Social and Cultural Anthropology

Social and Cultural Anthropology

  • John F. Wilhite added an answer:
    Is anybody else researching/ studying the evolution of Liberian society between 1822 -1900?

    I am presently researching how social cohesion was achieved and maintained in Liberia between a diverse population comprising an  Americo-Liberian elite, re captives and the indigenous tribal peoples, in the period 1822-1900. Is anybody else out there carrying out similar research?

    John F. Wilhite

    No, sorry I can't help but I'm sure someone with some answers will be along shortly. 

  • Monica Opole added an answer:
    Is indigenous knowledge retrogressive and anti-development?
    There are notions in certain quarters that indigenous knowledge cannot serve any useful purpose for human progress at this time. Those who seek to valorise this form of knowledge are tagged as backward! However, the rise of post modernism is one of the best things that have ever happened to local knowledge. So, if local knowledge truly has a significant role in sustainable rural development, how can we make it happen?
    Monica Opole

    My lifetime experiences have taught me and  made me discover that there is a "school culture" that when attended one is assumed to be educated, and that there exists " an  indigenous- community based  village culture". In the field of knowledge know-how one is educated first by the community on relevant survival skills,  communal etiquite and domestic etiqute/ manners as part of normal survival knowledge and that not all knowledge is useful sustainable survival knowledge. Yet even now most developed communal cultural knowledge  are currently classified as ignorance.

  • Ľubica Voľanská added an answer:
    Does anyone research the one-child system in rural areas in Europe in the 19./20. century?

    I am interested in case studies as well as literature dealing with the topic on a more general level...we just started a research based on archive materials (census, surveys) and are looking for some inspiration and exchange...

    Ľubica Voľanská

    Thank you SO much to all of you! Actually there is a special problem in specific regions of Hungary (that Slovakia was a part of at that time) in this period, leading almost to extinction of the population of several villages, some authors call it a "Kuriosität in den Anallen der Demographie" (Ildiko Vasary). In my opinion this specific one-child system is not to be considered as a part of the classical demographic transition in Europe, that´s why it is so interesting. I also think in this case foremost the anthropological theories and comparison with other parts of the world might be suitable. In any case, the literature and hints you all suggested will be definitely very useful, thank you!

  • Joaquín Meabe added an answer:
    This was written by Amy Goodman in Nation of Change. Is it applicable to Australia?
    While law-abiding Muslims are forced to hide in their homes, and animal-rights activists are labeled as terrorists for undercover filming of abusive treatment at factory farms, right-wing hate groups are free to organize, parade, arm themselves to the hilt and murder with chilling regularity. It’s time for our society to confront this very real threat.
    Joaquín Meabe

    Hi Anne:

    Perhaps appropriate rephrase your question:

    Where to turn political opinion in Australia?

    The turn accentuates the right turn?

    Australian society tolerates the right turn?

    Australian society turns a repressive and selective tolerance?

    The answers to these questions allow an answer to your question.


  • James Gilmer added an answer:
    Incest and Kinship in Eastern Christianity
    Can anyone refer me to any of Eastern Christianity's approaches to incest regulations or kinship matters? Thanks in advance.
    James Gilmer

    I'm not sure of a good source of general information - the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium has an entry for "marriage impediments" that might be useful - but in terms of a specific instance illustrating Eastern Christian notions of what could constitute incest, the case of Nikephoros II Phokas and Theodora is interesting.  In the History of Leo the Deacon there is reference to arguments that Nikephoros' marriage to the widow Theodora was unlawful because Nikephoros had stood as godparent to Theodora's children by her first marriage.  This, curiously enough, was considered incest of a sort.  Not the general example you were probably looking for, but the quirky exceptions are always interesting too.

  • Rafael garcia velasco added an answer:
    Are there examples of cultural behaviors popping up in certain populations?
    I've seen a couple of specific behaviors (rock holding during grooming, showing the tongue/mouth to others "for inspection") in the rhesus I work with but I haven't seen much published on this other than in chimpanzees and Japanese macaques.
    Rafael garcia velasco

    This is a great, well documented and old example in primates, by Goodal et al.

