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Social Inequality - Science topic

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Demography basically, has to do with the human population in terms of sizes, density, changes which occurs overtime and so on. Demography can have both positive and adverse effects on the society.
What are the effects of demography on social inequality in different regions across the globe?
#socialinequality
#demography
#society
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The demographic effect is a type of entropy.
And this forces stratification of society in a very aggressive way.
Almost always leading many people to misery given the competition for resources (employment, housing, food, education, health, etc ...). This social inequality follows a pyramid whose base is very wide (people with fewer resources) and top is very narrow (people with financial resources).
This is a worldwide effect, regardless of country, even in countries of first world, this becomes a fact.
In my view, concentration of human beings in small regions almost always has negative effects on the quality of life.
Hope this helps.
Regards,
Wiltgen
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After exploring my dataset for Ph.D. thesis and learning several spatial econometric techniques, I successfully applied ordinary least squares (OLS), logistic regression, Spatial Autoregressive models [i.e., Spatial Lag model(SLM), Spatial Error Model(SEM), Spatial Durbin Model(SDM)], and most importantly Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression models to find evidence of spatial and socioeconomic inequality in flood risk. The performance of all regression models was significantly improved when I accounted for spatial heterogeneity at the local level compared to non-spatial global models such as OLS and logistic regression.
I am amazed that several research papers were published so far in high-rank journals based on global regression results only, which I could have done a couple of months ago. The results do not make sense because the nature of the spatial heterogeneity could prevail in flood exposure. In my view, flood exposure and/ effects of flood risk cannot be locally independent by census tracts or dissemination areas or census subdivisions; they must be spatially autocorrelated. There remain ripple effects, spillover effects or indirect effects to adjacent neighbourhoods and to the overall economy. Populations from affected or flooded neighbourhoods could move to nearby safer neighbourhoods, looking for jobs and safe accommodation. Many other indirect socio-demographic effects could prevail around the flooded neighbourhoods. Do you agree? Please, justify your response.
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GWR is a good method to take into account heterogeneity at the local level. I have used GWR quite a bit since it provides local regression coefficients. Try Geoda program also developed by Prof Anselin.
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The past month or so has been super busy as I've moved my lectures from the classroom to the virtual video meeting "room" while naturally been concerned about student welfare. Yet, this new "Coronavirus condition" has forced me to pause for reflection. The result is that I appear to be less preoccupied with conceptual or theoretical questions than with more empirical questions that can demonstrate impact and help to combat suffering or social evils.
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If your observation that "people going crazy" is the current state of our world(s), then that could perhaps be a reality check in itself.
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The Investment Redistributive Incentive Model (IRIM).
Tourism holds the hopes of many in creating job opportunities for the masses of the unemployed globally. The poor growth of economies has failed to address the problems of unemployment, poverty and inequality. For growth to be impactful, foreign direct investment is considered one of the sources of the required impetuses. It is possible to incentivize both foreign (direct) and local investments. This paper, which was prepared using secondary sources of information, argues that it is possible to introduce incentives linked to investments in what is posited as the Investment Redistributive Incentive Model (IRIM). The IRIM rewards companies that support local ownership and control of enterprises through an incentive system en route to total liberation/local control of enterprises in whole geographic areas as the ultimate goal. The IRIM uses investment incentives such as tax cuts, breaks or relief as redistributive instruments to effect change through the reconfiguration of the management and ownership structures of companies. IRIM could be applied in any company, large or small, for equity and social justice. Foreign investors could also be linked to educational institutions in relation to facilitating the supply of skilled workers. Redistributive formulas become imperative to avert the various forms of societal dissonance because current trajectories are not sustainable where only a few get rich while the majority remain poor in a world trapped in a capitalistic and narcissistic modus operandi.
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I think the topic of investment and inequality is very interesting and relevant. It is also interesting to consider the relationship between investment, economic growth and economic inequality at national and regional level.
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Association between IR 4.0 - Education - Social Inequality
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Debra, Congratulations on the contribution! I agree with you.
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what possible effects can a gender wage gap have on child developmet? Any current research or suggestions relating to this would be appreciated.
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I haven't look at child development aspects, but the attached will help you to understand the gender wage gap.
