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Social Exclusion - Science topic

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In my current research on the lived experience of ageing in extreme poverty, I am trying to illustrate something connecting the discursive social process of 'Othering'. But I am struggling to find a term that can best define the reverse process of 'Othering'. What it could be in one/two words? Your contribution is much appreciated.
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If 'othering' is treating people as different / outside the 'norm' then the opposite might be 'normative acceptance'.
As in - 'the othering of group is compared to the normative acceptance of group b'.
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Poverty is a multidimensional concept and the dimensions of poverty are far beyond inadequate income, for example, poor health and nutrition, low education and skills, inadequate livelihoods, bad housing conditions, social exclusion and lack of participation. Money-based measures are but deprivations in other dimensions need to be considered because households facing multiple deprivations are likely to be in worse situations than income poverty measures suggest. I wish to know whether this index can be constructed at village level and what are the indicators and sub-indicator can be included in such an Index?
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I am not sure but very difficult, due to different indicators for Multi dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) such as health (Nutrition and child mortality rate), education, living standards and other important parameters.
Please also look at following link:
3. Multidimensional Poverty Index - Indicators and a Monitoring.
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What socio-economic policy is appropriate for reducing poverty and social exclusion in contemporary social market economies?
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Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of specific programs to improve the economic, financial, material and housing situation of households as key instruments of pro-development state intervention and significant components of the socio-economic policy of the state I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Gioacchino de Candia You are right, but not all dogs are the same.
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Do you have any question forms to analyze social exclusion in migrations? I'll do an in-depth interview with the immigrants. Would you share it with me, please?
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Dear Dr. Sevda Çelik,
Immigration / emigration always involves social exclusion not only for the affected person, but also for their descendants. But the most serious social exclusion is that of the Indigenous Peoples, who have lived on their lands since time immemorial. Excluded and discriminated against in their own ancestral land. I invite you to see these essential and necessary articles =
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Development takes place at the cost of underdevelopment. Some people have to make sacrifice on the altar of development. The irony is that people you are forced to make the sacrifice on the altar of development are economically backward, culturally suppressed and socially oppressed. Thus the so-called development leads to deprivation and further marginalization of the already marginalized. Your views on this discussion.
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Dear Dr. Preeti Oza , thank you very much for your insightful reply. Yes, that is the ground reality. I agree with you.
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Is it correct to say that social exclusion is mainly sustained by economic precariousness?
From my point of view, the answer to this question would be yes, but qualifying that there are other factors that could affect it to a greater or lesser extent.
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There are social groups that are involved in processes of exclusion and groups with an integration that presents high instability in many spheres of their life. Many social groups are not excluded; they do not live at the margins of society, in separate spheres, and are not socially isolated as the poor of the ghetto described by Wilson. They take part in social life though in constant insecurity: the working conditions expose them inevitably to sudden fluctuations of income and in other spheres of life they experience similar precariousness. Rather than a rupture of social ties produced by processes of exclusion, the most critical dynamics of their living conditions is precarity and the accumulation of many insecurities in many spheres of life. Though weak, their ties are nevertheless resources for a way out.
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Is there anyone here from Wales, UK that have been subject to or witnessed social exclusion?
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Do you have any question forms to analyze social exclusion in migrations? I'll do an in-depth interview with the immigrants. Would you share it with me, please?
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Dear all,
my thesis is looking into the extent to which allocentric values influence the relationship between moral superiority and social exclusion. Attached below is the PROCESS output (using model 1) - the outcome variable for the analysis was the exclusion behavior (exclude vs. include any player); the predictor variable for the analysis was the participants’ condition (control vs. moral superiority), with participants’ COS (culture orientation) score being the moderator for the analysis. This was a method advised by my supervisor (binary logistic regression). The overall model is significant, but what does this mean? How do I interpret the results in layman terms? I am confused as to how to interpret and report the results in the APA format.
Thank you very much for your help!
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This example may be helpful:
Model Summary
R R-sq MSE F df1 df2 p
.4267 .1821 79.9939 32.0530 3.0000 432.0000 .0000
F(3,432) = 32.05, p <.001, R2 = .18 (all predictors to y)
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The progress of digitization and the development of new technologies undoubtedly bring many benefits. However, they can also create or deepen problems related to the social exclusion of certain groups of people, such as the elderly, for whom modern technology is still largely unavailable, and even arouses a sense of uncertainty and fear (so-called technophobia). The consequences of such a phenomenon become particularly evident in the situation of social isolation, whose unprecedented dimension is currently observed in the so-called COVID-19 pandemic era. Therefore, it a necessity to answer two questions formulated in the title of this discussion. Even if we know why, the method (how) is not evident. Various authors have proposed various means and tools to be used for the mentioned purpose, but their publications have rather the nature of case studies than of a methodological consideration. This sort of approach, i.e. the occurrence of the phenomenon of social exclusion compounded by a pandemic situation has contributed to the development of the assumptions of the project entitled "Developing the cognitive capabilities of older people through information technology." This project was developed by the INNOVATOR Student Science Club at the Faculty of Organization and Management of the Silesian University of Technology, and its goal is to develop a tool to support the acquisition of competences by seniors in the field of technological content and understand new smart city solutions, such as carrying out everyday activities, e.g. shopping via the Internet, tele-advices or checking public transport timetables. Familiarizing seniors with the operation of electronic devices will allow them to strengthen the relations with the family and the younger generation, e.g. thanks to the use of social networks and the ability to organize a videoconferences. Thanks to this tool, the constantly introduced new limitations in interpersonal contacts will be easily combated, thus eliminating the feeling of isolation and loneliness.
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Older persons are integrated into society in many ways. They are part of social networks of friends and family, are active in clubs and associations, work as volunteers and are economically active. However, older persons may be vulnerable to exclusion. Potential obstacles to equal social participation of older persons include poverty, poor health, low educational levels, lack of transportation, access to services and age discrimination. In this context, achieving social integration and participation has many aspects. It brings all social groups and individuals into the political, social, cultural and economic structures of a society so that they can participate in the decision-making process on issues that concern them. This requires a consensus that exclusion should be minimized and eliminated, and that all those who are disadvantaged should be assisted by society. Social integration is a process of building values, relations and institutions for a society where all individuals, regardless of race, sex, age, ethnicity, language or religion, can fully exercise their rights and responsibilities on an equal basis with others. Every person should be allowed to age in security and with dignity and be in a position to contribute to society in the most meaningful way. Such an environment is at the root of stable, safe and just societies where all members, including vulnerable ones, enjoy equality of opportunities. Integration and participation are therefore closely linked to the notion of social cohesion, a vital element of a healthy society. It denotes the capacity of a society to ensure the welfare of its members, minimizing disparities and avoiding polarization and conflict, and it requires fostering solidarity and reciprocity between generations.
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Would anyone suggest me how to measure Social Exclusion based on deprived group ( ethnic group, caste ,Dalit, transgender etc ) in South East Asian context.
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Hi there Shahidul, hope this article can help you to solve your problem , at least I think it might be helpful in the correct way of treating your data. Greetings.
