Science topics: Social Science
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Questions related to Social Science
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75 answers
Dear Research Gate Members,
The world is observing the global economical and political impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. International economic and political experts are now openly discussing the affects of
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on the NEW WORLD ORDER.
Please, share your expert opinion on the following question.
How do you compare the Pre and Post Corona (COVID-19) Pandemic NEW WORLD ORDER?
Thanks & Regards
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Muhammad Ali Khan, I anticipate a radical change in the placing of global political powers with a rise of new emerging ones and the declining of others.
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65 answers
How do you treat someone who got COVID-19?
How do the media treat people infected?
What do those recovered patient experience?
Please share your views.
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The question raised my attention, because some recovered patient reflect that they are stigmatized by their neighborhood upon returning home from the hospital. I am not sure if this situation is generally happening around the world. It's good to hear your experience in US
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8 answers
In your experience, what social science (especially sociology) journals have short articles with simple and clear wording? I'm trying to find articles for my undergraduate students to read but everything is either 20+ pages and straightforward OR short but hard to comprehend. I understand the reason behind this but if you've noticed any journals that have good empirical articles for undergraduate students, please let me know. Ideally, I'm looking for empirical sociology articles to use as examples of research methods in my methods course.
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Dear Alex Al,
But please provide specific fields, disciplines or issues within the social sciences and I will try to help in this matter.
Regards
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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15 answers
Kindly guide which method of MMR shall be adopted given it is to be practiced for the first time e.g. triangulation or which one?
Thanking you in advance.
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That book has an extensive bibliography, so I would follow their recommendations.
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315 answers
Dear Research Gate Members,
Due to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) spread, many cities are facing partial or complete Lock Down. Like other sectors, Higher Education is also affected badly due to these Lock Downs. To overcome this situation either many Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) have adapted the Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education or planning to implement it. Many Universities and/or colleges are new to Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education and are having issues in its implementation as well. In this scenario, it’s really important to share the expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert opinion, experiences and/or suggestions on the following matter.
Which Learning Management System (LMS) is more suitable for Distance/Virtual Education or E-Learning in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)?
If you prefer more than one, then please rank them.
Thanks & Regards
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Desarrollar contenido aducativo para alojarlo en una plataforma requiere mucho tiempo y recursos. Además, tienes que crear los usuarios para los maestros y estudiantes, capacitarlos previamente en el uso de la plataforma, entre otros.
En lo inmediato, lo esencial es utilizar un canal de comunicación directa donde el maestro pueda presentar la clase en vivo y asignar las tareas a los estudiantes. Por ende, las plataformas que permiten realizar videoconferencias son idóneas en tal sentido. Son amigables, no es necesario disponer de material didáctico más que una presentación powerpoint, por ejemplo, las personas crean su propio usuario, pueden acceder desde sus teléfonos inteligentes y no requieren demasiado conocimiento para usarlo por primera vez.
No puedo dejar de mencionar que tenemos resultados satisfactorios usando las videoconferencias para el teletrabajo. Algunas herramientas que pueden ser útiles:
- Meet de Hangouts
- Zoom meetings
- Classroom de Google
- Google forms
- Correo electrónico
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21 answers
Is there anyone who has performed content analysis on quantitative studies selected for inclusion in a systematic review in social sciences? I am trying to avoid meta-analysis and so I am looking at different ways to analyze quantitative data effectively. Any suggestions welcome. Thanks!
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Totally agree. Typical objectification of women! Junel Padigos
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25 answers
We're working on a UK-based study of lived experiences during the COVID19 pandemic, looking at knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour. Is anyone else working on social science studies on the pandemic? We'd be keen to link up and share learning, especially with a view to doing some international comparisons a bit further down the line. I'll post a link to our project page below with further information. Thanks!
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Rhiannon Phillips I am very interested in this aspect to make a scientific paper studying the Coronavirus COVID-19 in terms of social sciences
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21 answers
is this journal okay
International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) .
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One has to be careful this days not to publish in predatory journals. They are numerous and lure academics to publish in them.
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330 answers
Dear Research Gate Members,
Nowadays, every one is talking about the Coronavirus COVID-19 and its affects are alarming throughout the world. Routine operations of many organisations are also affected badly throughout the affected regions. I have observed that many, considering the Corona Virus risks many organisations have transformed their many routine operations to Virtual/Online.
Please, share your expert observations and/or suggestions on the following matter.
Have you observed the transformation of routine operations to Virtual/Online in the amid of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) scenario in your organisation?
In case of yes, please share the major ones.
Thanks & Regards
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Hello,
Completely, it's very easy to observe at the moment a lot of transformations in the routine operations to virtual/online, but not only: it's, notablly, obvious enough to see how consumers are going to change their purchasing behaviour.
They are adopting new practices, for instance, home deliveries for their shopping or still pick-up on drive-sites (you understand ? like Mac drives).
Bye
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42 answers
I'm exploring methodological issues and looking for sources and literature related to psychoanalytic methods used in social science research.
Thank you in advance for any ideas you might have!
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Depth psychology is relevant, in my experience.
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105 answers
In which areas of science are adequate research carried out by research teams, and in which areas, scientific disciplines are research conducted by researchers more often? Do you know fields, disciplines in which research is usually conducted by research teams? Do team research projects have specific attributes that generate additional added value or do they have an advantage over research conducted individually by scientists?
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply.
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
In the context of the above discussion, I propose to add to our considerations the following important issue:
The impact of scientific conferences on the development of science.
Scientific conferences make it possible to make friends with other scientists and researchers. During the conference there are opportunities to conduct discussions and debates on interesting topics. Thanks to this, it is possible to undertake scientific cooperation and create international research teams and projects.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
- What do you think about this topic?
- What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply.
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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84 answers
What are the advantages of conducting research in international research teams?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
The above discussion inspired me to the following considerations regarding the following issues:
Collaborative publication of scientific papers as a presentation of research results carried out by teams of researchers and scientists.
Joint publishing has many positive aspects. Publishing in co-authorship is often the result of the presentation of research results from team-led scientific research, is the result of research and scientific projects conducted by teams of researchers and scientists, and increasingly international research teams. There are many positive attributes associated with this. In a scientific publication written by a team of authors, joint conclusions from conducted research may be presented, with which all researchers, scientists of a given research team agree, and there may also be polemics and discussions that will significantly enrich the substantive values ??of a given scientific publication. In addition, if individual researchers, scientists of a specific international research team represent various countries and scientific environments, possibly also various scientific disciplines, then a specific jointly conducted research project obtains the attributes of interdisciplinarity, internationalization, etc. The possibilities of presenting multi-author texts and scientific papers, including scientific publications that were created to present the results of research carried out by international, interdisciplinary teams of researchers and scientists.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply.
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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48 answers
IV(1) in my cross sectional observational study is a significant positive predictor for the DV in linear regression, and IV(2) is a significant negative predictor of the DV.
IV(1) has a positive pearson correlation with the DV, however when you do a partial correlation controlling for IV(2) the correlation between IV(1) and the DV becomes non-significant. (this relationship does not occur in the other direction, a.k.a correlation of IV(2) and DV, controlling for IV(1) remains the same and significant)
I'm confused as to why the correlation becomes non-significant when controlling for IV(2), but when both the variables are in predictors in the regression they remain significant independent of each other.
Why is this the case, and how would you suggest going about interpreting this?
Thanks!
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Hello Fizza Qureshi. Think about the distinction between partial and semi-partial (aka., part) correlations. What happens if you compute semi-partial correlations rather than partial correlations? My guess is the results will be consistent with what you're seeing in your regression results. HTH.
PS- To get semi-partial correlations with SPSS (which you listed as a topic), use the ZPP option on the STATISTICS sub-command of the REGRESSION command. ZPP is short for zero-order, partial & part correlations.
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465 answers
For Psychology (and other aspiring sciences and for even for good established sciences): Isn't it better to speak and write in terms of "conditions-for" instead of 'causes'?
My answer: Yes. Yes. Yes. Most usually. (Most certainty for a Biological science, like Psychology; HERE I am talking about a science of behavior patterns PER SE (i.e. "just behaviors"). (What is closest to a 'cause' is what ethologists call: proximate causes.))
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For some certain persons: If you do not like negative feedback, do not read below the line, directly below.
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This present Question is especially for some certain individuals (who I read): The above Question is something useful to think about OTHER THAN philosophy and especially philosophical Questions about "Consciousness" and "philosophy-and-science". Those Questions are useless, senseless, ridiculous Questions that most certainly will lead nowhere (certainly nowhere useful). Consider my present Question instead, for "therapy".
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RE: «Isn't it better to speak & write in terms of "conditions-for" instead of 'causes'?»
Wouldn't the conditions have to be casual conditions? Sure, causal explanation is pragmatic or interest-relative, and we focus on a causal factor that's relevant to us. So to light a match I think of causing it to light by striking it, our usual practice. I suppose in a certain kind of anaerobic environment, a more salient action might be injecting oxygen at the moment and point of striking.
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210 answers
Dear Research Gate Members,
It has been observed worldwide that the individual with weak immune system can be easily attacked by Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19). The prominent health experts are also suggesting to improve immune system against Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19).
Please, share your expert suggestions on the following question.
How can we strengthen our immune system to fight against Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) spread?
Thanks & Regards
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126 answers
Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research. Any input, support, publication links or comments will be highly appreciated!
Thank you in advance!
Best regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
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AI can save our time & help in collecting many data what humans cant. In fact AI can share researches with the entire world. That's obviously the benefit part. But the challenge is the propergal & ethical use of AI devises to reserach.
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24 answers
Hello!
I'm trying my hand at multilevel modeling during my master's dissertation. I have three levels: firms, industries, regions. I'm having the issue of many of my firms having multiple activities. As an example, some firms that do sea transportation and fishing, or even sea transportation and garbage removal, or selling plants and repairing cars etc. I didn't think of this issue in the beginning. Is it possible for the observations (firms) to belong to several level 2 variables? What solutions are available to me? I could always just delete their other activities and only take into consideration the first activity they provide, but that feels like a last resort kind of solution.
Thank you!
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Just start simple with equal weights , but it can be become quite sophisticated
these two volumes will help on the Bayes estimation:
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2 answers
Can you recommend recent research on the application of calendar methods in social sciences?
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Criminologists are increasingly theorizing about relationships between life-course occurrences and patterns of criminal behavior. The life-events calendar method features interviewing conditions that respondents find more pleasurable than those typical of traditional survey administrations. It also provides a way to collect retrospective longitudinal data that is cheaper than using traditional panel designs and potentially more practical when dealing with unstable respondents that would be difficult to re-contact. The life-events calendar method provides data that are rarely worse and typically more comprehensive than data derived from traditional surveys, making it a viable option for criminologists who conduct survey research. The life-events calendar method encourages accuracy in self-reporting by providing respondents with visual and verbal cues that facilitate recall, utilizing reference points to improve precision and establish temporal ordering, and facilitating respondent-researcher interaction. The life-events calendar method is therefore ideal for studying offenders and others who feature memory problems, cognitive difficulties, co-occurring risk factors, and instability in their lives.
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15 answers
Scopus-Indexed and ISI-Indexed Journals in Education and Social Sciences where you can publish your work.
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First off, I suggest that you avoid predatory journals/publishers. Secondly, if your research had roots in psychology although it’s conducted in an education setting, I would recommend the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology which is an A-rated journal in psychology.
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25 answers
I have always been looking for a higher Impact Factor journals in Social Sciences but found a few with nominal IF. But when it comes to comparison with Natural Sciences journals, there is a big difference in the IF number. Are natural science fields way too superior to Social Sciences?
