thank You very much
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From the perspective of linguistics in general and sociolinguistics in particular what are the affordances of collaboration between linguists and sociologists?
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There is already found marriage between linguistics and sociology in such sociological methodology as ethnomethodology, which considers not only routine practises, but ordinary, daily language. If there will appear more daily life research of celebrities', ordinary or marginal groups, certainly, more marriages between linguistics and sociology will appear.
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I am a sociolinguist/applied linguist whose part of research focuses on heritage language education. I would like to know details on GCSE/A levels in community languages (number of those who sit those exams, grades and pass rates, which languages, how many boards, chronological changes etc.). Where do I find data on GCSE/A levels in community languages?
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Assuming you're referring to the UK context, I'd think that this kind of data may be kept private in the Department of Education. Perhaps it's worth trying to check with the National Resource Centre for Supplementary Education https://www.supplementaryeducation.org.uk/
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Fore instance, the hero is from a working class and another character, in the same novel, is a middle class. I want to study how each character can project his/her class membership.
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I do agree with the amazing answer and opinions of dr. Amjed 🌹🌺
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Hi everyone. I'm actually doing a study on the teaching of sociolinguistic competence. I'd like to know what you think of research on the area of sociolinguistic competence. I noticed that more people focus specifically on speech acts. I understand that speech acts also falls under pragmatic competence. I have an opinion that maybe people prefer to do studies on speech acts (and not other aspects of sociolinguistic competence) because they are more easily measurable and observable. What do you think?
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As far as I understand your question, there is a thin line between sociolinguistic competence and pragmatic competence. Rest, I agree with Jinan F.B Al-Hajaj that we can hardly think of sociolinguistic competence as an autonomous.
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Any academic journal articles published in recent time (no more than five years) about language policies to preserve a language in danger and their success/fails, case studies of any minor language that`s spoken in North America, or, would be highly appreciated, if you could send me the doi to the article about the comprehensive study of such programs (advantages and disadvantages of such language companies and their results included).
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Hello, here are some titles for your consideration:
Bilingualism in schools and society: Language, identity, and policy (https://rb.gy/i1ozrj)
Endangered languages and languages in danger: Issues of documentation, policy, and language rights (https://rb.gy/pgehof)
Languages in danger of death and their relation with globalization, business and economy (shorturl.at/orEW8)
The cultures of Native North American language documentation and revitalization (https://doi.org/10.1080/00938157.2016.1179522)
Why save a minority language? Meänkieli and rationales of language revitalization (https://doi.org/10.11143/fennia.74047)
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The public question is to all experts of linguists, applied linguists and sociolinguists. This helps to figure out the impact of society in language and the impact of language in society.
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I would say that there is a great influence of the Society on the language and its behavior. Taking into account terms such as: "linguistic attitude" or "linguistic identity". The first refers to the responses that as individuals or a community we make to the use of the language of a certain individual or social group, these can be: rejection, acceptance, prestige, pride. It also has a great influence on the adoption, use or study of a language. so that, if a language has prestige, the more likely it is to be reproduced or spoken; Quite the opposite happens with languages ​​that do not enjoy that prestige, due to disuse, they are gradually forgotten until they become extinct. On the other hand, linguistic identity is the link we have with a speaking community. Duzak (2002) indicates that we do not develop a single linguistic identity, but rather that according to situations and contexts we adapt a multiplicity of identities.
However, taking into account aspects such as the use of language in a community, and its impact on the modification and acceptance of certain rules regarding speech, we find phenomena such as the insertion of terms that we could consider incorrect in the Dictionary of the Real Language Academy.
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Grateful for tips on published official estimates, research papers, etc. which attempt to estimate what proportion of the world's bilinguals are mono-literate. Many thanks if anyone has anything.  
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Following.
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social network model is used mainly to study language maintenance and shift. thus i understand there must be a bilingual society or cases like immigrants and so on. in my case is it okay to study this model in a monolingual society to find the influence of social ties on a sociolinguistic practice between two ares identified in the question. thanks a lot
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Good answer Daniel Z. Kadar
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For my English Sociolinguistics class, I have to interview different exchange students (who are non-native speakers of English) and study their use of English. I have to analyze one aspect of the ESL verb phrase and write a research paper about this special use. Does anyone know certain aspects which would definitely be interesting to analyze?
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Process of second language learning. Are you looking at proficiency? Or influence and reliance on grammar from the first language may be of interest. Another focus - influence of the use of verb tenses from the first language. Do they all reflect this pattern? If not, why not? This could make your analysis comparative and, possibly more text linguistic. Not sure if that is what you are aiming for. Where are the research gaps? Lit review should determine this. :-) Hope this helps
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I'm often very skeptical about the language decisions and policies issued by governments or self-proclaimed language authorities to control the way people use language. Nevertheless, I'm just curious to know if there is evidence for the (partial or full) success of such a top-down approach in some contexts.