  • David Labuschagne added an answer:
    How do you assess the quality of motion (movement) for different age groups?
    I was involved in a research project to assess the patterns of waking and standing from sitting for elderly people using special apparatus and software in Germany. However, I am looking for more input of your view to assess the quality of motion (movement) to build standards for further comparison and application for industry. This will help basic field in medicine, human factor engineering and physical education fields.
    David Labuschagne

    Prior to answering your query about what assessment protocols i use for movement quality, permit me to briefly discuss the issue of "quality" as i understand it.

    Quality of movement is much more significant than the "quantity". When the health authorities exhort people to move more, in many cases they're exacerbating health problems - it's not just a case of move more, but of move smarter. Movement quality can be partially described in terms of biomechanical and ergonomic efficiency, ROM, symmetry, stability, endurance, stepping strategies, etc. Associated with these factors is a slew of tests and protocols, each with its particular significance.

    Added to that needs be the consideration of unquantifiable but important parameters such as sure-footedness, ease, grace, rhythm, coordination, synchronisation of movement and breathing, centredness, etc.

    Bear in mind that people behave differently in a clinical or laboratory environment, because they are being observed and tested.

    Regardless of which yardstick you choose to measure movement quality, there arises the issue of biometrics, i.e. the application and relevance of normative data to the individual. For example, how do you correlate the movement patterns of a whippet and a bulldog? My point is that each person has hir own unique health indices.

    The assessment protocols that i use are essentially of my own design and construct - they are based on the clinical observation of a number of human movements that typify ADLs. These include examination of gait, stance, sitting, and reclining from the perspectives of posture, strength and power, control, movement effectiveness, overall physical tone, flexibility, symmetry, acuity, stability, age, response to environmental factors (e.g. walking surfaces, obstacles, assistive devices, extrinsic balance disturbance), etc. The tests that i employ include (but are not limited to) a combination of static and dynamic postures, single- and double-leg stance & gait movement patterns, simple stretches, and floor routines. Whilst these procedures may sound time-consuming, they require only a few minutes to perform and provide an excellent insight into an individual's health, fitness and functionality from a biomechanical and exercise physiology perspective. 

    You are welcome to contact me for further elucidation about my assessment protocols. 

  • Jerald Hughes added an answer:
    What parallels do you see between the invention of the internet - the 'semantic web' and the invention of the printing press?
    Gutenberg's press probably influenced fundamental shifts in general literacy, social structures and the loci of political power as well as subsequently influencing other major changes in society.
    Jerald Hughes

    McLuhan is the first source that springs to mind, it appears it's being well-covered above. Along those lines, the printing press reframed our thinking about information, introducing the possibilities of standardization, uniformity, and repeatability, among many others. The Internet (not just the web) is reframing our understanding of information according to the characteristics of its medium: information is ubiquitous, artifact-less, and transmutable--you can change it yourself, not merely receive it. The transmutability of information goods means fundamental changes in how it moves through the economy, and through its population of users:

    Aside from that, there are some basics. Just as the printing press represented a huge leap forward in speed, from hand copying to printing presses, the Internet provides another huge leap forward in reproducibility. The key here is that at this scale, the merely quantitative difference (shorter time) becomes a qualitative difference, in that we experience information in fundamentally different ways as a consequence of its near-instant availability.

  • Rafael garcia velasco added an answer:
    Have we already observed a link between the disappearance of species and the disappearance or modification of cultural rites?
    As MEA explain biodiversity has different values (provisioning services etc), biodiversity has cultural values, but how much biodiversity loss impact it?
    Rafael garcia velasco

    Is it for a class lesson or you are researching on it? (a green arrow is the best thank you, mercí! :-)

  • Rafael garcia velasco added an answer:
    Do you agree that limiting speech, laconism, or economy of expression, can change brain functions, give special powers, and even paranormal abilities?
    Do you think that those faculties, and consecutive habits or behaviours, are more prevalent in certain cultures, countries or cultural areas ?
    Rafael garcia velasco

    Just to add some more neurophisiological support to the idea, that I found plaussible, but mainly philosophicaly supported, I have in mind an ideas that I read in The co-evolution of language and the human brain, by Terrence Deacon (1997, Penguin Press) that can be adapted and explain what you are proposing.  

    There is a interesting theory called DISPLACEMENT. It´s an explanation of the evolution of nervous system that basicaly states that the less ammount of motor and sensitive areas are grown during individual ontogeny make less connections to grow in the correspondent brain area, giving more space to the other "data processing" candidates (similar body structures) to have more neural space available and thus increasing their power and influence in the resultant behaviour of the resultant individual.  This is a very usefull theory to explain how a species evolution can be balanced in terms of body and brain balance, but there could have space to explain some special habilities of certain populations with differential environment  imputs to process the information that in terms of survival is more interesting to their cultural and environmental needs.

