Science topics: Social Science
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Questions related to Social Science
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I have been testing the assumptions of Pearson's correlation and there are some weak linear relationships, but sometimes the R2 values are very small eg 0.002. Given that my research is being conducted in the messy world of social science, is this an acceptable value? If not, what is an acceptable value to assume linearity?
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One general answer is that researchers typically rely on the statistical significance of the R-sq, but it is important to recognize that this will depend on the N for the analysis. So, while it would unusual for an R-sq of 0.002 to reach significance, that would not be impossible if the sample size were large enough.
Given this contradiction, I have sometimes heard a discussion of the difference between "substantive significance" and "statistical significance," where very small effects are not treated as meaningful unless you can demonstrate that they actually do make a difference.
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All due respect to you for this question
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It is the trending topic for a publisher this week.
I want to learn the opinion of Academia members. Is it due to environmental factors or personal over-ambition?
Why does anyone commit fraud?
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Dear Prof. Ferhan Kuyucak Sengur and all the respected RG colleagues,
This respected portal (i.e. RG) defines plagiarism as:
The term “plagiarism” has different meanings, but it usually includes copying somebody else’s work without permission.
On the other side, self-plagiarism is when the author republishes portions of his/her own previously written research work while authoring a new work.
I may be somewhat old-fashioned, but please have a look at the following golden principles on how to avoid plagiarism in academic writing, especially Self-Plagiarism:
  1. Never use the "Copy-Paste" trend: Use your own words instead of copying the words of others. Needless to say that if you are using your own words, then there is no chance of plagiarism accusing.
  2. Never repeat yourself: There are many re-published articles that are slightly or even considerably modified, and still not changed!
  3. If you have co-authors, just trust your words!
  4. If you use your own words, there should be no plagiarism issue. In turn, there is no need for the tools of plagiarism checking. Since there is no guarantee that the original content of your manuscript might not be copied and sold to others before it is published by you, I discourage using any free-software checkers for plagiarism; some of them are betrayers. Despite that offline ones are rare and if you are insisting to use anti-plagiarism software, offline checker programs are safer than online ones.
  5. In some cases, you can paraphrase the sentences in the original document. But don't forget to write a reference.
  6. You must always insist on honesty. Furthermore, you have to always remember that there should be a new added value.
  7. You must always insist on doing real research, not "Wikipedia" research.
  8. Do not put any of your research work anywhere until it is published and tagged with your name. Please wait until the paper is accepted and then published in that journal. Then, upload that research item on any platform you wish.
  9. Despite that offline ones are rare and if you are insisting to use anti-plagiarism software, offline checker programs are safer than online ones.
  10. In my opinion, most of the free-software-checkers for plagiarism don't work effectively. Unfortunately, you have to pay for the sake of getting good results.
  11. Try to develop your own style for the text writing.
  12. Try to read as much scientific literature as possible, especially in your own research field area.
  13. A reminder for all respected researchers: In order to maintain research integrity, plagiarism (الاستلال) has to be given up. However, many people do not know whether they are committing plagiarism intentionally or unintentionally.
Finally, believe me, or not: If you make one plagiarizing, you may solve one problem and fall into many others where some of which may be described as a knockout. Again and again, please always remember that if there were accusations of plagiarism, it is not well for any researcher's reputation, in any meaning.
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Looking for answers of self citation
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Self-citation may be necessary in many cases to complete the research study according to the world's progress. There may be a room for self-citation - but it is a good practice to limit the practice when possible.Therefore, self-citation is a sensitive issue.
On the other hand, "Citation Farms", also known as "Citation Cartels", consist of authors who routinely and enormously self-cite or cite each other for the purpose of raising their citation counters and, in turn, promoting the impact of their publications.
Let me show you this paragraph:
"Self citation. Researchers may need to cite their previously published works in order to communicate an idea effectively in their present manuscript. While IGI Global encourages the use of self citations in these cases, it is important that self-cited works do not account for, at most, 50% of the total references in the manuscript."
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which is mostly used application for data analysis in social science?
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The most used statistical application is always regression because almost everything can be formulated as some type of regression model. Best wishes David Booth
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Communication is the key-word for both COVID causes and effects. Consequently, "life will not be the same" for the Social Sciences too. Researchers will soon want to develop a broader vision and new perspectives. This question is an invitation to brainstorm the future of the social paradigm.
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How to establish new theories in the field of digital communication ?
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Doing research in multilingual contexts can be challenging, as many of you know. I do social science research in Spain, and occasionally come across terms that lack a direct translation between Spanish & English.
A real head-breaker is 'grassroot (initiatives)'. Does anyone have a good translation for this? I'm looking for a term that makes sense for the general public (as I work together with local communities), and is ideally also used in Spanish scientific literature.
Thanks!
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All due respect to you for your excellent Scientific Research Work, very remarkable and with good scheduled.
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The question refers to research in social sciences, the time between measurements would be one month.
I have been looking for either a formula, or an example in literature to base my estimate on.
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One month is a fairly short time. You shouldn't loose any, if you do it is statististically insignificant.
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In the health science, the Hierarchy of evidence is very clear, and distinguish between the all types of evidence, is a sistematic process, with steps and methodologies that clarify the process. But, some times is necessary use evidence from another souerces like, social sciences, economics, education, etc. and in that cases, the quality of evidence is of importance to be used and how evaluated this is blurred , so i would know how this can be evaluated and how is it ranked
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Cecilia Veas In the social sciences we do not have a so called 'hierarchy' of evidence. What we do have is a range of both quantitative and qualitative methods, each of which serves a purpose. Often several methods are used in order to raise validity. This is called 'triangulation'. There are many excellent social science studies that have used triangulation, by very respected academics. we regard different research methods as horses for courses, that is, each has a value and it depends on the nature of the research topic as to which method or methods are used. So mostly all are of equal value, although there is some dispute among academics as to whether quantitative data is superior to qualitative data.