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The current evaluation of the Impact Factor of the Journal based on the number of times was cited by the number of articles that are frequently cited by many users. Moreover, it is focused on Citation Reports, Citation Impact, and h-index, Citescore, Yearly Impact Factor, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and SCImago Journal Rank, etc. With regard to the popularity and reputation comparison between Natural Science Journal and Social Science Journals is that the number of users mostly cited the particular paper per day.
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176 answers
Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research. Any input, support, publication links or comments will be highly appreciated!
Thank you in advance!
Best regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
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My favorite ones are comparison, case studies, and interviews.
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120 answers
Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research.
Thank you in advance!
Warm regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
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Thank you for your participation in discussion. I think both are important. But the topic of discussion is about being competitive in the information age.
I will take into consideration your comment!
Regards,
Dr. Atoyan
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65 answers
I'm working with life satisfaction as my dependent variable and some other independent variables that measure purchasing power (consumption, income and specific expenditures). To take into account the diminishig marginal returns of this last variables (following the literature) I transformed them in terms of their natural logarithm. However, now I want to compare the size of the coefficients of specific expenditures with the ones of consumption and income. Specifically, I would like some procedure which allows me to interpret the result like this: 1 unit of resources directed to a type of expenditure (say culture) is more/less effective to improve life satisfaction in comparison with the effect that this same unit would have under the category of income. If I just do this with withouth the natural logarithm (that is, expressed in dolars) the coefficients change in counterintuitive ways, so I would prefer to avoid this.
I was thinking about using beta coefficients, but I don't know if it makes sense to standarize an already logarithmic coefficient.
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Am not sure Santiago I follow what you said. Elasticity can be used and Beta weights can be used. If I understand you? I will interpret elasticity as I % increase in the RHS variable changes the regressand by the estimated sign and coefficient of the RHS eg LnY= 2 -0.5Ln(X) -- Here a percent increase in X decreases y by .5 on the avg
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10 answers
After studying Consumer Brand Engagement (CBE) literature (Hollebeek et al 2014) I wonder how to use the CBE scales and what for?
The CBE scales contain usually three dimensions:
Cognitive: Using [brand] gets me to think about [brand].
Affective: I feel very positive when I use [brand].
Activating1: I spend a lot of time using [brand], compared to other [category] brands.
Scholars that use the scales in their studies can get results about what are consumer reactions (natural science?) to particular brands. However they can't study how the brands inspire (social sciences) consumers to transform their value formation practices, can they? It limits the scientific critic of brand values.
I would argue that the consumer-brand engagement concept contains the hidden assumption that consumers choose what is best for them or at least they can rank or order the offers according to the personal preferences. Scholars who use the concept (together with the assumption) don’t study values/principles which are independent of observed individual interactants choices and valuations – they put the values (causes? inspirations?) into the black box in their studies.
The problem is known in economics (the social-science-based economists criticize the natural-science-based economists with different outputs) but not recognized in brand management I suppose.
What do you think?
Literature
Hollebeek L.D., Glynn M.S.. and Brodie R.J. (2014) Consumer Brand Engagement in Social Media: Conceptualization, Scale Development and Validation, Journal of Interactive Marketing 28(2): 149-165
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I would keep my critical points about the hidden assumptions of CBE studies (Kaur et al. 2020).
1. "the experience offered by consumer engagement helps in developing an emotional connection with consumers that makes them brand loyal"
hidden assumptions:
(1) the approach is firm/provider centric = it asks how to get brand loyalty instead how brands empower beneficiaries when the beneficiaries use the brands,
(2) the approach studies "value-in-exchange" instead "value-in-use" that empower beneficiaries for the rest of their lives
2. The CBE's ”I like to know more about X” and all other items (table 1)
hidden assumption:
when individuals perceive X as valuable, it is valuable - it consequently puts the collective values that should be studied into a back box,
- it measures what is easy to measure instead what is important = collective cultural values = institutions that drive collective value formations and their transformations that are also declared as a research priority.
What is your point about the study?
Do you agree with me?
Literature
Kaur, H., Paruthi, M., Islam, J., & Hollebeek, L. D. (2020). The role of brand community identification and reward on consumer brand engagement and brand loyalty in virtual brand communities. Telematics and Informatics, 46,
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8 answers
Social science and Management journals
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18 answers
I love those formidable exceptions when style is not merely an invisible background to argumentation in academic writing. The first sentence of the first paragraph in a scientific paper should grab the readers attention and lead to the thesis statement.
What are your favourite examples of good opening sentences?
Here is a favourite of mine, from Murray S. Davis’ 1971 paper, “That’s Interesting! Towards a Phenomenology of Sociology and a Sociology of Phenomenology” (Perfect title, too!):
“It has long been thought that a theorist is considered great because his theories are true, but this is false.”
Another one: Robert K. Merton’s opening sentence for his 1938 classic, Social Structure and Anomie:
"There persists a notable tendency in sociological theory to attribute the malfunctioning of social structure primarily to those of man’s imperious biological drives which are not adequately restrained by social control."
What are your favourite first sentences? Please share in the comments.
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Three hundred years ago, if a woman was raped and became pregnant we'd kill the rapist and spare the baby; today, we spare the rapist and kill the baby.
Our Human Herds; the Theory of Dual Morality - 2019
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24 answers
Dear Science Community
What is your experience with the open-access journal Social Sciences (ISSN Print: 2326-9863)?
Since I had a publication in a high-ranking journal, I have been receiving requests for submissions, or as a reviewer. There are to many predatory journals ....
Web site and e-mail exchange were okay.
Thanks for your answers
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Thank you Lusine!
This confusion is also reflected in a discussion that took place only recently here in the Forum:
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84 answers
In a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we are currently trying to establish indicators and quality criteria for measuring the social impact of the social sciences and humanities. We are interested in the question of what social impacts SSH has and, of course, where the limits of measurability lie. Do you know of any relevant literature that deals with the social impact of SSH? I would be grateful for hints.
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I know some of the people who wrote this and would trust that they read everything.
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15 answers
New volume of Technium Social Sciences Journal has been published - https://techniumscience.com/index.php/socialsciences/issue/current
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https://techniumscience.com/index.php/socialsciences/about/submissions click here. create an account and you can make a submission.
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8 answers
What are the most important methods and statistical tests used in experimental studies in social sciences?
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Bio, Psycho, Social
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44 answers
When considering determinants for micropolitical behaviour, I am particulary interested in the dependence on qualification and competence when using micropolitical strategies. As part of my research, I would like to find out how and why people tend to which micropolitical strategies depending on their qualifications and skills. Therefore I would like to ask for information regarding the current scientific state of research on micropolitical behaviour, particulary in the strategies used.
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Many thanks for the kind comment...
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72 answers
Hi everyone,
Some time ago I shared my scientific essay with GRIN. They offered me selling hard copy of this work via GRIN site or Amazon and pdf version to download from GRIN. I prepared pdf version of the paper and upload it, but I must admit there was inconsistency between final version active on site and pdf version that I have shared with them - problems with accurate formatting. Even if I selected for free option, little price was set up for downloading the pdf. Each one who wants to upload its own paper, has to agree with conditions, and one of them is that the paper will be active at least for 5 years under agreed conditions.
Still I have doubts if I did wrong or good sharing my essay with them. As a publisher was GRIN suitable choice indeed? What do you think? What experience do you have with this publisher?
Thanks in advance for your reply!
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No, thank
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12 answers
Hi, im new to using a qualitative data software and wanted to try use it for the first time on my social sciences study involving the use of interviews and focus group method. Would you recommend atlas.ti or qda miner lite? My choices are limited because of the language input will be Thai (according to my understanding) which is why i have narrowed it down to these two softwares. I dont really know the differences/adv/disadvantage of the two, can you please help? Thank youuu
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Thank you, Professor.
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As you know, the publication of scientific studies in particular is a fundamental objective. However, there is an opinion that since the establishment of the Social Sciences, publications have served the intelligence of states rather than the scientific community. According to this view, the publication of scientific studies is particularly encouraged. In this way, especially developed states analyze almost all of these studies and make good reference to their own policies. In fact, do scientific studies serve the science or the policies of states? Do you think this is a conspiracy theory or is it a fact with a basis?
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Si, siempre y cuando se tenga comprobación tacita del estudio.
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12 answers
Dear researchers,
Can you please suggest me that what is the best citation style for social science studies?
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I think for Social science APA is the best and its cover all your needs
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24 answers
As an editor assistant, I frequently encounter conceptual papers and suddenly feel that I do not have sufficient devices to asses them appropriately.
Is there any "rule of thumb" or "guidance" that can help me to assess whether a conceptual paper is of quality or not
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I have to assess conceptual papers occasionally as a reviewer and more frequently as a reader. My assessment practice is not so different from the assessment of empirical papers. My first question always is: Does the paper raise a relevant question? Does it address a gap in our (in this case, theoretical) knowledge? Since I mostly do empirical research, one of my criteria for relevance is the impact of the question and answer on empirical work. Although I admit that there might be papers whose relevance is purely theoretical, I tend to prefer those that support empirical work (e.g., by clarifying concepts and relationships between them).
This rules out most papers that just discuss differences between theoretical approaches. It also rules out papers that propose a new theory to solve a problem that does not exist outside this particular theory. In the latter case, nothing is lost if the paper is not published :).
If the paper addresses a relevant theoretical question, my second criterion is the quality of the answer. Does the paper really solve the problem it poses? Is the argument theoretically consistent? A common problem in this respect is that answers combine theories that rest on contradictory ontological or epistemological premises.
I hope this helps.
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I read some of the documents to understand the aims and objectives of teaching and learning of social science. but I found that different scholars present different ideas to describe these aims and objectives. I would appreciate if someone can guide me to explore authentic materials that describes the aims and objectives of teaching as well as learning of Social Science in concrete manner.
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The goals of teaching social sciences in the school are to instill social values, customs and traditions as well as build a human personality, study the hopes and aspirations of society, and contribute to the socialization of students...
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These journals do not provide free access to the research content published on their websites. Can any one suggest some quality journals of Humanities and Social Sciences?
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Dear Dr Singh,
You can check for following journals.
1. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy (https://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/ijssp.htm)
3. Journal of Social Studies Education Research ( https://jsser.org/index.php/jsser )
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16 answers
Dear Professionals,
Kindly do share with me the sample questionnaire of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) along with any of the reading material for the theory as well.
1). What are the major considerations that need to be taken account while framing a
questionnaire for the SEM.
2) After the data collection gets over how to convert the questionnaire information into
the excel sheet
Your valuable feedback/ information is of phenomenal to me. Kindly do spare a few minutes
of your valuable time. Thank you very much in advance.
Regards
Adhikari V V Subba Rao,
PhD Scholar,
08247328165,
School of Management & Labour Studies,
Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS)- Mumbai.
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Here is a recent application that uses the more recently developed framework
sorry not to be more helpful but your question is very encompassing, and this area is not my specialty!
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824 answers
The concept of corruption
(Opening for a draft paper)
Corruption is a matter of “dishonest or illegal behavior especially by powerful people,” including, for instance, government officials or the police; and primary examples of corrupt behavior are bribery and any other inducement by improper or unlawful means.1 The varying forms and expressions of corruption may, in fact, form an unending list, since new, more sophisticated, subtle or covert forms are pretty sure to arise. The more corruption is exposed at any given time and place, the more subtle and covert it tends to become. Partly in consequence, attempts at definition and demarcation of corruption vary and are often problematic or incomplete; “the class of corrupt actions comprise an extremely diverse array of types of moral and legal offences undertaken in a wide variety of institutional contexts including, but by no means restricted to, political and economic institutions.”2
As Lincoln Steffens put a similar point, directly concerned with Gilded Age corruption in St. Louis, Missouri, one had to fear that, “… the exposures by Mr. Folk will result only in the perfection of the corrupt system.”