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DV= EWB (comprises from 8 variables in dichotomous nature, based on yes and no)
IV= Social exclusion (comprises from 6 indicators and each indicator has 5-8 statements based on categorical and continuous data)
please write me the step wise procedure of the statistical tool and reference papers, books and videos link. I'll be highly thankful.
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It really depends on the the scales you are using:
DV= EWB (comprises from 8 variables in dichotomous nature, based on yes and no): To address DV, you could either use the sum of all responses, in which case you need to examine the KR20 score first to establish internal consistency reliability. This slide includes how to calculate KR20 in Stata: https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/59/2016/10/harvard-lecture-series-session-2_Reliability.pdf
Alternatively, you can use latent class analysis to identify the latent groups. In Stata, you can find instructions here: https://www.stata.com/features/overview/latent-class-analysis/
IV= Social exclusion (comprises from 6 indicators and each indicator has 5-8 statements based on categorical and continuous data): In this case, you need to create a latent variable using GSEM (assuming you use STATA) and specify the distribution of each indicator. https://www.stata.com/meeting/italy13/abstracts/materials/it13_huber.pdf
Given the feature of your IV, it might be inevitable for you to use GSEM in STATA. Alternatively, R and Mplus can also do the above. Mplus software is probably the most powerful one. But I know more about Stata, yet GSEM often encounters situations of non-convergence.
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IMPORTANT: Best practices and answers will be published in the ASIDE project reports [ISBN], EPALE and in the project website. http://aside.inbie.pl/
Is there a relation between Digital inclusion and social inclusion?
There is not a single answer to the influence of mobile technology on social exclusion/exclusion.
How to make the digital revolution an opportunity for everybody and how to provide a bridge between technology and society?
Are there any proven “Digital Inclusion programs” available on the Internet?
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I think it is clear that social inclusion today has to integrate as one dimension of analysis the question of digital inclusion, too.
Basically there are three fundamental elements in this question:
a) availability of ITC infrastructures (in our European countries there are only some rural areas with a lot of difficulties, but normally the urban areas all have sufficient ICT structures)
b) access to the ICT services (material part and costs of the access): here the question is if people living in poverty or at-risk-of-poverty have the money or the objects to get access to internet.
c) Knowledge and capacities: Have people the sufficient knowledge and capacity to use internet as a door to opportunities that improve their life situation?
1) Digital inclusion as a dimension of participation of the concept of social inclusion:
It could be part of the aspect of "participation" as a lot of public services more and more are based on digital information channels, processes and communications. For that, citizens need not only access to internet (material aspect), but also knowledge and capacities (digital literacy).
2) Digital inclusion as a dimension of the labour/work field
A second aspect is that information technologies offer a broader and easier access for people on information in a lot of issues: notices, job offers, travel facilities, training and formation opportunities online and free, access to libraries etc. etc.
A third aspect is that a lot of jobs requiere basic knowledge on information technologies, the use of digitalized informations, processes and machines. People without knowledge in this field and without access to the information or training have lesser work opportunities and are structurally excluded from a lot of jobs.
3) Digital inclusion as a dimension of education and formation
As our societies moved and still are moving very fast into the digital era, training and formation on these technologies and new competences must be guaranteed especially for excluded people. Problems can be here how to motivate people to assist on these formal trainings or how informal channels can be activated.
In the universities the proposals of open-learning programs are one pillar or some MOOCS:
I would be interested to hear from your experiences in the field :-), so the project is really a good opportunity...
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The social exclusion is a problem very important for society, we should all help those most need
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Social exclusion is an undeniable fact, easily distinguishable, for example, in the ease of obtaining resources for certain groups, in addition to the social predisposition to judge certain people, leading to unconscious exclusion (believing that people in a situation street people are all drug addicts, alcoholics or have mental health problems). Believing that certain people have more rights than others to receive something or to do something is an attitude that has always been present in us as a society, creating a minority group to be able to attack or blame certain events, this leads to, unfortunately, even if we try awareness of this reality will never cease; And here comes the duty of current and future social workers and other professionals in the field to try to reduce this differential gap (conscious or unconscious) as much as possible.
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How can I check if greater levels of accessibility inevitably result in greater participation in activities or more mobility?
What methodology can I use? What are the most appropriate accessibility measures?
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You will need to closely define your term accessibility.
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I am developing my thesis on social exclusion and social justice related to transport. I would like to do some spatial analysis comparing socioeconomic and demographic data with travel behavior.
I intend to do this using the R programming language. Also, my knowledge of statistics is a bit out of date. Can you recommend an online course where I can learn spatial statistics using R programming?
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Hello,
Here is link to online book "Forecasting: principles and practice". The book uses R language
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I am currently conducting research (my master thesis) on social justice and social exclusion related to transport. My research hypothesis is whether greater levels of accessibility inevitably result in greater participation in activities or more mobility.
In this way, I would like to read articles that have already studied this relationship.
An article I found on the subject is
"Fransen, K., Farber, S., Deruyter, G., & De Maeyer, P. (2018) The spatio-temporal accessibility measure for modeling activity participation in discretionary activities. . "
Could you suggest me more papers on the subject?
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Thank you for you answer Bryan. I have already looked at these terms on some scientific basis, such as scopus, science direct and webofscience. Most work on the subject assumes that more accessibility results in more mobility and participation in activities. I would like to find specific papers that have tried to verify if this assumption is true.
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Social exclusion marginal groups are often viewed as hindrance for development. Is it possible to look at them as reserve for development?
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Yes, the third and fourth sectors of economy are nutred of these groups which have a certain potential for development too.
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It has become commonplace to refer to colonialism, or some of its declinations such as post-colonialism or coloniality, as general terms to situate contemporary social exclusion, marginality, and resistance. This conceptual choice has the great advantage of drawing attention to historical continuities between contemporary structures and the centuries-long reproduction of structures of domination. However, is it possible that the conceptual strength of this lumping also hinders our ability to understand the specific modalities of social injustice in various contexts and in different historical moments? Is it possible that this choice leads us to conflate, for example, colonialism, imperialism, capitalism, and modernity, as an overly coherent project? Your thoughts will be most welcome!
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Such a good question! Martin Hebert points to an issue that was identified (under the term decolonization) in Tuck & Yang's (2012) article, "Decolonization is not a Metaphor." As those authors write, "Decolonization brings about the repatriation of Indigenous land and life; it is not a metaphor for other things we want to do to improve our societies and schools." Yet, as Martin pointed out, the lumping together of separate but related concepts provides authors with a convenient way to talk about a vast array of social issues with some coherence. At the same time, though, that lumping leaves authors open to criticisms about ignoring the concerns posed by capitalism, imperialism, and so forth. And as a conceptual "shorthand," it may serve as an erasure of some of the exact problems that use of a colonial or decolonizing analytic lens may strive to illuminate.
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how the freedom effects on social exclusion ?
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The notion of freedom is related to the notions of equality and autonomy. When an individual or a group is marginalized and their freedom to make decisions (to work, to study, to vote, etc.) and to assume responsibility for those choices is constrained, you can see how it can lead to their social exclusion.