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Hi Moustafa Amrate This is a really thought-provoking question. In the past, that was certainly the case in many different European contexts, see for example what the prescriptivists tried to do with the English language (for ex. Dryden wanted to "fix" the language) and the (mostly failed attempts) of the Royal Society to reform the language in the XVII century. Today three examples of academies that are considered as sources of how language should be used are the Académie française in France. This body gives prescriptive rules on how good French should be, even though I don't think it uses measures to enforce its recommendations (but I'm not sure). The same can be said about the Royal Spanish Academy in Spain that gives recommendations for standardisation in the many Spanish-speaking countries (with controversies about what real Spanish is, considering that Standard Spanish is simply a regional variety, Castillan - something that it is true for EVERY Standard) is THE prevailing variety. In Italy we have the Accademia della Crusca, even though I suspect this is not formally into language planning policies as in other contexts.
It is not by chance that all these languages that I am here referring to are Romance languages, with a long history of well-established prescriptivism.
Hope this may be useful, this is not my area of study, just some comments :)
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I am doing a research on artificial (non-native) bilingualism, i.e. when a child is brought up a foreign language in a monolingual family environment, providing the language taught is not a mother tongue of any of the parents.
I would like to apply a sociolinguistic model in my research, such as the model of horizontal and vertical multilingualism, the model of social networks, or the model of ethnolinguistic vitality. The problem is that within this kind of bilingualism, it is difficult to determine sociological variables such as the number of speakers, the territory where it is used, the institutional support and so on.
Is it possible to apply any of these sociolinguistic models to this type of bilingualism? What kind of approach would be appropriate to study artificial bilingualism?
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Thank you very much, Manuel! The article is worth reading, indeed...It helped me a lot.
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Hi everyone. I'm actually doing a study on the teaching of sociolinguistic competence. I'd like to know what you think of research on the area of sociolinguistic competence.
I noticed that more people focus specifically on speech acts. I understand that speech acts also falls under pragmatic competence (if you're referring to Bachman). I have an opinion that maybe people prefer to do studies on speech acts (and not other aspects of sociolinguistic competence) because they are more easily measurable and observable.
What do you think?
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Interesting question! Here are my thoughts (apologies if I misunderstood what you are after).
To begin with the obvious, ‘sociolinguistic competence’ should encompass something more than linguistic competence, i.e. mainstream accounts on grammatical skills, etc. ‘Something more’ here means social aspects within and beyond the speaking subject. This could be, for example, the social skill of knowing what to do with linguistic skills; that is, the speaking subject’s ability to make use of the resources s/he has acquired, in ways which others will find socially acceptable. I would recommend looking into the work of Hymes and Bourdieu, as they were among the first to break with purely linguistic accounts, so as to additionally account for the social. A lot of good research has later come out of that, I think. In my view, ‘pragmatic competence’, ’communicative competence’, and the like, are all sociolinguistic competences. It is thus a wide field of inquiry.
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I was assigned to conduct a fieldwork in Malaysia related using sociolinguistics theory's framework. The focus of this research is the migration of minority communities from Indonesia to Malaysia. This study includes the languages choices ​​by the community which believed has been evolved from language A to language Ab. Therefore, based on the above subject, what theoretical framework that can be applied to this study?
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depends on your data - could be ideology, identity, power relations, style... socio-political...
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“Emoción en la interacción digital: de los recursos lingüísticos a los emojis, memes y stickers”
Pedido de contribuciones
Envío de las propuestas: hasta el 15 de julio de 2019
Notificación de contribuciones aceptadas: 31 de octubre de 2019
La Revista de Estudios del Discurso Digital (REDD) invita a investigadores que trabajen en lengua española a enviar manuscritos para su segundo número, cuyo tema central es “Emoción en la interacción digital: de los recursos lingüísticos a los emojis, memes y stickers”. El objetivo de este número especial es atender a diferentes recursos y estrategias que los usuarios emplean para canalizar la expresividad en las interacciones digitales (escritas y orales). Desde los primeros recursos textuales que se emplearon (abreviaciones, mayúsculas y minúsculas alternadas y otras estrategias de escritura creativa) a los diferentes recursos multimodales que las interfaces ofrecieron, los usuarios han desarrollado un repertorio de estrategias pragmáticas para canalizar sus intenciones comunicativas.
En este número se priorizarán los trabajos de alta calidad que describan y analicen algunas de las siguientes temáticas en relación a una o más plataformas (redes sociales, correo electrónico, etc.) y/o tipos textuales (textos breves, chats, post/comentarios, mensajería instantánea, etc.):
1. Evolución diacrónica de los recursos expresivos.
2. Usos y funciones de emojis, memes, stickers, videos, etc. en la interacción digital.
3. Recursos expresivos en la interacción digital oral (videos, videollamadas, audios).
Los artículos podrán ser tanto reflexiones teóricas como análisis empírico de un conjunto de datos. En el caso de que utilicen corpus, estos deberán ser recolectados bajo protocolos éticos que salvaguarden la identidad de los interlocutores. Por otro lado, y dado que el principal interés de REDD es la lengua española, se valorarán los artículos que atiendan a la riqueza y variación inter e intralingüística del español empleado en las interacciones digitales. Asimismo, se invita a todos los interesados publicar en la revista a enviar propuestas para el segundo número de contenido general. El plazo de recepción de aportaciones para REDD se encuentra abierto durante todo el año.