    Children of the actual school age in occident are developing higher accuracy in the use of their thumbs because of the intensive use of them in the text messages. (Dr Sadie Plant of Warwick University's Cybernetic Culture Research Unit) There has been described telepatic power in some australian aborigens, due to their need of distant communication that may be related (as themselves explain) with some kind of different way of relating each other, based in thay lies simply dont exist, so everyone can read in others mind. In the novel By Marlo Morgan "the voices of the desert"

    If you want to get some firmly based arguments for your research, may be those are points for beguining to dig in the awesome field of the non usefull but natural and real powers of mind, Once in history some humans started to talk with others when none of the rest of them could do it, and this trait gave his group such an advantage that now all we humans share this "normal" trait. At that time that would have been considered "special power or paranormal activity". The evolution is not only what happened yesterday... is today ... is now

  • Scott Russell added an answer:
    The Odyssey was really a warning to women not to leave their husbands. Is this theme ever taught in literature class?
    The salient point of the Odyssey is that no matter if your husband leaves for 20 years, don't you dare look at another man, or he will come back and kill every man who looked at you, and his son will then kill all your maids (who may have consorted with those men) in a porn-sort-of way. Why is this taught as great literature? Because it's old?
    Scott Russell

    It's also curious that the Odyssey got made into literature from an oral tradition, that's how old it is. The "point" of the story probably varies quite a lot among different audiences. It may be that for a woman, the salient point is a warning against having a lover though your husband has pretty much abandoned you and may be dead. Another way to read it, though, within the Achaean context as characters who are impossibly "arete" or excellent beyond all imagining. Nobody is that excellent, but this is fiction of a kind. So Penelope is faithful and Odysseus, old and unfaithful as he is, does make it home to slay her suitors. Maybe it isn't really a great story unless one wants it to be. It certainly is implausible.

  • John J. Crandall added an answer:
    When doing observational/participation research should I develop a detailed disclaimer, or just a few sentences for each participant to sign?
    This is for an undergraduate Honors Thesis in Cultural/Linguistic Anthropology
    John J. Crandall

    I would do your best to give as much disclaimer as you can. While this may not be published, often honors theses are. Additionally, this is good practice for later in your career where you'll need to regularly deal with IRB review. I'd learn to navigate this now and expect to have to build rapport with your community of study. This kind of challenge may result in you having closer ties to folks in the community who help you gain informant trust.

  • Amit Bansal added an answer:
    Can anyone tell what is the best and more easy to use socioeconomic classification system that can be use for an Indian Population.
    Various classifications like Kuppuswamy etc require a lot of parameters and are little bit complicated to use.
    Amit Bansal

    Check out the following links: 



    Let me know if there is an issue downloading or accessing it. 

  • Barry Bainton added an answer:
    What are some of the important books in cultural anthropology?
    Doing a research on a tribe which is primitive.
    Barry Bainton
    If your interest is in social anthropology and tribal society then I would suggest that you consider the works of Levi-Straus, Malinowski, Julian Steward, Salhins and Service, from a theoretical perspective, Depending on your geographical interest I suggest you check out the ethnographies and ethnographers best known for the area.
  • M. Miles added an answer:
    What symbolic transmission of cultural knowledge, regarding disabilities, can be found in folk and fairy tales?
    Cultural knowledge of the countries concerning various disabilities is also built on the basis of oral or written stories.
    In the Middle Ages, in Europe (500 A.D -1500 A.D.), there existed in the cultures the concepts of the "changeling", which to some extent has dominated thinking about the origins of human disabilities. Medieval and later time peoples, believed that a "changeling" was a baby swapped by trolls, devils or elves.
    The "Changeling" was perceived as a swapped child. He/she was described as visually and physically different, gluttonous, and weird.
    Traces of disability understood as changeling can be found in the German fairy tales of the famous Brothers Grimm. Below I share a picture by Martino di Bartolomeo from the 15th century, which shows the origins of the swapping process. The image is titled "Devil swaps a baby". In medieval and later time Poland, there was the concept of a changeling called "bebok", "babok" or "boginiak" born by a goddess, a nymph (forest nymphs). "Boginiak" frequented in accordance with the beliefs tossed in place of a newborn.