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Kindly ans in brief and refer and book for sample slection plz
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Google G*power for a calculator that you can use. David Booth
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When I look at the comments for interesting-looking articles, I hope to see remarks that address aspects of the contents of the articles, that aid understanding, or make useful suggestions. Instead I typically find scores of mere "congratulations" and no further information. This is completely useless and irritating, and what few informative comments there might be are buried and hidden in the mass of useless comments.
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Dear Prof. Karl Pfeifer ,
I agree with your point, though I understand people reluctance to make any unprofessional statements, judgements, or allegations as an instinctive healthy prudence. If people like the study but afraid to say anything to the substance of the study, they can Recommend or Follow the article without any related comments.
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Salaam There
Hi all readers
If you know of any research groups, discussion groups, or conference resources in agent based modeling for social sciences / computational social sciences, please advise
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Dear
you can follow my items and find what is your interests
yours
Hussein
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My research is about the evaluation of curriculum (one subject of social sciences) at higher secondary level by using the CIPP model. I developed Research questions based on CIPP model.
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Mainly it depends on the objectives of your evaluation, but if you use JAP test, in my opinion it will very beneficial for you.
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I would be interested in what you see as the advantages and disadvantages of mixed-methods research in the social sciences. Do you do research with a mixture or combination of e.g. qualitative and quantitative research? Do you combine different quantitative or qualitative methods?
What challenges do you face (e.g., sampling, implementation, scope) and where do you see the limitations of the combination?
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I have developed and validated a social sciences scale and now think it would be useful to band total scores into those who are 'dissatisfied', 'neither satisfied nor dissatisfied' and 'satisfied' for further statistical analysis (these correspond with the average Likert scale scoring that has been used in the scale). I am wondering would this undermine the factor structure that was used to create the scale, and whether doing so would be inadvisable? Many thanks for any help that you can offer.
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I'm not sure why you would want to do this. You would loose information about individual differences and increase measurement error. This could lead to bias in, for example, estimates of correlations of the scale scores with other variables. Unless you have very specific reasons for grouping the scores, I would advise against it.
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Distinguished colleagues,
I need your professional opinion for my ongoing research. Any input, support, publication links or comments will be highly appreciated!
Thank you in advance!
Best regards,
Dr. Vardan Atoyan
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I mainly use surveys to collect data from people for my projects. I have been using SurveyMonkey to collect e-surveys and also enter 'field-paper' surveys, It is very good as I have both the practicalities of entering data with minimum or no errors (like using Access-Forms) and also share the survey online to target other people I may not capture on my 'field' data collections.
I am interested on the capabilities of epicollect5, and it has very useful things like, again create a form, being able to use it on-line or off-line and share for other people to collect. However, the type of questions you can create are limited and they don't adjust well to social surveys. Well, of course Epicollect5 is/was thought for other disciplines.
So, anyone knows of an alternative -FREE, as epicollect- for social science that would allow questions like matrixes, likert scales, rankings, multiple open-text in same question, or even adding a photo for people to rate or rank?
Thanks everyone for your opinion on this....
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Dear Experts,
Although I have started to learn some techniques related to meta-analysis article, I am not sure what are the key principles or tips about choosing topics. I humbly invite experts to discuss topics about meta-analysis in social science. What are the principles researchers should know before start writing? What are the tips in choosing topic (how to choose a meaningful topic that can make contribution)? What is the potential of meta-analysis in future scholarship development and theoretical contribution?
Best regards,
Thanks
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Dear Siwei Sun,
Take a look at some auxiliary info:
How do you tell if a paper is a meta-analysis?
Within the Publication Type search box, scroll down until you see Meta-Analysis. High light Meta-Analysis by clicking on it, and then continue scrolling until you see “Systematic Review.” Hold down the “Ctrl” key on a PC, or the "Command" key on a Mac and click “Systematic Review”.
How many studies do you need for a meta-analysis?
two studies
Finally, the authors take up the question "How many studies do you need to do a meta-analysis?" and show that, given the need for a conclusion, the answer is "two studies," because all other synthesis techniques are less transparent and/or are less likely to be valid.
What data do I need for a meta-analysis?
The two summary statistics commonly used for meta-analysis of continuous data are the mean difference (MD) and the standardized mean difference (SMD). Other options are available, such as the ratio of means.
When would researchers choose to conduct a meta-analysis?
If we are working with a fixed-effect model, then it makes sense to perform a meta- analysis as soon as we have two studies, since a summary based on two or more studies yields a more precise estimate of the true effect than either study alone.
_____
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Is Bartlett's test alone enough for hypothesis testing? or Chi square has to be tested along with in a dissertation for a Ph.D study in the field or social science?
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For exploratory factor analysis?
Bartlett’s test will tell you whether your data fit for factor analysis or not?
And the chi-square test will tell you if there is a sufficient quantity of factors extracted to explain the variance observed in the data.
I think you will require both.
Best!!
AN
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In case study research
How to obtain multiple sources of evidence in the case of startups with no physical location and operating online and The data sources that the researcher can find It varies between the personal interview as a primary source, as well as their websites and the startups' accounts on social media (Twitter). As a result, the researcher will face a scarcity of multiple data sources that cover all study factors, except the interview, which will be almost the main source in this situation.
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If you are doing a multiple case comparison, I like Robert Yin's book on this kind of research (Case Study Research: Design and Methods).
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What are the most influential ontologies or taxonomies in the behavioral/social sciences? How did they make a difference? What does it mean to be an influential ontology or taxonomy? Citations? Use? Saved lives?