For the corrupt can learn a lesson when the good citizens cannot. The Tweed regime in New York taught Tammany to organize its boodle business; the police exposure taught it to improve its method of collecting blackmail. And both now are almost perfect and safe. The rascals of St. Louis will learn in like manner; they will concentrate the control of their bribery system, excluding from the profit-sharing the great mass of weak rascals, and carrying on the business as a business in the interest of a trustworthy few.3
In the wake of exposures of corruption in the press, indictments and convictions due to the work of St. Louis public prosecutor Joseph W. Folk, if the good citizens of the city would not or could not take things in hand, then corruption could simply mutate into some as yet unexposed or covert forms. As a general matter, though, in spite of the tendency toward subtler and more sophisticated forms, the old familiar patterns are always being rediscovered and deployed somewhere or other; they never completely die away.
The etymological source of the English word “corruption” is theological Latin,4 which followed traditions of translating ancient Greek moral and political thought. This background is reflected both in the call on moral standards involved in the condemnation and prosecution of corruption and in the broader usages of the word. Corruption, in a secondary sense, is a matter of departure or deviation from an original, or from what is pure, ideal or correct, as in “corruption of a text,” and “corruption of computer files”—where no moral evaluation need be involved. In their original Greek setting, Aristotle’s three “degenerate,” “digressive” or “perverted” (παρεκβάσείς, parekbasis) forms of government, viz., tyranny, oligarchy and (extreme) democracy, are regarded as degenerate precisely because they deviate or “swerve” from proper concern with the common good. They might therefore equally be said to be corrupt forms. As political scientist Samuel Huntington makes a narrower point, “Corruption is behavior of public officials which deviates from accepted norms in order to serve private ends.”5 But not all corruption is political.
1. Cf. “Corruption” in Merriam-Webster.
2. Seumas Miller 2018, “Corruption” in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. p. 6.
3. Lincoln Steffens 1904, The Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 39.
4. Theological Latin is mentioned in the great Oxford English Dictionary. In consequence of the Latin source, one finds cognate forms in many European languages: English, corruption, French, corruption, German, Korruption, Italian, corruzione, and Russian, korruptsiya. The English “corrupt” derives from Latin, corrumpere = co- + rumpere, “to break.”
5. Cf. Samuel P. Huntington 1968, “Modernization and Corruption” in Huntington 2006, Political Order in Changing Societies, p. 59.
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In spite of our understandable and frequent focus on monetary exchanges involving government officials and favors, corruption need not involve exchange of money and may be either public or private. Public officials accepting envelopes stuffed with cash to favor bribe-givers in the exercise of official powers is perhaps the central, paradigm case of political corruption. Yet, surely, corruption may still exist where no money changes hands. Favoritism toward particular persons, groups or interests might be exchanged for other sorts of “inducements,” for instance, reciprocating preferences in hiring, employment advantages or promotions; and favoritism may involve exchange of useful “insider” information.6 “In some corrupt exchanges, such as patronage and nepotism” argues political scientist Michael Johnston, “considerable time may elapse between receiving the quid and repaying the quo, and the exchange may be conditioned by many factors other than immediate gain.”7
When illicit favoritism is practiced within a particular insider group involving partiality in dispensing jobs, opportunities and other advantages to friends, supporters or trusted associates, this favoritism is called cronyism. Favoritism and partiality toward one’s own family and kinship, nepotism, is illegal in American Civil Service employment practices, and restricted by the requirement to report possible conflicts of interest to stockholders in publicly traded firms. The charge of nepotism fails of legal application in privately owned firms. It is worth remarking, however, that the distinction between “public” and “private” agents and resources is not always entirely clear and straightforward.
The point is reflected in the history of corporate charters. For example, the British East India Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company long effectively ruled large areas of India and Canada respectively. Were these private trading corporations or colonial sub-polities of the British crown and government? Being both, of course, they could legally govern their respective geographic domains with priority and preference given to their own economic and trading interests and profits. The East India Company even had its own army which was effectively deployed in the Seven Years’ war (1756-1763).8 Chartered trading companies acting as sub-polities was a compromising configuration, though it long persisted. Again, while colonial Americans saw their chartered colonial governments as their own, requiring their representation and subject to “the consent of the governed,” the view from London was that they could be modified or abolished by parliament like any corporate or municipal charter in the kingdom.
Lincoln Steffens distinguished several classifications of municipal corruption. This is partly a matter of where to look for corruption. His typology includes police corruption which was especially prominent in the scandals of Minneapolis, and also found elsewhere, for instance, as reported in the Lexow Committee’s exposures of police corruption in New York City. Police corruption involves “protection” of and extortion from illegal but tolerated gambling and vices. Steffens sometimes found municipal corruption, centered in the mayor’s office, the executive and administrative departments and sometimes centered in the municipal legislatures. With corruption centered in City Council, the political bosses could often afford to tolerate a “clean hands” mayor. Steffens also describes financial corruption, for example in St. Louis, which involved “not thieves, gamblers, and common women, but influential citizens, capitalists, and great corporations.”9 Political bosses of the Gilded Age often enjoyed quite cozy relations to large financial and industrial firms or even owned banks themselves. Generalized civic corruption, exemplified by Philadelphia, “corrupt and contented,” involved direct ...
6. Cf. Sung Hui Kim 2014, “Insider Trading as Private Corruption,” UCLA Law Review, Vol. 61, pp. 928-1008: “Private corruption” is defined as “the use of an entrusted position for self-regarding gain.”
7. Michael Johnston 2005, Syndromes of Corruption, p. 21.
8. Relevant in comparison is the literature of Edmund Burke’s later speeches and documentation in the long impeachment process against Warren Hastings (1732-1818), the East India Company’s Governor of Bengal. See, e.g., Isaac Kramnick ed. 1999, The Portable Edmund Burke, Section V. “India and Colonialism,” pp. 363-406; Frederick G. Whelan 2012, “Burke on India.”
9. Steffens 1904, Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 71.
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partisan manipulation of the electoral system and vote counts, integration of political patronage, federal, state and local, with favored business interests plus institutional and popular acquiescence in boss led, machine politics. Even people not directly involved in corruption, still prevalently “went along,” and adopted protective affiliation and coloring of the dominant party in order not to fall into
direct opposition to the party bosses and the machinations of the corrupt system. Even “heads of great educational and charity institutions ‘go along,’ as they say in Pennsylvania, in order to get appropriations for their institutions from the State and land from the city.”10
Though acceptance of bribes among political office holders is the paradigm, corruption also exists in other institutional contexts. For example, embezzlement by a business partner or favoritism in the allocation of funds by a corporate treasurer show the possibility of corruption in private spheres; and “insider trading” of stocks and bonds on the basis of privileged information is criminal in many or most important jurisdictions. Bribery may exist even in “non-profit” sports organizations, influencing the outcome of games or the award of sports events to particular localities. “Corruption involves the abuse of a trust,” writes Michael Johnston, “generally one involving public power, for private benefit.”11 But the involvement of public power and public financing may be more or less remote, unobvious or even absent. The fundamental objection to corruption is moral, whether or not particular forms of corruption are also legally prohibited—though not every moral failure counts as corruption. Corrupt actions are those that disrupt or strongly tend to disrupt moral habits of good character and/or the practices constitutive of the normative and governing purposes of institutions.
Structures favorable to “economic elite domination”12 may be public, semi-public or private. But in any case of corrupt, domination over public or private interests, there will likely and typically be some “ring,” “combine,” “boodle gang,” syndicate or circle (however tightly organized or tacit and diffuse) of self-serving insiders who ignore or discount the common, public interest or the overt, declared and approved purposes of semi-public or private organizations. More generally, “The pattern of corruption … exists whenever a power-holder who is charged with doing certain things, … is by monetary or other rewards, such as the expectation of a job in the future, induced to take actions which favor whoever provides the reward and thereby damages the group or organization to which the functionary belongs, … .”13
Although legal definitions enter into our concept of corruption, the concept is basically moral and normative. “No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause,” wrote James Madison in Federalist Papers, No. 10, “because his interest would certainly bias his judgment, and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity.”14 The law, a judge and jury are there to see to it that no one is the judge in his own legal case; and we need to be morally concerned with anyone being the judge in a moral conflict of interests to which the same person is also a party. This has a corrupting effect on personal integrity.15 Some degree of cognitive or emotional bias seems to come with the limits of human intelligence and moral sympathy, but persistent, conscious habits and policies based on acceptance or acquiescence in insider bias and favoritism contribute to corruption of every sort.
10. Steffens 1904, Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 141; 141n. The contemporary colloquial phrase in Philadelphia, often critical, is “to go along in order to get along”: a matter of acquiescence.
11. Michael Johnston 2005, Syndromes of Corruption, p. 11.
12. See Martin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page 2014, “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens,” on usage of this term.
13. Cf. Carl J. Friedrich 1972, “Corruption Concepts in Historical Perspective,” in Friedrich 1972, The Pathologies of Politics, pp. 127ff:
14. James Madison 1787/1937, in The Federalist Papers, No. 10, p. 56.
15. Cf. Zephyr Teachout 2014, Corruption in America, p. 9, Giving a sufficient condition: “a person is corrupt when they use public power for their own ends, disregarding others.”
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“You could never convince a monkey to give you a banana by promising him limitless bananas after death in monkey heaven.”
Yuval Noah Harari, Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
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Dear Friends and Colleagues from RG,
I wish You all the best in the New Year. I wish you a successful continuation and successes in scientific work, achieving interesting results of scientific research in the New Year 2019 and I also wish you good luck in your personal life, all the best.
In the New Year, I wish You success in personal and professional life, fulfillment of plans and dreams, including successes in scientific work, All Good.
In the ending year, we often ask ourselves:
Have we successfully implemented our research plans in the ending year? We usually answer this question that a lot has been achieved, that some of the plans a year ago have been realized, but not all goals have been achieved.
I wish You that the Next Year would be much better than the previous ones, that each of us would also achieve at least some of the planned most important goals to be achieved in personal, professional and scientific life.
I wish You dreams come true regarding the implementation of interesting research, I wish You fantastic results of research and effective development of scientific cooperation.
I wish You effective development of scientific cooperation, including international scientific cooperation, implementation of interesting research projects within international research teams and that the results of scientific research are appreciated, I wish You awards and prizes for achievements in scientific work.
I wish You many successes in scientific work, in didactic work and in other areas of your activity in the New Year, and I also wish you health, peace, problem solving, prosperity in your personal life, all the best.
Thank you very much.
Best wishes.
I wish you the best in New Year 2019.
Happy New Year 2020.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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thank you, all the best to come
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I am from social science background and looking for some material that sums up data imputation methods in one reading material. The articles that I found describe the common methods used but I would like to know how the method was done. Thanks!
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I highly recommend this article which discusses the dangers of imputation, mean imputation in particular. http://people.oregonstate.edu/~acock/missing/working%20with%20missing%20values.pdf
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In my opinion, technologies for processing large data sets in Big Data database systems and other information technologies, information processing services on the Internet or data obtained from the Internet, including social media portals. The Internet of Things will continue to grow dynamically, support systems for enterprise management processes, computerized data processing, Business Intelligence, etc. In addition, other technologies typical for the current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
In view of the above, the current question is: What information technologies will develop intensively in 2019?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
In view of the above, in the ending of 2019 I am asking the following question:
What ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies will develop intensively in 2020?
In my opinion, technologies for processing large data sets in Big Data database systems and other information technologies, information processing services on the Internet or data obtained from the Internet, including social networks. The Internet of Things will continue to grow dynamically, supporting enterprise process management systems, computer data processing, Business Intelligence, etc. In addition, other technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
Therefore, in the context of the above considerations, the following important question arises:
What are the main determinants of the development of internet communication and information services?