    Would you share your opinions please:
    What representations of changelings exist in your culture and country?
    What are folk tales and fairy tales that speak of changelings or the process of the process of change concerned somehow disabilities?
    Who, then, in the folk cultural transmission was a changeling and what was his/her
    appearance and role ?
    What folk stories and fairy tales in your cultures tell about any symbolic depiction of a changeling and symbolic personality changes ?

    (source: )
    M. Miles
    On remarks by András Bozsik, re the Spartans supposedly throwing weak children over a cliff, and possibility of this being mythical, there is a detailed and heavily referenced article by Mark Huys (1996) The Spartan practice of selective infanticide and its parallels in ancient utopian tradition. Ancient Society 27: 47-74, concluding that evidence for the practice is pretty weak.

    Bozsik also mentions various 'fool' stories across Europe, in which the weak-minded or half-witted person gets a (pre-Facebook) life, has some fun at the expense of more respectable society, etc. Similar tradition also exists across the Middle East and South Asia, e.g. stories of Mullah Nasruddin, and of 'Lull the Idiot'. One such story, from an English source, ca. 1700: The fool stands outside the baker's shop, unwilling to pay for a bun, but at least enjoying the smell of fresh baking. The baker has him arrested for stealing the smell. Hauled in front of the judge, the fool takes out a bag with some tiny coins in it, and jingles them together. "What do you hear?" he asks the baker. "The sound of money!" "That's fair payment for the smell of food!" The judge bangs his gavel: "Case dismissed!"

    Going further East, I did not find mention of changelings while compiling a book-length study on “Buddhism and Responses to Disability, Mental Disorders and Deafness in Asia. A bibliography of historical and modern texts with introduction and partial annotation, and some echoes in Western countries” :

    Another notable Polish cultural anthropologist got into this bibliography, with some useful remarks on the wisdom of ordinary folk and their beliefs:
    TOKARSKA-BAKIR, Joanna (2000) Naive sensualism, 'docta ignorantia'. Tibetan liberation through the senses. Numen 47: 69-112.
    Professor Tokarska-Bakir, Polish cultural anthropologist, historian of popular religiosity across Europe and South Asia, and critical analyst of ways in which post-Enlightenment European Man might sometimes be less enlightened than he likes to imagine, produced this article of considerable erudition, while recognising that the intellectual heritage to which it belongs has a strong tendency to misunderstand or entirely overlook the truths that are open to the non-reflective spontaneity of children and the naively-believing majority of adults in many parts of Europe and Asia. [Incidentally, it provides a further critique of the overwhelmingly print-confined 'textual' orientation of the present bibliography, when the historical South Asian preference has been to revere the living, meticulously memorised, and carefully spoken Word from ancient authorities, and to regard the dead, fixed, and easily corrupted scroll or book as an inferior medium!] The initial focus is on the range of supposedly naive, 'superficial' Tibetan Buddhist practices, giving an idle whirl to the prayer wheel, repeating mantras a hundred thousand times, plodding stupidly round stupas, kissing or stroking the feet of religious statues, tasting or smelling special foods, herbs or dedicated substances. Such practices (and their equivalents across the human world), beginning with the physical and pointing toward the spiritual, are more readily accessible to 'the masses', the great majority of humankind who make up the average, below average, and substantially limited, on the 'intelligence spectrum' (as devised and measured by the 'above average'). Modern writers believing themselves to be part of a 'Great Tradition' or 'High Culture' smile pityingly at the local traditions and 'folk cultures'; yet a turn of a different wheel may bring down the foolishly proud. Perhaps there is a spectrum of wisdom hidden behind the 'stupidly innocent', unselfconscious surface of folk belief. The philosopher-activist Simone Weil "unexpectedly lends her support to the idea of the religiosity of liberation through the senses", and Tokarska-Bakir rides with Thomas Merton, and with Weil's analysis, through some difficulties of modern European religious philosophy, finding parallels between crazy Tibetan teachers and earlier Jewish and Christian hermits, heretics, and halfwits. (Fortunately, T-B is kind enough to lighten the Grand Tour with a series of hilarious tales about holy simpletons, some of whom managed to see the universe in a blade of grass, while others at least knew what to do with a plate of food for which the temple statue showed no appetite. Further, she generously allows that even intellectuals may find grace, if not completely deluded by their own cleverness).
  • Amanda Price added an answer:
    Can we get some scriptural foundations for peaceful relations in Islam and Christianity?
    Many works have been written on the possible causes of conflicts in Northern Nigeria such as 'politics,' and inequalities in wealth distributions. However, religious people are often the victims of these conflicts. Some of the stories gathered through some journalists portray the conflicts more of ideological. Could these conflicts be resolved ideologically? Could identifying the scriptural supports for peace in Islam and Christianity help in building bridges for peaceful relation among them?
    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country with over 140 million people, and until recently the largest oil producing country in the continent, has witnessed numerous violent conflicts between Christians and Muslims. Though Christianity and Islam have co-existed for approximately 170 years in Nigeria, the mistrust and competition between them is deep-rooted. Nigeria's oft-noted religious pluralism has been disrupted by religiously motivated conflict, including killings, destruction of property, and social upheaval. These religious crises can be traced largely to Nigeria's colonial experience, which began with British colonization in 1852 and did not end until Nigeria gained its political independence in October 1960.
      No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Review of Faith and International Affairs
    Amanda Price
    Hello Akintago,