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Oh now I see. Do you mean taxonomies of phenomena in psychology? Of course now I understand that my answer is for the philosophical part and not so much for categories that are used in research on general psychological processes.
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Over the last few months, I have come across several posts on social media where scientists/researchers even Universities are flaunting their ranking as per AD Scientific Index https://www.adscientificindex.com/.
When I clicked on the website, I was surprised to discover that they are charging a fee (~24-30 USD) to add the information of an individual researcher.
So I started wondering if it's another scam of ‘predatory’ rankings.
What's your opinion in this regard?
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Mixed-methods researchers promote pragmatism as a paradigm by suggesting that it is directly linked to the needs of mixed-methods research. Scholars maintain that pragmatism provides a philosophical foundation for social science research, in general, and mixed-methods research, in particular (Morgan 2014a).
Many researchers still believe that mixed methodology should be done separately.
What is the take on the pragmatic approach where mixed methods adopt the use of both methods using one instrument/tool to collect data at the same time? This will either be QUANT+qual or QUAL+quant.
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Actually, I do not know that mixed-method has limitations. Thank you for the useful RG link.
Kind Regards,
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I am particularly interested in resources on/best ways to learn datasets/numeric evidence's interpretation and correlations between variables. Thank you!
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Try Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics by Neil Salkind & Bruce Frey. It's a great intro to statistics that I've used to help quite a few students struggling in statistics.
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Hello! I'm interested in building or joining existing research collaborations, but the channel our research office directs us to (researchconnect) seems better suited for hard sciences. Are there similar platforms or outlets for social sciences?
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Dear Caitlin Blaser Mapitsa,
In my opinion, this science portal, the Research Gate web platform, is also an excellent platform for the development of scientific cooperation in the field of social sciences. The Research Gate portal is an internet platform that facilitates the development of scientific cooperation on a local, regional, as well as international and global scale. The possibilities of developing cooperation through the RG portal concern various fields of science and scientific disciplines, including various research topics developed within the social sciences. I invite you to research cooperation.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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Of course i know it depends on the field and data i conducting the research in, and some fields like pharmacy or biology require very strict criteria.
But what i wonder is social science. I made a regression model to analyze the activity performed in urban space recently, which contains some variables whose p-value of t-test exceed 0.05 and rather close to 0.1. In this case can i apply relatively flexible criteria, 0.1 to each value?
And even if it's possible, applying criteria such as 0.15 won't be accepted, isn't it? Actually, several variables whose p-values are 0.1x are contained in the model
I would be very appreciate if you answer to my question and give a good reference regard to it.
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Min Soek Won -
You can research "graphical residual analysis" on the internet. It is a scatterplot technique that I think you can learn fairly quickly. Then, "cross-validation" just means looking to see if your model too closely just fits that one sample. There are various techniques for that. If you can split your sample into two smaller samples, you could see if graphical residual analyses on the separate samples, so separate scatterplots, tell you the same model fits well for both. (More data would be helpful.) That would be one form of cross-validation.
Anyway, you could start by just researching "graphical residual analysis."
Best wishes - Jim
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Dear Colleages
Invitation to write theoretical or empirical articles for complexity forum on resilience from any perspective.
Carmel
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يجب اطلااع على مهارات المرونة
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Hello!
I have found my sample size based on the population of the city by using online sample size calculators like Survey Monkey. However, the number I get is about 200-300 and I am wondering is this the number of surveys I should distribute, or should I multiply this number by a number (if yes, what number?) or something to account for non-respondant?
I have heard a 5-10% response rate is common, and 10% of 300 is not much... so I am a bit confused about how to proceed.
I appreciate any help!
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Hi,
a sample size of 200-300 persons answering your survey seems to be ok if the city is not that big. Depending on how differentiated your analysis is intended to be (e.g. for living areas, districts and so on) you might want to have more participants.
A response rate of 5-10% is reasonable. So, you would have to contact about 3000 persons. If you want to do a online survey, this can be done by advertising on social media or by using some other way of dissemination, like e-mail lists.
If you do it by regular mail, response rate is also quite low.
If you want to do face to face, these might be less persons to be contacted, because the response rate is higher.
Best
R.
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For example, research studies concerning part-time farming were famous in 1980s and 90s. Then, this trend was faded and not many recent research studies are found.
Are the research studies in social science influenced by the topics of political importance?
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The reasons include:
changes in the data collection method
changes in government motives
A development in science and technology
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It seems that 'the social sciences' has a clearly defined core of disciplines - sociology, politics, anthropology - but is rather fuzzy at the edges. I'm trying to get my head around the concept, recognising that it is fluid and fluctuates historically. I wonder if the humanities, in so far as they study human society, are also social sciences? Are history of science and philosophy of science also social sciences? And does the opposition between 'social sciences' and 'natural sciences' hold since the natural sciences involve socially and culturally situated activities? In addition, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary fields such as environmental studies and pandemic studies seem to transcend these categories. I would love to hear your views.
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Social sciences entail individuals' life stories and their interactions with other individuals. Definitely, social sciences can include sociology, anthropology, and political sciences, among others but, the key points are how individuals' ideologies can be measured scientifically. Thus, social scientists ask questions and information gathered from specific individuals, to generalize specific subjects they have in mind.
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Is age an important factor in obtaining a PhD? or is it entirely dependent on the discipline of study, area, and/or offering institution?
Most often, we hear that someone is too young or too old to hold a PhD in certain fields, such as social sciences (too young), science, and engineering (too old). A quick look at the statistics suggests that this idea is supported in some way, as seen below.