Below are some of the technological fields and development determinants of internet communication and information services that have been rapidly developing in recent years:
1. The use of information systems, ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies, including Big Data, Business Intelligence in building and improving specific models of information technology management in organizations.
2. Industry 4.0 technologies are used in the processes of disseminating open innovations in new online media and in securing them, i.e. in developing cyber security technologies.
3. The development of marketing in recent years is determined by the development of Industry 4.0 technology and the development of open innovation on the Internet.
4. Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in the development of transaction systems and transaction security in the field of e-commerce and online banking.
5. In recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies have also been used to improve risk management processes.
6. In recent years, the impact of the implementation process of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into teaching processes in schools has been noticed.
7. Technologies of advanced data processing Industry 4.0, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the performed tasks and programmed activities.
8. In addition, in recent years information technology and Industry 4.0 have also been used in many other areas of industry, services, production technology improvement, in medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy.
Ad. 1: ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies are used in the development of advanced data processing technologies and Big Data analytics and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics used in economics, finance and management of organizations, including enterprises, financial and public institutions. In my opinion, scientific research confirms the strong correlation between the development of Big Data technology, Data Science analytics, Data Analytics and the effectiveness of the use of knowledge resources. I believe that the development of Big Data technology and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics and other ICT information technologies, multi-criteria technology, advanced processing of large information sets, and Industry 4.0 technology increases the efficiency of using knowledge resources, including in the field of economics, finance and organization management. In recent years, ICT information technologies, Industry 4.0 etc. have been particularly dynamically developing and are used in knowledge-based economies. These technologies are used in scientific research and business applications in commercially operating enterprises and in financial and public institutions. Due to the growing importance of this issue in knowledge-based economies, an important issue is the analysis of the correlation between the development of Big Data technology and Data Science, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and the effectiveness of using knowledge resources to solve key problems of civilization development, e.g. in the implementation programs for the quick implementation of the principles of sustainable pro-ecological development in economic processes in accordance with the green economy philosophy and the financing of programs for the creation and implementation of ecological innovations, and the urgent implementation of necessary ecological reforms. The goal of these pro-ecological business venture programs is to reduce the level of environmental pollution and slow down the global warming process. However, this is only one of the key global problems, the solution of which may be conditioned by the question of the possibility of increasing the efficiency of using large resources of knowledge accumulated in Big Data databases in knowledge-based economies. In connection with the above, I suggest the following research questions that may inspire you to implement important and interesting research projects:
Are there studies that verify the correlation between the development of Big Data technology and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and other ICT information technologies and advanced data processing Industry 4.0 and the effectiveness of the use of knowledge resources, including in the field of economics, finance and management of organizations, including enterprises, financial and public institutions? In recent years, there have been more and more media reports that in many countries there has been a significant increase in environmental pollution and a global acceleration of the global warming process. The problem is serious because the pace of the global warming process has significantly accelerated in recent years. However, this is only one of many key problems in the development of human civilization to be urgently solved in the 21st century. It is therefore necessary to increase the efficiency of processing knowledge resources in order to find faster solutions to key problems of civilization development. The use of Big Data, Data Science, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and other ICT information technologies as well as advanced data processing Industry 4.0 in the processing of knowledge resources should contribute to increasing the efficiency of knowledge resource processing in knowledge-based economies, including in the field of economics and finance.
Ad. 2: Industry 4.0 technologies are used in the processes of disseminating open innovations in new online media and in securing them, i.e. in developing cyber security technologies. At present, the dominant view is that the dissemination of open innovations in new online media, open data sources and open knowledge tools conditions the reduction of knowledge acquisition costs and is an important factor in the development of the knowledge and technology economy. Technological innovations can also be open innovations. Many open technological innovations are currently being created in the field of new online media, on social media portals operated by technology internet companies. Open technological innovations are created using ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies typical of the current technological revolution known as Industry 4.0. The ongoing technological revolution referred to as Industry 4.0 is an important factor activating the development of open innovations related to information services available for free on the Internet. The technological revolution of Industry 4.0 is determined by the development of the following advanced information processing technologies, which include, among others: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced technologies of Data Mining. The technologies for advanced information processing listed above are increasingly used in various fields of industry, production of goods and provision of services. The number of industries, branches of economic activity and sectors of the national economy is growing, in which advanced information processing technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution known as Industry 4.0 are used. Thanks to the above-mentioned technologies, in recent years more and more open technological innovations are being created, which are used in the development of information services offered on the Internet. In line with the above, a lot of new open innovations are emerging in the field of new online media, including information services offered on social media portals and other types of internet portals offering various free information services. In the following years, the development of open innovations may also be determined by the use of blockchain technology in the field of improving data transfer security systems on the Internet. Blockchain technology can also be used to secure online settlements and social payments, including financing innovative projects, new ventures developed by technological startups, and financing the development of open innovations through e.g. crowdfunding. Perhaps in the online accounts will also be used in the future critical critics. Perhaps in the future cryptocurrencies will be displacing traditional currency from online financial transactions between fintechs, financial institutions, innovative startups, online technology companies operating social media portals and their clients, and between users of these portals. The development of all of the above-mentioned ICT information technologies, advanced data processing technologies Industry 4.0 and technologies facilitating financial operations on the Internet and ensuring a high level of security of internet data transfer. The development of technological innovations, ICT information technologies, advanced information processing technologies co-creating the current technological revolution Industry 4.0, financing through crowdfunding, securing online transactions with blockchain technology, increasing the use of cryptocurrencies in these settlements, etc. These can be important determinants of the development of innovative, technological startups operating on the Internet and factors of development of the knowledge-based economy in subsequent years. In connection with the above, the development of open innovation is correlated with the issue of development of innovation and entrepreneurship in the economy. A significant proportion of innovative startups develop their business model based on open innovations. On the other hand, in macroeconomic terms, the development of open innovations can be an important determinant of economic development in developing countries and in developed knowledge-based economies. In view of the above, research shows that the dissemination of open innovations and open knowledge bases is an important issue for building a sustainable economy in a technologically developed and developing country.
In addition, the dissemination of open open innovations and open knowledge bases is also a key issue for the development of highly competitive knowledge and technology based factor markets. The dissemination of open, open innovations and open knowledge bases is also an important determinant of the possibility of reducing the asymmetry of information and knowledge between producers, service providers, financial institutions, etc. and their clients. Dissemination of open innovations in new online media, open data sources and open knowledge tools is a condition for reducing the cost of acquiring knowledge. This issue correlates with the development of open databases and open libraries and knowledge databases available on the Internet. In view of the above, the dissemination of open innovations in combination with the Internet of Things technology and open knowledge bases made available on the Internet is necessary for the effective development of the knowledge-based economy. I described these issues in my publications, which are available on the Research Gate portal. I invite you to scientific cooperation.
Ad. 3: Market development in recent years is determined by the development of Industry 4.0 technology and the development of open innovation on the Internet. Open innovations developed on the Internet concern, among others, free information and marketing services. The issue of the possibility of publishing specific content, texts, banners, comments, etc. on the Internet and obtaining free information are key determinants of the development of information services on the Internet. On the other hand, the largest internet technology corporations earn income mainly from paid marketing services. Therefore, the Internet environment is a kind of mix of free and paid information and marketing services, which are simultaneously, simultaneously and simultaneously interrelatedly developed by various Internet companies. Currently, research is conducted into the analysis of the development of open innovations in the field of free information services, which are the main factor of business success of the largest online technology companies, which include such concerns as Google and social media portals such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Tweeter, LinkedIn and others .
In my opinion, the development of internet information services will be determined by technological progress in the field of new ICT, communication technologies and advanced data processing techniques typical of the current technological revolution known as Industry 4.0. The development of information processing technology in the era of the current technological revolution called Industry 4.0 is determined by the use of new information techniques, for example in the field of e-commerce and e-marketing. These solutions are the basis for the business success of the largest online technology concerns that offer information search, data collection and processing services in the cloud (e.g. Google) and provide information services on platforms developed in social media portals (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and more).
The current technological revolution referred to as Industry 4.0 is motivated by the development of the following factors: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced technologies of Data Mining. These information technologies, combined with the improvement of ICT and communication technologies, along with the progressive process of increasing the computing power of computers will become an important determinant of technological progress in various industries in subsequent years.
Based on the development of these new technological solutions, the processes of innovatively organized analyzes of large information collections gathered in Big Data database systems and computing cloud computing for the purposes of applications in such fields as machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence have been dynamically developing in recent years. , Business Intelligence. To this can be added other areas of advanced technologies for analyzing large data sets, such as Medical Intelligence, Life Science, Green Energy, etc. Processing and multi-criteria analysis of large data sets in Big Data database systems is carried out according to the V4 concept, i.e. Volume (meaning large number of data), Value (large values ??of specific parameters of the information analyzed), Velocity (high speed of new information appearing) and Variety (high information diversity).
The above-mentioned advanced technologies of information processing and analysis are used more and more often for the needs of marketing activities of various business entities that advertise their offer on the Internet or analyze the needs in this respect reported by other entities, including companies, corporations, financial and public institutions. More and more commercially operating business entities and financial institutions conduct marketing activities on the Internet, including on social media portals.
The information and communication technologies listed above, combined with the improvement of ICT technologies and the implementation of Business Intelligence analytics into the processes of economic and financial, economic, macroeconomic and market analyzes may be instrumental instruments helpful in the efficient and effective management of economic, investment processes and enterprises, including analyzes carried out for the purposes of improving marketing activities in enterprises.
More and more companies, banks and other entities need to carry out multi-criteria analyzes on large data sets downloaded from the Internet describing the markets in which they operate and contractors and clients with whom they cooperate. On the other hand, there are already specialized technology companies that offer this type of analytical services, prepare commissioned reports, which are the result of such multi-criteria analyzes of large data sets obtained from various websites and from entries and comments contained on social media portals.
An important research technique that has been developing in recent years, the effects of which are used for the purposes of marketing activities of companies, is sentiment analysis carried out on large data sets collected in the Big Data database systems downloaded from the Internet. In order to group the behaviors of users of social media portals into specific classes of behavior, these classes must first be defined. Sentiment analysis using large data sets collected from entries and comments from social media portals and transferred to Big Data database platforms can be helpful. Then, when observing the changes in certain types of behavior of users of social media portals, you can analyze the data collected in Big Data according to these observations. In addition, a useful tool can be an analysis of the behavior of users of social media portals on the basis of ongoing posts, entries and comments on specific social media pages, statistical analysis of comments on specific topics of posts. This type of research is carried out by online technology companies that run social media portals and use the results of these studies to develop their viral marketing services, because this field of marketing is a key determinant of revenue generated by these companies from advertising sales on social media portals.