Indicaciones para enviar manuscritos
Los manuscritos deberán ser enviados por vía electrónica mediante el Portal de Revistas UVa (Universidad de Valladolid, España), en la siguiente dirección: https://revistas.uva.es/index.php/redd.
Los artículos tendrán una extensión máxima de 15.000 palabras (incluyendo tablas, gráficos, ilustraciones y bibliografía) y respetar las normas editoriales de la revista. Se deberá enviar maquetado en la plantilla de REDD. Todos los textos que cumplan estos requisitos serán revisados por pares ciegos. La decisión de publicación será comunicada a los autores en un plazo máximo de tres meses.
Para informaciones adicionales, enviar un correo electrónico a revista.discurso.digital@uva.es
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Violeta Cautin-Epifani te envío por privado! :)
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I am a full time university teacher of sociolinguistics in Algeria. Is it possible to find a new job opportunity as a teacher in any university abroad, say, in the Gulf, Canada, Europe or Asia? and if YES, what are some of the main eligibility requirements one needs to have to get the job? any ideas or suggestions?
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One of the most important requirements to teach sociolinguistics in international universities is research publications, especially those related to top-tier journals such as Sociology of Language and Sociolinguistics. Of course, teaching quality is also important and the employer may require you to attach a teaching evaluation form. All in all, it would be really hard to be short-listed but it is worth trying. Good luck.
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Bourdieusian methodology insists in using all three concepts in analysis: habitus, capital and field. I have no problem with linguistic habitus and linguistic capital: these concepts are clear and easy to grasp and analyse for different language speakers. But what about the field? My research concerns bilingual speakers and languages are used in different "fields". Aren't these fields the same as different domains? Like home, school, public places etc.?
Thanks for sharing your thoughts in advance!
Sabina
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Antoon De Rycker Thank you very much for your very concise and good answer. I also find the field very useful concept when researching special social space in detail or for researching society on a big scale and big data. Still, I have found myself in a bit of methodological mess, because I am working on a linguistic behaviour of a (small) ethnic group, located in a special geographic area. Sure there are some fields to consider also there (educational, media etc), but to describe or analyse that “class” of bilingual speakers, who practice their bilingualism in more or less all fields (the premise of balanced bilingualism), you have to consider the family (or private domain) and you have to consider public domain. I can hardly name these domains “the field”… this is my (Boursieusian?) problem.
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Dear Colleagues at RG,
As a college English instructor who has taught everything from literature to scientific writing, I was taught ways to read essays in order to grade them that were far from my own field.
Scientists often complain that in this time of increasing specialization they can no longer understand research reports from domains outside their own.
Do some colleagues have methods to share that allow use to understand essays or technical reports outside our own fields?
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Many thanks, Agnieszka Will geb. Gronek !
I hope grad students read this who are assigned large stacks of research essays outside their own areas.
Here are the three key parts in outline form (from my Ph.D. professor):
METHODS (note number of subjects in experiment and who is funding if noted in this or INTRO.) Who funded the study is most important when cnsidering possible biased findings or not.
DISCUSSION OF DATA AND EXPERIMENT (skim this unless needed for evaluating the text. May have difficult material such as advanced equations ans innumerbale names of chemical reactions, etc.)
CONCLUSION
The Intro, methods, and conclusion can re written in understandable langauge. If more is needed, get help from a person of that speciality.
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What does the term social register refer to in socio linguistics?
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In sociolinguistics, the term social register refers to specific lexical and grammatical choices as made by speakers depending on the social situational context like formality level , the participants relation and distance of a conversation and the function of the language in the discourse.
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Good day! I need some topic suggestions for my Language and Linguistic Research class. Can you please help me with a researchable topic? I prefer applied, corpus, or sociolinguistics. Thank you!
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Applied linguistics includes teaching languages' the fist language & the second language', different kinds of written and spoken texts (corpus linguistics), style, sociolinguistics, compiling dictionaries, machine translation, language and brain 'neurolinguistics', language disorders.
Good luck
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"Txtng: The Gr8 Db8" is the name of the famous book on texting written by David Crystal.
What is the name of the language used in social media?
Is it texting, text messages, textism, netspeak, thumbspeak net write, ICT English, computer mediated communication, internet language, chat language? Does it have an agreed upon name?
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As a field of study still in its infancy, I don't think there is an agree upon definition for the various terminology out there. Crystal himself referred to it as 'netspeak and textspeak' in his glossary, but it is from 2004 so this may not reflect current usage. 'Textese' also appears commonly in recent scholarly literature. Perhaps you could do keyword search terms in some research databases and see what comes up more frequently?
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Any tips on running small-scale research projects with undergrads as part of coursework component? (It will be something on sociolinguistic variation). I want them to collect some data which we will pool together and analyse. What have you learnt from past successes/failures?
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Hi. "Face and facework in daily conversation and debates". This can also be informed using Arundale, whose article introduces an innovative approach to analyzing the way participants in a verbal interaction preserve or violate face. It is beyond Brown & Levinson' s (1987) good framework to deal with face and politeness. Hope you will find it more useful. Good Luck and keep up encouraging your students to do and find novel issues.
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what are some of the Western universities which provide full scholarships in sociolinguistics or anthropological linguistics for international students? and are there any useful post-doc programs in the same disciplines?