31.3 in the life sciences
30.2 in physical sciences
32.4 in the social sciences
30.5 points for engineering
40.5 years of education
34.5 points for humanities
36.1 Other non-S&E fields
Although there are a few exceptions, such as some senior citizens graduating with a PhD at the age of more than 80, the tendency appears to be as stated above.
What are your thoughts on the link between age and Postgraduate education, as well as the discipline of study?
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In my opinion, age is not an important factor since you can see that a lot of old person are sometimes more performant than young people (and vice versa). However, the discipline of study, the actual infrastructure of the university, the type of reserach conducted during a PhD and the disponibility of reactifs and materials (in time) are the keys factors to clearly determine the time in which a PhD could possibly be obtained (let's not forget that the choice of PhD supervisor is also a crusial / mandatory element).
Best wishes,
Sabri
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Respected professors,
I am a 52-year old young student pursuing research in social sciences. My topic is 'Adaptive Learning in Higher Education in India'
As I have completed the research, need a few international professors and Indian professors who can evaluate my thesis.
Kindly let me know if you have already guided research students and are interested in evaluating this thesis. Kindly share your contact details, please
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Alumu Srinivasulu sure why not there are many evaluators you can get them but need more details contact information as in how to contact and take this further
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Hi everyone,
I am looking for book recommendations on how to construct a scale, preferably with a focus on (and examples from) social sciences. Any suggestions?
Thanks in advance!
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Hi,
This is one of the most widely used books on scale development
DeVellis RF. Scale Development: Theory and Application. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications (2012).
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R programming language seems to have some benefits over SPSS, one being an open-source program. Getting an SPSS license is fairly costly. Knowing that SPSS is very popular in the social sciences, is the use of R acceptable?
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I am an R user. But I don't work in the traditional social sciences. ... I think I would add one word of caution. Much of the analysis in R is done with supplemental packages. Some of these are well established. But, honestly, anyone can write and publish a package without any review of the soundness of the functions in the package. I could see reviewers being skeptical of packages that are less well known. And, honestly, it's easy for users to misuse packages. There's not an overall consistency with how different functions in different packages expect data to be formatted. It's important to read and understand package documentation .... If you are new to using R, it's important to find good and useful examples of analyses. Things are better now, but 10 or 12 years ago when I started using R, it seemed like the available examples online were tough to follow. These are still around. ... As a beginner, it's a good idea to find a published example of an analysis that you can duplicate in R. These could come from textbooks or various websites. For the beginner, it's also a good idea to use one of the gui implementations of R, like Jamovi or Rcommander. But I honestly recommend, when working on a dissertation, to do analysis with a scripting language as opposed to a gui ---- which could be in R or SAS or SPSS, and so on ---- so you can go back and see exactly what analysis you did, and you can copy or modify the analysis as needed.
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What is the formula used by the Philippine Social Science Council used for the number of respondents in a random sampling and the applicable margin of error to be used the fact that I need a small number of respondents that must still be reliable for a study?
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It is impossible to help you without acknowledging your research question, problem, and domain. What are you researching? What do you want to answer? If you give us these critical elements, we can certainly help you.
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Hello,
What do you consider to be the best methodological handbooks (covering both quali & quanti) for beginning researchers in the humanities and social sciences?
The views of doctoral students are particularly welcome :)
Many thanks in advance for your help!
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Isabelle Skakni A good rule of thumb to follow when selecting whether to employ qualitative or quantitative data is: quantitative analysis is preferable if you want to confirm or test something (a theory or hypothesis) and If you want to understand anything, use qualitative research (concepts, thoughts, experiences)
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I would like to know the difference between Ontology and Epistemological bases of research and the weaknesses and advantages. and how to use these for collecting data.
(social science)
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According to Creswell's book. These are philosophical assumptions and interpretative frameworks. I would recommend his book:
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches. Los Angles: Sage.
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I have conducted a cross-sectional survey on a 1021 samples. The data is not normally distributed. What are the best statistical tools for analysing not normally distributed data? What are the best non-parametric tests for social science?
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Then it will depend what you want to do.
a good paper on this that describes the alternatives is Nahm 2016:
doi: 10.4097/kjae.2016.69.1.8
or try this website to explore options depending on your data:
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COVID-19 is changing the social life of all people. Jumping out of the personal aspect, how does it affect the family as a whole.
Family is regarded as the fundamental structure of the society, will COVID-19 changes the future family structure, unit and model?
How is it affecting gender issues too?
Besides, why is domestic violence increasing? Is psychology and psychiatry playing a role?
reference:
[1] Campbell AM. An increasing risk of family violence during the Covid-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives.
Forensic Science International: Reports vol. 2 (2020): 100089.
[2]COVID-19: Reducing the risk of infection might increase the risk of intimate partner violence
EClinicalMedicine
[3]The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID‐19 on domestic violence
J Clin Nurs
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Dear Dr Sunny Chi Lik Au . See the following useful RG link:
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I am trying to figure out what lab work can I do for social engineering subjects under humanities and social science. Please share your ideas.
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Dear Neesha
Please see this link. Hope this can help you
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The theory of social capital in the social sciences is well developed, considering not only sociology, but also political science and economics. However, in the modern world, which is called the period of formation and development of digital society, the question arises as to whether digital capital can exist? As a form of social capital, as a structure that reproduces social inequalities, as a mechanism for the institutionalization of social (and maybe digital?) Relations. What do you think about it? And how can digital capital be conceptualized in sociology?