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I am searching for a study ( I know it exists but I cannot find it :-( ... ), that shows that gender impacts decision making in financial settings (investment decisions) or in math exercises, as soon as they are posed in the beginning. 
Thank you for your help! :)
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Hi, Jannik,
"Math is hard!" The effect of gender priming on women's attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(4), 428-436.
Sex or gender? Expanding the sex-based view by introducing masculinity and femininity as predictors of financial risk-taking. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(2), 180-196.
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Since most people living in rural areas are still affected by this new technology and the network problems also prevail there.
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Can digital divide be eradicated? I think it certainly can; will it be, however? Probably not within a reasonable period of time. This aside, one should note certain positive steps, such as the Digital Solidarity Fund, albeit open to voluntary funding; Goal 17 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its specific target of access to the ICTs, which hopefully is more successful than its predecessor, Goal 8 (target 8F) of the MDGs, etc. 
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If we see the government and institutions role in techno-entrepreneurship.
if the government is good and institutions are excellent then what is our expectation from the government and institutions for supporting the techno-entrepreneur for the socio-economic development.  
whats your suggestions for finding the gaps in this scenario? 
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If I got it correctly,
1 I would conceptually distinguish the kind of impact you want to empirically observe (by semistructured/or in-depth interviews) using one or more defining categories, like dichotomic couples of mutually exclusive concepts: (...only suggestions)
  •  direct/indirect impact - from the viewpoint of a potential end user on the marketplace;  
  • patented/non patented inventions, basic/applied research - by the kind of research results/process                                                                                    
  • by occupational category (like industrial manufacturing production vs. IT services);  
  • by geographic area and socio-demographic characteristics;
  • a quantitative survey on labour statistics on designing professions, researchers/scientists, engineers and creative class
This way you can precisely know where to look for better recognise the kind of impact techno-entrepreneur has on a particular socioeconomic environment and context; 
Then to single out the support to socioeconomic development given by a supposedly excellent public policy on innovation and techno entrepreneurship is not easy task. Are schooling system in general and higher education really excellent? here you surely want to look at reports on quality of research and education by deputed national agencies for evaluation. You can build up various indicators to measure the rate of triggered new business from tenured academic personnel and industrial researchers or serial entrepreneurs; you can see the expenses in research infrastructures and many other indicators. up to you.
lastly, I think that it is important to do this kind of research adopting a comparative look to better focus the great many slight differences in here. 
hope something can be useful
respectfully
alberto
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I'd like to find tables and data about levels of discrimination against migrants in the different autonomous communities.    
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Perhaps this research on community heterogeneity and social participation of ethnic groups is helpful to you (it's open access, but you may have to copy and paste the link into your browser). https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/4551796/alesina_participation.pdf
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I am researching racism in France, related policies and their effects, but most of what I find is in English by US authors.  I would like to read on this issue in French by French scholars/writers.  Also, I am  interested in different/opposing pov.
Many thanks
Mary Helen C
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Dear Ms.  Mary-Helen Castanuela
I am writing to tell you that I read one intreset article about Paradoxes of Race Policy
in the United States, Great Britain, and France.
Please find attached article as a PDF file.
I hope I have been some of help.
Best regards,
Andrija
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Social closure is an important mechanism leading to inequality in life outcomes. We are particularly interested in items measuring how people feel about processes of social closure, to what extent they feel them legitimate or not.
Thanks!
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Maybe you can look at the ISSP module on social inequalities:
Best,
Loris
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As New York has mapped the income levels along individual subway lines, earnings range from poverty to considerable wealth, namely income inequality exist obviously.
But how and when such inequality form along the time, i.g. before, in the middle and after the construction of metro? The procedure is rather complex, relating with the change of accessibility, spillover of land price and house price, agglomeration of economic activities, increase of commercial and housing investment, job attraction, etc.
Does this inequality has a spatial pattern? That is the spatial difference of the degree of inequality between the regions near to the metro and the ones slightly far away from the metro.  And how does spatial pattern of income inequality evolve or change before, in the middle and after the construction of metro? Maybe the evolution of such income inequality will be impacted greatly by the density of metro, gentrification, sub-urbanization, urban renewal, built environment, etc.