Ad. 4: Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in the development of transaction systems and transaction security in the field of e-commerce and online banking. The key determinants of the globally developing e-commerce relate primarily to the implementation of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies, i.e. industry 4.0 typical for the current technological revolution to computerized, automated transaction systems supporting online trading. In addition, the use of blockchain technology for transaction security systems and data transfer on the Internet. The use of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies i.e. typical for the current technological revolution Industry 4.0 to online transaction systems supporting e-commerce already applies to almost all the functioning of online stores, from computerized sales support systems, logistics, accounting, reporting, risk management to Internet marketing activities and improving security systems for online transactions. Another important determinant of e-commerce development is the development of online mobile banking available on mobile devices and new solutions related to the Internet of Things technology. Online banking is starting to dominate, whose development is determined by technological progress in the field of ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies. Computerization is also increasingly affecting public sector institutions servicing tax systems and business entities settlements. In addition, Business Intelligence analytical platforms supporting the management processes of companies operating also in the e-commerce sector have been developed for several years. The analyst of large information sets in Big Data databases is also developing. Big Data Analytics and Data Science analytical systems are also used by businesses operating also in the field of e-commerce. In recent years, new internet marketing instruments have also been developed, mainly used on social media portals, and are also used by companies operating in the e-commerce sector. Internet technology and fintech companies are also emerging that offer information services on the Internet to support marketing management, including the planning of advertising campaigns for products sold via the Internet. For this purpose, sentiment analyzes are used to survey Internet users' opinions regarding dominant awareness, recognition, brand image, mission, and offer of specific companies. Sentiment analysis is carried out on large data sets downloaded from various websites, including millions of pages of social media portals collected in Big Data systems. The analytical data collected in this way are very helpful in the process of planning advertising campaigns carried out in new media, including social media portals. These campaigns advertise products and services sold via the Internet, available in online stores. In view of the above, the development of e-commerce is mainly determined by technological progress in the field of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies Industry 4.0 and new technologies used in securing financial transactions carried out via the Internet, including e-commerce transactions, e.g. technologies blockchain. I have described the above issues of various aspects of the application of information systems and ICT, including Big Data, Business Intelligence in companies operating on the Internet in my scientific publications available on the Research Gate portal. I invite you to cooperation.
Ad. 5: In recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies have also been used to improve risk management processes. In addition, the structure of expenditure incurred on improving risk management processes in financial institutions has changed in recent years. While in the 1990s, the dominant risk categories that were subject to permanent improvement, including through the implementation of ICT information technologies for analytics and risk modeling, have been the key risk categories in recent years for which particularly high expenditure is allocated to improving management processes these risk categories are primarily risks related to the development of cyber crime, the risk of data transfer on the Internet, risks related to online and mobile electronic banking. In addition, in recent years, the improvement of risk management methods and systems has been carried out through the implementation of Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technology. For now, high levels of profitability of banking operations related to the development of electronic online banking allow spending high costs on improving the management of risk categories related to the development of cyber crime, the risk of data transfer on the Internet, risks related to online and mobile electronic banking. However, this may not always be the case. Competition for classic online banking is growing through the successive increase in the share of cryptocurrencies in transactions carried out electronically. Fintechs are also developing. Therefore, the current development trends of banking in the next decades may change significantly and then there may also be changes in the key barriers to risk management improvement processes.
Ad. 6: In recent years, the impact of the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media Internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into teaching processes in schools has been noticed. I fully agree with the thesis that ICT information technologies and new media internet technologies, Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technologies, which are increasingly being implemented into educational processes and may also negatively affect pedagogical processes in schools. I also believe that the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into educational processes can have a negative impact on the classical theory of children's mental development. Because in young children and adolescents, the process of adopting new concepts (thought process) in pre-school institutes extends from the perception of the senses (sight, hearing, touch), speech and direct manipulation of real objects (teaching resources), to create abstract concepts is the use of new information technologies ICT, Internet technologies and Industry 4.0 should be done under the full control of educators. Because in young children, this child must first "see the object in his head", he first had to "see it and touch with his hand" to learn, so devoting a significant amount of time to viewing various graphic and film spots, advertising on social media sites by children can cause negative effects in the psyche and in the psychosomatic development of a child. Therefore, information and communication technologies cannot replace every form and method of learning in the educational process of young children and adolescents. Of course, full implementation of ICT information technologies and new media internet technologies cannot be excluded including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 for teaching processes in schools. This process is already taking place. However, it is necessary to take this process under the full control of educators, teachers and parents of children. There are already many disturbing information from the media and from ongoing research on the effects of using new media internet technologies, including social media portals by children and young people. Children and teenagers mainly browse social media on smartphones. Many children spend too much time browsing social media portals on smartphones. The result is a reduction in the time spent on physical and sport activities, on learning, book readership decreases and the scale of diagnosed vision defects in adolescents in recent years. In this way, many problems arise that can affect the reduction of educational opportunities for children and adolescents. these problems should be solved systemically at all levels of the education system, i.e. from ministries of education to individual schools. Students and parents should be made aware of emerging threats through social campaigns in various media. Research shows that the process of implementing ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technologies, Industry 4.0 for teaching processes in schools has already begun. Of course, the use of ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 technologies in education processes does not only generate negative aspects. Therefore, the central institutions of the education system should coordinate the development of these processes in such a way as to maximize the positive aspects of the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced industry 4.0 data processing technology for teaching processes in schools. However, one should not forget about these negative aspects, about already diagnosed developing problems, which should be solved and educating teachers, students and parents about potential threats.
Ad. 7: Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technologies, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the tasks performed and programmed activities. Perhaps in the future there will be an attempt to build artificial awareness in which supercomputers will be equipped. In my opinion, consciousness can only be mathematically modeled in theory. Even if a mathematical model of artificial consciousness were built using ICT and Industry 4.0 and in the future Industry 5.0 and based on this model artificial intelligence would be created in quantum computers installed e.g. in autonomous robots, androids, it will still be only artificial intelligence without emotions and the essence of human consciousness. An analysis of the nature of human thoughts is necessary to distinguish between human intelligence and various artificial intelligence technologies being developed. In advanced computerized systems of neural networks, artificial intelligence systems are created, whose task will be to solve tasks consisting of complex sequences of many algorithms and self-learning systems for solving complex problems with the help of many algorithms. In these systems, man will try to create a structure that solves complex analytical tasks and learns from his mistakes. The advantage of artificial intelligence systems over their creator, i.e. man, is to rely on a much smaller number of mistakes made during repeated processes of solving complex tasks and learning new complex formulas to apply specific increasingly complex algorithms. However, after developing these artificial intelligence systems and applying them in many computerized fields of modern economies, what will be the next stage of technological progress in this field? Therefore, will the age of artificial intelligence and artificial consciousness come after the age of artificial intelligence? In my opinion, this is impossible. In my opinion, despite the rapid progress in the development and creation of new generations of artificial intelligence, it will never be possible to create an artificial creation that can be the equivalent of human intelligence taking into account human emotional intelligence and the specifics of human thoughts, human consciousness, human feelings. Therefore, the thesis can be formulated that in some respects artificial intelligence will probably never match human intelligence. The machine will be able to solve very complex problems and tasks but will not know why it does it, who it is, in what world it operates, it will not be able to realize its existence in the Universe etc. Machines in the form of autonomous androids can perform physically difficult works that a man cannot is able to perform. Quantum computers equipped with Big Data Analytics will be able to solve analytical tasks many times faster than the most powerful human minds. However, they will not be aware of their existence. Human awareness of its existence has been evolved in millions of years of evolution of the human mind and also of human ancestors that preceded humanity, i.e. human-like primates belonging to primates. Human consciousness was created in a process of evolution lasting millions of years, during which the process of continuous interaction of a complex biological organism with the environment has evolved. While artificial intelligence is based on systems of neural networks in a simplified way, to a small extent imitating the human central nervous system and the computational power of performing specific elementary tasks exceeding the analytical abilities of a human being, however, the level of complexity of the living organism of mammals is still many times higher than the most advanced computers.
Ad. 8. In addition, in recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in many other fields of industry, services, production technology improvement, medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy. Further development of applications of the Industry 4.0 technology is expected in the coming years. In many areas of knowledge, science and industry, the development of various applications of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing Industry 4.0 is just beginning.
Therefore, in recent years, information technologies and Industry 4.0 are also used in many other areas of industry, services, improvement of production technology, in medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy. As a result of the implementation of information technologies and Industry 4.0 to many industries and services, the effects of development synergies are strengthened also in the field of internet communication and information services because currently rapidly developing technological industries of services and industries and enterprises and institutions operating in these industries are increasingly they use the Internet to achieve their business goals.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In view of the above, in order to more fully identify the above issues, it is necessary to conduct research that will facilitate the formulation of answers to the following questions:
- What are the main determinants of the development of internet communication and information services?
- What is the impact of ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies on the development of internet communication and information services?
- Do social media portals play an important role in the development of internet communication and information services?
- What ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies will be intensively developing in 2020?
- What do you think about this topic?
- What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply
I invite you to discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research. Please briefly state your opinion on this issue.
Thank you in advance!
Warm regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
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Thank you for your interesting comments and valuable contribution.
Regards.
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Fore instance, the hero is from a working class and another character, in the same novel, is a middle class. I want to study how each character can project his/her class membership.
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Absolutely genial Vittorio de Sicca's movie, The bicycle thief, on Italy just after WWII https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0eHxcPBYCI
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if I have two mediating variables, a single IV , and a single DV, does that mean there are two causal relationships?
I know partial mediation occurs for Mediating var 1 and mediating var 2
where MV1 mediates the relationship between IV and DV
and MV2 mediates the relationship between IV and DV
are there 2 causal relationships here?
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In case of you propose two separate mediational models you will obtain two direct causal effects as follows:
a) IV-MV1-DV
b)IV-MV2-DV
There are two types of mediation procedures fro complex model:
a) Full Mediation
b) Partial Mediation
Then confirming the results through bootstrapping. Bootstrapping is the method of sampling with replacement whereby one instructs the algorithm to take the sample of size n from the existing dataset.
Please refer this link for detail.
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Hello All,
We are currently looking for Erasmus K2 Project partner in Europeen countries. Are there anyone interested in becoming a project partner in the social sciences and (or technical sciences) who are interested in projects in the field of social inclusion, digital skills and youth work?
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Hello. We are interested too, especially in the field of Social work. So, if You have some ideas, you can contact me.
Best regards, Andrea
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I am looking for Scopus or ISI-indexed journals which have no article processing or submission fees. This will also serve as resource for other researchers in education and social sciences who are looking for free journals to publish their work.
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You're welcome Prof. Dr. Fadhil Al-Quraishi .
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The Latin American governments of the left and right have failed, we can do something from education and research.
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نعم الجامعة ممكن لها ذلك
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What is important in building international research teams?
On what foundations should long-term scientific cooperation between scientists be developed?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG,
I propose a discussion on the following topic:
Development of cooperation of international research teams in the Internet era.
The above discussion inspired me to formulate the following questions:
Can new online media help in the development of research conducted by international research teams? What is the impact of social media portals on the development of science? What are the other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites?
On the basis of the above considerations and conclusions from the discussion on interesting issues discussed, I formulated the following thesis that there may be other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites. In this way, Research Gate could be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists.
Below I have described the key determinants confirming the formulated research thesis. To the above discussion I would like to add the following conclusion formulated as a summary of my earlier considerations on this topic: to define and determine the impact of social media portals on the development of modern science.
In my opinion, the research project can be implemented on an international and organizationalally virtual basis. Information exchange and coordination of necessary activities can be carried out remotely through new online media. The necessary research can also be supported by new online media, including social media. Coarz more often also collecting data for research, conducting surveys is carried out by forms suspended on the Internet. Therefore, I believe that all research projects can be planned and conducted on an international basis and in the form of remote new internet media.
For example, the Research Gate portal is a very useful tool for scientists. It combines the functions of a social media portal with a database of indexation of scientific publications. Improving the RG portal can be accomplished by analyzing the development of other social media portals and adding new functions, a tool for the RG portal that have other social media portals and which the RG portal does not yet have. The Research Gate portal is an information portal and indexation database for scientific publications, having some features and functions of social media portals, however, it is primarily profiled on the issues of scientific research and presenting scientific achievements, including scientific publications. The Research Gate portal is a very useful tool for scientists. It combines the functions of a social media portal with a database of indexation of scientific publications. Improving the RG portal can be accomplished by analyzing the development of other social media portals and adding new functions, a tool for the RG portal that have other social media portals and which the RG portal does not yet have.