    This is an excellent question.

    There is a group called the International Association of Religion Journalists and their website is . Their aim is to engage media leaders, educational institutions and communities on the importance of accurate, balanced, and ethical religion coverage to foster understanding and humility. It is run by people of all faiths and religious backgrounds. I think you will find their resources and contacts helpful for your research. There are efforts being made by groups like these to show that media reports of these conflicts are often constructed and fueled by people with agendas and so an understanding of motive (political, religious or otherwise) is often lost in the hype.

    With regard to finding a scriptural foundation to approach the situation, there is abundant scriptural evidence on both sides for healthy relationships to exist. Sadly, scriptures are more often used out of context as proof texts, than viewed as part of a whole consistent message. For Christians, Jews and Muslims who are already working together in industry, research, education or humanitarian efforts, this amounts to someone arguing a building can't be built while you're standing on its top floor! Their collaboration, if you will, is the testimony of 'living scripture', that is, people of diverse faith serving together in humility. HUMILITY and SERVICE are themes that would likely find a lot of common ground while also having direct relevance to the government's more pragmatic concerns.

    In my opinion, things fall apart when we try to make some superficial middle kingdom where discussing the differences and disagreements between faiths becomes taboo. Acknowledging the vast differences and unbreachable gaps between Christianity and Islam are as essential to working in unity, as finding common ground. Learning how to humbly disagree, to figuratively take our shoes off when we're in each other's houses, rather than focusing on agreeing may be an approach that gains more positive results. I wish you all the best!
  • Linda Lane added an answer:
    Can Black Feminism and Intersectionality Theory be different historically and politically?
    Both Black Feminism and Intersectionality theory have criticized the conventional analysis of Feminist Theory, however, would be possible to analyze each one of them as two perspectives mutually exclusive?
    Linda Lane
    Why would you want to? Considering that Black feminism and intersectionality theory have the same roots why would you separate them? May be to find an answer you need to go back to your research question - and ask what is the substantive question you want to investigate.
  • Judith Saunders added an answer:
    How do Dalit communities (disadvantaged groups in Nepal) respond to indigenous and non-indigenous plant resources?

    Is there a change in uses of plants resources in Dalit communities over time may be because of socio-cultural and ecological changes?

  • Subeno Kithan added an answer:
    Are anthropological studies on communities practicing Islam, limited to be understood only via ‘Ideal’ and ‘Lived’ Islamic practices?
    Anthropological literature on communities following Islam, starting from the works of Gellner to Geertz and many others, have often represented the communities they studied, mostly within the tag of ‘ideal’ and ‘lived’ Islamic practices.