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Dear Guo,
Very interesting question. We have done a research on this topic measuring social and spatial inequalities change in urban area after a new transport measure. See Souche, Mercier, Ovtracht in Urban Studies 2016 (you can find the paper in my page researchgate) . We have use the same methodology for evaluating the impact of a new subway line (but not published). Best. Stephanie
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I am conducting a meta-analysis on correlations among some constructs. So far based on what I have read from meta-analysis resource books and the literature, usually we first transform Pearson r to Fisher's z for meta-analysis, and then transform Fisher's z back to Pearson r for final report. Then I got the following basic questions.
1) Is only Pearson r be included in meta-analysis? What about other types of correlations, such as Spearmen rho, point biserial correlation, etc?
2) Refer to the Comprehensive Meta-analysis, it said t-value can be used to convert to correlation r. Which sort of t-value does it refer to? Is it the t-values in multiple regressions results tables, which can be converted to partial correlation coefficient? What about t-value from independent samples t-test, say, on mental wellbeing between male and female?
3) Any well-defined set of quality assessment tool and framework for correlational studies?? like the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials?
4) I got 4 coders to code the included studies. Generally speaking, how to calculate the inter-coder reliability of their codings?
Any advices and resources would be appreciated. Thanks all.
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1a&b. Spearman's rho can directly be coded and meta-analyzed.
Point-biserial correlations are Pearson coefficients computed on variables X and Y where one variable is continuous and the other variable is dichotomous.  You could choose to directly code  and meta-analyze point-biserial correlations. The issue with the point-biserial correlation is that they are systematically closer to zero than the Pearson coefficients computed on continuous X and Y. That is, the dichotomization of one of the variables attenuates the correlation (i.e., makes the magnitude of the correlation smaller). The degree of attenuation is probably too small to be an issue, but it's hard for me to be sure in your particular case.
So, the most technically correct thing to do would be to correct the point-biserial by estimating the Pearson coefficient computed on continuous X and Y. The corrected coefficient is called a biserial; it's an estimate of what the point-biserial would be if the dichotomized variable were not dichotomized. The first attached link discussed the point-biserial and the biserial.
You didn't ask, but in addition to the point-biserial, there is the phi coefficient, which is a Pearson coefficient computed on X and Y which have both been dichotomized. This produces greater attenuation. The estimate of the Pearson coefficient with continuous X and Y (from a pi coefficient) is called the tetrachoric correlation.
For both the point-biserial and the phi coefficient, the degree of attenuation is greater when the dichotomized variable has a split that differs from 50-50. So, if the point-biserial correlation is computed on dichotomous X and continuous Y and 50% of the cases have X=1 and 50% have X=2 (or other coding, the actual values don't matter) the attenuation is smallest.  As the split diverges from 50-50, the attenuation becomes worse. If the split were 95% - 5% then the biserial = 2.9*(the value of the point-biserial). The tetrachoric is harder to compute than the biserial and I'd recommend software designed for it.
2. Don't meta-analyze studies using different designs (unless you know that they are comparable). See the Morris & DeShon study in the second link.
A simple solution would be to perform independent meta-analyses on studies using independent and paired samples.  The paired samples can be converted into correlations and combined with other correlations from similar designs and meta-analyzed as correlations.  The data from independent-samples t-tests can be converted into standardized mean differences and meta-analyzed together. But don't combine them in one analysis.
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Thanks Anthony for the comment! Black kids get lower education than White kids from the beginning. Parental education (SES) is a predictor of IQ, and Black kids have lower parental education (SES). All these suggest the Black - White differences are not genuine or biologically based, but only social, due to structural racism which still exists in the U.S. We should be careful not saying they are biologically different in a racially aware country that makes their life and survival very hard.
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How does transport infrastructure within city, such as metro, affect the urban economic growth? Will it further result in spatial social/economic inequality? If it will, what is the process? 
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I think  that an improvement of transport infrastructure works in several directions: a) it increases utility of citizens saving their money and time on transportation between their houses and place of work, b) it makes this city more attractive for new migrants and commuters from rural neighborhood. An equilibrium city size is when city attractiveness is balanced by congestion effects. Hence, growing attractiveness of one city will cause migration to it from other areas.