On the Research Gate research portal, you can ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions with other researchers, scientists, research and teaching staff and employees of other institutions. The effectiveness of this solution on the RG portal is determined by many factors, primarily the global scale of the RG portal and profiling into the world of science. First of all, thanks to the opportunity to ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions on the RG science portal, scientists and researchers can exchange their experiences from conducted research. In this respect, online research gateway stands out from other similar websites developed on the internet.
Thanks to the ability to ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions, the RG portal enables quick verification of new research concepts and assessment of specific ideas for research and scientific works by other researchers and scientists. In addition, thanks to the participation in discussions of people of science representing the scientific communities of different countries and continents, it is possible to establish and develop international research teams working on similar or the same research projects.
In order for the effectiveness of the discussions on the Research Gate scientific portal to be high, a minimum of the following several issues should be met: topicality and high level of relevance of the scientific topics that are the subject of ongoing discussions. In addition, the growing importance of the issues, the developmental nature of the topics that are the basis of discussions on the Research Gate website. In order for many researchers and scientists to participate in the discussions on the RG portal, the questions and discussion topics should relate to those scientific issues that are the subject of research in many science centers and institutions operating in different countries.
In addition, it is important to maintain specific standards for presenting scientific knowledge and explaining specific problems of ongoing or planned research projects during discussions. The vocabulary used should relate to specific fields of science, so specialized vocabulary used in specific fields and scientific specializations should be used. On the other hand, in order for many people to participate in the discussion, including those representing various fields of science, formulated questions and conducted discussions should not be implemented solely with the use of concepts operating in very narrow fields of science. Questions should concern important issues for people of the world of science, but they should be formulated in a way that they are understandable for scientists and researchers operating in various fields of science.
Because for almost every field of knowledge and science on the Research Gate portal hundreds or thousands of research and analytical questions have been formulated, so many researchers and scientists may find among these questions useful for their research needs specific inspirations to formulate research theses and direct the conducted research processes. Questions formulated on the Research Gate website are often a form of supporting questions for specific theses and research hypotheses. Questions can inspire the search for interesting research concepts and can be an instrument for exchanging experience in the field of research carried out by scientists and researchers operating in different countries on different continents. Discussions conducted on the Research Gate portal can be helpful in developing international scientific cooperation and establishing research teams.
You can draw inspiration for many interesting research projects from the discussions on the Research Gate research portal. During these discussions, you can verify new concepts and ideas about the topics and methods of ongoing or planned research. During these discussions, researchers and scientists will learn different views, different interpretations and assessments for specific proposals for new research projects. During the exchange of views, new concepts of research are verified and the best and the most effective solutions for internationally conducted research projects are often developed.
Discussions conducted on the Research Gate scientific portal can be an inspiration for the establishment and development of international research teams working on similar and the same research topics or conducting research on the same international research projects. International research teams can add value to the world of science related to internationalization and globalization of key research topics and projects. In addition, discussions on the Research Gate research portal can be an important factor in information globalization for specific, new and important topics in which research is conducted. Research Gate is a representative of new online media, thanks to which topics important for humanity and planet Earth can be developed internationally.
The questions asked at Research Gate differ from each other in many respects, but many, most questions relate to more or less current and important problems recognized and considered, scientifically analyzed. This is a very positive aspect of the Research Gate research portal. In this respect, the Research Gate portal stands out from other internet portals. The advantage of the Research Gate portal over other online media scientific portals, indexation databases of scientific publications and social media portals lies in the fact that the discussions and questions asked on the Research Gate portal represent a high substantive level, the applied scientific approach to the discussed problems and are often an inspiration for opening new , interesting research projects, including research projects conducted by international research teams.
Research shows that Internet users use social media portals in a variety of ways, including the time they spend on a given social media portal. How much time Internet users devote to individual portals is determined by many factors related to the preferences of citizens regarding the expected internet information services as well as the technical characteristics, editorial capabilities, etc. of individual social media portals. In recent years, the importance of individual social media portals will change, such as Facebook, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Instagram, etc. The amount of time spent by Internet users browsing the pages of individual social media portals changes, however, it is difficult to answer the question which of these social media portals is better because they are not completely incomparable.
Individual social media portals differ significantly in many issues, and above all in terms of the possibility of graphical insertion of posts, restrictions on the volume of text entered into posts and comments, and in the scope of specific additional functions important for users of these portals. For example, since mid-2018, there has been a decrease in Internet users' interest in such a social media portal as Facebook and a simultaneous increase in the use of such a portal as Instagram. This is probably related to the increase in sales and use by citizens of smartphones equipped with permanent internet access.
Another important issue in the context of these considerations is the possibility of combining existing profiles on various social media portals. The Research Gate research portal and, for example, the LinkedIn professional portal are completely different types of social media portals. These portals offer users other functions. In a situation when we want to combine our profiles on various social media portals, some portals allow it and some unfortunately do not. Account Research and LinkedIn are not able to link accounts. You can probably only copy links from one portal to another and vice versa. To publish your publications on LinkedIn, you can place a short description of the publication on your LinkedIn profile and attach the publication file. In addition, you can post links to your publications on Research Gate in your posts and messages on your LinkedIn profile.
In connection with the need to establish contacts in the world of science, the need to establish international research teams and conduct research in interdisciplinary and international scope, it is necessary for scientists and researchers to use websites specialized in science issues, also serving as social media portals and also fulfilling the functions of publication indexation databases scientific. Other scientific portals such as Academia.edu and Mendeley appear in discussions on the Research Gate portal. In connection with the above, I am asking you the following question: Does any of you have your profiles on all these scientific portals and carried out a comparative analysis? I regularly use the Research Gate portal, because this portal enables establishing contacts with researchers and scientists also operating in other countries. Are there any significant differences between the two science portals listed above?
Apparently, the functionality of both scientific portals is very similar. However, are there any significant differences in the scope of information services offered, searching for publications as well as researchers and scientists operating in specific science disciplines? Does anyone of you have your profiles on all these scientific portals and conducted a comparative analysis to answer the question: what are the key differences between these portals? Is it worth having your profiles on all these science portals or is it enough to use the Research Gate portal? In addition, do the research portals ResearchGate, Academia.edu and Mendeley do not have any important functions that appear in the standard offer of information services of popular social media portals such as Facebook, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Google+ etc.?
According to the above, in my opinion there may be other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites. In this way, Research Gate could be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following questions:
- What is the importance of asking questions, answering, and participating in discussions on the Research Gate science portal?
- What is the significance of the discussions on the Research Gate website?
- Is it possible to link an account on the Research Gate portal with profiles created on other social media portals, e.g. from LinkedIn?
- Are scientific questions and discussions on the Research Gate portal a determinant of this portal's advantage over other internet portals?
- Does new online media help to establish international scientific cooperation?
- Do new internet media, including social media portals help to establish international scientific cooperation between scientists?
- Does new online media help build international research teams carrying out the same research projects or interdisciplinary research?
- In your opinion, does the Research Gate portal help to establish international scientific cooperation?
- What are the other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites?
- How could the Research Gate portal be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists?
- What is the impact of social media portals on the development of science?
- Can new online media help in the development of research conducted by international research teams?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this topic?
Please reply
I invite you to discussion
thank you very much
Best wishes
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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And how would the conceptual diagram look like with direct, indirect, and total effect pathways?
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Hi Franklin,
yes, with a 4-category variable, you would create 3 dummies, with one category representing the reference group and the others representing the comparison between a respective category and the references.
Please google how to create dummies. You will find tons of tutorials.
Best,
Holger
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In a regression, I'm using household income and household specific expenditures as independent variables, both with a natural logarithmic transformation, and I want to control them by the household size. I find in the literature that in that kind of cases, it is used the natural logarithm this last variable, but I don't get the logic. If I'm not wrong, the household size is the number of people living in the household, so i find that the interpretation would be very weird: an increase in 1% of the number of people leads to a x% in Y?
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Allow me to share another view on WHY THE Log/ln.
Take a household of 2, a household of 4, a household of 8, I am skipping cases in-between.
Look at their housing. For 2, you're ok with a bathroom, for 4 it's already much better to have two bathrooms/toilets, for 8 maybe 3 bathrooms/toilets.
So you can see that the reasonable and comfortable shared resource is roughly varying as the Log of the household size.
Think of something else, still very practical, the rectangular dining-room table.
Let me get something from the internet from a search on
"dining table for 8":
Dimensions: (W) 180CM x (H) 78CM x (D) 90CM
Surface = 1.62 m2
"dining table for 4"
Dimensions: (W) 90CM x (H) 78CM x (D) 90CM
Surface = 0.81 m2
"dining table for 2"
Dimensions: (W) 75CM x (H) 76CM x (D) 75CM
Surface = 0.56 m2
call these example of values v2, v4, v8
v4/v2=1.45
v8/v4=2
Here you see that the surface of the table as function of the number of seated people is non-linear and concave, roughly logarithmic
Hence it makes also sense to have a Log scale on the household for a linear scale on table surface.
We could continue by looking at house or apartment surface, etc...
More generally, the reasonable sharing (in a family or household) and expected economies of scale show that resources maybe evolve linearly as function of the Log of the household (rather than as a linear function of the direct size of the household).
This might also hold somewhat for food consumption, if you assume on average that a household of 2 is two adults eating each one full size meal, whereas a household of 4 is more likely to have two children and two adults, and assuming that the duration of the childhood age (eating on average half size meal) is much more significant than the duration of adolescence (where they eat more than their parents, maybe?), you get again a reasonable Log approximation... Funny isn't it?
It even works for some aspects of individual consumption.
Now the water consumption, the electricity consumption, etc, do not seem to be easily modeled in Log of household size...
I hope that the above examples (not proofs, just illustrative cases which are likely or at least make sense) show why a log model might make sense.
Note that we have done economics without introducing any money or income. This is deeper and more basic.
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The fact that better knowledge on basic research comes out of understanding the existing techniques and methods is the key for a fruitful research.
1.Which should be considered as the primary document for reference when it comes to research?
2.What is the best way to learn SPSS and AMOS according to you?
note:Any recommendation from your end is valuable as it is the guide for reference for many upcoming researchers
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Alan George Vellaiparambill For SPSS i would suggest you to prepare a small dataset and experiment the software while keeping the book handy. Now, before you start to experience it please explore the details of statistics involved in your field of research. It is all about comprehending the statistical details and computing methodologies.
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Scientists typically avoid "making waves" and often have difficulty formulating important messages for consumption by the general public. Activism in taking a position that involves any attempts to inform the public about something that affects them falls outside the academic discipline of science and veers into social science. Scientists belong to an intellectual elite but should they remain sequestered in an inner sanctum that precludes notifying the public and providing it with scientific facts that affect their lives?
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Thank you for contributing. I am surprised to see your view that a student's choice of a major field of study is "political," a word that denotes "government " or civic action group, in contrast to "education," "field interest," "knowledge," or the like.
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I ask this in regards to curriculum design as might be implemented in an Introductory statistics class at the MSc level in the social sciences.
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As per my level of understanding, their statistical knowledge should be able to cover up following concerns:
a) Apply the various statistical and qualitative tools used in business research.
b) Perform hypotheses testing, direct and indirect, using SPSS/PLS SEM.
c) Conduct the analysis and interpret the results correctly using appropriate software.
c) Critically review published research articles which made use of the techniques covered.
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I am fully aware that the question is quite broad, and yet do you know of any estimates of number of annual publications, let's say, in psychology? Or any other discipline belonging to social sciences? I am not interested in individual achievements, but rather in global numbers.
In advance, thank you for your inputs.
All the best,
Lukasz
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First of all, thank you for all your reflections. Personally, I am not interested in these 'rules-of-a-thumb' for specifying individual academic achievements/expectations (i.e., per researcher, and per year) as they often depend on a discipline, setting, funding, reaserch-time at work, etc.. Having noted that, I am more into the general/global scientific production across various disciplines (at some sort of 'meta' level). For instance, according to STM Report (2018, p.25) “There were about 33,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed English-language journals in 2018, collectively publishing some 3 million articles a year”. This is the type of information that I am looking for in these days.