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I am Denzell Tan. A 5th year BS Architecture Student currently taking my undergraduate thesis at Ateneo de Davao University, Philippines. My study is entitled "A Proposed Multi-sensory Campus for the Differently-abled: A Study on Social Exclusion in the Built Environment of Higher Education Institutions through Inclusive Design". In line with this, I need the help of psychologist and sociologist to better understand the effects of social exclusion in the built environment of higher education that are experienced by differently-abled students. Thank you and good day
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I'm working on Dalit women and Social Exclusion: A study of the Chamar Women in Post colonial Uttar Pradesh. I want suggestions, sources related to Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh, material / texts Social Exclusion and Chamar women related sources in Historical perspective. 
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Good evening respected scholars and friends. I am very happy to see the responses and suggestions for me. your suggestions and recommendations helped me a lot. I was busy in final thesis writing that's why I have not given some response to you. I feel uneasy for this and kindly forgive me for the same. Here, I submitted my thesis to University for the award of the degree. Thanking you for your kind help and suggestions. I will keep contact to you.
Thanking you.
SANTOSH.
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Does political dominance of one community in a social location define their socio-economic dominance?
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Hi, Sukanta,
The precedence of political dominance over socioeconomic dominance is one of the central themes of Acemoglu and Robertson's book, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. One of their central claims is that the political institutions that create property rights and investments in public education, for example, are preconditions for sustainable socioeconomic growth.
The concentration of wealth in the hands of a national elite ultimately constrains socioeconomic growth as the elite structure institutions to limit creative destruction to maintain the status quo in their own favor. Acemoglu and Robinson are quite critical of these extractive economies in their book, but do not really seem to take this argument to its logical end - the concentration of wealth in the hands of the few lead to their political dominance and the erosion of socioeconomic growth for the many.
In my view, it hardly matters whether wealth concentration is achieved through dictatorship or market forces. Wealth concentration leads inevitably to the weakening of political and social institutions that provide for fair distribution of socioeconomic gains.
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research on social exclusion and social exclusion is composed of seven sub factors.
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Dear Sumit and Kanwal,
I agree with Kanwal, it would be better to categorize the empowerment. Maybe you can also use qualitative method. Good example:
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My research study explore the issues and challenges of youth with disability in health, Education and employment aspects.The locality of study would be rural villages of India?
Can anybody , suggest standardized tools to analyze the level of social exclusion in terms of accessibility,availability and social stigma?.
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In my work in Bangladesh I have used scales on participation in school, work, etc. based on the ICF. These scales have also been used in some studies in Africa. You may find some useful information in the following text
You may write to me directly if you would like more details. Good luck with your study!
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It is normally perceived that nature of poverty among poor is same, but evidence from literature shows marginalized community has different type of vulnerability and poverty. In developing countries, this concept is ignored while making poverty reduction strategy.
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there might be overlaps, but socil exclusion is not the same as poverty; indeed rich people could be socially excluded; one can distinqzuish between social exckusion and social marhinlization. Although both concepts are ofteb very close, marginalization refers closer to be also materialistically at the rim of society.
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I have a data set of vulnerability indicators and a data set adaptive capcity. Adaptive capcity determinants depends on underlying indicators of vulnerability. WHich method can I use to relate the vulnerability indicators and determinants of adaptive capacity? Thanks. 
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You should check exposure, sensitivity and and the adaptive capacities as well as resilience. A good strating point would be Chambers notion of vulnerability, wher ehe said that vulnerability is a composite of external risks, threats and pressures and internal ways to cope with, adapt to and receover from these external processes and strcutures.
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How does the culture deviate from the normal sexual suppression paradigm?
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Thank you so much for your response.  I will download and review all of the information you provide.The gender issues you raise are compelling and it is hard to convince people of the simple fact that everyone has a mother and a father and no ones form should be used against them.  Is there really any excuse for exploitation?
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1.   In 1897, Durkheim published his seminal work on Suicide using two key constructs – “social integration” and “moral regulation” (emphasising religion, but also mentioned about regulation by law, social norms, etc) to explain that for a society to function (then), these two key constructs need to be in equilibrium.
2.   This framework was developed during rapid changes in lifestyle (at that time) facing European society due to industrial revolution, new economic theory of division of labour, capitalism, some elements of discussion on socialism, free market, individualism, changes in governance, family structure, gender roles, Catholics vs Protestants practice, income disparity, urbanisation, (in context of that time), etc. It seems United States was more concerned on domestic matters during this period. Another feature of Europe at that time was its colonisation and empire building interest. Against this backdrop Durkheim tried to develop his framework for a functioning society – of which there can never be a stable equilibrium all the time.
3.   One of the products of disequilibrium is suicide. To him suicide is a product of society disequilibrium and not just a mental illness. He argued that it is like mortality rate and homicide rate. Naturally at the individual level, there are differences how an individual react to external forces in the society and there are bound to be some groups who are more prone to depression and suicidal behaviour. However, he noted the suicide rate is stable across major European cities then (think the various local governments started to have some statistics gathered sometime in early 19th century in Europe) throughout certain time period, but each country has slightly different suicide rate. To Durkheim, if there is sudden and continuous rise in suicide rate of a country, it shows certain societal forces in work which may make the society in disequilibrium, and if persists for too long a time, may paralyse a society. Thus, as a philosopher and sociology, his focus was not on individual aspects, but on the suicide rate.
4.   We may interpret his framework is more to explain a macro phenomena in the society, something like a macroeconomics framework which can never be quantified and which can never be perfect. However, as I believe at the base of human being, there are certain elements which do not change in time. Lifestyle can change, the way we eat and live, and work can change, our roles can evolve, but certain basic emotions internal to the psychology of a human being remain similar 100 years ago and today … things like joy, sadness, anger, melancholy, depression, etc. Certain so-called human’s tendency like anger, lust, greed, attachment, ego, etc., will also be there, but maybe expressed in different manner. There is also greed for power and influence in the society then and now. I supposed some of the emotions we discussed today in relation to suicide besides mental health, like, hope, meaning in life, purpose of life, faith (whether religiosity or philosophical, or faith in other perspective for those without an official religion), love, usefulness, etc., also remain similar.
5.   Thus, wouldn’t his two building blocks of level of “social integration” and level of “moral regulation” (through certain mix of religion, laws, social norms, etc) which he insisted as something important to sustain a society throughout a period of time important? If we were to reject this notion, then some of his other works build on these two big pillars may be shaky?
6.   Durkheim developed his framework during a period of rapid change brought about by industrial revolution. We are now three to four decades into our so-called information revolution age, driven by advent in technology, IT, internet, and changes in urbanisation, globalisation, changes in family structure, gender roles, work roles, lifestyle, materialism, politics, different forces working against the society, etc. Will these two building blocks of “social integration” (as against social isolation) and “moral regulation” still important building blocks for a society to function today?