If we focus on scale economies, the growth of population will stimulate economic growth as well. But if a city does not have technology or production responsible for economic growth, higher size will only increase pollution and make the citizens worse off. I think that social inequality dynamics depends on policy, but in non-controlled capitalism (free market) the social inequality in a city is typically increasing with growth.
As for an optimal city size and the role of scale economies, you can look at section 3 in my article: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305307665_Population_Structures_in_Russia_Optimality_and_Dependence_on_Parameters_of_Global_Evolution
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For conducting a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of an intervention on two outcomes (attitudes, and behavioral avoidance).
The effect size measure is Cohen's d. After computing the Cohen's d, I want to proceed to subgroup analysis and meta-regression. I am looking for resources or answers to the 2 questions I came across below.
For instance, one moderator is "interactive approach VS didactic approach", and another one is gender (male VS female).
1) Referring to the Cochrane's Handbook (http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_9/9_6_5_1_ensure_that_there_ar... (http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_9/9_6_5_1_ensure_that_there_ar...), it stated that at least ten studies in a meta-analysis are required. Does this "10 studies" mean that there should be at least 10 studies/effect sizes EACH for interactive approach and didactic approach respectively? Or just at least 10 studies/effect sizes included in the meta-analysis as a whole? What should we do if there are less than 10 studies? Any remedial methods?
3) Some reviewers said individual-level moderators (e.g. percentage of male, mean age) cannot not be used to conduct subgroup analysis; only the study-level moderators (e.g. publication year, location of study) can be used. Is this always true? What is the rationale?
Thanks!
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Hi Gloria,
The 10 studies per moderator is a guideline to follow for running metaregressions.  They say this because often, researchers want to look at several predictors in the metaregression, just like in multiple regression.  For instance, I might want to look at whether type of intervention moderated the individual-study effect size controlling for percent of males in each study.  
About your second question: I disagree with the reviewers who told you you can't use mean age or percent male as moderators.  Those are study-level predictors as well.  For example, you can explore whether mean age of the participants in each individual study significantly predicted individual study effect size (I've done several of these myself).  
So to answer question 1, in my opinion, you can run the moderator analysis of intervention approach predicting your effect size (d).  
Best of luck!
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Societal inequalities in general have bad connotations, especially when the social exclusion appears. More and more processes in societies widen the gap between elites and masses. Can elitism have good connotations and how is it connected to the universities?
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In the UK I believe there are important distinctions. There is an "eilte" so called - most of these will have gone to the top 10 universities in the UK and many to Oxbridge. Some of these are elitist and some are not. Meritocracy I agree is a better concept as it is more justifiable but it can still be anti-democratic. It depends how you measure merit and what access is determined by. My observation in the UK is that access is only partly determined by class, race or gender. Once it has been obtained personal characteristics and performance take over. Therefore the entry gate is crucial. I am sorry this answer is somewhat anecdotal.
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Geert Hofstede's dimensions of cultural differences at work place.
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A variable that seems to capture the essence of power distance is social dominance orientation.  See 
Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994, Octo- ber). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741-763. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741
We used the SDO scale successfully in Guatemala (in Spanish). See
Ashdown, B. K., Gibbons, J. L., Hackathorn, J., & Harvey, R. D. (2011). The influence of social and individual variables on ethnic attitudes in Guatemala. Psychology, 2, 78-84. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.22013
Hope this is helpful.
Judith
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Homeless students face may obstacles to educational success. My hypothesis argues that residential instability places all students at risk of faiure. Poor students are particularly vulnerable to increased drop-out rates, crushing student debt and an inability to transition from college to meaningful work post graduation.
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I support the passage of the Homeless Education Act.  I am seeking interventons that to slow the growth of student homelessness.
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I am currently trying to compose a project description in order to recieve a research grant. I wish to investigate a specific solution that is governance based, a model to manage segregation and social inequality in large cities?
Any pointers and suggestions for articles or books are most welcomed!
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Hi Oscar, 
Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation comes to mind here ...
Arnstein, S. (1969). "A ladder of citizen participation." American Institute of Planners Journal (July 1969): 216-224.
Some Canadian work about community continuity and its impact on health and wellbeing is also relevant - albeit in small communities rather than larger urban settings is also relevant:
Chandler, M. and C. Lalonde (1998). "Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations." Transcultural Psychiatry 35(2): 193-211.