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The operationalization of digital capital is crucial in order to research digital inequalities. Digital capital, according to the definitions of leading authors in the field of digital sociology, agrees very well with Bourdieu's analytical focus on how capitals convert into each other, which may explain how new forms are being created inequalities or maintain existing ones. As for concrete case studies in the digital sphere, digital capital offers some handy theoretical tools that are more appropriate and specific than classical Bourdieu notions such as habitus or cultural capital. Changing the nature of the Internet and modern technologies requires both flexible theoretical concepts, and existing one's definitions and conceptualizations of digital capital can serve as a potential response to challenges of digital case studies. However, digital capital needs to be further expanded to include elements of digital culture precisely because it could adequately encompass online culture and digital products, such as online memes that are becoming increasingly popular and diverse. Recent works dealing with digital inequalities in Europe and the world show that digital inequalities in many countries can be perceived through the same social factors.
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I'm looking for co-authors Are you a master's or doctoral student in psychology, behavioural sciences, social work, counseling psychology or a related discipline and would like to co-author a study on the depth of emotional pain? If so, let's examine this together.
Have you ever wondered why people self-harm when they are in discomfort or emotional pain? Some curse injury by cutting or burning their flesh, punching or hitting oneself. They do this to divert attention away from the pain or to distract the brain. Can you fathom burning your skin in order to relieve emotional pain? We won't be able to grasp why individuals do what they do or how to help them unless we understand the depth of emotional agony. It is simple to discuss bodily pains caused by injury or illness. Non-physical pain, on the other hand, is difficult to discuss, and instant treatment is impossible.
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Before we start an article or research on emotional pain, I think we should look closely about the main components or dimensions that make up emotional pain, and through which we can find a treatment that enables us to overcome or alleviate it in the individual who suffers from it.
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I'm looking for social science articles -- in English/German -- that focus on companies moving within a city/metropolitan area and associated changes in employees' residential location and daily commuting patterns. Papers dealing with issues of staff turnover as a result of intra-urban company relocation are also very welcome. The reading material will be used for a M.Sc. group research project.
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interested
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Which free software for text analytics tasks (such as text mining and sentiment analysis) can be recommended for social science researchers and students who do not have much background in programming or data science?
I understand that R could be the obvious answer for many, given its capabilities, I am specifically looking to shortlist 4 to 5 GUI/point-and-click options which can be recommended to early researchers and post graduate students in social sciences, especially Psychology.
I have experimented with KNIME and Orange, but won't certify them as 'friendly enough'. This could be because I did not spend enough time on them, though.
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Hi again, Chinchu C Mullanvathukkal , interesting how the researchgate alorithm works, this paper was just recommended to me, maybe the tool they portray is just, what you are looking for:
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Most of the social science research follow a quantitative method that includes either a survey or structured interview. While some researchers expand their sample to nearly a thousand or more participants, others limit their sample to five interviews only. What is the base for considering a sample representatively acceptable to conclude results that affect decision making?
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Sample size estimation should be executed so that the study objectives could be achieved significantly. Sample size calculation depends on various factors: size of difference, significance level, power (chance of detecting a significant result if true difference is there) and standard deviation of data (to understand how much variability).
and thus the following formula will be suitable as it tends to be conservative:
[2*(Z(1-α/2)+Zβ)2 * sigma square]/Delta square
Z = points on normal distribution to give required power (β) and significance (α)
CI Approach – normal distribution – shebisos theorem – standard distribution (z value – the standardized standard deviation – standard deviation from the mean)
Confidence interval – error chance of 5% - the alpha
Z = x – mean/standard error(distribution of the sample standard deviation) – sigma / root over n
sigma / root over n = x – mew/z
root over n = Z sigma/ x – mew
n = z sigma whole square/x – mew whole square
Factors affecting sample size determination:
Level of precision, level of confidence or risk, degree of variability in the attributes being measured (prevalence), external validity
Steps in estimating sample size:
1. Identify major study variable
2. Determine type of estimate
3. Indicate expected frequency of factor of interest – if study something that’s rare or normal
4. Decide on desired presicion of the estimate
5. Decide on acceptable risk that estimate will fall outside its real population value
6. Adjust for population size
7. Adjust for estimated design effect
8. Adjust for estimated response rate
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Where I can find out international conferences that focuses on social sciences area for presenting my research finding? Where I can access regular update of those conferences?
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Dear Joshua,
Every year happening international SOCIN conferences at Mykolas Romeris university (of social sciences) in Vilnius, Lithuania.
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Why are there still people in the 21st century who in some countries do not accept the prevailing knowledge confirmed by scientific research who believe that the Earth is not round is only flat or that the Earth is the center of the Solar System, not the Sun or negating the process the evolution of the origin of various life forms on Earth, etc.?
In my opinion, it is not a question of faith but a lack of knowledge confirmed by scientific research. It is strange, however, that in the 21st century, in the face of the facts widely confirmed in the media, confirmed in many aspects scientifically, on the basis of experiments carried out, space expeditions are still people who ignore this widely available knowledge in the media and create their unjustified theories.
No wonder that even a few centuries ago and before, i.e. in a situation of widespread illiteracy and lack of universal access to knowledge and information, in the absence of media it was easy to maintain, promote anachronistic and illogical theories to implement a specific information policy for the needs of maintaining absolute power, which one of the attributes was access to knowledge and information deliberately restricted for a large part of society, and in some epochs, such as, for example, in the Middle Ages, deliberately limited research possibilities and deliberately placed barriers to the development of science. In such realities, totalitarianisms are easily formed and it is easy to carry out indoctrination of the society by propagating even illogical, unjustified ideologies that are not supported by any scientific research.