Once again, thank you for your contributions.
All the best,
Lukasz
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Are there any systematic (method-based) ways of developing RQs in social sciences? Does the submitted RQ need to stay 'static' throughout the whole project? How do we evaluate the quality of RQ?
In advance, thank you for your reflections.
Best regards,
Lukasz
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My advice to a student who would ask such a question is:
1. Find a question for which you really want to know the answer but you can't find an answer in the current literature.
2. Discuss with your advisor and similar individuals how doable they think finding this answer is. Go from there.
Best wishes, D. Booth
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Many publishers report the publication history process in their published articles. However, I do not see SAGE Journals such as “Structural Health Monitoring” or “Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures” reflect that.
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I would like to update my experience: AWFUL. I could not get a response for 6 months and I sent an email. The journal assistant contacted me 4 days later and told that they assigned reviweres: Huuuhhhh?!!!??*****??* The journal is SAGE Open
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Kindly be informed that we are going to conduct an international research project related to linguistics and social sciences. Researchers from around the word especially in the filed of EFL/ESL/TESL/TEFL are welcomed. Moreover, we are also ready to take part/cooperate in research projects by other researchers.
Keep in touch if you are interested
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I am, I work with critical discourse analysis and environmental education, educational policy and training teacher
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I mainly use surveys to collect data from people for my projects. I have been using SurveyMonkey to collect e-surveys and also enter 'field-paper' surveys, It is very good as I have both the practicalities of entering data with minimum or no errors (like using Access-Forms) and also share the survey online to target other people I may not capture on my 'field' data collections.
I am interested on the capabilities of epicollect5, and it has very useful things like, again create a form, being able to use it on-line or off-line and share for other people to collect. However, the type of questions you can create are limited and they don't adjust well to social surveys. Well, of course Epicollect5 is/was thought for other disciplines.
So, anyone knows of an alternative -FREE, as epicollect- for social science that would allow questions like matrixes, likert scales, rankings, multiple open-text in same question, or even adding a photo for people to rate or rank?
Thanks everyone for your opinion on this....
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Yes, I tried that. But I cannot get Google Forms to create questions like multiple open single answers, in a 3 by 3 matrix where I may have 9 different text boxes arrange in three columns and three rows...
But, thanks for the suggestion! and your time!
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Many scientists lived who have milestone the world with his studies from past to present. Which scientist has been a role model for you through his studies or his behavior? Which have their properties, behaviors, inventions or principles, etc., leading to you or your studies? For example, "Karl Popper's Basic Scientific Principle Falsifiability" is rule to me. Karl Popper is defining the inherent testability of any scientific hypothesis by this principle.
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Prof Jordan Peterson, who is also an active member of Researchgate.
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How i increase my research abilities?
Social Sciences related research abilities.
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I would agree with Haji Karim Khan that learning by doing is the best way to improve your research skills. I would also add that you should take any opportunity to get feedback on your research by, e.g. discuss your research data and preliminary findings with your peers. A good way to discuss data and receive feedback is participating in an interpretation group or peer intervision.
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Scholars agreed that religion has an impact on ethical conduct. The question is how far has those scholars and researchers came-up with suggestion to introduce religious characteristics to be used in measuring ethics? 
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Yes bridging subject is Philosophy .
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Henry Mintzberg did his Ph.D thesis studying 10 executives. He wrote a book about ten different role of a successful manager. Frederic Taylor invented the scientific management theory By observing the work in the factory!
Adam Smith studies the pin's factory and wrote a book about the Wealth of Nations...
What are the basis for good theory? Is it a statistical rigorous approach? Or is it à in depth understanding of the reality? How can we write a good theory which is a statement of causality! A Good theory help us to understand or predict the future
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Dear Shamba Patrick Bakengela , a good theory predicts a certain causation between variables which holds. And most of the time you formulate that causation on the basis of understanding (study, thinking of observation). If you assume to much and you predict to little, your theory will fall apart. You have to have deep understanding of a phenomenon which can cause questions to be asked by scientists where again and again predictions can be tested positively and lead to other questions.
see also https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/02/15/what-separates-a-good-scientific-theory-from-a-bad-one , even if this is not about social science, it is still about science and how to formulate a good theory.
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What are the major problems and challenges in social science research and let us proposed comprehensive solution accordingly. The considerable known challenges are development of conceptualisations, problem of maintaining objectivity, difficulty in the verification of the inferences, unpredictability and problem of universalisation etc? Besides above mentioned problems, what would be other other challenges in respect to different societies, conditions and different nations?
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I see the main problem in the fact that there are currently no really new theoretical approaches as they were numerous and typical for the second half of the 20th century. Some of them go back to the period after the First World War. In order to get sufficient knowledge about the present, one has to know this state of theory.
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Please describe the industrial & social sciences applications regarding your project. Specifically, any application related to commodity markets is appreciated.
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Seems interesting. Thanks for info. Let me have a look at those papers, and then after I will contact you again. Good!
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It is the trending topic for a publisher this week.
I want to learn the opinion of Academia members. Is it due to environmental factors or personal over-ambition?
Why does anyone commit fraud?
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Why are you interested in pointing the finger. It is just a force of nature. The only thing that matters is that we were able to spot it in time and are willing the correct it.
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How to define an idea. What is that criteria?
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Our brain produces over 90000 thoughts in 24h, awake and in sleep.
An idea is a thought concept, which has longer temporary duration;
ideas are time-tested and time-resistent tools of human thinking.
In this sense, it is not only (no more) tied to the physical body of the 'creator or initiator', once in human circulation.
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I'm starting a project to understand how small communities see their water problems but I don't have a strong background on social sciences. Hopefully you can share some literature and things that went good and bad based on your experience.
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You are welcome and all the best in your research.
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All modern constitutions contain and declare the concept and principle of popular sovereignty, which essentially means that the people and their representative organs (like chambers) are entitled to be involved into the legislation.
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The participation of public bodies such as unions and chambers is useful because knowledgeable public parciptiation helps the government to let errors not occur and see and listen what failures are still in the legal text - some written ideas are then considered successful and others not but we in Germany have very good experiences in this way and participation in the legal/law creation process of the government/parliament. The first draft version goes to all required stakeholdend all answers are considered before this draft will be implemented as government proposal...
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In my research i found many problems with this concept of "social engineering", because i only find documents with references to hacking, spywarre, and similar themes, but only a few quantity of papers mention the definition of the term in the perspective of social sciences, a work like Seeing Like a State help in the understand of this concept, but i need new sources to advance in my research....
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Thanks, i´m very grateful with all of you
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As researchers, we are always in pressure to make our research innovative, mainly for the purpose of funding and/or publications. Can there be any tips to enhance innovation, though it is obvious that there is no short cut route on that.
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as Anthea's response suggests, the most crucial "innovations" may rest in actually applying what other anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists pioneered 50-90 years ago: participant observation, Participatory Action Research, working in teams, writing 3-4-5 reports, each from a different person's perspective, combining modes (auditory, visual, etc.)
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Questions that ask whether or not some statement is true are called yes–no questions (or polar questions, or general questions), since they can in principle be answered by a "yes" or "no" (or similar words or expressions in other languages).
It could be interesting, that in everyday life, usually or statistically or empirically what is the more common answer to a yes/no question.
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Let's focus your question mathematically. It is a binomial random variable, which can take 2 values ​​(Yes, No), with respective probabilities (Py, Pn). You ask if: Py = Pn Py> Pn Py <Pn To know and compare the values ​​of (Py, Pn) there are two options: A) Estimate them from a sample of known responses. If the sample size is large enough, the value of the estimators will approach that of the probabilities, but it is very important, essential, that the sample be representative of the population of interest. B) If you have a thorough knowledge of the phenomenon of interest, you can use it to obtain theoretical evaluations of the value of Py, Pn, which would allow you to compare them. Example: E1-If you ask couples who are in the act of getting married, do you accept husband / wife ...? Then, Py> Pn. E2-If you ask someone, do you want any illness for your family? then Pn> Py. Examples E1 and E2 correspond to two binomial variables, both take values ​​(Y, N) but with different probabilities. Therefore, it is incorrect to extrapolate the results from one of them to the other. In the form so broad that your question is formulated, it does not define exactly which is the binomial variable of your interest, which is essential to obtain an accurate answer. Several variables can be combined, if the probability of each of them is known or assumed, (applying the formula of the total probability) but that reduces the accuracy of the response. I hope this brief analysis helps you. Best regards. C.M. Legon.
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In highly developed countries and economically fast developing countries there are analogous processes of changes in the demographic structure of society consisting in the aging of the population and the accompanying process of depopulation of cities, agglomeration, decreasing number of births, decreasing fertility rate in families. These processes, which are unfavorable for the economic development of the country, usually have at least several causes.
Extending the average life expectancy of citizens results from improved living standards, increased income and related improvements in quality of life, improvement of nutrition and improvement in the health care services sector. In addition, some of the lowly, educated people go to look for more interesting jobs and higher salaries by hiring in other countries. In a situation where young people paying off housing loans, are also burdened with various taxes, they are forced to work, to professional activity all adult members of the family of working age.
As a result, the pressure, the need to have more than 1 or 2 children are decreasing, and then the fertility decreases, which contributes to the decline in the number of citizens in the long term. In order to counteract this disadvantage for the national economy, this country should develop social policy to support young people, including subsidizing the purchase or rental of housing, establishing guaranteed income related to raising children, developing programs supporting the nursery, pre-school and education, pediatric health care system, etc.
Examples of such programs of active socio-economic policy are: Family 500 Plus Program and Flat Plus Program (Mieszkanie Plus Program). Because these programs have been developed only for 3 years, so you can not objectively assert how they affect the demographic structure of society, or motivate you to make decisions about having a larger number of children. In order to be able to answer this type of questions objectively, ie with regard to relevant scientific data, these Programs should be conducted with a minimum of 2-3 subsequent generations of citizens.
On the other hand, there has already been a noticeable increase in consumption for various types of goods purchased by citizens, which has a pro-development effect on the economy as it increases the level of economic growth. It may be one of the key elements of the socio-economic policy of anti-crisis, countercyclical importance, ie increasing the resilience of the domestic economy to global economic crises and the slowdown in global economy growth, e.g. the currently observed slowdown in global economy caused by the so-called war wars and other restrictions on the development of international trade.
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How can changes in the demographic structure of society affect the economic development of the country?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Great choice of topic for discussion. I think David Vazquez-Guzman sums up well in a short paragraph about the inherent paradoxical aspects of demographic changes. I'm going to pick only one aspect to keep it short here: We all know that Economic Growth = % Change in Productivity + % Change in the Labor Hours Worked. As such, economic growth apparently is affected by a number of factors such as the labor productivity and its growth, the labor force participation rate, the number of work hours in a society, savings rate, investments, government policies etc.
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A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is a reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes. According to a controversial theory: shrink and prosper, the accompanying benefits of depopulation could be identified after the post-Civil War Gilded Age, post-World War I economic boom, and the post-World War II economic boom.
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Paul: Lower demand for government support and spending. Lower demand for healthcare. Less traffic. Smaller class sizes in school. Less competition for housing. Less pollution.
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With the buzzword of analytics of big data that represent information seems to be the next driver, then there is technology advancement with another buzzword of industry 4.0 as the next driver as well, while the social science and communication still talking about lifestyle as the driver. Please share your view on what will be the driver for the next users' behaviour? Tks
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For companies and organisations, hence for markets and society, it is common to speak of digital transformation.
Phase 1 was and is still now the adoption of Cloud.