Look forward to the outcomes of your work.
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I am interested in knowing of the practices, challenges, processes, benefits, outcomes, dynamics, etc. of those who have engaged in developing , or who have an interest in, international partnerships/networks, especially in relation to social justice/democracy/education. I am finding that there are many challenges, including language, technological synchronisation, funding, physical meetings, work distribution, groundwork in bringing people together, alignment of objectives, methods and means, dissemination of ideas, among others. However, the need and the potential for tangible, meaningful, critical work is enormous if the partnership/network can be effectively established, notably in relation to bringing into the fold disparate voices that may not be heard within the broader context in isolation. In other words, the partnership/network may value much more these local, contextualized concerns than the contrary, and the partnership/network may also be more effective in collectively moving the respective fields of study forward. Despite the factors mitigating against such work, the outcomes could lead to a much better understanding of broad, contextualized, comparative issues, research, realties, etc., and help connect the dots on such concerns as neoliberalism in education, social inequalities, and democracy in and through education. As I am working on developing such a partnership/network, I would be most interested in the insight and experiences of colleagues around the world.
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I'm not certain how fruitful it would be, but I wonder if the Humboldt Foundation might be a means to get a network going, since it could facilitate connections in the EU and elsewhere, AND provide funding for the necessary travel recommended in an earlier post? https://www.humboldt-foundation.de/web/humboldt-kollegs-en.html (also, they have Canadian "alumni associations" that might be helpful)
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Is there any economic study on Bangladesh's RMG and it's impact on socio-economic condition, or maybe in social inequality of Bangladesh?
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Hi Salina,
this is not my knowledge base. The following references may be helpful:
Ahamed, F. (2013). Improving Social compliance in Bangladesh's Ready-made Garment Industry. Labour and Management in Development, 13. (www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/lmd/article/viewFile/2269/3148)
Bhattacharya, D., Rahman, M., & Raihan, A. (2002). Contribution of the RMG Sector to the Bangladesh Economy. CPD Occasional Paper Series, 50, 6.
Hossan, C. G., Sarker, M. A. R., & Afroze, R. (2012). Recent Unrest in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh: Is this an Outcome of Poor Labour Practices?. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(3), p206.
Khundker, N., & Nasreen, K. (2002). Garment industry in Bangladesh. Garment industry in South Asia: Rags or riches, 13-30.
Khosla, N. (2013). The ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh: A means to reducing gender-based social exclusion of women?. Journal of International Women's Studies, 11(1), 289-303.
Zohir, S. C. (2001). Social impact of the growth of garment industry in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Development Studies, 41-80.
Rahman and Siddiqui (2015) Female RMG worker: Economic Contribution in Bangladesh (www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0915/ijsrp-p4579.pdf)
Sikdar er al (2014). Socio-Economic Conditions of the Female Garment Workers in the Capital City of Bangladesh (www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_3_February_2014/17.pdf)
Best,
Tobi.
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International norms have failed to justify realisation, implementation and enforcement of universal human rights, in some UN member states by individuals affected by controversial issues including racial discrimination, socioeconomic marginalisation, LGBT rights and slavery reparations.
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Are you serious?  'Hordes of refugees and immigrants' ?  Do you include yourself and your fellow citizens in that description?  The bulk of the population of North America is made up of descendants from such people.  Indeed if we go further back in history the evidence suggests that we are all, in the West, descended from people who initially emigrated from Africa!  Human rights are supposed to be that - 'human' not 'Western'.  They are therefore supposed to be bestowed on all of us regardless of our origins.  I think the 'West' needs to be reminded also about its historical and contemporary relationship with the 'Rest' of the world.  That will help explain the antipathy, even hatred felt to things 'Western' in some many parts of the world.  It will also help to explain, most of the current conflicts in developing world countries.  Finally, it will help to explain why more and more people are turning to a distorted ideology/philosophy  (jihadism) in the (mistaken, in my view) hope that it will provide them with liberation from Western imperialism.  The West, after centuries of ripping off the Rest of the world needs to consider its responsibilities for the mess in which the world is now in.  Bombing civilian populations, propping up dictators and military juntas, who have been putty in our hands, is not going to build a sustainable environment.  We need to change our relationship with other human being across the world.
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The pilot of the Race Equality Charter Mark in British universities has resulted in only 8 of the original 30 higher education institutions which applied being awarded a Bronze or Silver Award. Despite government led initiatives such as 'Widening Participation' being promoted in post 1992 universities, there is no shortage of examples of marginalisation and discrimination of university staff and students. E.g. even where ethnic minorities are represented proportionally in the student population, this is often not reflected in a proportionately diverse staff . Moreover, disproportionately low numbers of university staff are in senior academic and administrative positions; and curricula are not reflective of equality and diversity.
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Yes, non perfomativity of equality and diversity policies in universities contribute to social inequality.
Equity based Diversity is essential for eclectic ideas, balanced development, creativity and innovation.
Please see leading study of India on Diversity through attachment.
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In ALAIC 2014 we look researchers and managers who see communication as a counter that promotes the mobilization and construction of individual and collective social processes that enhance agencies.
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The book below contains a number of relevant case studies:
Laverack, G (2013) Health Activism: foundations and strategies. London. Sage Publications.
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i'm specifically looking at the role of social capital in education, not the role of education in building social capital. 
Specifically, i am interested in how social capital can influence the disparities educational opportunities presented to an individual or population & the accompanying inequalities in opportunities available, and the inequalities and power hierarchies/differentials already present in society which contribute to disparities in social capital (and how that effects educational opportunties).
i am also interested in the role social capital might play in influencing performance outcomes among individuals or populations within the same "levels" of educational opportunity available.
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Applications of Social Capital in Educational Literature: A Critical Synthesis
Sandra L. Dika
Kusum Singh
Virginia Tech
Abstract
This critical synthesis incorporates both theoretical and empirical literature on social capital since its original conceptualization by Bourdieu (1986) and Coleman (1988) in the late 1980s. The focus of the review is on educational literature that studies social capital and educational outcomes. After outlining their approach, the authors briefly trace the intellectual history of the concept and its transport to the field of education. Next, they undertake a critical review of the literature by first examining trends in conceptualization, methods, and outcomes and then assessing empirical support for claims that social capital is positively linked to educational and psychosocial outcomes. Finally, they discuss gaps in the conceptualization, measurement, and analysis of social capital in educational literature.
REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Spring 2002 vol. 72 no. 1 31-60
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How can i find Atkinson's Index for different quintiles?  Would that provide additional information than the index of the overall data?
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Dear S.J.,
the parameter (epsilon) is a parameter in order to integrate Rawl's concept of social justice (see the annex of my first contribution: de Maio, 2007, p. 850). So, the choice of the parameter (epsilon) is based on a normative/ethical judgement/assessment. From this point of view, the value "social justice" determines the action in this process of judgement / assessment. (Background: Atkinson Index is a parameter for welfare and welfare can't be measured without definining the normative frame)
So the choice of parameter (epsilon) depends on the weight, you want to give to the value "social justice". The parameter (epsilon) was designed in order to estimate the dimension of "inequality aversion". So, based on the following - sorry German-speaking - publication:
Unger et al (2013): Verteilungsbericht 2013. Trendwende noch nicht erreicht. WSI Report (10). Download: http://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_wsi_report_10_2013,
you can define, related to chapter 3.1, pp. 19-21:
parameter (epsilon) = 0,5: little inequality aversion
parameter (epsilon) = 1,0: medium inequality aversion
parameter (epsilon) = 2,0: great inequality aversion
All reports, that I know, emphases that's important to choose a great inequality aversion (parameter (epsilon) = 2,0) in order to consider very low income levels. Personally, I assume, it could be valuable, to calculate the Atkinson Index with the three dimensions (see the diagrams on pp. 19-21, chapter 3.1) in order to illustrate the differences. Based on this, you can demonstrate the utility of a great inequality aversion.
Perhaps, you find a classification of parameter (epsilon) in the following original publications of Atkinson:
Atkinson Anthony (1970): On the Measurement of Inequality. Journal of Economic Theory, 2, S.244-263, 1970.
Atkinson Anthony (2007): Measuring Top Incomes: Methodological Issues. Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century. A contrast between European and English-Speaking Countries, Oxford University Press.
So finally, I would like to state, that the choice of parameter (epsilon) doesn't depend on a given income distribution (your question above), because it depends on the normative definition of the parameter (epsilon).