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Researchers in sociolinguistic variation sressed on the importance of original regional dialect ORD as the a sentimental social factor when considering sampling and data collection. This importance stems from the fact that samples in any given study should reflect the real stratification of the speech community under study. In other words, samples should be stratified and hence be pure when things come to dialects spoken in that community. And that purification will ONLY be attained through taking this factor into consideration. I am in the process of conducting a study where I will argue that though ORD is very important, it doesn't guarantee the purification required. Instead, another yet more important factor is what researchers MUST take care of besides the ORD factor. That factor is the amount of contact. To sum up, ORD alone is not enough. It should be twined and/or followed by determining the amount of contact for the sample.
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By amount of contact, I mean the degree of cross-linguistic and cross-dialectal exposure.
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The default academic assumption in linguistics is that people speak one language at a time. So when speakers code-switch, so the theory goes, they draw from a competent understanding of more than one language they have in common with another speaker and switch from one grammar to the other at various predictable junctures.
Why not view it, if just for fun, from the perspective that the default is that people use whatever linguistic tools or other communicative devices are at their disposal regardless of how we might categorize what belongs to what language and regardless of competence within a language?
Recently, I listened as my Mexican neighbor, who has very limited English ability, conversed with my USA-born son, who picked up limited Spanish from co-workers over the past decade or so. With each understanding very little of each other's native vocabulary and unable to execute much formal syntax of the respective non-native language, they managed to get the message through. At times, they drew from a sign language that neither speaker had any systematic understanding of.
Does the situation of limited ability in a language describe the norm, or does communication necessarily grow from a competent internalized grammar of more than one language? Is traditional code-switching among competent speakers just an extension of cases where the speakers might be less than competent in any common language?
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The members of one culture do things in special patterned ways for specific culturally shared and understood meanings . I think the position is totally different in different cultures in manner of misunderstands . The same is true for my colleagues Indians , French , Chinese code-switching when they have a secret talk and they don't want others to know. Some times a lot of jokes occur in that areas . As a fun .@
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It depends on what you want to measure. Sociolinguistic scale is a very broad term and constructing a scale that measures every aspect of sociolinguistics is not possible.
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Is there a social justice problem behind the dominance of English in scientific writing? ... (and I'm writing this in English! how is that for irony?) I'm curious to get your input/experiences and also some references.
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We are creating the discussions and use English so it is a resource in a positive sense. Why English? Of course it is the matter of power but it's been historical process and no sense in condemning it now - we have to deal with it, and leave space for other languages including minor languages and in science too. There is an author writing on linguistic imperialism - Robert Philipson - he published a lot on that.
I personally think major languages representing major economies will be used in all processes during our way to Industry 4.0 and I assume within the Industry 4.0 era minor languages will be in the most vulnerable position and might not survive that era. However if they do survive and reach the next stage - Society 5.0 - they will have a chance as the technology will be supposed to serve human needs first, not businesses and languages as well as age and gender will stop being a tool for personal social and professional development - but that is the distant perspective and more of a hypothetical view
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I was asked to design a course description for MA Linguistics particularly Sociolinguistics and Stylistics.
Can anyone suggest some good books for these two courses ?
Thank you very much indeed!
Jamal Kaid
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The fields of linguistics are lot and you need to decide which one you are interested in. Then, google what you need.
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I have a question about the formulation of hypothesis in an ethnographic research? i read a couple of books and found opposing views. In her discussion of participant-observation method, Schilling Estes (2013) says  that we can "consider what we observe, formulating and reformulating hypotheses, then return back to the community for more focused observations based on our ever more finely tuned hypotheses" (p. 117), whereas Eckert (2000) notes that “Rather than testing hypotheses against predetermined categories, ethnography is, among other things, a search for local categories. Thus while survey fieldwork focuses on filling in a sample, ethnographic fieldwork focuses on finding out what is worth sampling.”.  I am a bit confused which one is more suitable for an ethnographic fieldwork in a sociolinguistic study? to proceed with research questions or to formulate a testable hypothesis right from the scratch?
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Hi,
Actually, there are opposing views in ethnography on this issue. Broadly speaking, If you prefered extended case method, you would start with a theory and go into the field, then go back to the theory to elaborate it. However, if you would prefer gorunded theory, you would enter the field without a specific theory and you would end up with a theory. For extended case method, I suggest you to look at Buroway and for grounded theory , as the previous answer mentioned, Glaser and Strauss.
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I am working on a Ph.D. research proposal related to road names. Ï considered it to be a sub- field of sociolinguistics but according to universities, where I applied for Ph.D. admission, it isn't. It would be good to know if onomastics and particularly place name studies can be considered a sub- field or part of linguistic anthropology. It would save my time.