Phase 2 will be the adoption of Edge Processing (localise technology closest to where data is gathered and action on real world is performed) and Artificial intelligence, which is a form of automation after all.
Humans?
Humans decide if this works, and when.
For instance delocalised intelligent production of electricity called Smart Grid stumbled on adoption by humans:people found the technology intrusive, and not protecting enough their private life. Hence adoption has been delayed.
Behavioral sciences are essential to understand and model the behavior of people.
People come first.
Now, another very large parameter should not be forgotten : the planet. This means environmental sustainability of any transformation is a must...
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Investigating the economies of countries in which the social market economy develops in the political system of democracy, economy open to international economic cooperation, knowledge-based economy and technological development, economy in which an important element of the host development is effective shaping of pro-development socio-economic policy and sustainable pro-ecological development, an economy in which various types of commercial enterprises and public institutions are developing, including social economic entities, the issue of effective socio-economic development may be observance of the principles of ethics and high moral standards.
In view of the above, I am asking you:
Can economic policy conducted in accordance with the principles of ethics and high moral standards be the basis for the country's economic success?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Leonardo Andriola We are indeed far from economic democracy.
A market economy can exist very well without crony (rentier) capitalism; democracy works very well with open markets, but not with economic rentierism (embodied by the 'unholy trinity' of the land/money/tax monopoly).
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Hi everyone, i am learning and there are a series of questions are related to Systematic Literature Review for Qualitative Study.
1) When doing a systematic search for systematic review, should the focus only be searching on key databases (e.g. ERIC, Taylor & Francis) OR can the search be just within specific journals (e.g. British Journal of Educational Technology (BJET) )? - so search solely within journals identified instead of databases?
2) If such a method exists, could someone please direct me to some social science studies that have done that?
3) When doing a search, key words are important, i know that PICO or SPIDER can help with identification of keywords, but eventually keywords are still subjected to the researcher's feeling which would be the most appropriate... any one has advice about this?
Thanks for the insights
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You should start by outlining the list of topics and ideas that readers of your article need to understand in order to evaluate your methodology, findings and discussion. Then research each one systematically.
Rather than starting with a list of journals and searching each one, I think it is more effective to search a research database using keywords, which will search many journals. If you do not have such databases available, use Google Scholar, although many of the articles that will appear there are not free to read.
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Videoconferencing is one of the Internet services that are currently developing intensively. The progress in the field of data teletransmission in the Internet allows for the gradual improvement of techniques enabling online Videoconferencing via the Internet.
In addition, completed Videoconferences after recording can be placed almost automatically on the profiles of social media portals.
In connection with the above, Videoconferencing is an excellent form of sharing experiences in the field of scientific research conducted by scientists.
It is also a good way to popularize scientific knowledge. In addition, debates may also be held on the Internet, and Internet-related questions may be asked by the speakers. Questions can be asked by listeners who watch Videoconferencing broadcast live, online through the Internet.
In view of the above, the current question is:
Is videoconferencing a good instrument for popularizing science over the Internet?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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The Cons, just quoting.
  • Not all software is free, and the software that is free is limited in capability.
  • With overseas conferences, depending on the speed of both of both your and the client’s internet, web conferencing can greatly reduce the visibility and function of shared desktops and applications.
  • It is more informal than a face-to-face meeting.
  • It requires suitable hardware and adequate training to use.
  • There are costs associated with maintaining and keeping up with new technology.
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Hello colleagues,
We have beendiscussing research. I would like to have partners on my current study on "Public and Private providers of maternal and child health care services."
This ia purely social science research that extends an arm to produce cutting-edge research in healthcare systems, capacity and management.
I am willing to share a draft with an interested partner.
Thank you
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Hello Mamatha, please send me an email jasasira@must.ac.ug cc asasirajsts@gmail.com. I will get back to you as soon as I see your mail. Thank you.
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Dear all, I like to discuss which research design can fit to which type of research focus. Lets discuss it in broad and see, how many different designs we can find around the "globe" between qual / quant, mixed data; technical, natural science, social science and philosophical topics. I hope to find more design types that way. I start with the following three:
  • Case study
  • Survey
  • Design Science Research
Please expand and link designs to applications.
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Hi Sandra. Great subject.
I think that we can add Action Design Research (ADR) to the designs listed in the site you posted.
A good reference for ADR is: Sein et al. (2011), Action Design Research, MIS Quartely, 35(1), 37-56.
Personaly, I did some research following the action research approach and I fout it a very valuable option when you have: a problem raised from the field, a good access to the organization where the problem needs to be solved, a theoretical framework to use for solve the problem, and( the most important thing) an oportunity to learn something from your intervention. The last is the difficult part. It is important to consider well all the possible contributions to learn during the interventions, if we do not do that, we cannot differentiate our research from a consultancy intervention.
In my experience, almost all the data we collect in Action Research was qualitative.
I hope this contribute to your discussion.
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Tenure Track System has always been a debatable issue for the disciplines of Social Science and Humanities, particularly in the universities having very limited resources and lack of research culture.
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Is a good question. Policy makers in education and higher education should have a comprehensive program for education and research in the humanities and social sciences;To be aware of all needs. Designing a comprehensive education and research system can be a good and effective way.
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What is more prestigious and better for the career, to publish academic books with an established university press such as Cambridge and Princeton or with other big commercial publishers such as Sage and Routledge? What are advantages and disadvantages?
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Hans - I suppose that the 'simple' answer would be that the larger the company, the more likely it is to be more widely marketed, circulated and read - and potentially more cited. Unlike journals, texts are not ranked and so the answer does have some subjectivity associated with it. That said, some of the university press publishers i.e. Cambridge Univerity Press and Oxford University Press are well established and can be considered equally prestigious and 'mainstream' than some of the other publishing houses you mention. That said, there are a few that that are probably 'ranked' higher than most - such as Elsevier.
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Like grounded theory is an inductive qualitative method of theory building, what are the other methods?
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There is an emerging consensus that the kind of theory building in Grounded Theory is based on abduction rather than induction. In particular, induction consists of making a generalization from repeated observations, but it cannot introduce any new insight; instead, it simply asserts that the pattern observed is more general. The problem with induction is sometime demonstrated to in terms of black and white swans: every swan I have every seen is white, hence all swans are white. But it only takes one black swan to "disprove" this theory (and Australia happens to be full of black swans).
Manzoor Hussain is correct that most people just treat induction as a label for moving from observations to theory, and this undoubtedly what Glaser and Strauss meant when they emphasized it in the Discovery of Grounded Theory. In essence, they wanted a label to contrast with deduction, and induction was the most widely known alternative.
As a third alternative, abduction proposes a new idea that would account for what one has observed so far, and then proceeds to test whether that would indeed work as an theory. As such, it is not a strict form of logic, but rather a mode of explanation.
Reichertz, Jo (2007). Abduction: The logic of discovery in grounded theory. In Antony Bryant & Kathy Charmaz (Eds.), The Sage handbook of grounded theory(pp. 214-228). London: Sage.
Reichertz, Jo (2010). Abduction: The logic of discovery of grounded theory [39 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,11, Art. 13. Available at http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001135.
Strübing, Jörg (2007). Research as pragmatic problem-solving: The pragmatist roots of empirically-grounded theorizing. In Antony Bryant & Kathy Charmaz (Eds.), The Sage handbook of grounded theory(pp. 580-602). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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I am working on modelling the social dynamics and human responses during flash floods and forecasting the socio-economic impacts of flash floods.
Could you please share any relevant scientific papers/reports or any other related resources?
Thank you.
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Significance of CV and Variance values in social science research and methods of their interpretation.
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Put simply there are two key aspects to describing a distribition
1 the central tendency or middle
2 the spread or the degree of variation around the middle.
The problem with the the variance (and the standard deviation) is that can be seen as a combination of these two elements in that is is affected by the units of measurement for the variable being studied. The coefficient of variation purports to be a measure of spread that is dimensionless.
So if you assessing income inequality of two countries with different monetary systems you would want the coefficient of variation.
This project is in part about developing a measure of inequality that uses a Poisson multilevel model to get at the spread taking account of the mean.
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I am using 3 theories in my research proposal and i want to anticipate the challenges i might face .
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Hi Aware
Thank you very much for your contribution.
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I have been reading about the observer effect as conceptualised in Physics. However, I would like to know how this concept has been applied in the social sciences.
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You can as well read Benefits of ‘observer effects’: lessons from the field by Torin Monahan and Jilla Fisher Vanderbilt University, USA
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I am an educationist in the higher education where early-career researchers are trained and motivated to venture in to the world of publishing. Detailed responses with step-by-step guidance and meticulous answers will be appreciated. Thanks.
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Make sure your papers have technical quality and significance. Avoid plagiarism
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There is probably no other science portal that would offer all the same functions for researchers as the Research Gate portal.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Does the Research Gate research portal offer the most information services for researchers that researchers and scientists need?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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and it takes a lot of your time
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Human behaviour is very complex in nature but it does not mean that it is unpredictable. We need to understand the nature, course and direction of human behaviour and explain its structure, organization, functions and dynamics in a proper scientific orientation.
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I think that social science does not lag behind, but it has different methodologies and different ways to do research. I would even claim that a positivist approach like usually is followed in physical science is based on the effort to reduce everything to a few variables that can be controlled and that are measured. This is usually highlight successful, but is does not provide always answers to what we would like to have. A philosopher once said: biology is just such successful as it never really asks what life is, physics is so successful as it never really asks what matter is. Social science cannot reduce society to a few variables that can be measure, but it deals with something that is extremely complex....
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Technical education by default has opportunities for encouraging and publishing original thought/analysis as part of project works/industry exposure for both budding researchers and postgraduate students. It is not so in the case of social sciences. humanities or arts normally.
In social sciences, humanities and arts, research scholars are expected to co-author with their guides before they could be considered for independent publication. In the case of postgraduate students, even such opportunities are rare indeed.
If we have to develop thought leaders in social sciences, humanities and arts, we need to consider giving opportunities to postgraduate and budding research scholars to publish independently. How do we go about doing this? Your suggestions are welcome.
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Dear Jorge,
I completely agree with you on what you said.
The issue is not that in developing countries opportunities do not exist. The issue is, academics spend more time in either self promotion or remain content in the security of their own job. Developing new thought leaders needs passion and vision. These two, together with a sense of responsibility and commitment towards the young scholars who look up to us, are needed to find avenues to first teach them the skills, develop networks and provide them platforms to launch themselves, to the best of our abilities.
Having said that, I keep asking myself (though I am not a teacher, but an independent researcher) as to what can I do in this regard?
One answer I came up recently is, why not launch a journal specifically aimed at young scholars (Masters level students who are required to publish papers and PhD scholars who are in any case required to publish papers). I have helped quite a few scholars by editing/proof reading/providing references for their thesis/papers. It is in this process that I came up with this thought - why not a journal too.
If a group of socially minded professors come together, we could actually help and groom a corps of young scholars to undertake good quality research writing as well as publish them.
Once such a group of (say at least five or six) established academics volunteer to spare some energy and time, a journal could be launched to publish their works. I am sure the young students at Masters/PhD would find this initiative very helpful. I am even doing some homework for a journal that addresses political/social sciences domain.
God willing, let's take a positive step forward. In the mean while, let us remain eager to hear what the community at RG says.
Have a great day.
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These tools include Google Analytics. However, in addition to this type of the most popular tools created by the largest group of Internet information and marketing services for specialist research, other data analytics tools obtained from the Internet are also used. These specialist studies include sentiment analysis conducted on data obtained from the Internet and collected in Big Data database systems, created and developed by online technology and marketing companies.
In view of the above, I am asking you: Which of the Internet data analytics tools are used for the needs of scientific research?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Amazon Web Services Cloudera
IBM
Infobright
Kognitio
Panda Project