Therefore, nowadays access to knowledge and results of scientific research should be universal and unlimited. A large positive role in this matter is played by the Internet and Internet portals such as the Research Gate portal.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
How has the significance of scientific knowledge changed over the centuries from the point of view of the present day?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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A very interesting topic, thank you. In my opinion, all scientific discoveries established during the previous centuries such as mathematical equations serves as the basis for the actual mathematical approach. Another example would be the geographical works of antiquity which have served both as a scientific model and also as a corpus of data which could be used for modern purposes.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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Hi everyone,
Some time ago I shared my scientific essay with GRIN. They offered me selling hard copy of this work via GRIN site or Amazon and pdf version to download from GRIN. I prepared pdf version of the paper and upload it, but I must admit there was inconsistency between final version active on site and pdf version that I have shared with them - problems with accurate formatting. Even if I selected for free option, little price was set up for downloading the pdf. Each one who wants to upload its own paper, has to agree with conditions, and one of them is that the paper will be active at least for 5 years under agreed conditions.
Still I have doubts if I did wrong or good sharing my essay with them. As a publisher was GRIN suitable choice indeed? What do you think? What experience do you have with this publisher?
Thanks in advance for your reply!
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I think 'GRIN Publishing' is one of the vanity publishers. Do not publish your thesis or book via this publisher, it may bring trouble in your scientific career.
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What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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China is experiencing a “national movement” as companies, regional governments and academia shift gears to help the country meet its climate goals. The world’s top carbon emitter has, for the first time, published plans broadly outlining how it might achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2060, and a peak of emissions before 2030 — promises it made in 2019. The move has spurred more than ten prominent universities and institutions to set up carbon-neutrality-research institutes already this year; the Chinese Academy of Sciences launched a centre last month. But some researchers are still disappointed with the climate commitments the country has made so far...
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Hello fellow researchers,
for my final thesis I want to examine if sustainability is a new status symbol and if yes, how strong it is and it's differences to luxury goods (and also if a luxury good is not "green" does this circumstance reduce it's symbolic power?).
Unfortunenately, I cannot find any studies in the past that examine status symbolism. More precisely, I need a scale or a model that measuers status perception or status symbolism (of any obejct).
Does someone has an idea where I can find such scale/model, or can someone post a study that uses or developed such scale/model?
I am thankful for every help.
Greetings from Germany :)
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I'd appreciate if you could share the name of articles and books that could point out to differing answers to my question.
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Você pode ler o livro "Microfísica do Poder" de Michel Focault.
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Hello fellow Researchers,
I have a question regarding the understanding of the theory of theory, especially in the case of research categorizations according to empirical / theoretical. It is about a literature review, which summarizes empirical as well as theoretical papers.
Do I categorize this review as theory or empirical? Per se, no new data is collected from empirical studies, although the literature review could be considered an empirical study. Has anyone by chance ever had the same problem and found an answer? :-)
Thanks and best regards
Alex
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A literature review reflects the sum of the details of previous works in the field specified + present area of proposed work may be emperical / theoretical scopre of study .
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I need help to find a journal indexed in social science especially covered cultural or arcitectural heritage, I can also pay for the rapid publication. thanks.
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In my mind, you can try to have a list of this year's journal index and then select depending on your work.
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For the academic scoring purpose and creating value in social science research, which indexed journals are better to publish, SSCI or SCIE?
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Both are essential my friend...
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There is probably no other science portal that would offer all the same functions for researchers as the Research Gate portal.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Does the Research Gate research portal offer the most information services for researchers that researchers and scientists need?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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A bit too much of the results is presented on Researchgate with the lack of the backyard and preparation process for research. It could be good to see also the kitchen of the dinner of the researchers.
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I hope to be entering a doctoral program in 2022, but while waiting, I would very much like to improve my understanding of applicable statistical uses and methods for use in the social sciences. My knowledge stops at coefficient of variation and does not solidly extend to ANOVA and chi-square. Much-needed leg up here in finding a self-paced, affordable, online stat package for social sciences (linguistics in particular). Thanks!
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Excellent! I will follow up on this! Thank you!
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A data article is a type of publication for researchers to present and share their datasets, so that other researchers can use them. There are even magazines dedicated exclusively to publishing data articles like Data in Brief. An example can be seen at https://repository.urosario.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10336/23834/1-s2-0-S2352340920303681-main.pdf?sequence=1. Data articles are common in the natural sciences, but not in the social sciences and humanities. Do you know of any journals that publish datasets in the social sciences?
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Angel, I have published lots of quantitative data in the humanities. I am re-developing structuralist anthropology, using a new theory of subconscious expression of archetypal structure. The model consists of five inter-dependent layers of structure, totaling about 100 categoric recurrent features, including a spatial layer. The data thus far includes 800 artworks and rock art works, 100 built sites, four iconic sets, a myth cycle, and soon to include a pilgrimage route, and some pantheons. The subject is recurrent features in all the cultural media. The model is over-determined and highly testable.
The outcome thus far is consistent, that every cultural set expresses archetypal structure; that subconscious behaviour is prevalent and rigorous; that structuralist analysis enables some conscious, categoric, quantitative access to subconscious behaviour; that there are no exceptions; that subconscious behaviour is compulsive; and predictive. The implications for anthropology, sociology, art history, psychology, cognitive studies, and philosophy, are significant.
I expect that some researchers, and perhaps some institutes, would test some of my data, and test the model on other data. I have developed a standard format for cultural data, to enable comparison. I expect confirmation, and that the humanities would become scientific, and rid themselves of the current silent paradigm of assumptions of culture and consciousness as supposedly 'invented, developed, diffused, evolved.' The new paradigm would validate Zpif and some other theorists, and resolve many divisive issues in the human sciences.
No amount of narrative, qualitative argument could develop the human sciences, or resolve their correspondence 'theories' and confirmation biases. Only quantitative data would change the paradigm from assumptions to theory. The new model is capable of answering the big questions of the social sciences, including Who and what humanity is. The answer involves our species as embedded in natural structure, and out works as extensions of nature. Individual works use a narrow range of optional features. Randomly chosen groups of works, from 50 upward, ideally 100 upward, reveal a sixth layer of structure, being fixed average frequencies for each of the 100 recurrent features.