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I believe that they are still valid concepts. The question might be framed in another way: To what degree have changes in society--particularly from the transition into Modernity (Durkheim's era), to the transition into post-Modernity (our era)--change the emphases on these themes. I suspect that we are witnessing a redefinition of 'individuality', vs. what began in Modernity, and specifically in the phenomenon of the urban stranger and the suburban 'good neighbor', both of which were about accepting and respecting 'privacy'. With the growth of the Internet and Social Media, the very notions of individuality, privacy, and social controls on behavior are shifting to a new form of collective consciousness- and yet without a clear sense of collective community or commitment; a consciousness not yet equipped with a conscience.  Although there still may be little true apprehension of the social underpinnings of the phenomenon of suicide, in somewhat amazingly contradictory ways, its prevention is now a wide-spread discussion.
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I'm working on a project that looks at the relationship between religion and individual level tolerance for corruption within society 
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Hello Patty
I recommend that you define your terms precisely:
What do you mean by religion?
What do you mean by teaching?
What do you mean by influence?
What do you mean by individual tolerance?
What do you mean by corruption?
What do you mean by society?
It is clear to me that undertaking a project with such an enormous scope would not be viable without a very large research team. I recommend you narrow your parameters. ‘Influence’ alone is an extremely complex notion, closely related to ‘power’ and the whole concept of power is contested. Please try looking at Mark Haugaard’s reader. Mark is on research gate too.  (http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/9780719057298/).
 
I strongly disagree with some of the feedback you have been given. Religion will never eliminate corruption. Human history makes that self-evident. Take the view of the Bible as a comment on human history, if you wish to consider the matter carefully from a religious perspective. Paul, the great apostle states, ‘There is none righteous’ and just in case you are tempted to think there me be just one of our fallen race that could stand before God without corruption, Paul answers you immediately, ‘No, not one.’ All people, religious or not, stand under God's condemnation because He sees all and will not ever overlook corruption He judges it all but He is being patient with humanity for now. 
To all His followers He says, “Judge not, that ye be not judged. 2For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. 3And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? 4Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? 5Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.” Matthew 7:1-6. 
I wish you well with your research.
Alan
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Durkheim's social solidarity includes mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity
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No big deal! Throughout his works, Durkheim had been  interested in social solidarity, cohesion and integration. In his phenomenal work, The Division of Labour in Society (1893), while discussing the evolution of societies, he talks of two types of solidarity manifested in two different types of societies. First being the mechanical solidarity, whereby the indicators would be strong family and kinship ties, small scale production, similar kind of work, low population density, strong influence of religion, repressive laws etc. While indicators of Organic solidarity would be high division of labour, high population density, interdependence, restitutive laws, mostly secular etc..I hope that answers your question. Feel free to ask if you have any doubt.
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I was employing Normal PCA for creating a Composite Index of Social Exclusion. I used the standardized data (x-mean / SD), selected indicators with higher inter-relations in the correlation matrix and used the Rotated Components (using Varimax rotation with kaiser normalisation) to obtain the weights and construct a composite index.
However, in order to use Modified Principal Component Analysis (Kundu.A.) which takes into cosideration lesser related indicators. I have standardized the data using (x/mean) method. Now I have a problem related to the steps after this.
1. Should I take those indicators which have lower inter-relation in the correlation matrix? While doing this the percent variance explained by the first component is getting reduced. What should I give more importance - lower correlation in the correlation matrix or higher percent variance explained ?
2. To construct a Modified PCA, should I use the same steps in SPSS like creating and using Rotated Components (using Varimax rotation with kaiser normalisation) to obtain the weights and construct a composite index?
I shall be highly grateful if you could help me with the steps for constructing Modified PCA in SPSS and solve the above two doubts that I am facing regarding it.
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Higher percentage variance explained is a more common and appropriate criterion than lower correlation in the correlation matrix used for selection of a principal component. It should be used in preference to lower correlation. For (2) the same steps of varimax rotation may be used.
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I am interested in knowing how exclusion affects the personal development of children
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You might want to look into Mead's symbolic interactionism's concept of a "spoiled identity" for a theoretical perspective on the personality influences of social exclusion. I'm not sure that Mead directly addressed social exclusion, but the mechanism of internalizing a spoiled identity may provide some guidance in anticipating explanatory factors or predictors of personality effects.
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Happiness is an important factor in promoting peace in society. But how do we measure that 'happiness'. Bhutan has developed a Happiness Index, I want to link Happiness with Nonkilling. So how should I proceed?
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I think the main problem that will  need to be overcome is the need to quantify what remains a more qualitative phenomenon.  The degree of "latency" that would be involved in such a measure seems problematic.  Though the four factors listed above are certainly generally important, they will have some difficulty in ascertaining the qualitative aspects of this phenomenology, which remain contextual and subjective.
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Identity Foreclosure is one of the phases of  Identity Development as posited by James Marcia
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I agree with Orlando, why don't you attempt to contact Marcia or one of his co-researchers? I am mostly a Conflict theorist: I look at identity foreclosure as conditioned by Power relationships in which a person is immediately involved. So, my take is that the person is at a stage of life in which they are still finding themselves defined by others, and particularly those of parents over the child. Until we are really able to "move out from under our parents' shadows", we have to, in a sense, put up with what society thinks of our parents.This, to me, suggests that any therapy you might design must look at how and why the person is thwarted in identity experimentation. For example, do powerful others not want this person to develop an individual identity? Certain cultural groups put group-cohesion well-ahead of 'individualization'--an American concept of identity would be out-of-synch in that situation. If the problem is not with the micro-societal (a.k.a. Family) sphere, is it with the individual? If a person is not developing 'naturally', perhaps the issue is fear of the unknown, or social reprisals. If a 'normal' person does not experience a personailty/identity Crisis, the work of forming a functional identity is likely to be incomplete. The person may have a Borderline Personality Disorder-a common symptom of which is a lack of a personal 'boundaries'; borderline folks typically 'absorb' others' personality traits, not seeming to have their own. From a 'Marcian perspective', that they appear to have never moved out of the Foreclosure stage.
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On a world wide basis.
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In my country alcholism is still the commonest factor associated with liver cirrhosis although viral hepatits comes a close second. In patients who develop cirhosis as a complication of alcholic liver disease the long years of alcholism usually has left them without family or funds and on a number of occasions fee waivers have had tobe sought just to help in making them cormfortable at the end of their life. Patients with viral hepatits related cirhosis however have in most cases an intact  family support system although a background of poverty also makes management difficlt, both for the caregivers and medical staff. Drug related cirhosis from herbal concoctions are also seen and like the other two most have no finacial capabilities to maintain the drugs and intensive care that may be necessary to prevent or slow down progression to liver failure.
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Utopia as been called "the adventure of the West". Some scholars limit its analytical relevance to Western modern discourses. They argue that "back-dating" the concept to apply it to discourses anterior to the publication of Thomas More's work (1516) is anachronistic and expanding its scope beyond Western thought is ethnocentric. On the other hand, substantial scholarship sees utopia not as a specific "content" or mode of discourse, but rather as an "impulse" (E. Bloch) or a "desire" (F. Jameson) for social change, found in many societies and in many times. What do you think? 
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If we travel to any non-western state or culture, the first impression in recent decades is,"being a western is an impulse of perfectionism and dream". but, when we live, and get into rhythm of their daily life in overseas geographies, we would expose to very different values, standards, in the name of Utopia. Also, the variable of "Time - Era" seems different, when the discussion is about Utopia; some imply to past, and some other value the qualities of the future as a Utopia.   
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There are few studies regarding schadenfreude (feeling of joy on unfortunate event of others). Most of it is often associated with the dark triad personality as individual differences, envy as emotion, and defense in self-esteem as self-evaluation. In a new light of viewing schadenfreude as a moral emotion, would it be elicited from justice sensitive people following an unjust situation to promote prosocial or antisocial behavior?
A study (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236875636_Moral_Emotions_An_Analysis_Guided_by_Heiders_Naive_Action_Analysis) analyzing moral emotions described that schadenfreude is predominantly elicited when other persons' negative goal is not attained or positive goal is attained with low effort. The identified events which elicited schadenfreude seemed to be attributed as an injustice. Assuming that it is true that schadenfreude is elicited by an unjust event, schadenfreude therefore may possibly be associated with justice sensitivity of a person. According to a neurological perspective, (see at http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/12/4161.full.pdf+html) people who care about justice or people who scored high in justice sensitivity questionnaire are swayed more by reason than emotion. Would this then imply that schadenfreude is an elicited moral emotion following a rational thought of evaluating injustice? Why is it then often associated with evil?
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It fits to every stage of the human development, helas!
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Source recommendations welcome
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Nicole,
Have a look at Shirley Better's book 'Institutional Racism: A Primer on Theory and Strategies for Social Change'. I've made reference to the book a few times now in my own research and she has a lot of examples you may find useful. I have other sources and articles if you want me to link them to you.
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We are setting up a research project at the University of Innsbruck to collect experiential data on inclusion and exclusion in Austrian schools.
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Dear Tanja,
Wonderful study that I really hope I would be able to read when it has been thoroughly completed.
I concur with what Nimet has shared, regarding teachers teaching to complete the curriculum and not at the students levels.  More than this, I would say that they are not teaching to ensure the level of understanding and content mastery of the collective.  In Trinidad and Tobago there are two unspoken yet obvious traditional elements, namely, competition and strict academia that are embedded in our curricula. This is to say that once we speak to these two elements, the whole idea of exclusion comes to the fore.
I recently completed a research study that questioned the issue of inclusion being a practical reality for our country or a utopian thought.  Needless to say that the emotions of the teachers rang true.  There were those who unabashedly shared that they did not enter the teaching service to teach the "other" learner and had this been the case, special education would have been their choice of specialty.  Others, are most willing to work with the "other" learner but are lacking the required resources in type and quantity.
The prospect of inclusion in education lends itself to being slapped by cultural bias, teacher biases, traditional educational norms and a lack of both general and researched knowledge of inclusion.  Unless we are to embrace the notion of inclusion fully, exclusion will remain greatly present in our classrooms, regardless of the nature of training that is given to our teachers.
Your study will make an excellent case for the benefits of inclusion once exclusionary practices can be voided.  It is also very interesting to be able to cross-cultural studies on the topic.
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Is social withdrawal a psychopathological dimension you pay attention in your patient? For whom?
Psychotic, Personality Disorders, Depressive etc, are affected
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Social withdrawal of the psychiatric patients аrе more the rule than the exception. ICD 10 provides for an assessment of social functioning GAF scale. Social withdrawal is a regular result of  drug addiction.
Therefore, the psychosocial therapy is obligation .Our research shows that the after dependence, social withdrawal  lasts long, but with socio therapy should be started  for a year.
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Hello,
I am looking for separate measures to explore feelings of;
Control
Belonging
Meaningful Existence
Self-Esteem
I am investigating feelings of ostracism/social exclusion/rejection but do not want to use the Need-Threat Scale as I am looking for a more general measure of these factors. Does anyone have any suggestions?
Thanks
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Hello Jay,
I have found the psychological theory at http://selfdeterminationtheory.org to be a robust and fairly flexible basis to use when addressing these kind of issues. There are links to many empirical studies via this site.
At its core, the theory finds that human beings want to make independent decisions for themselves, they wish to feel competent, and they wish to feel 'relatedness' to other human beings.
There are lots of obvious ways that social exclusion can block people from attaining each of these three things. Just as examples: lack of material resources can constrain people's ability to choose; lack of education or information (including language barriers, jargon, etc.) can block people's ability to feel competent about making choices; and racism/rejection/etc. can make people feel unrelated to wider society or a particular group (such as their family or local community).
Hence, from an equality perspective, the major approaches to inequality can be linked to this account of human psychology. Whether the focus is on attaining material resources and civil rights (e.g. Rawls 'Primary Goods'), capabilities (e.g. Sen) or non-discrimination, these link to how empowered - or not - people are in relation to making choices, having relationships with others, etc.
Best wishes,
Nat
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Disaggregated data collection and analysis is recommended for policy development to address race inequality. Moreover it provides a useful tool to address Afro-phobia and other forms of xenophobia.
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Dear Ade,
I suggest you to read the book:
Advances on Income Inequality and Concentration Measures
Edited by Achille Lemmi and Gianni Betti
Routledge 2008
Print ISBN: 978-0-415-44337-1
eBook ISBN: 978-0-203-92792-2
Gianni
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in globalization age, everyone want to win race for happiness life but we have been more centralized where various mental problems create like bullying,depression,cardiovascular disorder etc. so i how we measure to bullying in low income and higher income family?
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I think a key to consider in your research element has to do with the shape and characteristics as articulated and developed dynamics of the family. I share this material that you can be useful.
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Please tell me about your experience.  I am developing an online environment to work with populations at risk of social exclusion and want to find indicators of inclusion of these environments. Can anyone recommend literature in this area? Thank you
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Angelica:
I have an interest in online teaching especially as it relates to cultural sensitivity, so I think that you should also consider very carefully the cultural differences in your target population lest you place them at a further distance in online teaching (distance squared) thru unintentional cultural insensitivity. I have attached the articles I wrote in this regard that I hope would be helpful in answering your question.
Many thanks,
Debra
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Are you aware of any theoeretical papers on social marginality, which also discuss the differences between ‘social exclusion’, ‘marginalisation’, ‘periphery’ and ‘vulnerable communities’? Is it just issue of various terminology or are there some more fundamental differences behind these various terms?
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Pick the English articles of my list on Poverty Literature: http://www.albanknecht.de/materialien/Literatur_Armutsforschung.pdf
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International norms have failed to justify realisation, implementation and enforcement of universal human rights, in some UN member states by individuals affected by controversial issues including racial discrimination, socioeconomic marginalisation, LGBT rights and slavery reparations.
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Are you serious?  'Hordes of refugees and immigrants' ?  Do you include yourself and your fellow citizens in that description?  The bulk of the population of North America is made up of descendants from such people.  Indeed if we go further back in history the evidence suggests that we are all, in the West, descended from people who initially emigrated from Africa!  Human rights are supposed to be that - 'human' not 'Western'.  They are therefore supposed to be bestowed on all of us regardless of our origins.  I think the 'West' needs to be reminded also about its historical and contemporary relationship with the 'Rest' of the world.  That will help explain the antipathy, even hatred felt to things 'Western' in some many parts of the world.  It will also help to explain, most of the current conflicts in developing world countries.  Finally, it will help to explain why more and more people are turning to a distorted ideology/philosophy  (jihadism) in the (mistaken, in my view) hope that it will provide them with liberation from Western imperialism.  The West, after centuries of ripping off the Rest of the world needs to consider its responsibilities for the mess in which the world is now in.  Bombing civilian populations, propping up dictators and military juntas, who have been putty in our hands, is not going to build a sustainable environment.  We need to change our relationship with other human being across the world.
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I am looking for an inequality indicator that can be derived from the distribution of a population in five discrete poverty classes derived from the Latin American NBI (Necesidades Basicas Insatisfechas) methodology. The methodology ascribes each household of a locality (urban or rural) a "NBI index" in function of income, housing, education, etc. and then ascribe it to one of five "poverty classes" , etc, which are "non-poor, poverty line, moderate poverty, indigent, marginal". I have only data on the number of households per class per locality, not the NBI index per household.
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If you have the continuous scores of the NBI index you can run Gini of Theil If your discrete categories are quintiles, yo can also run one of these dispersion stats. Otherwise you can calculate the ratio of marginal households against non poor.  
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Here is the web link for the AAWP (Australasian Association of Writing Programs) – aawp.org.au. Just click on Publications. TEXT is textjournal.com.au
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Social exclusion, gender exclusion, etc. Related to dance as a cultural expression and practice.
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Helena Wulff's book Ballet Across Borders, based on field work in three major world ballet companies, has some interesting findings on the relationship of class origins and solo or star performer status.
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I am researching the changes in Greek civil society following the outbreak of the economic crisis. A multiplication of many informal grassroots initiatives, providing social services and goods has been recorderd. However, is an increase in civil society's density a sign of a stronger civil society?
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I would approach this subject from a more existential perspective, specifically from a terror management perspective.  It is one of the only perspectives that explains the recent rise of fascism in both Greece and Hungary during current economic hardships.
If you can find it, this would probably be a decent resource:
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There are some theories which indicate if the general literacy of a disenfranchised rural community will have positive impacts. What base line measures should be used?
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Without detracting from the seriousness of this question, Flann O'Brien does offer one (wonderfully cutting) example, when he describes the consequences of a campaign to increase the speaking of English in the terribly backward Corkadoragh in rural Ireland ('The Poor Mouth'). This campaign involved paying people a pound for every child that could demonstrate English capacity to a visitor going from home to home. This backfires predictably: Did it work? not at all (as a method for alleviating the misery of the indigenous population) but then everyone involved is satisfied. Developmental indicators including literacy rates and wellbeing measures have been refined and should be universal, allowing comparative, and over time, study. Likewise survey methods are strengthening in this area, and there is some literature - both statistical and evaluative - on this.
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Prevailing Literature is about racial or voluntary inmigrants.
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Hola Camilo
mi trabajo habla directamente a lo que planteas. Cual es tu email que te mando un par de papers?
paolo
p.s. considera que estoy en el aeropuerto o sea que de pronto me demorare un poco en la respuesta
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Looking to investigate the value of this perspective.
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Alienation, according to Marx, involves a structural relationship in the mode of production defined by the alienation of the worked from nature, society, the products of labour and, ultimately, from the self.
Loose use and abuse of the term has allowed it to be "psychologized" and turned into a simple descriptor of anything from issues of personal identity, employee morale, moderate mental disease and disorder, depression, negative attitudes towards one's boss (ya think?) and vaguely related issues from Facebook "addiction" to rampant consumerism.
In short, the term has been captured by "bourgeois" sociology and organizational psychology and made into a symptom of individual "angst" when it is, in reality, an essential part of capitalism ("late" and/or "state").
Returning to the source would be a good first step toward reclaiming a meaningful academic understanding and forming the intellectual basis for something called "praxis."
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Throughout the centuries and history of mankind, different cultures created the artifacts (in architecture, fine art, applied art, literature, poetry, language [sayings], music)  illustrating the concepts of approaches to disability. 
Do you know in your own or other cultures historical or current artifacts illustrating the direct or symbolic issues of following categories as social inclusion orsocial exclusion of persons with disabilities?
To bring this thread inspired me my dear colleague from RG Ans Schapendonk. 
Please share your comments and optionally photos. 
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Thought you might be interested in this blog
Downs syndrome represented in art;
.
And this fascinating journal article;
.
Regards,
Paul.
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What are some experiences of integrating street vendors/workers in developing countries into the formal economy through legal protections to help them continue their endeavors and what suggestions can be made on ways to enhance their business capacities?
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I think that the key issue to decide at the outset is whether you want to formalise their economic activity or whether you want to provide greater social protection for the street vendors themselves. These are two separate issues which are often confused. I think that most scholars and policy makers think that by formalising the work of street vendors, this will result in them having greater social protection. However, it may be better to start with thinking about how to provide them with greater social protection and not to think about formalising their economic activity. Martha Chen is very good on this subject who is at Harvard University
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Globalization is mainly for the "winners", not "losers", so, it forms its antipode - glocalization with socially excluded having less or no income, bad education, unfavourable geographical position, disability or illnesses.
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- In terms of 'winners' and 'losers', it is possible to distinguish four groups:
1) the 'big winners' are the rich from the poor (emerging) countries.
2) The 'winners' are the rich from the rich countries and the middle class from the poor countries;
3) the 'some win, some lose' are the middle class from the rich countries and the poor from the poor countries. Here, the distinction between winners and losers depends on the sector (modern or traditional) in which the individuals work.
4) The 'big losers' are the poor from the rich countries.
- In terms of social conditions, those have improved in emerging countries and they tend to deteriorate in advanced countries, due to tax and social competition which encourages governments to lessen redistribution and boost labour market flexibility. Several European governments have tried to compensate the growing social risks due to globalization by increasing social expenditure (the so-called 'compensation effect'), but as the taxes have not increased at the same rate, this typically result in non-sustainable budget deficits. As a matter of fact, governments are facing a cruel dilemma: either they accept the poor to become poorer, or they compensate by taxing ... the middle class because the upper class in internationally mobile (mobile tax bases).
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A core concept in sociology, political science, organizational behaviour and business, social capital is relatively new in the context of sport governance. In exploring the boundaries of both sport and social capital in theory and practice, one can see sport as a form of positive (bridging) social capital that promotes social cohesion, trust, social ties, etc. Could it also be perceived as a social space that promotes dark or exclusonary social capital since sport politics do not always deliver the social benefits they proclaim due to commercialization, doping, gender discrimination or institutionalized gender personification, the leaky pipeline and the glass ceiling in SGBs and in competitive sports.
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In my Ph thesis I explored the concepts of social capital related to socioeconomic status in competitive youth sport. We found social mobility expectations, individual either familiar, and that sport could be a familiar strategy in disadvantaged youth sport in Mexico. I was focused from the social capital theory and, in my opinion these families believe that their sons or daughters being successful in sports could exchange their sport capital into social capital and therefore in economical capital.
Social capital and it measurement especifically in sports interests me a lot. I am working now in some projects about these constructs.
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Concerns pertaining to inequality and social exclusion have been equally important as environmental degradation to development experts.
This report of United Nations http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/world-social-situation-2013.html discusses why serious attention should be drawn to inequality.
Does that mean the capitalism is failing? or the whole subject of sustainable development is dumb?
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A full sustainability is impossible with our way of life.
That said, the concept of sustainability should help to build a more balanced capitalism. Perhaps we have over time a more "socialist" capitalism.
I believe that the best form of organization goes through a balanced combination between forms of capitalism and socialism.
It's a touchy subject!
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"If you talk to people today in the workplace they construct the workplace as gender neutral, assuming that gender no longer matters because the issue has long been solved, " (Kelan,2010).
Need to focus on innovative approaches to getting gender back on the agenda : re-evaluate our strategies on how we can move from “gender fatigue” to gender energy(Kamberidou 2010, Kamberidou & Fabry 2011)
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Indeed Angela, in patriarchal societies it is a problem that is not isolated to the work place, but in all social institutions. Now with regard to the western or rather anglo-saxon conception of gender or the term gender vs. sex, the main goal is that of gender equity/social equality for both women and men. Integrating a gender perspective is an issue of integrating diversity into the system, as opposed to wasting it. Gender issues (in western societies, in the developed world) do not only concern women! Men have a gender as well. Men also confront social inequalities and discrimination. Gender studies, for example, are not women's studies, they do not focus exclusively on women, as men have a gender as well. Integrating a gender perspective refers to the process of assessing and reassessing the implications for both women and men of any program and action plan at all levels: social, economic, and political. It requires gender-specific interventions, policies, and practices that may target exclusively women or interventions that target men exclusively or even men and women together. In fact, the goal of integrating the gender dimension into the equation is to transform exclusionary or unequal social and institutional structures into equal and just ones for both women and men. For example, an intervention that targets both women and men is Get Online Week 2013, a pan-European awareness campaign empowering people to use technology and the internet- which ties in with the GrandCoalition for Digital Jobs officially launched at a conference in Brussels in early March 2013 - as over 20% Europeans of both genders are young, unemployed, and mostly unaware that by 2015, up to 900,000 vacancies for ICT-related jobs may remain open if jobseekers (men and women) do not acquire the right digital skills. (Kamberidou 2013) So we need to work together to achieve economic growth and sustainable development. Integrating a gender perspective means eliminating the wastage of talent –utilizing all human resources, the entire talent pool - and as a result, boosting innovation which is a prerequisite for economic growth and sustainable development.
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I'm interested in connecting with others who may be examining how people organize their daily routines and habit patterns to create structure in their daily organization that help them lead meaningful and productive lives. I am particularly interested in understanding how people create effective time use patterns when they have historically been unsuccessful in doing do.
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There are also a few studies of disadvantaged high school students I have seen that echo what I see in adults.
I think it's important to have a sound philosophy / hypothesis to begin. I have some strong feelings that many studies are not relevant to real people's concerns but have more to do with getting easy studies completed for other reasons. A sure sign of possible quality for me is a cross disciplinary focus e.g. the work of Dezhi Wu.
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Measures and boundaries of middle-class status are controversial. Usually, in assigning a person to the category of middle-class one might employ "objective" measures such as income, wealth, education, occupation, and so on. At the same time, middle-class status has also been studied from a subjective perspective (i.e., subjective definitions or self-identification). Leaving these issues aside, I am looking for commonly used measures of middle-class status using income (and median or mean income). All suggestions and sources are welcome.
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Instead of income, very important measure is lifestyle, which, according to the latest perspectives in this sociological field, is considered as one of the most important and essential indicators of social structuring in post-modern societies.
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Microaggressions are covert forms of discrimination, which people with disabilities face in the form of patronization, minimization of their status, invasions of their privacy, or barriers that make them feel like second-class citizens. These forms of discrimination are usually brief encounters which can leave the person feeling devalued. Since the Americans with Disabilities Act, more overt discrimination has become less acceptable yet these covert instances still prevail.
I have encountered different scales measuring racial or LGBT microaggressions, but am interested in microaggressions that are directed toward disability. Does anyone know of any existing scales for this?
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I do not know of such a scale. However, you may want to examine items included in the rather recent RMAS (Racial Microaggression Scale) to see if they could be modified in some way to meet your need for microaggressions and disabilities. The related literature might be helpful as well. Good luck.
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I have recently conducted a review of the relationship between the informal economy and poverty so as to understand whether the informal economy helps those who are poor to escape their poverty and how to address the informal economy in anti-poverty strategies [See attached]. This review focused upon the situation in the United Kingdom. What surprised me was that little evidence was available on the relationship between the informal economy and poverty.
Does anybody know of any studies on the relationship between poverty and the informal economy? What do you think is the relationship in other countries? Is work in the informal economy largely undertaken by the poor? Does it help them escape their poverty? What should be done about the poor who work in the informal economy?
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Informal workers and poverty in Ghana
It is true that majority of informal workers who are mainly necessity driven are poor especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It is also true that there are few opportunity driven informal workers who even earn more from their activities than their formal counterparts. Again, there is a near universal belief of working informally and being poor. However, the ILO categorically believes, there is no direct relationship between working informally and being poor or working formally and escaping poverty. There are still grey areas when it comes to defining poverty or a poor person. The reality is that most informal workers earn very low income compared to their counterparts in the formal economy as confirmed by several studies. The living and working conditions of most informal workers are very poor and have seen little change over the past decade or so especially in Ghana. Similarly, some formal workers live in appalling situations, which reinforce the ILO perspective of informal work and poverty.
In terms of relationship between formal and informal economy in Ghana, it is still dualistic where the formal is seen as distinct from the informal economy. The relationship between informal work and poverty is complex and contentious and is continuously being contested. However, it is believed that the majority of the informal workers, in developing countries especially, are low-income earners. The situation is no different in Ghana: where the majority (over 80%) earns a living in the informal economy and are considered being poor. Given that the informal economy is deeply rooted and street vending is not going to disappear easily, what needs to be done is to adopt a fitting policy response to the issue of poverty that encourages a more unbiased linkage between formal and informal economy.
Policy makers (in Ghana) have to recognize the informal participants and consider their needs and at some stage involve them in the formulation of certain policies that may directly or indirectly affect them. For example, the head porter (locally called “kayayo” or “kayaye” in Ga and “paa-o-paa” in Akan) is an informal worker who provides a vital source of transportation for carrying travellers’ luggage and other belongings from one car park (station) to the other and sometimes to their homes. Nevertheless, these people are seen as a nuisance and are rarely considered in national policy debates affecting the informal economy, with some even calling for their eradication from the cities.