    Of course, several criticisms have come about subsequently, as shown in the works of Varisco, Tapper, Asad and others, who have criticised the outlook of Geertz and others. Some even suggesting that an “Islamic anthropology’ will be much helpful than actually dwelling on so called “Anthropology of Islam”.
    I would like to know if there are some other alternatives other than the above mentioned approached, through which studies of communities practicing Islam can be studied better, especially in the context of anthropology?
    Subeno Kithan
    Judy, thanks a lot for your kind response. It will be great to discuss and share our works in the days to come. I am still in the process of writing my dissertation. All the best for your work too..
  • Bharathi Karri added an answer:
    Can you give some pointers to the issue of numeracy as an object of cultural anthropology and cultural studies?
    What would be the difference in research between those two approaches?
    Bharathi Karri
    Cultural studies advocate with historical awareness to analyse contemporary cultural forms and practices while cultural anthropology applies many holistic methods to understand a culture. Cultural anthropologists apply qualitative and quantitative analysis, participant observation, interview technique, schedule and ethnographic method in collecting data.
  • Alpesh Leua added an answer:
    Please suggest some good work on state-tribal relationships
    I am looking from a perspective in which the modern day democratic politics play a role in state-tribal relations....
    Alpesh Leua
    If you find the impact of free things provided by state policy to tribes on tribe development
  • Kelechukwu Andrew added an answer:
    I'm looking for an African ethnic group in which the men traditionally excelled in basketry and knotting, specifically working with raffia fibers.
    I'm a novelist writing about slave communities in the Americas and one of my characters is a male slave in the Caribbean who does knotting and weaving but I'm finding it difficult to isolate the ethnic/cultural group that would produce such a character.
    Kelechukwu Andrew
    That is true
  • Molly Chiluwa added an answer:
    How can local culture be engaged with as a resource, rather than as a barrier to logical external interventions?
    I am interested in insights from studies that have looked at how local culture can be understood and built upon to enable appropriate development. My research is in the field of climate change adaptation, but I am interested in insights drawn from other disciplinary literature. I believe that understanding, and respectfully and appropriately engaging with local cultural forms is an imperative in developing effective, sustainable and culturally appropriate adaptation strategies. If planning does not take into account local cultural forms then the resultant strategies are likely to be ineffective, maladaptive and oppressive, and can lead to further disdain and distrust from local community towards the 'development sector'.
    Molly Chiluwa
    When a people´s local culture is misunderstood or viewed a negative light it bridges relation and understanding of the people involved. Local culture is the historical, national and cultural identity of a society.
    Strategic frameworks could be designed to preserve healthy cultures through skill capacity development, promotion of tourism. It could be used as an instrument for socio-economic sustainable development and international interaction. It forms an intrinsic resource of great value and links to understanding of a people and does serves a great national significant as an essence of a peoples´ identity
  • Rosana Icassatti Corazza added an answer:
    How best can I do a systematic review?
    Any precise and concise steps would be very helpful.
    Rosana Icassatti Corazza

    I think the guide by Petticrew and Roberts is very elucidating for those who are starting a SR in the Social Sciences.

    Please, check the link bellow for the pdf version.

    I hope this can help you.


  • Beverlyn A Banks added an answer:
    Would someone talk to me concerning a phenomenological study on issues relative to African American Women in the workplace?
    My current challenge is how to select my participants and convincing them that they can trust me.
    Beverlyn A Banks
    Pamela, I am in the process of getting prepared for the Irr review. I don't have your email address. Please email me at All others feel free to email me also.. this will help a great deal. thanks
  • Leyla Tekul added an answer:
    Is there any research on differences between male and female academics, regarding differences in their inferences and approaches?
    Men and women may have different approaches to evaluating and assessing data, and conceptualizing their findings. Has there ever been research on gender difference in academics?
    Leyla Tekul
    Well, I always thought that there might be neuro-scientific differences in how men and women brains approach issues as well as "kind of" academic discrimination in giving chances to women. Since I am far away from being a hard core academic, I cannot have an input based on my experience. However, according to what I read and observe, I am seeing men being more effective in creating theories and challenging scientific facts.
  • SP Singh added an answer:
    What tables can I get for making equations on anthropometric data collected from field? Specifically the formulas and procedures.
    I am preparing a report on "A study of health status among Jenukuruba" and I have collected many relevant data from field. I have also collected data with the use of anthropological measurements like stature, weight, age, gender, skin folds, and etc. Now I am stuck and need information on:
    1) What analyses can I make from that particular data?
    2) How can I calculate weight for age, height for age, skin fold thickness? I need a formula and procedure
    3) Which elements can I highlight and what are the possible tables I can get for my health report?
    Any other suggestions for preparing a report on health status would also be helpful.
    SP Singh
    use Length/height-age, weight for height and weight-age standards which are available from WHO site for judging children who are stunted and wasted. Comparisons of different populations for triceps and subscapular skinfolds are usually made in order to know the situations of body fat.

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