The data dispels fondly held delusions of Who and what humanity thought it were. I expect that the humanities could revolutionise their profile in popular culture, where the central flaw of mis-applied evolutionism is particularly pronounced.
I am adding to my data quarterly by publishing magazines themed on specific cultures or sites or media.
I invite you use my data. I situate my theory in structuralist anthropology, and give a summary of my data and its format, is at the end of my paper Blueprint. Here is a link: https://edmondfurter.wordpress.com/2020/04/01/blueprint-the-subconscious-structure-in-cultural-media/
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Which method is more accurate and popular for testing the validity and reliability of my scales?
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Cronbach’s alpha, which is a measure used to assess the reliability, or internal consistency, of a set of scale or test items.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of: Sustainable development of a pro-ecological new economy?
What do you think is an important topic for discussion?
In my opinion, important questions concern the need to develop ecological and energy innovations that in the 21st century, economies should achieve sustainable development taking into account the dwindling resources and the development of civilizations and the negative effects of this development on the natural environment.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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As our socio-economic transactions are based on payment chains, we have also to focus on sustainable monetary agency, with respect to banking:
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I am looking forward to see the suggestions. Thank you.
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Kindly please enlighten me about this. Thanks for who will give feedback
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The journal “International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IJHSS)” ISSN 2220-8488 (Print), 2221-0989 (Online) (http://ijhssnet.com/) is published by “Center for Promoting Ideas (CPI)” (http://www.cpinet.info/ ) and this publisher is included in the Beall’s list of predatory publishers https://beallslist.net/ . This is a warning sign. There are more warning signs that this might be a predatory journal:
-There seems to be something odd with the ISSN numbers of the journal (just look at for example https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2221-0989)
-They ‘proudly’ present in the latest news (http://www.ijhssnet.com/journal/index/1790#ind) a DRJI indexing, which is a notorious example of so-called misleading metrics (https://beallslist.net/misleading-metrics/)
-The indexing page misleadingly suggest a membership of DOAJ while they are not
So, I would say avoid this one.
Best regards.
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My question is connected to rather unclear point of error correlation that many scholars encounter while conducting their SEM (structural equation modeling) analysis. It is a pretty often when scholars report procedures of correlating the error terms to enhance the overall goodness of fit for their models. Hermida (2015), for instance, provided an in-depth analysis for such issue and pointed out that there are many cases within social sciences studies when researchers do not provide appropriate justification for the error correlation. I have read in Harrington (2008) that the measurement errors can be the result of similar meaning or close to the meanings of words and phrases in the statements that participants are asked to assess. Another option to justify such correlation was connected to longitudinal studies and a priori justification for the error terms which might be based on the nature of study variables.
In my personal case, I have two items with Modification indices above 20.
lhs op rhs mi epc sepc.lv sepc.all sepc.nox
12 item1 ~~ item2 25.788 0.471 0.471 0.476 0.476
After correlating the errors, the model fit appears just great (Model consists of 5 latent factors of the first order and 2 latent factors of the first order; n=168; number of items: around 23). However, I am concerned with how to justify the error terms correlations. In my case the wording of two items appear very similar: With other students in English language class I feel supported (item 1) and With other students in English language class I feel supported (item 2)(Likert scale from 1 to 7). According to Harrington (2008) it's enough to justify the correlation between errors.
However, I would appreciate any comments on whether justification of similar wording of questions seems enough for proving error correlations.
Any further real-life examples of wording the items/questions or articles on the same topic are also well-appreciated.
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Implications are a logical construct
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I want to learn how to handle and analyse panel data and I am looking for references (handbooks, articles or any other material, but I prefer a good handbook). Preferably using STATA language and focus on social sciences applications. I look forward to your suggestions. Thanks beforehand.
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this is an excellent resource with code and videos for panel models and many others:
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What is the significance of philosophy for the development of sciences in the 21st century and in the context of the current technological revolution and dynamic technological progress and growing global problems?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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6 October MMXXI
That's a really good question, and perhaps unanswerable.
I see Science in one corner and Philosophy in the other corner--opposite one and other.
Will they come out to fight each other, or to cooperate?
This quandary should be talked about more frequently.
Cordially...
ASJ
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I'm looking for litterature on methods within documentary research. What titles are widespread, thorough and suitable for master's level? Are there any "classics" I should know? I have Tight, M (2019): Documentary Research in the Social Sciences. It seems really good to me!
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A Matter of Record: Documentary Sources in Social Research by John Scott, Documentary Film in India: An Anthropological History by Giulia Battaglia, Cognitive Theory and Documentary Film by Catalin Brylla, ‎Mette Kramer.
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Dear All,
I have created a mind map of a literature review on How Ontology, Epistemology And Axiology Relate To Develop New Knowledge Through Research Methodology And Research Design.
I want critical comments on my thoughts.
The outline of the finding is as follows and you can follow the above link for a more clear image.
Thank you
Please refer following links of ideas and make critics;
· I found that any research needs to add new knowledge
· That knowledge is resulted from answering a question/s or/and finding a solution/s
· Each problem or solution has its ontology, epistemology, and axiology
· The ontology, epistemology and axiology collectively form a research philosophy while those influence developing research questions or hypotheses or a mix of both regarding the problem or solution.
· As the research philosophy and questions/hypothesis origin from the same sources to both should be conceptually related to each other.
· Then research design is formulated to answer those research questions or hypotheses or a mix of both
· same time the research methodology is underpinning the particular research’s ontology, epistemology, axiology and philosophy continues
· Then research design and research methodology both make the selection of approach in theory development. As well, research design and research methodology make and formulate the rest of the steps in the research.