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Hello,
If you haven’t yet, you could take a look at the following works:
Matsyuk, H. (2014) ‘Urban Street Names as a Marker of Language/Authority Interaction in Ukraine: Soviet (1922-1991) and Post-Soviet Periods (1991-2011).’ In: Names in Daily Life: Proceedings of the XXIV International Congress of Onomastic Sciences, pp. 361 – 369, Generalitat de Catalunya
Kostanski, L. and Puzey, G., (eds.), 2016, Names and Naming: People, Places, Perceptions and Power, Multilingual Matters, Bristol
Neethling, B. (2016) ‘Street Names: A Changing Urban Landscape.’ In: The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming, Hough, C. (ed), pp. 144 – 157, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Puzey, G. (2016) ‘Linguistic Landscapes.’ In: The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming, Hough, C. (ed), pp. 395 – 411, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Taylor, S. (2016) ‘Methodologies in Place-name Research.’ In: The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming, Hough, C. (ed), pp. 69 – 86, Oxford University Press, Oxford
In terms of methodology, you could check out ‘interactional onomastics’ which is a comparatively new approach within socio-onomastics:
De Stefani, E. (2012). ‘Crossing perspectives on onomastic methodology: Reflections on fieldwork in place name research. An essay in interactional onomastics.’ In A. Ender, A. Leemann, & B. Wälchli (Eds.), Methods in Contemporary Linguistics (pp. 441-462). Berlin/New York: Mouton De Gruyter .
De Stefani, E. (2016) ‘Names and Discourse.’ In: The Oxford Handbook of Names and Naming, Hough, C. (ed), pp. 52 – 68, Oxford University Press, Oxford
De Stefani, E., Gazin, A.-D., & Ticca, A. C. (2012). ‘Space in social interaction. An introduction.’ Bulletin VALS-ASLA, 96 (pp. 1-14).
Good luck!
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I'm aware of some projects in sociolinguistics and historical linguistics that share their data either in an open access format, without any substantial restrictions or delays, or without any "application" process as long as the work is for non-profit purposes. The idea is that everything that goes beyond a simple "Safeguard" letter hinders the maximal exploitation of limited and valuable resources.
These best practice examples, which make (often publicly-funded) data collections available to the public deserve recognition. While I can think of many historical data collection, the Helsinki Corpora Family or the BYU corpora, the more contemporary the data get, the fewer resources are publicly accessible. On the more contemporary end, I can think of, as exceptions,
* the Linguistic Atlas Project (http://www.lap.uga.edu)
and our own
* J. K. Chambers Dialect Topography database (http://dialect.topography.chass.utoronto.ca)
* Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles (www.dchp.ca/dchp2).
Which other projects of active data sharing do you know?
I'd appreciate your input for a list of Best Practice Data Collections that I'm preparing.
Best wishes,
Stefan D.
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MICASE (the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English) has been open access since completion. No registration required!
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I have heard a lot of people say that Chinese is the most difficult language to learn. What are your views? Do you believe it is accurate to assume that Chinese/Mandarin really is the most difficult language to lean comparing to all the world languages?
Please share your thoughts!
Regards
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I totally agree with Nael Hijjo and I strongly believe that any serious linguist would. Nevertheless, it is always positive challenge to discuss about it. First of all, we should define "difficult to learn", in terms of oral aspect, written aspect, grammar etc. Mandarin Chinese is an analytical language (grammatically isolating), which uses little or no inflection to indicate grammatical relationships, so from this point of view it is considered one of the easiest languages to learn. But then we have tones, and phonetics and things get more complicated. So one should specify "difficulty" with clear scientific criteria. If we step out of the strictly objective scientific area, should I be asked to make a list in order of "difficulty", and following my own multilingual experience, Mandarin Chinese would definitely be in the middle. I would probably top list Japanese, Hungarian and Slovenian, for almost exclusively grammatical reasons.
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there seems to be certain definite similarities in certain words and the logic in which hindi and mandarin flow. besides the tongue moves similarly too in some cases. so may be hindi speakers have an advantage ..?
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I don't think so. There is no one language that is easier or harder than the other. It is a common misconception that people believe that Mandarin is a difficult language to learn. All languages are the same but it is related to the motivation of the learner when learning a language. E.g.: A worker from India working in China will learn Mandarin quickly because in order to get a job, s/he must know how to communicate with the people.
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I have a diglossic situation, in which the main different between L and H seems to be in the realm of grammar (also vocabulary, but less so). Can you recommend any specific literature on that, especially contemporary theories? I have already covered most of the general literature on diglossia.
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Depending on the the grammatical structures you'd like to focus on, the answers will vary. However, here is a good resource on dimensions of register:
Dimensions of Register Variation: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison by Douglas Biber https://goo.gl/LaVxip
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I am doing a research and the question is “does students’ perceptions of the (non)-native-like status of teachers’ accent significantly predict their teachers’ credibility evaluations?”
I want to know regarding the procedure for answering this question, what questionnaire to use for this purpose to be filled by students in an EFL setting?
By the way for evaluation of teacher's credibility I have decided to use mccroskey teacher credibility questionnaire.
I really appreciate your kind help and reply in advance.
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I would write it this way: I am doing a research project and the question is "Do students' perceptions of the (non)-native-like status of a teacher's accent significantly predict their teacher's credibility evaluations?”
I assume the reference is to an individual teacher, not a group of teachers. If it is more than one teacher, however, the apostrophe would stay after the 's'.
Thanks for being so open about grammar corrections. Glad you found the correct questionnaire, too. Good luck with the project!
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Language and gap generation
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when I do my research about the language used among teens, I find the phenomenon that the use of slang words by young people is not intended to make distance with older generation but to show a closer relationship with the older participant. But may be is different with what happen in your place....