Kind regards, Detlef
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Head Count Ratio and related poverty measures require state-specific poverty lines, upon which poverty indices are obtained.  But how these lines are obtained?  Is there any way to obtain district-specific and for further strata.
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Just one addition to a very complete answer by Detlef: for analytical purposes one can use a variety of poverty lines as each one selects a different part of a population to be defined as poor. In my view poverty is always relative so poverty line should be in a longer run adjusted to reflect movement in average, prevailing levels of income - in a given community - state or province. However, there are also poverty lines defined by the value of a selected basket of good and services which is recognized as a minimum people should be able to buy to live out of poverty. The contents of this basket should also be revised from time to time to reflect changes in both consumption patterns and aspirations of the society.
As regards poverty line which would be used for the policy purposes - like defining group of people entitled to income support or other benefits - it makes no sense to use poverty line which would define majority of the society as poor. It will be only useful to defined as poor and entitled to receive support from the others population which can be effectively supported within reasonable time horizon. That's why in many countries we have often at least two "official" poverty lines, where the second, lower one defines "extreme poverty"
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See above
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This has been helpful for me in regards to the most current task that my tutor has set out for me to help with my 1500 word essay.  Thank you for the above PDF link :-)
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Article on Digital divide.
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Hello,
The Pew Research Center published their report "Americans and Their Cell Phones" in 2011 http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/Reports/2011/Cell%20Phones%202011.pdf.  I was surprised by some findings.  For instance, the vast majority of adults and teens from households with incomes of less than $30,000 use the internet.
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Migration from developing to developed countries is a reality, but brings with it inequalities.
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As Sir Michael Marmoth uses to say: "no data, no probem".
The first step needed is to start to collect and analyse official data (income, education, occupation and employment rates as well as overweight, diabetes, life expectancy) to compare social and health conditions between native and immigrants in order to highlight the social inequalities in health regarding country of birth. 
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Social workers operate in context of uncertainty, ambiguity and indeterminacy. In such contexts will the strict application of empirical or theoretical knowledge be effective? is there the need for a mixed paradigm to govern social work practice?
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Evidence-based practice as colonised by the medical profession is inappropriate for social work and Charles and Joseph are both right in drawing attention to its limitations within a social model. Personally I prefer the term evidence -informed practice which seeks to bring together the importance of research evidence, practice wisdom and service user views to help identify effective practice.
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I've been researching education for democracy and its off-shoots, such as democratic education, citizenship education, global citizenship, and social justice education, etc., for over a decade, and have found a lot of references to the implicit and explicit need for democracy but it is not easy to find specific programs that centrally focus on the complexity of democracy (political literacy, power relations, social justice, stopping war, poverty and discrimination, etc.). The normative, hegemonic approach is to focus on elections, political parties and mainstream institutions, which are important, but which under-value the vast array of actions, engagements and movements required to build a more decent society. As education is, I believe, a fundamental pillar to building a democracy, I would be interested in learning from colleagues of programs they are aware of that cultivate counter-hegemonic consciousness, those that can effectively empower marginalized and non-marginalized students, and also seek to address social inequalities that are often promoted and re-produced in and through formal education. Thank you, and I look forward to your responses.
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I am interested in the education of medical students, and particularly in the democratic development of their critical consciousness for social justice in health. The expanding knowledge of social determinants of health, and a number of crises resulting from neoliberal poiitics, climate change, new infections and antibiotic resistance underlines the need for greater consciousness raising of our students for a range of inequalities in societies globally that have negative impacts on health and life expectancy. For medical students, the transformative learning that achieves this is authentic engagement and reflection on 'service learning projects' in disadvantaged communities. Indications suggest that the current generation of students are prosocial, global in outlook, and want to engage in humanitarian concerns.
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Piketty proposes a simple underlying equation r>g, meaning that the return on capital (property, stock and other forms of ownership) is consistently higher than economic growth.
Piketty strongly suggests that the structures of capitalism are not only regenerate worsening inequality, but now drive us toward a system of economic peonage and political autocracy.
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Never too late Christian. Thanks
Even more timely a debate, at least in Australia, with some very provocative economic remedies being suggested for a fiscal crisis that exists depending on who you read.