· After that, the steps are clear. However, the selections of methodological choices, strategies, data collection techniques and analysis techniques are interrelated decisions.
· Finally, all these activities resulted in new knowledge
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They are interrelated somehow.
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In highly developed countries and economically fast developing countries there are analogous processes of changes in the demographic structure of society consisting in the aging of the population and the accompanying process of depopulation of cities, agglomeration, decreasing number of births, decreasing fertility rate in families. These processes, which are unfavorable for the economic development of the country, usually have at least several causes.
Extending the average life expectancy of citizens results from improved living standards, increased income and related improvements in quality of life, improvement of nutrition and improvement in the health care services sector. In addition, some of the lowly, educated people go to look for more interesting jobs and higher salaries by hiring in other countries. In a situation where young people paying off housing loans, are also burdened with various taxes, they are forced to work, to professional activity all adult members of the family of working age.
As a result, the pressure, the need to have more than 1 or 2 children are decreasing, and then the fertility decreases, which contributes to the decline in the number of citizens in the long term. In order to counteract this disadvantage for the national economy, this country should develop social policy to support young people, including subsidizing the purchase or rental of housing, establishing guaranteed income related to raising children, developing programs supporting the nursery, pre-school and education, pediatric health care system, etc.
Examples of such programs of active socio-economic policy are: Family 500 Plus Program and Flat Plus Program (Mieszkanie Plus Program). Because these programs have been developed only for 3 years, so you can not objectively assert how they affect the demographic structure of society, or motivate you to make decisions about having a larger number of children. In order to be able to answer this type of questions objectively, ie with regard to relevant scientific data, these Programs should be conducted with a minimum of 2-3 subsequent generations of citizens.
On the other hand, there has already been a noticeable increase in consumption for various types of goods purchased by citizens, which has a pro-development effect on the economy as it increases the level of economic growth. It may be one of the key elements of the socio-economic policy of anti-crisis, countercyclical importance, ie increasing the resilience of the domestic economy to global economic crises and the slowdown in global economy growth, e.g. the currently observed slowdown in global economy caused by the so-called war wars and other restrictions on the development of international trade.
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How can changes in the demographic structure of society affect the economic development of the country?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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The
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Hi there,
as I am working in applied research, I always come across the problem that knowledge is not applied in practice (theory-practice gap). Is there a particularly good paper / book to recommend about this? :-)
Best thanks and best regards
Alexander Kwiatkowski
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There are two articles that show this gap from different perspectives and that can be complemented. One takes it from education in general and the other from education for health practice. I hope they serve you, best regards.
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Which is more valuable ?
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I am sharing updated list of Social Science Citation Index Sep. 2021
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I found in a journal that it is abstracted / indexed in Clarivate Analytics: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). What it means? Whether the journal will get impact factor in near future?
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I am sharing updated list of Social Science Citation Index Sep. 2021
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Are publications in the journals ranked by Emerging Sources Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics) also included in Journal Citation Reports? Do your universities / governments put equivalent value on ESCI publications and SSCI publications while making a decision about faculty promotion?
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I am sharing updated list of Social Science Citation Index Sep. 2021
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Dear Community,
I am interested in receiving feedback from people that finished their PhDs, but also from people judging the candidacies for academic positions.
As PhDs we all heard about the famous "Publish or perish" to describe the importance to publish during your PhD if you want to get a job more easily when finishing. I am asking mostly in social sciences because it is my field, but I am also interested in receiving feedback from other fields as well.
The time and effort we put in publications during our PhD, is it worth the struggle? Is it really making things easier when applying for academic positions, or is the teaching experience more important for instance? Many colleagues ask themselves this question. I am not denying the importance to publish your research, but I am curious to see how things are presented in other countries, universities, and fields.
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Yes, it's worth it, however teaching experience is important as well, in other to get an academic position, both teaching and research experience is needed.
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Many scientists suggest that a good way to analyze the level of innovation in action, generate innovation in financial institutions, eg in banks, is conducting surveys among managers and department directors, departments in these institutions.
How should such surveys be carried out? What method of surveys is the most effective? Do online questionnaire forms are an effective instrument for carrying out surveys?
What other research techniques can be used to investigate the level of innovation in operation, generate innovation in financial institutions?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Mohammed Jaafar Ali Alatabe,
Thanks and invite you to joint discussions on the subject of innovation in financial institutions.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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It's 99 days since the first case of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, and we are welcoming the 5th days of 0 new cases of COVID-19 following a week of <10 cases per day.
How should we define the end of a local endemic?
How long should the latent period be defined?
When is it safe to resume social activities?
Should territory wide screening of asymptomatic people be done before declaring the end of endemic?
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The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic is a global epidemic. On a global scale, the state of the pandemic in March 2020 was announced by the World Health Organization. Therefore, this organization could declare the end of the pandemic. On the other hand, the end of the epidemic on a regional, national or local scale can be announced by national central institutions of the health care system, including the ministries of health, in agreement with the government. In order to be able to declare the end of the epidemic on a national, regional or local scale, it is necessary to have a relatively large decrease in the number of new coronavirus infections, a decrease in the number of people seriously ill with Covid-19 disease and deaths caused by this disease. The decrease in Coronavirus infections and in sick people should be sustained in a longer period, i.e. min. several months, taking into account the periods of possible occurrence of subsequent epidemic waves caused by new variants of the Coronavirus and occurring in other regions of the world. In addition, an important factor that may be taken into account in the event of declaring the end of a pandemic on a global scale or an epidemic on a regional scale will be the level of vaccination of citizens with highly effective vaccines against Coronavirus and the level of social, collective immunity of the society achieved thanks to these vaccines.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz