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Simulation Theory proposes that all of reality, including our planet and whole universe, is in fact an artificial simulation, most likely a computer simulation created by some higher form of intelligence.
The proponent of the simulation hypothesis must do better than present a "just-so" scenario. Specifically, she must spell out the conditions under which that hypothesis would be shown wrong.
Otherwise, she faces a simulation regress: whatever/whoever is responsible for the simulation is itself trapped in a simulation, and so on.
Silly claims like these make on re-appreciate in a more charitable light the classical American pragmatists' insistence on differences that make a difference...
Until and unless one can point to a difference that simulation would make (in comparison with our ordinary -- and more parsimonious -- conception of the world), simulation theory does not deserve the grandiose label "theory."
I know that simulation theory came from the upper reaches of the ivory tower (Nick Bostrom at Oxford), but it says a lot about the current state of philosophy when the most apt reading for appraising simulation theory is the chapter "But it fits!" in Stephen Law's excellent book, Believing Bullshit: How Not to Get Sucked into an Intellectual Black Hole.
science is knowledge represented as a collection of “theories” derived using the scientific method. In this discussion, we will discus what is a theory, why do we need theories in research, what are the building blocks of a theory, how to evaluate theories, how can we apply theories in research, and how to develop theories
you can share examples of theories used in social science research.
There are three terms that are worth understanding: SCI, SCIE, and SSCI. All three are databases of academic journals maintained in the Web of Science Master Journal List operated by Clarivate Analytics.
SCI: Science Citation Index – SCI is a multidisciplinary index that covers 8,500+ “notable and significant” journals across 150+ disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These journals are often considered as the world’s leading journals in science and technology, because of their level of influence and broad circulation.
SCIE: Science Citation Index Expanded – SCIE includes a slightly broader scope of journals than SCI, with inclusion of emerging and regional journals. Some tend to view inclusion in the SCI database as more prestigious than those in SCIE only, but this is subject to debate.
SSCI: Social Sciences Citation Index – SSCI is a multidisciplinary index that covers 3400+ journals across 58 social science disciplines, from 1900 to present. Similar to SCI, these journals are generally considered the most “prestigious and/or influential” in their respective fields.
Hope this helps! Best wishes for a smooth and successful publication journey.
Hi, we aim to "quantify" cultural ecosystem services from urban forests of our study area (Karlsruhe, Germany). We know that cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify as they are often qualitative and have intangible significance. Our approach is to first do a detail survey on public and stakeholders' perception and preferences on selected cultural ecosystem services using questionnaire survey and Likert's scale of response. Then, we want to use our data from the questionnaire survey to develop a scoring systems. Do you know any method which can be helpful to us? Or, do you know how to valuate cultural ecosystem services? In addition to questionnaire survey, we also have data from urban forest plots on forest structure and composition. We followed the guidelines from i-tree-eco software's handbook and UFORE model developed by the US Forest Service (David Nowak). We will really appreciate if you can provide us some literature or provide some suggestions on methods to quantify cultural ecosystem services.
First of all, there are two different questions to look at. The first is the value and status of the eco-system and the second is the value and the quantity of the service. By focussing on eco-system services and not the capital we tend to miss important aspects. The first is the value of the natural capital. Capital is something which is used in production but not used up. Built capital (like houses) are valued at "market value" that is what someone is prepared to pay for them, rather than their replacement cost, which must form some baseline. The next value and quantity is that of "roof over head" or apartments. Again, unless you have controlled rents (Germany) you have the valuation of what people are prepared to pay. So the quantification is the number of apartments and with number of bedrooms, total potential housing people/year.
Value is tricky. If I have a home I will not want to respond to a "flats to rent" sign. But if homeless and with money I might. Homeless without money I won't.
Now. let us assume that we want our population to have a service. What natural capital is needed to provide that service? Now you have a dimension. What natural capital do we have? Now you have a gap to work with. Do we have the capital and are still not providing the service? Now you have a production gap.
But of course, the difficult thing is what service?
There IS one measure though of ecosystems - maturity. See Odum et al. Easy to measure, mature eco-systems represent capital that can be used to provide services. Mature eco-systems have high mass, absorb sunlight, control rain, provide biodiversity etc etc.
So that brings me to answer that 1) measure the ecological maturity. 2) Dimension the natural capital needed by the geographical region the capital shall serve. 3) identify the services remembering that you need to extract the services without degrading maturity. Clever people(indigenous) increase maturity AND extract services at the same time. Read Odum if you haven't already.
The coronavirus is increasingly having an impact in public and private law. Fundamental freedoms are restricted. Fulfillment of contracts becomes impossible; many obligors and debtors refer to force majeure (vis maior).
The impact in public law is limited by the Emergency Coronavirus Act 2020 that was passed by parliament, and created emergency (6 months) powers to the executive to suspended some basic human freedoms so as to appropriately respond and fight the pandemic. This without doubt had it's own effects on private law given that such powers suspended the performance of contracts for unspecified periods, and to neither of the parties fault therefore causing frustration (see Force Majuere). The forfeiture moratorium introduced by the Coronavirus Act 2020 should cover all this. This only applies to the UK
Microbrewing continues to expand across the globe with many US communities utilizing breweries as new social venues to meet-greet and participate in social activities. What do you perceive as interesting research questions related to brewing science as well as the interaction and impact to local communities?
Overall impact on beer consumption in area with many microbreweries
The different beer styles and ingredients that brewers are using in their beers, perhaps this is partly motivated by specific local ingredients e.g. herbs, spices etc. So can we say that brewing ingredients and techniques are slowly changing as a result of the expansion of microbreweries?
On a more challenging note, you could consider looking into any negative impact,such as when microbreweries are set up in areas with limited resources like clean water
Lastly, you could consider if these microbreweries do actually really bring people together i.e. do they really foster social interactions that would otherwise not occur in the absence of a microbrewery? Do small community members know and understand each other better because they meet in their local bar?
After studying Consumer Brand Engagement (CBE) literature (Hollebeek et al 2014) I wonder how to use the CBE scales and what for?
The CBE scales contain usually three dimensions:
Cognitive: Using [brand] gets me to think about [brand].
Affective: I feel very positive when I use [brand].
Activating1: I spend a lot of time using [brand], compared to other [category] brands.
Scholars that use the scales in their studies can get results about what are consumer reactions (natural science?) to particular brands. However they can't study how the brands inspire (social sciences) consumers to transform their value formation practices, can they? It limits the scientific critic of brand values.
I would argue that the consumer-brand engagement concept contains the hidden assumption that consumers choose what is best for them or at least they can rank or order the offers according to the personal preferences. Scholars who use the concept (together with the assumption) don’t study values/principles which are independent of observed individual interactants choices and valuations – they put the values (causes? inspirations?) into the black box in their studies.
The problem is known in economics (the social-science-based economists criticize the natural-science-based economists with different outputs) but not recognized in brand management I suppose.
What do you think?
Hollebeek L.D., Glynn M.S.. and Brodie R.J. (2014) Consumer Brand Engagement in Social Media: Conceptualization, Scale Development and Validation, Journal of Interactive Marketing 28(2): 149-165
Algharabat, R., Rana, N. P., Alalwan, A. A., Baabdullah, A., & Gupta, A. (2020). Investigating the antecedents of customer brand engagement and consumer-based brand equity in social media. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 53.
The authors study how brands can generate consumer brand engagement that affects brand equity whereas the should rather study how brand offers or brand other activities inspire consumers-and-other-stakeholders transformation and empowerment for rest of their life.
There is a lot of research on how brands can generate consumer engagement and almost no research on how brands transform and empower consumers for the rest of their life. The last work of Banksy about eclipse of the liking-based heroes belongs to the latter group as to the field of art. The Instagram initiative of like- button removal is the practical action of this kind.
We are interested in finding researchers who have experience in analyzing dialogues between science, policymakers, civil society, and the private sector. The aim of our project is to learn more about the “co-creative modus operandi” and to discuss whether (and how) such an approach could be integrated in the field of policy advice, by bringing different stakeholders together in reciprocal learning and decision-making processes in order to generate solutions that are valued by all of the parties involved.
Anamika Sinha I agree with Andreas Kopf regarding misperceptions about the quality of a study based on R-square. What more important is that how do we understand and interpret R-square and other output of a statistical analysis.
Secondly, 23% explanation of the total variance (i.e., R-square or Coefficient of the determination) is not at all small but just below Large (i.e., Large is 0.2592 and above), according to Cohen (1988). Accordingly Small is 0.0196, and Medium is 0.1304. Consult the references given below please. Regards
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (Second ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1(3), 98-101. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10768783
The summary of the bloomberg article spells it out. Herd immunity with its unfortunate 'collateral damage' as no one has any immunity to this novel pathogen, and secondly, immunization, which is still a long way off. Thus, prevention is better than cure, but there is no cure, except the above, besides for all the supportive treatment provided.
A Journal that is in the Web of Science (WoS) as social science citation indexd but it is not found on the list of Journal Citation Report (JCR). The website of the Journal shows also that it is SSCI. What is the cause?
There could be two scenarios. First, the journal could be a predatory journal with bogus impact factor and bogus indexed information. Second, the journals may actually be listed in WOS, but has not been assigned any impact factor yet. There are several journals that have not received an impact factor because they may not have been indexed in WOS for long.
To check for the first issue, I suggest you look up the publisher. If the publisher is legitimate like Wiley, Elsevier, Sage, Taylor and Francis, Cambridge, Oxford, MIT press; then the journal might not have received any JCR report yet. You may also want to check Beall's predatory journal list.
To check for the second scenario, if you have an EndNote account you can login and enter the section named "Manuscript Match". You can choose some of the similar articles published in that journal and develop a title or abstract just to check of if the journal appears as one of the potential match. I hope this might uncover the mystery of this particular journal.
I can mention what happens to us here in Ecuador, between March 12 and April 11, the Integrated Security Service - ECU 911 received 6,819 alarm calls for possible cases of gender-based violence, based on those numbers, there were, on average, 235 daily calls for this reason, and 55% of those distress requests were made from Quito and Guayaquil , the two most populous cities. Unfortunately these numbers are relatively the same as that done before the exit restriction, you experience a space full of tensions since the sufferings have not decreased and we will know the magnitude when leaving the emergency. since many people are obliged to share the confinement space with the aggressor and being constantly vigilated, it does not give them the possibility to ask for help, so the risk to which they are exposed is much greater. In addition to this confinement lists, it is added in the confinement other aggravating, such as the loss of work, dependence on prohibited substances, economic crisis, care for minors, among others, therefore the home becomes a space full of tensions; which can give ground to the growth of violence. The risk is high and the control even stronger for those who have previously reported and are currently confined to the aggressor, since they control, check their phone, isolate them from family and friends, do not let them use the internet, among other things, so they find themselves in a very limited possibility of asking for help. In each home there is a different and particular quarantine. How do you live it, if you'd be short of food, work?
Ultimately, only properly collected data from a sound study can give us the best estimate of an answer to this question. However, in my opinion, I am expecting a worsening of diabetic control on average across diabetics in quarantine and who will not contract COVID-19. Less physical activity and higher ratio of food intake not burned through activity are ingredients of a metabolic "nightmare" especially for related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension.
Most of the cities in the world are facing partial or complete Lock Downs due to Pandemic Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) spread. Millions of people in the world are living in Government or self-administered Quarantines. The world is expecting a long time with it and continuously learning to live with it. In this situation Online Education/Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH) are the ultimate new realities for many in the world.
Many organizations and Educational Institutions are doing “Online Education/Distance Learning and Work From Home (WFH)” very first time. Google ZOOM and Microsoft TEAMS became the top priorities for most of them. Many organizations and Educational Institutions are still confused in making the choice between Google ZOOM and Microsoft TEAMS. In this scenario, it’s really important to share your expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert suggestions and/or recommendations on the following question.
How do you compare Google ZOOM Vs Microsoft TEAMS for Online Education / Work From Home during Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) Lock Downs/Quarantines?
I have personally used both the services during the COVID-19 pandemic and here's what I observed using the same gear(Laptop & ISP)
** Video - 4/5 (Full HD supported)
** Audio - 4/5 (also good)
** Screen Sharing - 5/5
** Video - 3/5
** Audio - 4/5
** Screen Sharing - 2/5
*Zoom - 5/5
*Microsoft Teams - 3/5 (Found it very hard to send messages privately)
*Zoom - acceptable
*Microsoft Teams - not acceptable (high bandwidth requirement)
*ZOOM - 5/5
**host can control user actions (mute mic's, give privileges to share screen without any other privileges), etc.
*Microsoft Teams - 3/5
**It always takes more than 2 to 3 mouse clicks to stop someone from doing something. UI is not forgiving.
*Zoom - 5/5
** only has what you need when you are in a meeting
** at first thought you think it is a learning curve but the truth is, the UI is not forgiving
Screen Sharing Privileges
** anyone can share their screen but it can be controlled by the user.
** only presenters can share their screen. It also gives them additional privileges similar to host (kicking someone out of the session)
Zoom is better Overall
I would use Microsoft Team in cases where my organization uses Microsoft Online Suite extensively and cannot afford to pay for services offered by ZOOM(it becomes an additional expense)
Do not host a session alone.
Always have someone to monitor and operate the host controls, so you can concentrate on what you are doing like teaching, etc.
Recently, I was conducted a quantitative analysis based on urban travel mode choices and national culture (Hofsede's culture dimensions)for 41 countries. The results showed that there are significant correlations, I presented several linear regression models which demonstrate travel mode choices can be predicted by culture dimensions. So I wondered if it can be related with evolution. The article is below:
The subject is social science.
I need some help with Epistemology, ontology, axiology and methodology and how the following words are defined.
-Epistemology ( knowledge how to know)<<<<< Materialists, realists, objectivists?
-Ontology ( knowledge of being)
Materialism, realism, idealism,
I've just started my Ph.D. and I'm in the process of writing a review article. Given the novelty of the findings, there's an ongoing debate on the existence of the phenomenon that underlies my project (Gender-Equality Paradox) on which I'd like to focus the paper. That said, I was thinking to write a review that looks into the relevant literature to summarise what is known on the topic and shows the necessity for further investigations. However, I'm struggling with finding the right methodology approach to use. Systematic and Integrative approach don't seem to be relevant in exploring a phenomenon but I might be wrong. I was thinking to apply a historical approach to highlight the increase in evidence overtime but I'm not sure. Any thoughts?
Thanks in advance to everyone who will participate in the discussion.
Begin with an introductory paragraph outlining the scope of the literature review and then use sub-headers to divide individual sections. Identify and discuss each concept or issue relevant to the study, giving frequent citations to other studies. At least half of the references should be within the previous five years. Make sure it is clear why and how the concept or issue is relevant to your study or problem.
Here are my thoughts about the overall structure of a research manuscript:
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of social media portals? What are the important topics in the field: Social media?
Social media can affect the personal lives of individual people. The sociological behavior of people is changing. Some people exchange traditional contacts with other people for contacts via social media portals. It changes the sociology of people's behavior, it affects sociological behavior, it generates new types of problems that also affect behavioral economics and the behavior of entire communities.
Can a school discussion club run on social media portals be an active didactic tool that develop critical thinking in students?
Yes, I totally agree to this concept. First of all, it should be monitored by teachers and school authorities prohibiting negative and offset remarks.
The threads of conversation and relevant answers to questions by students will boost the morale of students. The intrinsic motivation of students will accentuate while seeing their answers being READ, RECOMMENDED and LIKED. The students will opt for research and give valuable and deep insight to questions enhancing critical and collaboration skills. These two skills are termed as 21st Century Skills.
Teachers can take the social media discussion tool for discussion in classrooms and also lead students to Media Conference thereby developing leadership skills in them.
Students will be aware of the society problems and feel closer to universal problems which they are part of.
The question raised my attention, because some recovered patient reflect that they are stigmatized by their neighborhood upon returning home from the hospital. I am not sure if this situation is generally happening around the world. It's good to hear your experience in US
In your experience, what social science (especially sociology) journals have short articles with simple and clear wording? I'm trying to find articles for my undergraduate students to read but everything is either 20+ pages and straightforward OR short but hard to comprehend. I understand the reason behind this but if you've noticed any journals that have good empirical articles for undergraduate students, please let me know. Ideally, I'm looking for empirical sociology articles to use as examples of research methods in my methods course.
Due to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) spread, many cities are facing partial or complete Lock Down. Like other sectors, Higher Education is also affected badly due to these Lock Downs. To overcome this situation either many Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) have adapted the Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education or planning to implement it. Many Universities and/or colleges are new to Distance Learning/E-Learning/Virtual Education and are having issues in its implementation as well. In this scenario, it’s really important to share the expert opinions and experiences.
Please, share your expert opinion, experiences and/or suggestions on the following matter.
Which Learning Management System (LMS) is more suitable for Distance/Virtual Education or E-Learning in Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs)?
If you prefer more than one, then please rank them.
Desarrollar contenido aducativo para alojarlo en una plataforma requiere mucho tiempo y recursos. Además, tienes que crear los usuarios para los maestros y estudiantes, capacitarlos previamente en el uso de la plataforma, entre otros.
En lo inmediato, lo esencial es utilizar un canal de comunicación directa donde el maestro pueda presentar la clase en vivo y asignar las tareas a los estudiantes. Por ende, las plataformas que permiten realizar videoconferencias son idóneas en tal sentido. Son amigables, no es necesario disponer de material didáctico más que una presentación powerpoint, por ejemplo, las personas crean su propio usuario, pueden acceder desde sus teléfonos inteligentes y no requieren demasiado conocimiento para usarlo por primera vez.
No puedo dejar de mencionar que tenemos resultados satisfactorios usando las videoconferencias para el teletrabajo. Algunas herramientas que pueden ser útiles:
We're working on a UK-based study of lived experiences during the COVID19 pandemic, looking at knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour. Is anyone else working on social science studies on the pandemic? We'd be keen to link up and share learning, especially with a view to doing some international comparisons a bit further down the line. I'll post a link to our project page below with further information. Thanks!
In highly developed countries and economically fast developing countries there are analogous processes of changes in the demographic structure of society consisting in the aging of the population and the accompanying process of depopulation of cities, agglomeration, decreasing number of births, decreasing fertility rate in families. These processes, which are unfavorable for the economic development of the country, usually have at least several causes.
Extending the average life expectancy of citizens results from improved living standards, increased income and related improvements in quality of life, improvement of nutrition and improvement in the health care services sector. In addition, some of the lowly, educated people go to look for more interesting jobs and higher salaries by hiring in other countries. In a situation where young people paying off housing loans, are also burdened with various taxes, they are forced to work, to professional activity all adult members of the family of working age.
As a result, the pressure, the need to have more than 1 or 2 children are decreasing, and then the fertility decreases, which contributes to the decline in the number of citizens in the long term. In order to counteract this disadvantage for the national economy, this country should develop social policy to support young people, including subsidizing the purchase or rental of housing, establishing guaranteed income related to raising children, developing programs supporting the nursery, pre-school and education, pediatric health care system, etc.
Examples of such programs of active socio-economic policy are: Family 500 Plus Program and Flat Plus Program (Mieszkanie Plus Program). Because these programs have been developed only for 3 years, so you can not objectively assert how they affect the demographic structure of society, or motivate you to make decisions about having a larger number of children. In order to be able to answer this type of questions objectively, ie with regard to relevant scientific data, these Programs should be conducted with a minimum of 2-3 subsequent generations of citizens.
On the other hand, there has already been a noticeable increase in consumption for various types of goods purchased by citizens, which has a pro-development effect on the economy as it increases the level of economic growth. It may be one of the key elements of the socio-economic policy of anti-crisis, countercyclical importance, ie increasing the resilience of the domestic economy to global economic crises and the slowdown in global economy growth, e.g. the currently observed slowdown in global economy caused by the so-called war wars and other restrictions on the development of international trade.
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How can changes in the demographic structure of society affect the economic development of the country?
Nowadays, every one is talking about the Coronavirus COVID-19 and its affects are alarming throughout the world. Routine operations of many organisations are also affected badly throughout the affected regions. I have observed that many, considering the Corona Virus risks many organisations have transformed their many routine operations to Virtual/Online.
Please, share your expert observations and/or suggestions on the following matter.
Have you observed the transformation of routine operations to Virtual/Online in the amid of Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) scenario in your organisation?
Completely, it's very easy to observe at the moment a lot of transformations in the routine operations to virtual/online, but not only: it's, notablly, obvious enough to see how consumers are going to change their purchasing behaviour.
They are adopting new practices, for instance, home deliveries for their shopping or still pick-up on drive-sites (you understand ? like Mac drives).
In which areas of science are adequate research carried out by research teams, and in which areas, scientific disciplines are research conducted by researchers more often? Do you know fields, disciplines in which research is usually conducted by research teams? Do team research projects have specific attributes that generate additional added value or do they have an advantage over research conducted individually by scientists?
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
What is your opinion on this topic?
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
In the context of the above discussion, I propose to add to our considerations the following important issue:
The impact of scientific conferences on the development of science.
Scientific conferences make it possible to make friends with other scientists and researchers. During the conference there are opportunities to conduct discussions and debates on interesting topics. Thanks to this, it is possible to undertake scientific cooperation and create international research teams and projects.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
- What do you think about this topic?
- What is your opinion on this topic?
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
The above discussion inspired me to the following considerations regarding the following issues:
Collaborative publication of scientific papers as a presentation of research results carried out by teams of researchers and scientists.
Joint publishing has many positive aspects. Publishing in co-authorship is often the result of the presentation of research results from team-led scientific research, is the result of research and scientific projects conducted by teams of researchers and scientists, and increasingly international research teams. There are many positive attributes associated with this. In a scientific publication written by a team of authors, joint conclusions from conducted research may be presented, with which all researchers, scientists of a given research team agree, and there may also be polemics and discussions that will significantly enrich the substantive values ??of a given scientific publication. In addition, if individual researchers, scientists of a specific international research team represent various countries and scientific environments, possibly also various scientific disciplines, then a specific jointly conducted research project obtains the attributes of interdisciplinarity, internationalization, etc. The possibilities of presenting multi-author texts and scientific papers, including scientific publications that were created to present the results of research carried out by international, interdisciplinary teams of researchers and scientists.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
What is your opinion on this topic?
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation.
IV(1) in my cross sectional observational study is a significant positive predictor for the DV in linear regression, and IV(2) is a significant negative predictor of the DV.
IV(1) has a positive pearson correlation with the DV, however when you do a partial correlation controlling for IV(2) the correlation between IV(1) and the DV becomes non-significant. (this relationship does not occur in the other direction, a.k.a correlation of IV(2) and DV, controlling for IV(1) remains the same and significant)
I'm confused as to why the correlation becomes non-significant when controlling for IV(2), but when both the variables are in predictors in the regression they remain significant independent of each other.
Why is this the case, and how would you suggest going about interpreting this?
Hello Fizza Qureshi. Think about the distinction between partial and semi-partial (aka., part) correlations. What happens if you compute semi-partial correlations rather than partial correlations? My guess is the results will be consistent with what you're seeing in your regression results. HTH.
PS- To get semi-partial correlations with SPSS (which you listed as a topic), use the ZPP option on the STATISTICS sub-command of the REGRESSION command. ZPP is short for zero-order, partial & part correlations.
Is there anyone who has performed content analysis on quantitative studies selected for inclusion in a systematic review in social sciences? I am trying to avoid meta-analysis and so I am looking at different ways to analyze quantitative data effectively. Any suggestions welcome. Thanks!
For Psychology (and other aspiring sciences and for even for good established sciences): Isn't it better to speak and write in terms of "conditions-for" instead of 'causes'?
My answer: Yes. Yes. Yes. Most usually. (Most certainty for a Biological science, like Psychology; HERE I am talking about a science of behavior patterns PER SE (i.e. "just behaviors"). (What is closest to a 'cause' is what ethologists call: proximate causes.))
For some certain persons: If you do not like negative feedback, do not read below the line, directly below.
This present Question is especially for some certain individuals (who I read): The above Question is something useful to think about OTHER THAN philosophy and especially philosophical Questions about "Consciousness" and "philosophy-and-science". Those Questions are useless, senseless, ridiculous Questions that most certainly will lead nowhere (certainly nowhere useful). Consider my present Question instead, for "therapy".
RE: «Isn't it better to speak & write in terms of "conditions-for" instead of 'causes'?»
Wouldn't the conditions have to be casual conditions? Sure, causal explanation is pragmatic or interest-relative, and we focus on a causal factor that's relevant to us. So to light a match I think of causing it to light by striking it, our usual practice. I suppose in a certain kind of anaerobic environment, a more salient action might be injecting oxygen at the moment and point of striking.
It has been observed worldwide that the individual with weak immune system can be easily attacked by Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19). The prominent health experts are also suggesting to improve immune system against Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19).
Please, share your expert suggestions on the following question.
How can we strengthen our immune system to fight against Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) spread?
AI can save our time & help in collecting many data what humans cant. In fact AI can share researches with the entire world. That's obviously the benefit part. But the challenge is the propergal & ethical use of AI devises to reserach.
I'm trying my hand at multilevel modeling during my master's dissertation. I have three levels: firms, industries, regions. I'm having the issue of many of my firms having multiple activities. As an example, some firms that do sea transportation and fishing, or even sea transportation and garbage removal, or selling plants and repairing cars etc. I didn't think of this issue in the beginning. Is it possible for the observations (firms) to belong to several level 2 variables? What solutions are available to me? I could always just delete their other activities and only take into consideration the first activity they provide, but that feels like a last resort kind of solution.
Criminologists are increasingly theorizing about relationships between life-course occurrences and patterns of criminal behavior. The life-events calendar method features interviewing conditions that respondents find more pleasurable than those typical of traditional survey administrations. It also provides a way to collect retrospective longitudinal data that is cheaper than using traditional panel designs and potentially more practical when dealing with unstable respondents that would be difficult to re-contact. The life-events calendar method provides data that are rarely worse and typically more comprehensive than data derived from traditional surveys, making it a viable option for criminologists who conduct survey research. The life-events calendar method encourages accuracy in self-reporting by providing respondents with visual and verbal cues that facilitate recall, utilizing reference points to improve precision and establish temporal ordering, and facilitating respondent-researcher interaction. The life-events calendar method is therefore ideal for studying offenders and others who feature memory problems, cognitive difficulties, co-occurring risk factors, and instability in their lives.
First off, I suggest that you avoid predatory journals/publishers. Secondly, if your research had roots in psychology although it’s conducted in an education setting, I would recommend the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology which is an A-rated journal in psychology.
I have always been looking for a higher Impact Factor journals in Social Sciences but found a few with nominal IF. But when it comes to comparison with Natural Sciences journals, there is a big difference in the IF number. Are natural science fields way too superior to Social Sciences?
The current evaluation of the Impact Factor of the Journal based on the number of times was cited by the number of articles that are frequently cited by many users. Moreover, it is focused on Citation Reports, Citation Impact, and h-index, Citescore, Yearly Impact Factor, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and SCImago Journal Rank, etc. With regard to the popularity and reputation comparison between Natural Science Journal and Social Science Journals is that the number of users mostly cited the particular paper per day.
I'm working with life satisfaction as my dependent variable and some other independent variables that measure purchasing power (consumption, income and specific expenditures). To take into account the diminishig marginal returns of this last variables (following the literature) I transformed them in terms of their natural logarithm. However, now I want to compare the size of the coefficients of specific expenditures with the ones of consumption and income. Specifically, I would like some procedure which allows me to interpret the result like this: 1 unit of resources directed to a type of expenditure (say culture) is more/less effective to improve life satisfaction in comparison with the effect that this same unit would have under the category of income. If I just do this with withouth the natural logarithm (that is, expressed in dolars) the coefficients change in counterintuitive ways, so I would prefer to avoid this.
I was thinking about using beta coefficients, but I don't know if it makes sense to standarize an already logarithmic coefficient.
Am not sure Santiago I follow what you said. Elasticity can be used and Beta weights can be used. If I understand you? I will interpret elasticity as I % increase in the RHS variable changes the regressand by the estimated sign and coefficient of the RHS eg LnY= 2 -0.5Ln(X) -- Here a percent increase in X decreases y by .5 on the avg
I love those formidable exceptions when style is not merely an invisible background to argumentation in academic writing. The first sentence of the first paragraph in a scientific paper should grab the readers attention and lead to the thesis statement.
What are your favourite examples of good opening sentences?
Here is a favourite of mine, from Murray S. Davis’ 1971 paper, “That’s Interesting! Towards a Phenomenology of Sociology and a Sociology of Phenomenology” (Perfect title, too!):
“It has long been thought that a theorist is considered great because his theories are true, but this is false.”
Another one: Robert K. Merton’s opening sentence for his 1938 classic, Social Structure and Anomie:
"There persists a notable tendency in sociological theory to attribute the malfunctioning of social structure primarily to those of man’s imperious biological drives which are not adequately restrained by social control."
What are your favourite first sentences? Please share in the comments.
In a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we are currently trying to establish indicators and quality criteria for measuring the social impact of the social sciences and humanities. We are interested in the question of what social impacts SSH has and, of course, where the limits of measurability lie. Do you know of any relevant literature that deals with the social impact of SSH? I would be grateful for hints.
When considering determinants for micropolitical behaviour, I am particulary interested in the dependence on qualification and competence when using micropolitical strategies. As part of my research, I would like to find out how and why people tend to which micropolitical strategies depending on their qualifications and skills. Therefore I would like to ask for information regarding the current scientific state of research on micropolitical behaviour, particulary in the strategies used.
Some time ago I shared my scientific essay with GRIN. They offered me selling hard copy of this work via GRIN site or Amazon and pdf version to download from GRIN. I prepared pdf version of the paper and upload it, but I must admit there was inconsistency between final version active on site and pdf version that I have shared with them - problems with accurate formatting. Even if I selected for free option, little price was set up for downloading the pdf. Each one who wants to upload its own paper, has to agree with conditions, and one of them is that the paper will be active at least for 5 years under agreed conditions.
Still I have doubts if I did wrong or good sharing my essay with them. As a publisher was GRIN suitable choice indeed? What do you think? What experience do you have with this publisher?
Hi, im new to using a qualitative data software and wanted to try use it for the first time on my social sciences study involving the use of interviews and focus group method. Would you recommend atlas.ti or qda miner lite? My choices are limited because of the language input will be Thai (according to my understanding) which is why i have narrowed it down to these two softwares. I dont really know the differences/adv/disadvantage of the two, can you please help? Thank youuu
As you know, the publication of scientific studies in particular is a fundamental objective. However, there is an opinion that since the establishment of the Social Sciences, publications have served the intelligence of states rather than the scientific community. According to this view, the publication of scientific studies is particularly encouraged. In this way, especially developed states analyze almost all of these studies and make good reference to their own policies. In fact, do scientific studies serve the science or the policies of states? Do you think this is a conspiracy theory or is it a fact with a basis?
I have to assess conceptual papers occasionally as a reviewer and more frequently as a reader. My assessment practice is not so different from the assessment of empirical papers. My first question always is: Does the paper raise a relevant question? Does it address a gap in our (in this case, theoretical) knowledge? Since I mostly do empirical research, one of my criteria for relevance is the impact of the question and answer on empirical work. Although I admit that there might be papers whose relevance is purely theoretical, I tend to prefer those that support empirical work (e.g., by clarifying concepts and relationships between them).
This rules out most papers that just discuss differences between theoretical approaches. It also rules out papers that propose a new theory to solve a problem that does not exist outside this particular theory. In the latter case, nothing is lost if the paper is not published :).
If the paper addresses a relevant theoretical question, my second criterion is the quality of the answer. Does the paper really solve the problem it poses? Is the argument theoretically consistent? A common problem in this respect is that answers combine theories that rest on contradictory ontological or epistemological premises.
I read some of the documents to understand the aims and objectives of teaching and learning of social science. but I found that different scholars present different ideas to describe these aims and objectives. I would appreciate if someone can guide me to explore authentic materials that describes the aims and objectives of teaching as well as learning of Social Science in concrete manner.
The goals of teaching social sciences in the school are to instill social values, customs and traditions as well as build a human personality, study the hopes and aspirations of society, and contribute to the socialization of students...
Corruption is a matter of “dishonest or illegal behavior especially by powerful people,” including, for instance, government officials or the police; and primary examples of corrupt behavior are bribery and any other inducement by improper or unlawful means.1 The varying forms and expressions of corruption may, in fact, form an unending list, since new, more sophisticated, subtle or covert forms are pretty sure to arise. The more corruption is exposed at any given time and place, the more subtle and covert it tends to become. Partly in consequence, attempts at definition and demarcation of corruption vary and are often problematic or incomplete; “the class of corrupt actions comprise an extremely diverse array of types of moral and legal offences undertaken in a wide variety of institutional contexts including, but by no means restricted to, political and economic institutions.”2
As Lincoln Steffens put a similar point, directly concerned with Gilded Age corruption in St. Louis, Missouri, one had to fear that, “… the exposures by Mr. Folk will result only in the perfection of the corrupt system.”
For the corrupt can learn a lesson when the good citizens cannot. The Tweed regime in New York taught Tammany to organize its boodle business; the police exposure taught it to improve its method of collecting blackmail. And both now are almost perfect and safe. The rascals of St. Louis will learn in like manner; they will concentrate the control of their bribery system, excluding from the profit-sharing the great mass of weak rascals, and carrying on the business as a business in the interest of a trustworthy few.3
In the wake of exposures of corruption in the press, indictments and convictions due to the work of St. Louis public prosecutor Joseph W. Folk, if the good citizens of the city would not or could not take things in hand, then corruption could simply mutate into some as yet unexposed or covert forms. As a general matter, though, in spite of the tendency toward subtler and more sophisticated forms, the old familiar patterns are always being rediscovered and deployed somewhere or other; they never completely die away.
The etymological source of the English word “corruption” is theological Latin,4 which followed traditions of translating ancient Greek moral and political thought. This background is reflected both in the call on moral standards involved in the condemnation and prosecution of corruption and in the broader usages of the word. Corruption, in a secondary sense, is a matter of departure or deviation from an original, or from what is pure, ideal or correct, as in “corruption of a text,” and “corruption of computer files”—where no moral evaluation need be involved. In their original Greek setting, Aristotle’s three “degenerate,” “digressive” or “perverted” (παρεκβάσείς, parekbasis) forms of government, viz., tyranny, oligarchy and (extreme) democracy, are regarded as degenerate precisely because they deviate or “swerve” from proper concern with the common good. They might therefore equally be said to be corrupt forms. As political scientist Samuel Huntington makes a narrower point, “Corruption is behavior of public officials which deviates from accepted norms in order to serve private ends.”5 But not all corruption is political.
1. Cf. “Corruption” in Merriam-Webster.
2. Seumas Miller 2018, “Corruption” in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. p. 6.
3. Lincoln Steffens 1904, The Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 39.
4. Theological Latin is mentioned in the great Oxford English Dictionary. In consequence of the Latin source, one finds cognate forms in many European languages: English, corruption, French, corruption, German, Korruption, Italian, corruzione, and Russian, korruptsiya. The English “corrupt” derives from Latin, corrumpere = co- + rumpere, “to break.”
5. Cf. Samuel P. Huntington 1968, “Modernization and Corruption” in Huntington 2006, Political Order in Changing Societies, p. 59.
In spite of our understandable and frequent focus on monetary exchanges involving government officials and favors, corruption need not involve exchange of money and may be either public or private. Public officials accepting envelopes stuffed with cash to favor bribe-givers in the exercise of official powers is perhaps the central, paradigm case of political corruption. Yet, surely, corruption may still exist where no money changes hands. Favoritism toward particular persons, groups or interests might be exchanged for other sorts of “inducements,” for instance, reciprocating preferences in hiring, employment advantages or promotions; and favoritism may involve exchange of useful “insider” information.6 “In some corrupt exchanges, such as patronage and nepotism” argues political scientist Michael Johnston, “considerable time may elapse between receiving the quid and repaying the quo, and the exchange may be conditioned by many factors other than immediate gain.”7
When illicit favoritism is practiced within a particular insider group involving partiality in dispensing jobs, opportunities and other advantages to friends, supporters or trusted associates, this favoritism is called cronyism. Favoritism and partiality toward one’s own family and kinship, nepotism, is illegal in American Civil Service employment practices, and restricted by the requirement to report possible conflicts of interest to stockholders in publicly traded firms. The charge of nepotism fails of legal application in privately owned firms. It is worth remarking, however, that the distinction between “public” and “private” agents and resources is not always entirely clear and straightforward.
The point is reflected in the history of corporate charters. For example, the British East India Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company long effectively ruled large areas of India and Canada respectively. Were these private trading corporations or colonial sub-polities of the British crown and government? Being both, of course, they could legally govern their respective geographic domains with priority and preference given to their own economic and trading interests and profits. The East India Company even had its own army which was effectively deployed in the Seven Years’ war (1756-1763).8 Chartered trading companies acting as sub-polities was a compromising configuration, though it long persisted. Again, while colonial Americans saw their chartered colonial governments as their own, requiring their representation and subject to “the consent of the governed,” the view from London was that they could be modified or abolished by parliament like any corporate or municipal charter in the kingdom.
Lincoln Steffens distinguished several classifications of municipal corruption. This is partly a matter of where to look for corruption. His typology includes police corruption which was especially prominent in the scandals of Minneapolis, and also found elsewhere, for instance, as reported in the Lexow Committee’s exposures of police corruption in New York City. Police corruption involves “protection” of and extortion from illegal but tolerated gambling and vices. Steffens sometimes found municipal corruption, centered in the mayor’s office, the executive and administrative departments and sometimes centered in the municipal legislatures. With corruption centered in City Council, the political bosses could often afford to tolerate a “clean hands” mayor. Steffens also describes financial corruption, for example in St. Louis, which involved “not thieves, gamblers, and common women, but influential citizens, capitalists, and great corporations.”9 Political bosses of the Gilded Age often enjoyed quite cozy relations to large financial and industrial firms or even owned banks themselves. Generalized civic corruption, exemplified by Philadelphia, “corrupt and contented,” involved direct ...
6. Cf. Sung Hui Kim 2014, “Insider Trading as Private Corruption,” UCLA Law Review, Vol. 61, pp. 928-1008: “Private corruption” is defined as “the use of an entrusted position for self-regarding gain.”
7. Michael Johnston 2005, Syndromes of Corruption, p. 21.
8. Relevant in comparison is the literature of Edmund Burke’s later speeches and documentation in the long impeachment process against Warren Hastings (1732-1818), the East India Company’s Governor of Bengal. See, e.g., Isaac Kramnick ed. 1999, The Portable Edmund Burke, Section V. “India and Colonialism,” pp. 363-406; Frederick G. Whelan 2012, “Burke on India.”
9. Steffens 1904, Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 71.
partisan manipulation of the electoral system and vote counts, integration of political patronage, federal, state and local, with favored business interests plus institutional and popular acquiescence in boss led, machine politics. Even people not directly involved in corruption, still prevalently “went along,” and adopted protective affiliation and coloring of the dominant party in order not to fall into
direct opposition to the party bosses and the machinations of the corrupt system. Even “heads of great educational and charity institutions ‘go along,’ as they say in Pennsylvania, in order to get appropriations for their institutions from the State and land from the city.”10
Though acceptance of bribes among political office holders is the paradigm, corruption also exists in other institutional contexts. For example, embezzlement by a business partner or favoritism in the allocation of funds by a corporate treasurer show the possibility of corruption in private spheres; and “insider trading” of stocks and bonds on the basis of privileged information is criminal in many or most important jurisdictions. Bribery may exist even in “non-profit” sports organizations, influencing the outcome of games or the award of sports events to particular localities. “Corruption involves the abuse of a trust,” writes Michael Johnston, “generally one involving public power, for private benefit.”11 But the involvement of public power and public financing may be more or less remote, unobvious or even absent. The fundamental objection to corruption is moral, whether or not particular forms of corruption are also legally prohibited—though not every moral failure counts as corruption. Corrupt actions are those that disrupt or strongly tend to disrupt moral habits of good character and/or the practices constitutive of the normative and governing purposes of institutions.
Structures favorable to “economic elite domination”12 may be public, semi-public or private. But in any case of corrupt, domination over public or private interests, there will likely and typically be some “ring,” “combine,” “boodle gang,” syndicate or circle (however tightly organized or tacit and diffuse) of self-serving insiders who ignore or discount the common, public interest or the overt, declared and approved purposes of semi-public or private organizations. More generally, “The pattern of corruption … exists whenever a power-holder who is charged with doing certain things, … is by monetary or other rewards, such as the expectation of a job in the future, induced to take actions which favor whoever provides the reward and thereby damages the group or organization to which the functionary belongs, … .”13
Although legal definitions enter into our concept of corruption, the concept is basically moral and normative. “No man is allowed to be a judge in his own cause,” wrote James Madison in Federalist Papers, No. 10, “because his interest would certainly bias his judgment, and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity.”14 The law, a judge and jury are there to see to it that no one is the judge in his own legal case; and we need to be morally concerned with anyone being the judge in a moral conflict of interests to which the same person is also a party. This has a corrupting effect on personal integrity.15 Some degree of cognitive or emotional bias seems to come with the limits of human intelligence and moral sympathy, but persistent, conscious habits and policies based on acceptance or acquiescence in insider bias and favoritism contribute to corruption of every sort.
10. Steffens 1904, Shame of the Cities, H.G. Callaway ed. 2020, p. 141; 141n. The contemporary colloquial phrase in Philadelphia, often critical, is “to go along in order to get along”: a matter of acquiescence.
11. Michael Johnston 2005, Syndromes of Corruption, p. 11.
12. See Martin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page 2014, “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens,” on usage of this term.
13. Cf. Carl J. Friedrich 1972, “Corruption Concepts in Historical Perspective,” in Friedrich 1972, The Pathologies of Politics, pp. 127ff:
14. James Madison 1787/1937, in The Federalist Papers, No. 10, p. 56.
15. Cf. Zephyr Teachout 2014, Corruption in America, p. 9, Giving a sufficient condition: “a person is corrupt when they use public power for their own ends, disregarding others.”
I wish You all the best in the New Year.
I wish you a successful continuation and successes in scientific work, achieving interesting results of scientific research in the New Year 2019and I also wish you good luck in your personal life, all the best.
In the New Year, I wish You success in personal and professional life, fulfillment of plans and dreams, including successes in scientific work, All Good.
In the ending year, we often ask ourselves:
Have we successfully implemented our research plans in the ending year? We usually answer this question that a lot has been achieved, that some of the plans a year ago have been realized, but not all goals have been achieved.
I wish You that the Next Year would be much better than the previous ones, that each of us would also achieve at least some of the planned most important goals to be achieved in personal, professional and scientific life.
I wish You dreams come true regarding the implementation of interesting research, I wish You fantastic results of research and effective development of scientific cooperation.
I wish You effective development of scientific cooperation, including international scientific cooperation, implementation of interesting research projects within international research teams and that the results of scientific research are appreciated, I wish You awards and prizes for achievements in scientific work.
I wish You many successes in scientific work, in didactic work and in other areas of your activity in the New Year, and I also wish you health, peace, problem solving, prosperity in your personal life, all the best.
I am from social science background and looking for some material that sums up data imputation methods in one reading material. The articles that I found describe the common methods used but I would like to know how the method was done. Thanks!
In my opinion, technologies for processing large data sets in Big Data database systems and other information technologies, information processing services on the Internet or data obtained from the Internet, including social media portals. The Internet of Things will continue to grow dynamically, support systems for enterprise management processes, computerized data processing, Business Intelligence, etc. In addition, other technologies typical for the current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
In view of the above, the current question is: What information technologies will develop intensively in 2019?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
In view of the above, in the ending of 2019 I am asking the following question:
What ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies will develop intensively in 2020?
In my opinion, technologies for processing large data sets in Big Data database systems and other information technologies, information processing services on the Internet or data obtained from the Internet, including social networks. The Internet of Things will continue to grow dynamically, supporting enterprise process management systems, computer data processing, Business Intelligence, etc. In addition, other technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
Therefore, in the context of the above considerations, the following important question arises:
What are the main determinants of the development of internet communication and information services?
Below are some of the technological fields and development determinants of internet communication and information services that have been rapidly developing in recent years:
1. The use of information systems, ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies, including Big Data, Business Intelligence in building and improving specific models of information technology management in organizations.
2. Industry 4.0 technologies are used in the processes of disseminating open innovations in new online media and in securing them, i.e. in developing cyber security technologies.
3. The development of marketing in recent years is determined by the development of Industry 4.0 technology and the development of open innovation on the Internet.
4. Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in the development of transaction systems and transaction security in the field of e-commerce and online banking.
5. In recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies have also been used to improve risk management processes.
6. In recent years, the impact of the implementation process of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into teaching processes in schools has been noticed.
7. Technologies of advanced data processing Industry 4.0, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the performed tasks and programmed activities.
8. In addition, in recent years information technology and Industry 4.0 have also been used in many other areas of industry, services, production technology improvement, in medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy.
Ad. 1: ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies are used in the development of advanced data processing technologies and Big Data analytics and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics used in economics, finance and management of organizations, including enterprises, financial and public institutions. In my opinion, scientific research confirms the strong correlation between the development of Big Data technology, Data Science analytics, Data Analytics and the effectiveness of the use of knowledge resources. I believe that the development of Big Data technology and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics and other ICT information technologies, multi-criteria technology, advanced processing of large information sets, and Industry 4.0 technology increases the efficiency of using knowledge resources, including in the field of economics, finance and organization management. In recent years, ICT information technologies, Industry 4.0 etc. have been particularly dynamically developing and are used in knowledge-based economies. These technologies are used in scientific research and business applications in commercially operating enterprises and in financial and public institutions. Due to the growing importance of this issue in knowledge-based economies, an important issue is the analysis of the correlation between the development of Big Data technology and Data Science, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and the effectiveness of using knowledge resources to solve key problems of civilization development, e.g. in the implementation programs for the quick implementation of the principles of sustainable pro-ecological development in economic processes in accordance with the green economy philosophy and the financing of programs for the creation and implementation of ecological innovations, and the urgent implementation of necessary ecological reforms. The goal of these pro-ecological business venture programs is to reduce the level of environmental pollution and slow down the global warming process. However, this is only one of the key global problems, the solution of which may be conditioned by the question of the possibility of increasing the efficiency of using large resources of knowledge accumulated in Big Data databases in knowledge-based economies. In connection with the above, I suggest the following research questions that may inspire you to implement important and interesting research projects:
Are there studies that verify the correlation between the development of Big Data technology and Data Science analytics, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and other ICT information technologies and advanced data processing Industry 4.0 and the effectiveness of the use of knowledge resources, including in the field of economics, finance and management of organizations, including enterprises, financial and public institutions? In recent years, there have been more and more media reports that in many countries there has been a significant increase in environmental pollution and a global acceleration of the global warming process. The problem is serious because the pace of the global warming process has significantly accelerated in recent years. However, this is only one of many key problems in the development of human civilization to be urgently solved in the 21st century. It is therefore necessary to increase the efficiency of processing knowledge resources in order to find faster solutions to key problems of civilization development. The use of Big Data, Data Science, Data Analytics, Business Intelligence and other ICT information technologies as well as advanced data processing Industry 4.0 in the processing of knowledge resources should contribute to increasing the efficiency of knowledge resource processing in knowledge-based economies, including in the field of economics and finance.
Ad. 2: Industry 4.0 technologies are used in the processes of disseminating open innovations in new online media and in securing them, i.e. in developing cyber security technologies. At present, the dominant view is that the dissemination of open innovations in new online media, open data sources and open knowledge tools conditions the reduction of knowledge acquisition costs and is an important factor in the development of the knowledge and technology economy. Technological innovations can also be open innovations. Many open technological innovations are currently being created in the field of new online media, on social media portals operated by technology internet companies. Open technological innovations are created using ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies typical of the current technological revolution known as Industry 4.0. The ongoing technological revolution referred to as Industry 4.0 is an important factor activating the development of open innovations related to information services available for free on the Internet. The technological revolution of Industry 4.0 is determined by the development of the following advanced information processing technologies, which include, among others: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced technologies of Data Mining. The technologies for advanced information processing listed above are increasingly used in various fields of industry, production of goods and provision of services. The number of industries, branches of economic activity and sectors of the national economy is growing, in which advanced information processing technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution known as Industry 4.0 are used. Thanks to the above-mentioned technologies, in recent years more and more open technological innovations are being created, which are used in the development of information services offered on the Internet. In line with the above, a lot of new open innovations are emerging in the field of new online media, including information services offered on social media portals and other types of internet portals offering various free information services. In the following years, the development of open innovations may also be determined by the use of blockchain technology in the field of improving data transfer security systems on the Internet. Blockchain technology can also be used to secure online settlements and social payments, including financing innovative projects, new ventures developed by technological startups, and financing the development of open innovations through e.g. crowdfunding. Perhaps in the online accounts will also be used in the future critical critics. Perhaps in the future cryptocurrencies will be displacing traditional currency from online financial transactions between fintechs, financial institutions, innovative startups, online technology companies operating social media portals and their clients, and between users of these portals. The development of all of the above-mentioned ICT information technologies, advanced data processing technologies Industry 4.0 and technologies facilitating financial operations on the Internet and ensuring a high level of security of internet data transfer. The development of technological innovations, ICT information technologies, advanced information processing technologies co-creating the current technological revolution Industry 4.0, financing through crowdfunding, securing online transactions with blockchain technology, increasing the use of cryptocurrencies in these settlements, etc. These can be important determinants of the development of innovative, technological startups operating on the Internet and factors of development of the knowledge-based economy in subsequent years. In connection with the above, the development of open innovation is correlated with the issue of development of innovation and entrepreneurship in the economy. A significant proportion of innovative startups develop their business model based on open innovations. On the other hand, in macroeconomic terms, the development of open innovations can be an important determinant of economic development in developing countries and in developed knowledge-based economies. In view of the above, research shows that the dissemination of open innovations and open knowledge bases is an important issue for building a sustainable economy in a technologically developed and developing country.
In addition, the dissemination of open open innovations and open knowledge bases is also a key issue for the development of highly competitive knowledge and technology based factor markets. The dissemination of open, open innovations and open knowledge bases is also an important determinant of the possibility of reducing the asymmetry of information and knowledge between producers, service providers, financial institutions, etc. and their clients. Dissemination of open innovations in new online media, open data sources and open knowledge tools is a condition for reducing the cost of acquiring knowledge. This issue correlates with the development of open databases and open libraries and knowledge databases available on the Internet. In view of the above, the dissemination of open innovations in combination with the Internet of Things technology and open knowledge bases made available on the Internet is necessary for the effective development of the knowledge-based economy. I described these issues in my publications, which are available on the Research Gate portal. I invite you to scientific cooperation.
Ad. 3: Market development in recent years is determined by the development of Industry 4.0 technology and the development of open innovation on the Internet. Open innovations developed on the Internet concern, among others, free information and marketing services. The issue of the possibility of publishing specific content, texts, banners, comments, etc. on the Internet and obtaining free information are key determinants of the development of information services on the Internet. On the other hand, the largest internet technology corporations earn income mainly from paid marketing services. Therefore, the Internet environment is a kind of mix of free and paid information and marketing services, which are simultaneously, simultaneously and simultaneously interrelatedly developed by various Internet companies. Currently, research is conducted into the analysis of the development of open innovations in the field of free information services, which are the main factor of business success of the largest online technology companies, which include such concerns as Google and social media portals such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Tweeter, LinkedIn and others .
In my opinion, the development of internet information services will be determined by technological progress in the field of new ICT, communication technologies and advanced data processing techniques typical of the current technological revolution known as Industry 4.0. The development of information processing technology in the era of the current technological revolution called Industry 4.0 is determined by the use of new information techniques, for example in the field of e-commerce and e-marketing. These solutions are the basis for the business success of the largest online technology concerns that offer information search, data collection and processing services in the cloud (e.g. Google) and provide information services on platforms developed in social media portals (e.g. Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and more).
The current technological revolution referred to as Industry 4.0 is motivated by the development of the following factors: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced technologies of Data Mining. These information technologies, combined with the improvement of ICT and communication technologies, along with the progressive process of increasing the computing power of computers will become an important determinant of technological progress in various industries in subsequent years.
Based on the development of these new technological solutions, the processes of innovatively organized analyzes of large information collections gathered in Big Data database systems and computing cloud computing for the purposes of applications in such fields as machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence have been dynamically developing in recent years. , Business Intelligence. To this can be added other areas of advanced technologies for analyzing large data sets, such as Medical Intelligence, Life Science, Green Energy, etc. Processing and multi-criteria analysis of large data sets in Big Data database systems is carried out according to the V4 concept, i.e. Volume (meaning large number of data), Value (large values ??of specific parameters of the information analyzed), Velocity (high speed of new information appearing) and Variety (high information diversity).
The above-mentioned advanced technologies of information processing and analysis are used more and more often for the needs of marketing activities of various business entities that advertise their offer on the Internet or analyze the needs in this respect reported by other entities, including companies, corporations, financial and public institutions. More and more commercially operating business entities and financial institutions conduct marketing activities on the Internet, including on social media portals.
The information and communication technologies listed above, combined with the improvement of ICT technologies and the implementation of Business Intelligence analytics into the processes of economic and financial, economic, macroeconomic and market analyzes may be instrumental instruments helpful in the efficient and effective management of economic, investment processes and enterprises, including analyzes carried out for the purposes of improving marketing activities in enterprises.
More and more companies, banks and other entities need to carry out multi-criteria analyzes on large data sets downloaded from the Internet describing the markets in which they operate and contractors and clients with whom they cooperate. On the other hand, there are already specialized technology companies that offer this type of analytical services, prepare commissioned reports, which are the result of such multi-criteria analyzes of large data sets obtained from various websites and from entries and comments contained on social media portals.
An important research technique that has been developing in recent years, the effects of which are used for the purposes of marketing activities of companies, is sentiment analysis carried out on large data sets collected in the Big Data database systems downloaded from the Internet. In order to group the behaviors of users of social media portals into specific classes of behavior, these classes must first be defined. Sentiment analysis using large data sets collected from entries and comments from social media portals and transferred to Big Data database platforms can be helpful. Then, when observing the changes in certain types of behavior of users of social media portals, you can analyze the data collected in Big Data according to these observations. In addition, a useful tool can be an analysis of the behavior of users of social media portals on the basis of ongoing posts, entries and comments on specific social media pages, statistical analysis of comments on specific topics of posts. This type of research is carried out by online technology companies that run social media portals and use the results of these studies to develop their viral marketing services, because this field of marketing is a key determinant of revenue generated by these companies from advertising sales on social media portals.
Ad. 4: Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in the development of transaction systems and transaction security in the field of e-commerce and online banking. The key determinants of the globally developing e-commerce relate primarily to the implementation of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies, i.e. industry 4.0 typical for the current technological revolution to computerized, automated transaction systems supporting online trading. In addition, the use of blockchain technology for transaction security systems and data transfer on the Internet. The use of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies i.e. typical for the current technological revolution Industry 4.0 to online transaction systems supporting e-commerce already applies to almost all the functioning of online stores, from computerized sales support systems, logistics, accounting, reporting, risk management to Internet marketing activities and improving security systems for online transactions. Another important determinant of e-commerce development is the development of online mobile banking available on mobile devices and new solutions related to the Internet of Things technology. Online banking is starting to dominate, whose development is determined by technological progress in the field of ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies. Computerization is also increasingly affecting public sector institutions servicing tax systems and business entities settlements. In addition, Business Intelligence analytical platforms supporting the management processes of companies operating also in the e-commerce sector have been developed for several years. The analyst of large information sets in Big Data databases is also developing. Big Data Analytics and Data Science analytical systems are also used by businesses operating also in the field of e-commerce. In recent years, new internet marketing instruments have also been developed, mainly used on social media portals, and are also used by companies operating in the e-commerce sector. Internet technology and fintech companies are also emerging that offer information services on the Internet to support marketing management, including the planning of advertising campaigns for products sold via the Internet. For this purpose, sentiment analyzes are used to survey Internet users' opinions regarding dominant awareness, recognition, brand image, mission, and offer of specific companies. Sentiment analysis is carried out on large data sets downloaded from various websites, including millions of pages of social media portals collected in Big Data systems. The analytical data collected in this way are very helpful in the process of planning advertising campaigns carried out in new media, including social media portals. These campaigns advertise products and services sold via the Internet, available in online stores. In view of the above, the development of e-commerce is mainly determined by technological progress in the field of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing technologies Industry 4.0 and new technologies used in securing financial transactions carried out via the Internet, including e-commerce transactions, e.g. technologies blockchain. I have described the above issues of various aspects of the application of information systems and ICT, including Big Data, Business Intelligence in companies operating on the Internet in my scientific publications available on the Research Gate portal. I invite you to cooperation.
Ad. 5: In recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies have also been used to improve risk management processes. In addition, the structure of expenditure incurred on improving risk management processes in financial institutions has changed in recent years. While in the 1990s, the dominant risk categories that were subject to permanent improvement, including through the implementation of ICT information technologies for analytics and risk modeling, have been the key risk categories in recent years for which particularly high expenditure is allocated to improving management processes these risk categories are primarily risks related to the development of cyber crime, the risk of data transfer on the Internet, risks related to online and mobile electronic banking. In addition, in recent years, the improvement of risk management methods and systems has been carried out through the implementation of Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technology. For now, high levels of profitability of banking operations related to the development of electronic online banking allow spending high costs on improving the management of risk categories related to the development of cyber crime, the risk of data transfer on the Internet, risks related to online and mobile electronic banking. However, this may not always be the case. Competition for classic online banking is growing through the successive increase in the share of cryptocurrencies in transactions carried out electronically. Fintechs are also developing. Therefore, the current development trends of banking in the next decades may change significantly and then there may also be changes in the key barriers to risk management improvement processes.
Ad. 6: In recent years, the impact of the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media Internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into teaching processes in schools has been noticed. I fully agree with the thesis that ICT information technologies and new media internet technologies, Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technologies, which are increasingly being implemented into educational processes and may also negatively affect pedagogical processes in schools. I also believe that the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into educational processes can have a negative impact on the classical theory of children's mental development. Because in young children and adolescents, the process of adopting new concepts (thought process) in pre-school institutes extends from the perception of the senses (sight, hearing, touch), speech and direct manipulation of real objects (teaching resources), to create abstract concepts is the use of new information technologies ICT, Internet technologies and Industry 4.0 should be done under the full control of educators. Because in young children, this child must first "see the object in his head", he first had to "see it and touch with his hand" to learn, so devoting a significant amount of time to viewing various graphic and film spots, advertising on social media sites by children can cause negative effects in the psyche and in the psychosomatic development of a child. Therefore, information and communication technologies cannot replace every form and method of learning in the educational process of young children and adolescents. Of course, full implementation of ICT information technologies and new media internet technologies cannot be excluded including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 for teaching processes in schools. This process is already taking place. However, it is necessary to take this process under the full control of educators, teachers and parents of children. There are already many disturbing information from the media and from ongoing research on the effects of using new media internet technologies, including social media portals by children and young people. Children and teenagers mainly browse social media on smartphones. Many children spend too much time browsing social media portals on smartphones. The result is a reduction in the time spent on physical and sport activities, on learning, book readership decreases and the scale of diagnosed vision defects in adolescents in recent years. In this way, many problems arise that can affect the reduction of educational opportunities for children and adolescents. these problems should be solved systemically at all levels of the education system, i.e. from ministries of education to individual schools. Students and parents should be made aware of emerging threats through social campaigns in various media. Research shows that the process of implementing ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technologies, Industry 4.0 for teaching processes in schools has already begun. Of course, the use of ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 technologies in education processes does not only generate negative aspects. Therefore, the central institutions of the education system should coordinate the development of these processes in such a way as to maximize the positive aspects of the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced industry 4.0 data processing technology for teaching processes in schools. However, one should not forget about these negative aspects, about already diagnosed developing problems, which should be solved and educating teachers, students and parents about potential threats.
Ad. 7: Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technologies, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the tasks performed and programmed activities. Perhaps in the future there will be an attempt to build artificial awareness in which supercomputers will be equipped. In my opinion, consciousness can only be mathematically modeled in theory. Even if a mathematical model of artificial consciousness were built using ICT and Industry 4.0 and in the future Industry 5.0 and based on this model artificial intelligence would be created in quantum computers installed e.g. in autonomous robots, androids, it will still be only artificial intelligence without emotions and the essence of human consciousness. An analysis of the nature of human thoughts is necessary to distinguish between human intelligence and various artificial intelligence technologies being developed. In advanced computerized systems of neural networks, artificial intelligence systems are created, whose task will be to solve tasks consisting of complex sequences of many algorithms and self-learning systems for solving complex problems with the help of many algorithms. In these systems, man will try to create a structure that solves complex analytical tasks and learns from his mistakes. The advantage of artificial intelligence systems over their creator, i.e. man, is to rely on a much smaller number of mistakes made during repeated processes of solving complex tasks and learning new complex formulas to apply specific increasingly complex algorithms. However, after developing these artificial intelligence systems and applying them in many computerized fields of modern economies, what will be the next stage of technological progress in this field? Therefore, will the age of artificial intelligence and artificial consciousness come after the age of artificial intelligence? In my opinion, this is impossible. In my opinion, despite the rapid progress in the development and creation of new generations of artificial intelligence, it will never be possible to create an artificial creation that can be the equivalent of human intelligence taking into account human emotional intelligence and the specifics of human thoughts, human consciousness, human feelings. Therefore, the thesis can be formulated that in some respects artificial intelligence will probably never match human intelligence. The machine will be able to solve very complex problems and tasks but will not know why it does it, who it is, in what world it operates, it will not be able to realize its existence in the Universe etc. Machines in the form of autonomous androids can perform physically difficult works that a man cannot is able to perform. Quantum computers equipped with Big Data Analytics will be able to solve analytical tasks many times faster than the most powerful human minds. However, they will not be aware of their existence. Human awareness of its existence has been evolved in millions of years of evolution of the human mind and also of human ancestors that preceded humanity, i.e. human-like primates belonging to primates. Human consciousness was created in a process of evolution lasting millions of years, during which the process of continuous interaction of a complex biological organism with the environment has evolved. While artificial intelligence is based on systems of neural networks in a simplified way, to a small extent imitating the human central nervous system and the computational power of performing specific elementary tasks exceeding the analytical abilities of a human being, however, the level of complexity of the living organism of mammals is still many times higher than the most advanced computers.
Ad. 8. In addition, in recent years, Industry 4.0 technologies are also used in many other fields of industry, services, production technology improvement, medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy. Further development of applications of the Industry 4.0 technology is expected in the coming years. In many areas of knowledge, science and industry, the development of various applications of ICT information technologies and advanced data processing Industry 4.0 is just beginning.
Therefore, in recent years, information technologies and Industry 4.0 are also used in many other areas of industry, services, improvement of production technology, in medicine, biotechnology, in forecasting the future development of complex processes, in various branches and sectors of the knowledge-based economy. As a result of the implementation of information technologies and Industry 4.0 to many industries and services, the effects of development synergies are strengthened also in the field of internet communication and information services because currently rapidly developing technological industries of services and industries and enterprises and institutions operating in these industries are increasingly they use the Internet to achieve their business goals.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In view of the above, in order to more fully identify the above issues, it is necessary to conduct research that will facilitate the formulation of answers to the following questions:
- What are the main determinants of the development of internet communication and information services?
- What is the impact of ICT and Industry 4.0 information technologies on the development of internet communication and information services?
- Do social media portals play an important role in the development of internet communication and information services?
- What ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies will be intensively developing in 2020?
We are currently looking for Erasmus K2 Project partner in Europeen countries. Are there anyone interested in becoming a project partner in the social sciences and (or technical sciences) who are interested in projects in the field of social inclusion, digital skills and youth work?
I am looking for Scopus or ISI-indexed journals which have no article processing or submission fees. This will also serve as resource for other researchers in education and social sciences who are looking for free journals to publish their work.
Development of cooperation of international research teams in the Internet era.
The above discussion inspired me to formulate the following questions:
Can new online media help in the development of research conducted by international research teams? What is the impact of social media portals on the development of science? What are the other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites?
On the basis of the above considerations and conclusions from the discussion on interesting issues discussed, I formulated the following thesis that there may be other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites. In this way, Research Gate could be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists.
Below I have described the key determinants confirming the formulated research thesis. To the above discussion I would like to add the following conclusion formulated as a summary of my earlier considerations on this topic: to define and determine the impact of social media portals on the development of modern science.
In my opinion, the research project can be implemented on an international and organizationalally virtual basis. Information exchange and coordination of necessary activities can be carried out remotely through new online media. The necessary research can also be supported by new online media, including social media. Coarz more often also collecting data for research, conducting surveys is carried out by forms suspended on the Internet. Therefore, I believe that all research projects can be planned and conducted on an international basis and in the form of remote new internet media.
For example, the Research Gate portal is a very useful tool for scientists. It combines the functions of a social media portal with a database of indexation of scientific publications. Improving the RG portal can be accomplished by analyzing the development of other social media portals and adding new functions, a tool for the RG portal that have other social media portals and which the RG portal does not yet have. The Research Gate portal is an information portal and indexation database for scientific publications, having some features and functions of social media portals, however, it is primarily profiled on the issues of scientific research and presenting scientific achievements, including scientific publications. The Research Gate portal is a very useful tool for scientists. It combines the functions of a social media portal with a database of indexation of scientific publications. Improving the RG portal can be accomplished by analyzing the development of other social media portals and adding new functions, a tool for the RG portal that have other social media portals and which the RG portal does not yet have.
On the Research Gate research portal, you can ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions with other researchers, scientists, research and teaching staff and employees of other institutions. The effectiveness of this solution on the RG portal is determined by many factors, primarily the global scale of the RG portal and profiling into the world of science. First of all, thanks to the opportunity to ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions on the RG science portal, scientists and researchers can exchange their experiences from conducted research. In this respect, online research gateway stands out from other similar websites developed on the internet.
Thanks to the ability to ask questions, provide answers and participate in discussions, the RG portal enables quick verification of new research concepts and assessment of specific ideas for research and scientific works by other researchers and scientists. In addition, thanks to the participation in discussions of people of science representing the scientific communities of different countries and continents, it is possible to establish and develop international research teams working on similar or the same research projects.
In order for the effectiveness of the discussions on the Research Gate scientific portal to be high, a minimum of the following several issues should be met: topicality and high level of relevance of the scientific topics that are the subject of ongoing discussions. In addition, the growing importance of the issues, the developmental nature of the topics that are the basis of discussions on the Research Gate website. In order for many researchers and scientists to participate in the discussions on the RG portal, the questions and discussion topics should relate to those scientific issues that are the subject of research in many science centers and institutions operating in different countries.
In addition, it is important to maintain specific standards for presenting scientific knowledge and explaining specific problems of ongoing or planned research projects during discussions. The vocabulary used should relate to specific fields of science, so specialized vocabulary used in specific fields and scientific specializations should be used. On the other hand, in order for many people to participate in the discussion, including those representing various fields of science, formulated questions and conducted discussions should not be implemented solely with the use of concepts operating in very narrow fields of science. Questions should concern important issues for people of the world of science, but they should be formulated in a way that they are understandable for scientists and researchers operating in various fields of science.
Because for almost every field of knowledge and science on the Research Gate portal hundreds or thousands of research and analytical questions have been formulated, so many researchers and scientists may find among these questions useful for their research needs specific inspirations to formulate research theses and direct the conducted research processes. Questions formulated on the Research Gate website are often a form of supporting questions for specific theses and research hypotheses. Questions can inspire the search for interesting research concepts and can be an instrument for exchanging experience in the field of research carried out by scientists and researchers operating in different countries on different continents. Discussions conducted on the Research Gate portal can be helpful in developing international scientific cooperation and establishing research teams.
You can draw inspiration for many interesting research projects from the discussions on the Research Gate research portal. During these discussions, you can verify new concepts and ideas about the topics and methods of ongoing or planned research. During these discussions, researchers and scientists will learn different views, different interpretations and assessments for specific proposals for new research projects. During the exchange of views, new concepts of research are verified and the best and the most effective solutions for internationally conducted research projects are often developed.
Discussions conducted on the Research Gate scientific portal can be an inspiration for the establishment and development of international research teams working on similar and the same research topics or conducting research on the same international research projects. International research teams can add value to the world of science related to internationalization and globalization of key research topics and projects. In addition, discussions on the Research Gate research portal can be an important factor in information globalization for specific, new and important topics in which research is conducted. Research Gate is a representative of new online media, thanks to which topics important for humanity and planet Earth can be developed internationally.
The questions asked at Research Gate differ from each other in many respects, but many, most questions relate to more or less current and important problems recognized and considered, scientifically analyzed. This is a very positive aspect of the Research Gate research portal. In this respect, the Research Gate portal stands out from other internet portals. The advantage of the Research Gate portal over other online media scientific portals, indexation databases of scientific publications and social media portals lies in the fact that the discussions and questions asked on the Research Gate portal represent a high substantive level, the applied scientific approach to the discussed problems and are often an inspiration for opening new , interesting research projects, including research projects conducted by international research teams.
Research shows that Internet users use social media portals in a variety of ways, including the time they spend on a given social media portal. How much time Internet users devote to individual portals is determined by many factors related to the preferences of citizens regarding the expected internet information services as well as the technical characteristics, editorial capabilities, etc. of individual social media portals. In recent years, the importance of individual social media portals will change, such as Facebook, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Instagram, etc. The amount of time spent by Internet users browsing the pages of individual social media portals changes, however, it is difficult to answer the question which of these social media portals is better because they are not completely incomparable.
Individual social media portals differ significantly in many issues, and above all in terms of the possibility of graphical insertion of posts, restrictions on the volume of text entered into posts and comments, and in the scope of specific additional functions important for users of these portals. For example, since mid-2018, there has been a decrease in Internet users' interest in such a social media portal as Facebook and a simultaneous increase in the use of such a portal as Instagram. This is probably related to the increase in sales and use by citizens of smartphones equipped with permanent internet access.
Another important issue in the context of these considerations is the possibility of combining existing profiles on various social media portals. The Research Gate research portal and, for example, the LinkedIn professional portal are completely different types of social media portals. These portals offer users other functions. In a situation when we want to combine our profiles on various social media portals, some portals allow it and some unfortunately do not. Account Research and LinkedIn are not able to link accounts. You can probably only copy links from one portal to another and vice versa. To publish your publications on LinkedIn, you can place a short description of the publication on your LinkedIn profile and attach the publication file. In addition, you can post links to your publications on Research Gate in your posts and messages on your LinkedIn profile.
In connection with the need to establish contacts in the world of science, the need to establish international research teams and conduct research in interdisciplinary and international scope, it is necessary for scientists and researchers to use websites specialized in science issues, also serving as social media portals and also fulfilling the functions of publication indexation databases scientific. Other scientific portals such as Academia.edu and Mendeley appear in discussions on the Research Gate portal. In connection with the above, I am asking you the following question: Does any of you have your profiles on all these scientific portals and carried out a comparative analysis? I regularly use the Research Gate portal, because this portal enables establishing contacts with researchers and scientists also operating in other countries. Are there any significant differences between the two science portals listed above?
Apparently, the functionality of both scientific portals is very similar. However, are there any significant differences in the scope of information services offered, searching for publications as well as researchers and scientists operating in specific science disciplines? Does anyone of you have your profiles on all these scientific portals and conducted a comparative analysis to answer the question: what are the key differences between these portals? Is it worth having your profiles on all these science portals or is it enough to use the Research Gate portal? In addition, do the research portals ResearchGate, Academia.edu and Mendeley do not have any important functions that appear in the standard offer of information services of popular social media portals such as Facebook, Tweeter, LinkedIn, Google+ etc.?
According to the above, in my opinion there may be other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites. In this way, Research Gate could be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following questions:
- What is the importance of asking questions, answering, and participating in discussions on the Research Gate science portal?
- What is the significance of the discussions on the Research Gate website?
- Is it possible to link an account on the Research Gate portal with profiles created on other social media portals, e.g. from LinkedIn?
- Are scientific questions and discussions on the Research Gate portal a determinant of this portal's advantage over other internet portals?
- Does new online media help to establish international scientific cooperation?
- Do new internet media, including social media portals help to establish international scientific cooperation between scientists?
- Does new online media help build international research teams carrying out the same research projects or interdisciplinary research?
- In your opinion, does the Research Gate portal help to establish international scientific cooperation?
- What are the other features and functions of social media portals that the Research Gate website does not have, and which should be added to this portal because they are useful and available on other websites?
- How could the Research Gate portal be improved to meet the needs of users, researchers and scientists?
- What is the impact of social media portals on the development of science?
- Can new online media help in the development of research conducted by international research teams?
yes, with a 4-category variable, you would create 3 dummies, with one category representing the reference group and the others representing the comparison between a respective category and the references.
Please google how to create dummies. You will find tons of tutorials.
In a regression, I'm using household income and household specific expenditures as independent variables, both with a natural logarithmic transformation, and I want to control them by the household size. I find in the literature that in that kind of cases, it is used the natural logarithm this last variable, but I don't get the logic. If I'm not wrong, the household size is the number of people living in the household, so i find that the interpretation would be very weird: an increase in 1% of the number of people leads to a x% in Y?
Take a household of 2, a household of 4, a household of 8, I am skipping cases in-between.
Look at their housing. For 2, you're ok with a bathroom, for 4 it's already much better to have two bathrooms/toilets, for 8 maybe 3 bathrooms/toilets.
So you can see that the reasonable and comfortable shared resource is roughly varying as the Log of the household size.
Think of something else, still very practical, the rectangular dining-room table.
Let me get something from the internet from a search on
"dining table for 8":
Dimensions: (W) 180CM x (H) 78CM x (D) 90CM
Surface = 1.62 m2
"dining table for 4"
Dimensions: (W) 90CM x (H) 78CM x (D) 90CM
Surface = 0.81 m2
"dining table for 2"
Dimensions: (W) 75CM x (H) 76CM x (D) 75CM
Surface = 0.56 m2
call these example of values v2, v4, v8
Here you see that the surface of the table as function of the number of seated people is non-linear and concave, roughly logarithmic
Hence it makes also sense to have a Log scale on the household for a linear scale on table surface.
We could continue by looking at house or apartment surface, etc...
More generally, the reasonable sharing (in a family or household) and expected economies of scale show that resources maybe evolve linearly as function of the Log of the household (rather than as a linear function of the direct size of the household).
This might also hold somewhat for food consumption, if you assume on average that a household of 2 is two adults eating each one full size meal, whereas a household of 4 is more likely to have two children and two adults, and assuming that the duration of the childhood age (eating on average half size meal) is much more significant than the duration of adolescence (where they eat more than their parents, maybe?), you get again a reasonable Log approximation... Funny isn't it?
It even works for some aspects of individual consumption.
Now the water consumption, the electricity consumption, etc, do not seem to be easily modeled in Log of household size...
I hope that the above examples (not proofs, just illustrative cases which are likely or at least make sense) show why a log model might make sense.
Note that we have done economics without introducing any money or income. This is deeper and more basic.
Alan George Vellaiparambill For SPSS i would suggest you to prepare a small dataset and experiment the software while keeping the book handy. Now, before you start to experience it please explore the details of statistics involved in your field of research. It is all about comprehending the statistical details and computing methodologies.
Scientists typically avoid "making waves" and often have difficulty formulating important messages for consumption by the general public. Activism in taking a position that involves any attempts to inform the public about something that affects them falls outside the academic discipline of science and veers into social science. Scientists belong to an intellectual elite but should they remain sequestered in an inner sanctum that precludes notifying the public and providing it with scientific facts that affect their lives?
Thank you for contributing. I am surprised to see your view that a student's choice of a major field of study is "political," a word that denotes "government " or civic action group, in contrast to "education," "field interest," "knowledge," or the like.
We are starting a project where we are looking at the effects of automation on employment and working conditions in Norway. We are looking for both empirical studies on the effects of automation in other countries and theoretical contributions that explain how automation affects employment and working conditions. We are primarily interested in social science studies, especially within economics and innovation studies. But suggestions about other studies from related fields are also very much welcomed. We appreciate any suggestion that you might have.
I am fully aware that the question is quite broad, and yet do you know of any estimates of number of annual publications, let's say, in psychology? Or any other discipline belonging to social sciences? I am not interested in individual achievements, but rather in global numbers.
First of all, thank you for all your reflections. Personally, I am not interested in these 'rules-of-a-thumb' for specifying individual academic achievements/expectations (i.e., per researcher, and per year) as they often depend on a discipline, setting, funding, reaserch-time at work, etc.. Having noted that, I am more into the general/global scientific production across various disciplines (at some sort of 'meta' level). For instance, according to STM Report (2018, p.25) “There were about 33,100 active scholarly peer-reviewed English-language journals in 2018, collectively publishing some 3 million articles a year”. This is the type of information that I am looking for in these days.
Many publishers report the publication history process in their published articles. However, I do not see SAGE Journals such as “Structural Health Monitoring” or “Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures” reflect that.
I would like to update my experience: AWFUL. I could not get a response for 6 months and I sent an email. The journal assistant contacted me 4 days later and told that they assigned reviweres: Huuuhhhh?!!!??*****??* The journal is SAGE Open
Kindly be informed that we are going to conduct an international research project related to linguistics and social sciences. Researchers from around the word especially in the filed of EFL/ESL/TESL/TEFL are welcomed. Moreover, we are also ready to take part/cooperate in research projects by other researchers.
I mainly use surveys to collect data from people for my projects. I have been using SurveyMonkey to collect e-surveys and also enter 'field-paper' surveys, It is very good as I have both the practicalities of entering data with minimum or no errors (like using Access-Forms) and also share the survey online to target other people I may not capture on my 'field' data collections.
I am interested on the capabilities of epicollect5, and it has very useful things like, again create a form, being able to use it on-line or off-line and share for other people to collect. However, the type of questions you can create are limited and they don't adjust well to social surveys. Well, of course Epicollect5 is/was thought for other disciplines.
So, anyone knows of an alternative -FREE, as epicollect- for social science that would allow questions like matrixes, likert scales, rankings, multiple open-text in same question, or even adding a photo for people to rate or rank?
Yes, I tried that. But I cannot get Google Forms to create questions like multiple open single answers, in a 3 by 3 matrix where I may have 9 different text boxes arrange in three columns and three rows...
Many scientists lived who have milestone the world with his studies from past to present. Which scientist has been a role model for you through his studies or his/her behavior? Which have their properties, behaviors, inventions or principles, etc., leading to you or your studies? For example, "Karl Popper's Basic Scientific Principle Falsifiability" rules to me. Karl Popper is defining the inherent testability of any scientific hypothesis by this principle.
I would agree with Haji Karim Khan that learning by doing is the best way to improve your research skills. I would also add that you should take any opportunity to get feedback on your research by, e.g. discuss your research data and preliminary findings with your peers. A good way to discuss data and receive feedback is participating in an interpretation group or peer intervision.
Scholars agreed that religion has an impact on ethical conduct. The question is how far has those scholars and researchers came-up with suggestion to introduce religious characteristics to be used in measuring ethics?
Henry Mintzberg did his Ph.D thesis studying 10 executives. He wrote a book about ten different role of a successful manager. Frederic Taylor invented the scientific management theory By observing the work in the factory!
Adam Smith studies the pin's factory and wrote a book about the Wealth of Nations...
What are the basis for good theory? Is it a statistical rigorous approach? Or is it à in depth understanding of the reality? How can we write a good theory which is a statement of causality! A Good theory help us to understand or predict the future
Dear Shamba Patrick Bakengela , a good theory predicts a certain causation between variables which holds. And most of the time you formulate that causation on the basis of understanding (study, thinking of observation). If you assume to much and you predict to little, your theory will fall apart. You have to have deep understanding of a phenomenon which can cause questions to be asked by scientists where again and again predictions can be tested positively and lead to other questions.
What are the major problems and challenges in social science research and let us proposed comprehensive solution accordingly. The considerable known challenges are development of conceptualisations, problem of maintaining objectivity, difficulty in the verification of the inferences, unpredictability and problem of universalisation etc? Besides above mentioned problems, what would be other other challenges in respect to different societies, conditions and different nations?
I see the main problem in the fact that there are currently no really new theoretical approaches as they were numerous and typical for the second half of the 20th century. Some of them go back to the period after the First World War. In order to get sufficient knowledge about the present, one has to know this state of theory.
I'm starting a project to understand how small communities see their water problems but I don't have a strong background on social sciences. Hopefully you can share some literature and things that went good and bad based on your experience.
All modern constitutions contain and declare the concept and principle of popular sovereignty, which essentially means that the people and their representative organs (like chambers) are entitled to be involved into the legislation.
The participation of public bodies such as unions and chambers is useful because knowledgeable public parciptiation helps the government to let errors not occur and see and listen what failures are still in the legal text - some written ideas are then considered successful and others not but we in Germany have very good experiences in this way and participation in the legal/law creation process of the government/parliament. The first draft version goes to all required stakeholdend all answers are considered before this draft will be implemented as government proposal...
In my research i found many problems with this concept of "social engineering", because i only find documents with references to hacking, spywarre, and similar themes, but only a few quantity of papers mention the definition of the term in the perspective of social sciences, a work like Seeing Like a State help in the understand of this concept, but i need new sources to advance in my research....