The implications, if all were implemented might be a dramatic redistribution away from the social sectors, and widen the inequality gap.
I wonder if Piketty's approach can be applied to Australia's macro-economy?
Cheers
Anne
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Concerns pertaining to inequality and social exclusion have been equally important as environmental degradation to development experts.
This report of United Nations http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/world-social-situation-2013.html discusses why serious attention should be drawn to inequality.
Does that mean the capitalism is failing? or the whole subject of sustainable development is dumb?
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A full sustainability is impossible with our way of life.
That said, the concept of sustainability should help to build a more balanced capitalism. Perhaps we have over time a more "socialist" capitalism.
I believe that the best form of organization goes through a balanced combination between forms of capitalism and socialism.
It's a touchy subject!
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In 2013, Mike Savage and others proposed a new model of class that was no longer based exclusively upon socio-economic status (SES). They suggested seven classes, including a ‘precariat’, ‘emergent service workers’, ‘technical middle class’ and ‘elite’ class. The previous SES version showed a class gradient correlating with health outcomes, and this assocation was generally explained in terms of deprivation and access to health care and health knowledge. Can the new model be used to explain health inequalities, and if so, what is the mechanism?
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Hi Benny
Well I’m getting from your answer a qualified ‘no’. Interesting, the report on the Lancet-Oslo University Commission that you reference states quite bluntly that ‘the fact that people’s life chances differ so widely is not simply a problem of poverty, but one of socioeconomic inequality’ (2014: 631).
What worries me (oh, that’s not quite right: what frustrates me slightly) about the Savage et al. model is that it seems to obscure some of this socioeconomic inequality, by focusing in on things like cultural capital: defining a person’s class in part by whether they prefer Country and Western music or the opera. I can sort of accept that social capital (provided by the people with whom one associates) has some purchase, though it seems a rather circular argument to define a person’s class in terms of the people to whom she or he is similar.
But what does really worry me about this model of class, in terms of its utility to predict life chances and health, illness and mortality, is that it seems quite possible to shift easily from one class to another over a lifetime. Indeed I reckon I’ve been a member of at least four of the seven classes over my adult life! Which one now predicts my health expectations: the one I end up within, or the one I was in when in my 20s or 30s?
Nick
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I personally feel that budget of the country creates inequality among the society. The budget that is given to the Urban Local Bodies is mostly used for the infrastructure for the higher income groups. For example, if there is water shortage, then poorer areas will face less water supply first. Similarly if we see that government open schools which are used predominantly by poor kids, then we missed the part that higher income group's children go to private/ public schools, which provide better quality of education.
So please suggest methodology to prove the hypothesis, and any good reading regarding the topic.
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Here in the United States, local governments, for all practical purposes, are self-funded using three basic revenue sources- income tax, ad valorem tax, and sales tax, and each have significant issues that tend to acerbate the wealth gap. With respect to income tax, wealthy people pay more than poor people because they have higher incomes; thus, wealthier municipalities receive more. Ad valorem tax has a similar phenomenon, as wealthier people have more expensive property which generates more tax revenue. Sales taxes are not only regressive in nature but when food and other necessities are exempted, the poorer locales do not generate many sales taxes, as those who are poor tend to spent their incomes on essentials like food that are not tax and have little left for luxury items that are taxed.
In Southeastern Michigan, the core city of Detroit is where the poor live, while the wealthy people live in the suburban municipalities and townships, creating a sizable wealth disparity between the various local governments. Here in the United States, much of the wealth disparity among locales is a result of poor public policy by the local governments driving the affluent into other jurisdictions. An interesting study would be to compare the segregation and ghettoization of the American metropolitan areas with the policies (or lack of) of the local leadership, and you will find a very definite link between the two.
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What authors, studies, projects, research teams work with this kind of indicators?
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dear Stephanie Laryea
thank you.
I am interested in all kinds of publications which present methodologies and results of urban systemse resilience evaluation.
if you know teams or projects working in this, all indications will be useful for me
kind regards
Carlos
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Social inequalities in education, health care, governmental service, opportunities, resource access.
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Cohen provides a very interesting reader online, which includes both origins of inequality theories, and well as contemporary ones. Also, a variety of inequalities is covered.