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This topic is particularly intriguing and my major research interest at the moment. FYI: I'm currently exploring representations of Hawai'i Creole English across several different genres and the sociolinguistic meaning/impact of these representations for my Ph.D.
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Not sure why this is directed at me: has nothing to do with my current research.
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I'm aware of some studies that modify Milroy's index, but all of these indices are rather arbitrary. I'm not actually aware of any variationist studies that make use of things like PageRank, degree centrality, closeness centrality, etc., i.e. centrality measures that have actually been thoroughly developed in social network analysis.
I'm using such measures in my thesis, but I don't want to assume that they're simply never used in sociolinguistics, and if they are used, I want to be able to see how they've been used elsewhere and compare results. If anyone can point me to some relevant studies, it would be much appreciated.
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Check out the work of Robin Dodsworth (NCSU); I bet it's touched on this kind of thing.
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I want to interview non-native speakers of English, but I am not a native speaker, so to avoid certain implications of this (unnatural setting, accommodation, etc.), I am thinking of sending them the questions and ask them to record themselves. Has anyone done this before? Are any methodological drawbacks I should consider?
Thanks!
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Thanks a lot, everyone. It's been really helpful.
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I am doing research on socio-affective strategies used by language learners in EFL classes.
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you may read Oxford (1990) Language Learning Strategies: What Should every teacher know. At the end of the book you find a taxonomy of language learning strategies which may help you.
All the best
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I'm considering using Twitter data I've collected for one research project to also do a study of orthographic variation. It seems like a topic that could be treated in much the same way as phonetic variation is treated in sociolinguistics, but I'm not familiar with any studies that treat it as such or that even consider the pitfalls of such an approach. What would be some relevant literature to review on the topic, assuming that any literature even exists on it?
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This is a fascinating question and just starting to be investigated over the last few years. So much more to be done!
Best place to start, in my opinion:
Tatman, Rachael (2015). #go awn: Sociophonetic variation in variant spellings on Twitter. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle of the University of Victoria, 25(2), 97-108. <https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/WPLC/article/view/13645/5912>
Tatman, Rachael (2016). "I'm a spawts guay": Comparing the use of sociophonetic variables in speech and Twitter. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 22(2), Article 18. <http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1938&context=pwpl>
Work-in-progress that I know about:
Dinkin, Aaron (2014). A phonological variable in a textual medium: (ING) in online chat. Paper presented at Change and Variation in Canada 8 (Kingston, Ontario, Canada - May 31-June 1, 2014). <http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~dinkin/IMinHandout.pdf>
Lamontagne, Jeffrey, and Gretchen McCulloch (2017). Wayyy longgg: Orthotactics and phonology in lengthening on Twitter. Paper presented at the 91st Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America (Austin, Texas, USA - January 5-8, 2017).
McCulloch, Gretchen, and Jeffrey Lamontagne (2017). Troppppp loooongueuuhhhh: Orthographic lengthening across French dialects. Poster presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 46 (Madison, Wisconsin, USA - November 2-5, 2017).
Dalola, Amanda (2017). #YouAreWhatYouTweet: Identity and vowel devoicing in French-language tweets. Poster presented at New Ways of Analyzing Variation (NWAV) 46 (Madison, Wisconsin, USA - November 2-5, 2017).
Some background sources likely to be helpful:
Tagliamonte, Sali A., and Derek Denis (2008). Linguistic ruin? LOL! Instant messaging and teen language. American Speech, 83(1), 3-34.
Squires, Lauren (2012). Whos punctuating what? Sociolinguistic variation in instant messaging. In Alexandra Jaffe, Jannis Androutsopoulos, Mark Sebba, and Sally Johnson (eds.), Orthography as social action: Scripts, spelling, identity and power, 289-324. Mouton de Gruyter.
Tagliamonte, Sali A. (2016). So sick or so cool? The language of youth on the internet. Language in Society, 45(1), 1-32.
Squires, Lauren (2016a). Computer-mediated communication and the English writing system. In Vivian Cook and Des Ryan (eds.), The Routledge handbook of the English writing system, 471-486. Routledge.
Squires, Lauren (ed.) (2016). English in computer-mediated communication: Variation, representation, and change. De Gruyter.
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Are there instances in  ancient history were people would greet others with cuss words? A contemporary example is how some people now a days would call each other "yo dawg". Are there similar instances similar to this in ancient history?
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There are plenty of examples of greetings that to an outsider would seem to be derogatory, although whether these qualify as 'cuss words' is another matter.
The most famous from antiquity may be the emperor Gaius' nickname Caligula, a greeting that was certainly shouted to him when he succeeded to the purple. One which he came to hate because of its derogatory overtones, Mary Beard glosses it as 'bootykins'.
If we look to the medieval Icelandic sagas these sort of derogatory greetings seem common. Although only among friends, if someone outside one's circle used them they might seem to be an insult and trigger violence. The use of epithets for elites in other parts of Europe suggests these attitudes were widespread, e.g. Longshanks, Wolf, Crookback, Bald or Ugly.
I suspect one of the problems maybe that authors would not have been prepared to demean their works with profanities and therefore examples of cuss words as greetings may fail to be recorded. I very much doubt that the response of the soldiers to Claudius' envoy who was attempting to get them to invade Britain was anywhere near as polite as the language Tacitus uses to describe it.
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I'm attempting to design a satisfaction-based survey that will be implemented globally in challenging contexts, in particular, for vulnerable populations in a migration context. This survey will be administered to beneficiaries of programming. This group is challenging to design for due to the variety of geographical, sociopolitical and socioeconomic contexts. As such, the design is aiming to be accessible as possible and to be as translatable as possible in different sociolinguistic and literacy-related contexts. Would you happen to have any lessons learned on scaling questions for similar populations? The scaling and questions need to be as simple to understand as possible and we're aiming for the survey to be minimal in burdening our participants. Many thanks in advance.
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Hi Emily, Sounds like a worthwhile project.  The whole enterprise of surveys and translation is quite tricky.  The Bay Area Bilingual Education League (BABEL) has a long history with this issue and they explicitly addressed it way back in the late 1960s. Their work is still well-recognized in this regard.  I found a copy of the report and have attached it. Especially look at Part 4. 
Additionally, (as any linguist will tell you ...so forgive me if this seems simplistic) the idea of direct and equivalent translation from one language to another is not often as easy as it seems. That is, a simple and concrete noun (or verb) in one language may not be as simple and concrete in other languages....the real key to a successful translation of a tool from one language to the other generally lies in the conceptual translation you use rather than the specific lexeme. So try and make your lexicon straightforward and then run the translation by native speakers (preferably interpreters) of the language and "field test" your vocabulary and concepts. 
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In the list of the competences from the Common European Frameworks, there is such a common competence which I find particulary essential, i.e. so-called existential competence (savoir-être). However, I doubt that many English teachers know how to deal with it. In one of the works by Russian author it is prposed to measure it with use of psychometric tests. I wonder if other methods exist and are used. 
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Dear Sophia Polyankina,
There is a book that might give you some clues to answer your question: "The Geography of Time," Robert Levine.
Good luck!
Dionéia Monte-Serrat
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I am still lacking informants from the working class, especially in Devon (I'm researching rhoticity in the South-West). Would anybody have suggestions on how to recruit them to sociolinguistic interviews (e.g in Exeter)?
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Thanks, Matthew and Yang. I have to record a few more people but things are going in the right direction now. It seemed that it is much easier to ask for an interview in shops, garages etc. when there are fewer people visiting (usually between 10:00–11:00 in the morning). I need a few young people from the working-class and I should be fine. It also seems that people are happier when the weather is nicer ;)
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Hi, I am looking for references concerned with language transfer or interference from foreign language to mother tongue.
We would like to test how sensitive are Croatian speakers fluent in German to German morphosyntactic features in Croatian (e. g. verb at the end of the sentence, use of indefinite articles etc.), but are not entirely sure how to design the psycholinguistic test. We believe the language transfer would influence the translation procedure into mother tongue.
Neurolinguistic studies are also very welcome.
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Thank you all very much!
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I have collected my data by observing students, interviewing them and conducting focus group with them. I'd like to look at this data from the perspective of students' identity. 
I'd like to know if I could use adjectives to describe and interpret the students' identities or if it is not necessarily just adjectives. Other than adjectives, how else can I describe students' identity? 
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Dear Zurina khairuddin,
Thank you for the interesting question. As you have rightly observed, students entering classrooms possess a rich and complex identity behind them that are characteristically different from one another. As such, gauging students' identity can help teachers and practitioners to discover their abilities, aptitude and their objectives . This is essentially important because by becoming aware of learners' identity, teachers can unfold learners' attitudinal mental profile in order to assist them to reach maximum effectiveness. The main question is: How to measure identity? Using and analyzing students' verbal production ,both in written and spoken modes, seems  to be the key method of measuring identities. Therefore, your focus on adjectives is quite appropriate. Of course, another technique has been introduced by Kettanun above. However, there are other useful techniques that can help you to triangulate your qualitative data analysis. The following links, are sources that I hope can be helpful.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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When a speaker of Arabic inserts English words of common usage to his/her utterances, is this a case of code-switching and worth investigation?
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On code-switching I found the following book both interesting and readable. It offers a good overview of relevant literature.
Gardner-Chloros, P., 2009. Code-switching. Cambridge University Press.
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Basically, I am working on a sociolinguistic project, trying to write a paper on Polish language in the North America. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
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Hi Filip,
I am afraid I am not familiar with Polish language studies. related to my own research I have come across this paper, which doesn't seem to be what you are looking for, but I am sending anyway :)
Steen Folke Larsen , Robert W. Schrauf , Pia Fromholt & David C. Rubin (2002)
Inner speech and bilingual autobiographical memory: A Polish-Danish cross-cultural study, Memory,
10:1, 45-54, DOI: 10.1080/09658210143000218
all the best with your project
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If yes, can you provide me some articles? I would like to know about the role of laughter in sociolinguistics. Thank you 
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Prof. Sophie Scott, expert & nice person: https://www.ted.com/talks/sophie_scott_why_we_laugh
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For example, any story or description of a historical events that give us some insights about the sociolinguistic aspects of language and or society of that time.
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There is a sizable literature on language contact and the New Testament -- specifically on Semitisms (usually assumed to be due to influence from Aramaic, the  regional lingua franca spoken at the time  the New Testament was written) in New Testament Greek.  Googling "Semitisms in New Testament Greek" will get you to some of that literature.  
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I reviewed the existing literature about the effects of portfolio and I noticed that it has positive effect on reading comprehension and writing. Do you think that reflection on a paper can have positive effect on speaking and communication skills or no?
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Hi Sharam, the attachment will only answer partly to your question but point out some other benefits of (e)Portfolios.
Mozelius, P. (2013). Learning by Building–the Lunarstorm Generation Constructing Their own ePortfolios. In 12th European Conference on e-Learning (ECEL 2013), 30-31 October 2013, Sophia Antipolis, France (pp. 319-322). Academic Conferences and Publishing International.
Kind regards,
/Peter
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I am trying to get corpus linguistic methodologies involved in studying language maintenance and /or shift instead of using traditional method such as questionnaire, interviews...etc.
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Studying language shift through documented language use is obviously better than questionnaires etc, but it presupposes some language tools that may not be available for all languages. I am speaking of general, multipurpose language tools here.
Ideally, you need (1) a corpus covering the period you wish to study (from before to after), (2) a digitised speller, i.e. some kind of full form generator documenting the standard. You can then run the full form generator against different time sections of the corpus and look at what you get, specify etc.
There are a number of difficulties which will need to be dealt with, the first one being the size of the corpus. For Norwegian we have both the full form generator and a corpus of 100 million + tokens, covering the period 1866-2015. But the full form generator would be useless on the text from before 1940, because the orthography before 1940 is too variable, and the text mass too small.
Then you should ideally have comparable text selections from the different time periods. But our corpus has virtually no newspaper text from before 1998, while newspaper text dominates after 1998. This is because early newspaper text has to be keyed in manually, and keying costs money.
We have run the sort of comparison I talked about earlier on the post-1940 part of the corpus. We were faced with some results which I believe would turn up for most languages, i.e.
half the possible word forms from the full form generator were not found in the corpus. (Norwegian is a medium inflected, compounding language - eight possible noun forms)
half of the word forms from the full form generator that occurred in the corpus, occurred only once.
half the tokens of the corpus occurred once only.
ca 350  tokens equalled 50 % of the corpus token mass (prepositions, conjunctions etc)
After this possibly discouraging comment, I would still encourage collecting actual language as a corrective to questionnaires etc. Ideally, such materials should be formatted and saved as part of a larger text corpus.
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I am planning to conduct a study on spousal communication in terms of how they cope with pain. However, I cant seem to look for a suitable framework to adapt into my study. I am hoping to get some helpful suggestions. Thank you in advance.
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I always admired psychologist John Gottman's transactional analysis methods. I don't know whether there is a sociolinguistic angle to be exploited, and his research was very focused on relationship outcomes (e.g., divorce) and preventing divorce. But one of the findings he's promoted heavily is that the ratio of positive to negative transactions is more important than the number of positive or negative transactions. He suggests that this explains why couple that fight regularly don't split up (because they have many other positive interactions).
I'm not an expert in Gottman's methods and a lot of the Internet links I found are for marriage therapy using his methods. The link I found was a student who used Gottman's methods in their thesis (starting on page 18).
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I've been working with the impoliteness theory, researching the Brazilian community in Boston area and I'd like some suggestions that could be helpful to comprehend better what methods of the theory to investigate my datas would be best. Also some advice about bibliography. 
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I am not in Politness studies but search for Ahmad Izadi articles. he is working in this area.
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Dear All,
I was wondering whether anyone had any reference to suggest to me on how people pay and express their condolences in "real life", therefore f2f and written communication, and on social media.
Any comment is really welcome.
Thank you!
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Maria:
You have gotten very good resources from Harshvardhan. I can only add that teenagers in school can also use it to deal with similar issues regarding their classmates, perhaps, those who might have attempted suicide. An example of how Social Media was used to engage students in their popular communication space can help to show the process to be used:
Best regards,
Debra
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For example, if there are particular forms of polite language in the Victorian England. 
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Philadelphia, PA
Dear Palaiopanou,
A text which I have found particularly useful on this topic is R.W. Emerson's essay "Behavior" which was published in his 1860 book of essays, The Conduct of Life:
Emerson describes in some considerable detail the uses of good manners, and a chief point of interest is that "manners are  factious," meaning that they change with the times and are crafted to suit the purposes of the people who introduce innovations.
An annotated edition of the essay is available in my edition of Emerson's book:
See also my Introduction to the volume:
H.G. Callaway
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Dear All,
I am looking for researchers (psychologists, sociologists, linguists, etc.) working or planning to work with prisoners in New York (it may be any rehabilitation programme as well) in 2016-2017. I am a linguist, who would like to join such a research team and observe prisoners and listen to the language they use. This is for my PhD in Cultural Linguistics.
If you know of anybody, let me know, please. I will be eternally grateful.
Thank you,
Alicja
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Hi,  Alicja!
Lois Holzman : http://loisholzman.org/    
She works with an approach related to human development, 
  I hope it helps, 
Daniela