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Social Hierarchy - Science topic

Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.
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Publications related to Social Hierarchy (8,412)
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Previous research on pre-COVID-19 pandemic rising White mortality in the United States suggests that White Americans’ perceived decline in relative group status may have influenced worsening mortality. In conjunction with other social and economic indicators, social status threat is one determinant of this population-level health shift, yet it is u...
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Drawing on the social hierarchy within team literature, we contend that leader-member exchange differentiation (LMXD) may function as a coordination-enabling mechanism and as a conflict-enabling mechanism in transmitting its positive and negative effects on team performance. Specifically, we propose that the positive effect of LMXD on team performa...
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Long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is one of the non-human primates (NHP) species that live in groups to form a social hierarchy that can be identified through interactions with each other. The highest social ranking in the group is occupied by alpha-male. This study aimed to compare the daily behavior of an alpha-male and a subordinate-male...
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Research captures the persistent, vast underrepresentation of women in law enforcement and the finding that male officers consistently report low acceptance of women among their ranks. We examine potential sources of the reluctance to accept women as equals in law enforcement. Specifically, guided by social dominance theory and employing two-waive...
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Genetic kinship of ancient individuals can provide insights into their culture and social hierarchy, and is relevant for downstream genetic analyses. However, estimating relatedness from ancient DNA is difficult due to low-coverage, ascertainment bias, or contamination from various sources. Here, we present KIN, a method to estimate the relatedness...
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Mary Elizabeth Braddon’s responses in her earliest novels to the mid-century city mysteries genre – an internationally popular form of penny fiction – allowed her to develop the detective genre in important ways. While attention to Braddon’s early work usually considers how it helped to establish the “sensation” fiction of the 1860s, this article e...
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Social scientists appeal to various “structures” in their explanations including public policies, economic systems, and social hierarchies. Significant debate surrounds the explanatory relevance of these factors for various outcomes such as health, behavioral, and economic patterns. This paper provides a causal account of social structural explanat...
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The post-1945 international order is in crisis, spurring a wide-ranging debate about its future in a period of rapid global change. A critical dimension of this crisis has been neglected by existing perspectives, however. At multiple levels the post-1945 international order is being challenged by claims of justice. Diverse actors criticize the orde...
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Struggles for recognition, rooted in the desire to be acknowledged by others, are fundamental to the stability of international orders. All international orders face actors with recognition grievances, and sometimes these grievances become major sources of contention. At the same time, each international order faces struggles that are specific to i...
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As social enterprises seek to share knowledge, they must navigate social hierarchy. In this study, we examine social enterprises' efforts to share knowledge in rural areas and how they seek to mitigate some of the consequences of women's marginalization during this process. We use a two-step, multi-method approach. We begin with a quantitative stud...
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Social animals compete for limited resources, resulting in a social hierarchy. Although different neuronal subpopulations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a hub brain region of social hierarchy, encode distinct social competition behaviors, their identities and associated molecular underpinnings have not yet been identified. In this study, w...
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The question of why (or even when) the disadvantaged might be more or less supportive of existing social arrangements is a matter of debate amongst social and political psychologists (e.g., Passini, 2019; Jost, 2020, see also Rubin et al., 2022). Accordingly, for this Research Topic, we chose a title that was deliberately broad in scope, accommodat...
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This article analyzes the naked boy who appears as a reader in the fresco cycle of the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, ca. 60–40 BCE. Although this fresco and its many figures have received ample attention, few scholars have asked why the reading boy is naked. I mark the boy’s nakedness as proof of his enslavement, using iconographic and epigrap...
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This article explores the cultural and emotional meanings of the dress of ninety older adult women from eleven ethnic groups from Oaxaca in Mexico. Oaxaca is the most ethnically complex state in Mexico with 16 ethnolinguistic groups. 12% of its population speaks a native language and it is the state with the highest percentage of women. The symboli...
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This article examines a case of internet posts discussing social issues affecting men and masculinity. Analysis of 500 posts containing masculine coded language on the subreddit r/unpopularopinion suggests that masculinity, especially when intersected with straightness and whiteness, is discursively constructed in an imagined social hierarchy where...
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Recent films are increasingly using themes and conventions of science fiction such as dystopian societies, catastrophic environmental disasters, apocalyptic scenarios, aliens, monsters, time travel, teleportation, and supernatural abilities to address cosmopolitan concerns such as human rights, climate change, economic precarity, and mobility. This...
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In this interpretive essay we consider aspects of the existence of social elites in the Nasrid emirate and we raise some of the great problems that still exist regarding them in the historiographic production that concerns the Kingdom of Granada, especially based on Castilian sources. The questions asked range from terminological aspects: What shou...
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This research reports on findings from an ethnographic study on the Kha Phra Kaeo ethnicity to uncover its formation and to analyze its dynamics and cultural negotiations in the context of Thai-Lao history and politics. The ethnonym Kha Phra Kaeo designates an ethnic group descended from the Bru, with a consistent cultural structure, language and b...
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A new genre of treatises on practical seamanship emerged in eighteenth-century Britain. Authored by a group of seamen with decades of experience on the lower deck of merchant and naval vessels, these texts represented the ship as a machine, and seamanship as a form of mechanical experiment which could only be carried out by deep-sea sailors. Howeve...
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Olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is a representative culture species in South Korea. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) have received increased attention because they can provide sustainable and environmentally friendly productivity. However, to maintain economic sustainability, the system generally requires high productivity, achieved t...
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Drawing upon contemporary social hierarchy research, the purpose of this study is to integrate a novel theoretical perspective to examine the taken-for-granted conclusions of the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and interpersonal citizenship. We develop theoretically driven arguments and provide evidence of how LMX relates to power...
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Different positions within social hierarchies receive unequal access to resources, leading to health disparities in later life (Agenor, 2020). Research addressing inequities must increasingly account for the many social categorizations (e.g., race, gender, socioeconomic status) that affect individuals‘ lived experiences. This symposium examines the...
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This essay deals with queer theory and how it applies to the videogame Cloudpunk and the comic series Motor Crush. Both of these texts use cyberpunk settings to tell stories about finding hope in community. Each text features protagonists trying to navigate worlds where legal success is highly competitive and practically impossible. They must there...
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The article will discuss works of art produced by Palestinian artists, in which the ornament functions as an intermediary for conveying signs, symbols, messages, and identities. In Muslim tradition, the ornament represented, and visually participated in, establishing the social order, and was also a signifier of a distinct theological, social, dogm...
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Göbekli Tepe and the Neolithic sites around Urfa, which were identified by surveys, provide rich data for the transition of human beings from hunter-gatherer groups to settled and semi-settled agricultural societies. It is possible to trace most of the institutional foundations of today's societies to this transition period. Social theory, which wa...
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We give a new class of models for time series data in which actors are listed in order of precedence. We model the lists as a realisation of a queue in which queue-position is constrained by an underlying social hierarchy. We model the hierarchy as a partial order so that the lists are random linear extensions. We account for noise via a random que...
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There seems to be a consensus across both the fashion system and academia that “fast fashion” has a problem with sustainability. An increase in consumption of cheap and accessible clothing is behind the rise in extraction and pollution across the world seems obvious, and often the solutions offered span from material and technical solutions to awar...
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Scholars have treated images from the golden age of Transylvanian photography, recently elevated to prominence through the digitization of archives, as “authentic” portrayals of peasant culture. However, Hungarian, Romanian, and Saxon nationalists in Transylvania utilized photographs to brand place and nation in the global market, as well as to mak...
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Militancy in the oil-rich Niger Delta has hindered Nigeria's socioeconomic development and political stability and created conditions for the emergence of an informal oil economy which altered the existing social order in the area. This has increased instability, environmental devastation and disrupted social hierarchy in the area. The study object...
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In Chinese mortuary research, too much reliance on traditional qualitative typological analysis renders quantitative attributes of mortuary practice data ignored. Examining the Taosi cemetery one of the famous cemeteries of Neolithic China (2300–1900 BC), this study discusses the advantages and disadvantages of typology and digital methods. Extant...
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Importance Emotional exhaustion (EE) rates in healthcare workers (HCWs) have reached alarming levels and been linked to worse quality of care. Prior research has shown linguistic characteristics of writing samples can predict mental health disorders. Understanding whether linguistic characteristics are associated with EE could help identify and pre...
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Dorper rams (n = 24) were evaluated during the sexual resting season to determine their social rank (SR), either high (HSR) or low (LSR), under intensive management conditions in northern Mexico (25° N). Aggressive behaviors were quantified during male-to-male interactions, and appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors during male-to-female inte...
Chapter
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Human trust can be construed as a heuristic wager on the predictability and benevolence of others, within a compatible worldview. A leap of faith across gaps in information. Generally, we posit that trust constitutes a functional bridge between individual and group homeostasis, by helping minimize energy consumed in continuously monitoring the beha...
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Populists (re)orient social identities by creating a dichotomous perspective in which certain groups are selected to be a menace. How is this phenomenon possible in so different contexts? A cultural and an identity turn seems to be a necessary condition for the success of populism. This phenomenon is better seen at how candidates consider racial gr...
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In recent years, conservative governments and their civil society allies have undermined international women’s rights treaties and SOGI rights initiatives and challenged domestic rights protections. The articles in this special issue grapple with these trends by analysing the ideologies, discourses, and strategies of contemporary anti-feminism in g...
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As the scope of machine learning broadens, we observe a recurring theme of algorithmic monoculture: the same systems, or systems that share components (e.g. training data), are deployed by multiple decision-makers. While sharing offers clear advantages (e.g. amortizing costs), does it bear risks? We introduce and formalize one such risk, outcome ho...
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Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of infecting any warm-blooded species and can increase risk-taking in intermediate hosts. Despite extensive laboratory research on the effects of T. gondii infection on behaviour, little is understood about the effects of toxoplasmosis on wild intermediate host behavior. Yellowstone National Park, W...
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We study distributional preferences in adolescent peer networks. Using incentivized choices between allocations for themselves and a passive agent, children are classified into efficiency-loving, inequality-loving, inequality-averse, and spiteful types. We find that pairs of students who report a friendship link are more likely to exhibit the same...
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This article draws on our workshop presented at the 2021 Watson Conference that showcased the lessons we have learned about antiracist programming from piloting a Certificate in Antiracist Writing Pedagogy and launching the Inaugural Learning/Teaching for Justice Conference at our home insti­tution, the University of California, San Diego. Taken to...
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Adoption of COVID-19 preventive behaviors involves considering personal risk and the risk to others. Consequently, many COVID-19 prevention measures are intended to protect both the individual engaging in the behavior and others in the population. Yet, the preponderance of research is focused on perceptions of an individual’s personal risk, making...
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Contrary to the feminist research based on exclusively gendered processes of inequality in organisations, intersectionality theorists propose an intersectional approach to understanding the inequalities and subordination experienced by Global South women factory workers representing different social hierarchies and experiencing diverse social reali...
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Modern public-health initiatives in industrialized countries revolve around immunization against contagious diseases. The practice of engendering immunity against disease through disease first emerged in Western European social and medical landscapes in the eighteenth century as inoculation, based on the imported Middle Eastern practice of ‘engraft...
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The Internet is connecting people and organizations around the world in new ways, changing the way we relate to one another, find resources, share information, and form communities. These changes also have implications for church institutions and Catholics in Indonesia. This article provides an overview of the use of the Internet, social media, and...
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Understandings of urban foodways in Zimbabwe and other African countries have been dominated by food security frameworks. The focus on material scarcity and measurable health outcomes within these frameworks has often obscured the socio-cultural dimension of foodways and the historical and political structures that have shaped, and continue to shap...
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Animal personality traits (consistent behavioral differences between individuals in their behavior across time and/or situation) affect individual fitness through facets, such as dispersal. In eusocial naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) colonies, a disperser morph may arise with distinct morphological, behavioral, and physiological haracterist...
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Governments promote gender-sensitive policies, yet little is known about why reform campaigns evoke backlash. Drawing on social position theory, we test whether marginalized (women’s organizations) or intrusive (Western donors) messengers cause resistance across public rights (quotas) and private rights (land reform). Using a framing experiment imp...
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Social hierarchy greatly influences behavior and health. Both human and animal studies have signaled the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as specifically related to social hierarchy. Dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2 receptors (D2Rs) are abundantly expressed in the mPFC, modulating its functions. However, it is unclear how DRs-expressing neurons i...
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The title character of the early twelfth-century Persian Kushnāmeh (Epic of Kush), written by Irānshāh ebn Abu al-Khayr, is an anti-hero—the monstrous Kush, a warrior-king with elephantine ears and tusks. The Kushnāmeh has a two-layered frame tale, which emphasises the epic’s dependence on potentially unreliable sources. I argue that the frame tale...
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Many terrestrial group-hunters cooperate to kill prey but then compete for their share with dominance being a strong predictor of prey division. In contrast, little is known about prey division in group-hunting marine predators that predominately attack small, evasive prey (e.g. fish schools). We identified individual striped marlin (Kajikia audax)...
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Social hierarchy governs the physiological and biochemical behaviors of animals. Intestinal radiation injuries are common complications connected with radiotherapy. However, it remains unclear whether social hierarchy impacts the development of radiation-induced intestinal toxicity. Dominant mice exhibited more serious intestinal toxicity following...
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In the early first century AC, in the north of Poland (predominantly in Pomerania), the Wielbark culture developed with its group of specific features. Among them were numerous items of jewellery. It seems that their use was related to an extended social hierarchy and distant inter-regional trade contacts. The raw material used by the jewellers was...
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Objectives Despite the aversion to inequality in humans, social hierarchies are a fundamental feature of their social life. Several mechanisms help explain the prevalence of hierarchies over egalitarianism. Recent work has suggested that while people tend to reduce resource inequalities when given the opportunity, they are reluctant to do so when i...
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The health workforce is hierarchical in structure in terms of skill mix and social composition. Most of the studies on the health workforce are focused on the number of personnel in the public sector. The private sector that has a large presence employs a significant percentage of the total health work force but there is little reliable data on the...
Preprint
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Genetic kinship of ancient individuals can provide insights into their culture and social hierarchy, and is relevant for downstream genetic analyses. However, estimating relatedness from ancient DNA is difficult due to low-coverage, ascertainment bias, or contamination from various sources. Here, we present KIN, a method to estimate the relatedness...
Article
Full-text available
Using the innovative concept of cognitive remittances, this paper looks at the transformation of the self-perception and positionality of Roma returned asylum-seekers. The empirical evidence, in the form of interview narratives and focus group quotes, is drawn from two research projects based in Albania and Kosovo and the wider Western Balkan regio...
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The researcher has analyzed the concept of Colonialism Discourse in a dystopian novel titled Red Rising using qualitative method to gather the data. Othering is used to explain the colonialism discourse in the novel. The researcher used Focault (1990) theory to describe how othering happened in the novel’s background story. Beside othering, presupp...
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Modern society is undergoing rapid technological growth and urbanisation. Despite the positive changes, there are still vulnerable categories of the population that cannot adapt so quickly to the new realities. The ageing process in the developed countries of Europe, America and Southeast Asia raises the issue of further labour market development....
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Trying to preserve cultural forms as faithfully as possible is a key motivation for cultural transmission. This chapter reviews two possible accounts of it. One, evolutionary conservatism, is premised on the superiority of accumulated cultural knowledge compared to individual judgement-a theme that runs strongly through both the cultural evolution...
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The article discusses the functioning of the category of politeness in Russian, English, German, and Urdu. The relevance of the research topic is stipulated by the need to explore similarities and differences of Western and Eastern linguacultures in terms of forms of politeness and speech etiquette in the context of globalization and intercultural...
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Architecture, Spaces, and Social Order: Applying Sociological Methods Murray Edelman writes on how public spaces create, sustain, and demystify social hierarchies of status and power. The idea that public spaces reconcile social anxieties and at once hold different meanings for different groups is an incredibly persuasive framework to use to reconc...
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This paper analyzes the social effects of U.S. Master of Laws degrees (LL.M.) in the Colombian juridical field. Therefore, this paper asks: what are the selection requirements of U.S. LL.M. programs?How do selection requirements reproduce social hierarchies in a country such as Colombia? To address these questions, this paper first describes the ad...
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This introduction reviews existing literature on the racialization of migrants during pandemic times and outlines the major contribution of the papers in this collection to the literature on race, pandemics and South-South racialization. This Special Issue shifts the setting from the Global North to the Global South in examining the racialized expe...
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Reduction in the levels of monoamines, such as serotonin and dopamine in the brain, were reported in patients and animals with depression. SAMe, a universal methyl donor and an epigenetic modulator, is successfully used as an adjunct treatment of depression. We previously found that prenatal treatment with SAMe of Submissive (Sub) mice that serve a...
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This article sheds new light on social relations in early eighteenth-century Britain through a case study of three parish elections held in Chelsea between 1708 and 1723. The results of these elections were disputed in the ecclesiastical courts, generating over 400 folio pages of witness depositions. These depositions reveal a sustained conflict be...
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Social hierarchies within groups define the distribution of resources and provide benefits that support the collective group or favor dominant members. The progression of individuals through social hierarchies is a valuable characteristic for quantifying population dynamics. On coral reefs, some clownfish maintain size-based hierarchical communitie...
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Contemporary approaches of impression formation and stereotypes celebrate the role of the Big Two in social evaluation: the horizontal and vertical dimensions (Abele et al., 2021). Recently, interest has grown in making further distinctions within each of these dimensions (Abele et al., 2008). Here, we focused on the vertical facets, namely, assert...
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Intraspecific variation in personality traits is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of invasion success and is associated with the dispersal ability of several invasive species. However, previous studies have focused on the dispersal of invasive species through continuous habitats, despite the high levels of anthropogenic fragmenta...
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Commensality – the act of eating together – and its social effects of creating or reinforcing social groups has been studied extensively. In life aboard ships, in particular, eating together is attributed a key role in reflecting and thereby enforcing the professional hierarchies deemed fundamental to the functioning of the ship. However, transgres...
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We evaluate how features of the digital environment free or constrain the self. Based on the current empirical literature, we argue that modern technological features, such as predictive algorithms and tracking tools, pose four potential obstacles to the freedom of the self: lack of privacy and anonymity, (dis)embodiment and entrenchment of social...
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Thomas Walton (known as Purser) and Clinton Atkinson (known as Clinton) were hanged for piracy in 1583. This article examines a range of texts relating to Purser and Clinton, including court depositions, plays and ballads, to consider the ways in which their lives and deaths were depicted and discover what this might tell us about contemporary atti...
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Over the last twenty years, the theory and practices of multiculturalism/interculturalism and multicultural/intercultural education have been further developed. In the present paper, we try to critically analyze the current and controversial issues of this scientific area. More specifically, o ur interest is focused on the identification of the...
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This paper draws upon in-depth interviews with 89 students from two UK universities to explore how students from Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) degrees describe the ideal as well as the typical student in their respective disciplines. We provide a comparative insight into the similarities and differences between disciplinar...
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Abstract Jat community at one point in history looked like this, "In Sind, the breeding and grazing of sheep and buffaloes was the regular occupations of pastoral nomads in the lower country of the south, while the breeding of goats and camels was the dominant activity in the regions immediately to the east of the Kirthar range and between Multan...
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This paper examines the idea of double blackness and its role in constructing the Sudanese social hierarchy in Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North (1969). The article draws on several core concepts in postcolonial and anthropological studies, including race, culture, ethnicity, and Otherness. Instead of tackling the novel from the tradit...
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This article investigates how white European (mostly Swiss) foreigners living in Beijing, Shanghai, and various cities in the Pearl River Delta have negotiated their social and legal positions during the early Covid-19 pandemic. Their transnational citizenship constellation spans two political systems that are commonly thought of as incommensurable...
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The context and outcome of aggressive interactions between individuals has important fitness consequences. Displacements—an aggressive interaction wherein one individual is chased from a location by another—also have implications for social hierarchy formation and geographic distribution in songbirds. Morphological correlates, like body size, and s...
Chapter
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The Avar Khaganate was essentially modelled on the Eurasian nomadic empires and can best be characterized as an intricate network of different groups organised along kinship and ethnic lines or on a regional, cultural and social basis, all integrated into a federal-hierarchic organisation. Contemporaries commemorate the Kagan, who had exclusive cen...
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Managerial positions involve influencing others, hence the importance of studying the standards guiding managers' attitudes, decisions, and behavior. Drawing on structural theories and psychological findings on the effects of subjective social status, we predict that holding a managerial position is related to individual value structure via self-pe...
Chapter
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ll anemonefish species can produce two types of sounds. The first class concerns agonistic sounds that are produced during territory defence and probably to establish social hierarchy between individuals. The second class relates to submissive sounds that are emitted in reaction to aggressive acts by dominant individuals. In both types of sounds, i...
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This empirical study explores the issues surrounding gender inequality and the career development of academic women in Saudi Arabia’s Higher Education (HE) system. The medium of narrative inquiries was employed, with a particular focus on female academics’ lived experience of gender inequality and career development. The study is influenced by a ra...
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A social hierarchy assigns a level to each individual. Each player has a preference defined over the set of hierarchies. Coalitions with enough power can move up the hierarchy by removing the incumbent coalition. We define a notion of stability for hierarchies and provide a characterization of stable hierarchies. We then analyze the stable hierarch...
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Songs that were once considered standard repertoire in elementary music programs across Canada are now being identified as including derogatory, misogynistic, and/or harmful texts. While there has been research and findings compiled on the text of songs (Bailey, 2020; Ellingsen, 2019; Kelly-McHale, 2018; McDougle, 2021), this is still a relatively...
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This article reviews the literature on the social dynamics influencing small-scale agriculture in South Africa. These include three primary factors: the trans-local character of livelihoods; the role of social hierarchies of gender, age and marital status in allocating rights and responsibilities at home; and the ceremonial economy. South African l...
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This paper highlights a current phenomenon reported from preschools placed in multilingual areas in Sweden, namely that some preschoolers with mutually different language backgrounds sometimes use English as lingua franca instead of Swedish during play. The data stems from a study of language environments in Swedish preschools situated in both mono...
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Gray wolf optimizer (GWO) that is one of the meta-heuristic optimization algorithms is principally based on the hunting method and social hierarchy of the gray wolves in the nature. This paper presents the Multi-strategy Random weighted Gray Wolf Optimizer (MsRwGWO) including some effective and novel mechanisms added to the original GWO algorithm t...
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As sustainability has become a keyword for urban mobility, cycling and bicycles are often perceived as an inherently progressive force for a more environmentally friendly and equitable society. This article joins the growing scholarship that critically examines bicycle mobility as a socio-technical system with complex effects on urban lives. Drawin...
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This paper seeks to identify the social dynamics underlying ″socially driven″ acquisitions and their effect on post-acquisition performance. Drawing on research into social stratification, we formulate hypotheses on how these socially driven acquisitions perform in relation to both the position held by the acquirers’ top managers (CEOs and owners)...