The fact is that it may well be difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate this activity within the informal transportation network. To avoid reckless dissipation of limited resources, a more positive and friendly approach is required to inculcate in informal workers the need to observe health, safety and environmental sanitation in conducting their activities. They need recognition and support so that they can go about their activity in a more welcoming environment – without any form of harassment. There should be training for these people who are mainly women and who tend also to have very little or no formal education. They are mostly migrants and therefore may have no proper accommodation near to where they are conducting their activities. They take time to integrate into the urban economy, as most of them are originally from rural areas. In Accra, Kumasi and other cities it is believed that some of these people sleep on the street, in front of stores, in kiosks, uncompleted houses, slums and shantytowns and so on. They are mostly exposed to the vagaries of the weather, and in the night to mosquitoes (which may cause malaria), and are at the mercy of criminals and other social deviants.
This is one form of informal work which is dominated by child labour, and many other informal workers, mostly young male migrants in the hawking business, are in a similar situation, as discussed above. Most of the social vices (e.g. criminal activities such as burglary, armed robbery activities, rape, prostitution and so on) in the cities are alleged to be committed by some of these people, of whom some are believed to have been born and bred on the street. The key question that has to be answered is ‘how to deal with these people’. First, there must be widespread recognition of these people as part of the wider society and an integral part of the Ghana’s national economy.
The logical next stage, in the interests of social justice, would be to assess their urgent basic needs and prioritise them accordingly. There could be registration of these people to keep track of them. A special savings scheme could be offered in order to inculcate the habit of saving. The present belief is that most of these workers entrust their hard-earned daily income to friends (normally older friends or family members), who sometimes may squander it; others keep their money on them and this makes them vulnerable to attacks by robbers from outside and within their communities.
This needs assessment must be done in a more participatory way so that the beneficiaries feel part of the process and are prepared to accept the recommendations thereafter. The outcome of the needs assessment may offer clues as to how to tackle this problem in terms of urban management.
There is evidence that not all informal workers in Ghana are poor. The fact is, however, that the poor majority has surpassed the rich minority. Any policy aimed at addressing poverty in the informal economy should not only look at the poor people, but also at how the so-called rich can sustain their income earning ability. This may put them in a position to expand their businesses and maybe employ others. The government’s poverty reduction strategy must not only focus on the poor in the informal economy, but also the rest of the low income group throughout the national economy as a whole.
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I'm looking for ideas of a good measure for changes in participant affect (i.e. positive/negative) in response to a task that will induce a feeling of social rejection or ostracism. I want to use something to record the changes during the task itself (so not just self-report at the beginning and end), but I'm not in a position to use neuroimaging methods (fMRI or EEG). I have seen a study that uses a 'dial' measure that had some success, and if anyone has any more information on where I could find one or how to set it up that would be much appreciated. But any other ideas would also be very welcome.
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Kip Williams was the person who used the dial method, it was quite an involved setup, from memory.
As for other mood measures, you can see the various effect sizes in the meta-analysis that Ladd Wheeler and I published a few years ago.
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In a society which has many groups on the basis of social identities, the deprivation level varies from group to group and within group. While making a composite index of deprivation how these two types of variations can be captured within a single index.
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Provided you have a continuous social exclusion variable, you could also try to use the various decomposable measures that have been developed for assessing income
Income inequality (e.g. The Theil index, which allows you to split the dispersion between and within groups)
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There is no survey available which targets socially excluded people in Pakistan, however the calculation of marginality index is possible and we can extract marginalized populations from a whole sample. But few indicators which help to calculate a marginality index have also been used in analyzing poverty. Does it make sense that we analyze the extent of multidimensional poverty among this extract's marginalized population?
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It can make sense but rather than aggregating statistics (and often having to weight them) to get a single index, show the multi-dimensional nature of poverty by the number and range of statistics each showing different aspects of deprivation. perhaps a focus on social exclusion rather than marginalization (which is ambiguous and difficult to define)?
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In making an index of social exclusion various mathematical models have come out. One such effort is to use the concentration index in measurement of social exclusion
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Concentration index may not be a very good measure of social exclusion, depends on the indicators used to calculate concentration index. I think social exclusion can be calculated with social, economic and political dimensions. Do visit united nations website for detailed indicators of social exclusion.
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We wish to use qualitative and quantitative research tools to see the state of urban adolescents.
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I am agree with Eddle Seva See
One can also think for association mining, clustering, classification and prediction from survey.
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For example is life imprisonment better and more effective than the death penalty?
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And to add some empirical results to the theoretical discussion of Gwendolyn here's a meta analysis of deterrence:
Among the results it might be interesting to note that death penalty doesnt seem to work at all, and deterrence in the form of more severe punishment can be questioned in general. The most positive results on deterrence of severity is in the experimental studies, which of course also should be valued the highest, but even if only those studies are considered the results are barely within the limit for significance according to the authors of the article.
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My work and my research is with students disengaged from education. Drawing on Paul Willis I have theorized these students to be educationally resistant and am attempting to examine the factors influencing this through the use of Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital.
Recently however, some of the students referred to my setting have come labels such as ODD, ADD, PTSD, and a few others.
Therefore my question is, does anyone know of or can point me towards information regarding the applicability of social theories on students with such disorders?
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In 2005 I published with a colleage a humility book that has been reedited in 2012 on an Action Research that I have developed with my brother Rafael for years (he is a student with Down syndrome). The book has been published in Spanish and it is being translated into English right now.
The book is titled: "Education, handicap and inclusion. A family struggle against a excluding school (http://edicionesmagina.com/OCTart.asp?libro=70034&id=es&txt=Educaci%25F3n,%20h%25E1ndicap%20e%20inclusi%25F3n)". It is a narration about the educative experience of Rafael Calderón-Almendros (First Spanish with down syndrome who obtained Professional Music Degree) and his family in a confrontation with the school in the ending of compulsory secondary education. After a life long scholar of Rafael in the center, the institution loses the sense of education and denied rights to the student. In this purpose, schools use underground strategies that segregate, based in the legitimacy of the institution and its professionals, which are hardly beatable. However, the family embarked on a process of Action Research in collaboration with other education professionals, began to struggle that is committed to teaching the recognition of student learning. This is the power of the research: critical analysis come from the experiences of one of the most oppressed groups (handicapped people) and it is a reality rigorously registered.
From an inclusive, engaged and radical perspective, the text presents an counter-hegemonic important potential, as have endorsed subsequent events including the perspective of the family: Rafael approved compulsory secondary education, the Bachelor and the ten courses of professional and elementary grades of Music. Thus obtained the Gold Medal of Merit in Education of Andalusia (http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/educacion/educacion/nav/contenido.jsp?pag=/Contenidos/IEFP/INNOVACION/merito/premios10) (https://vimeo.com/13769374 ) and the World Down Syndrome Day Award (http://www.ds-int.org/news/press-release-down-syndrome-international-announces-recipients-2012-world-down-syndrome-day) (Down Syndrome International). Admitted to the prestigious Academy of Orchestral Studies Barenboim-Said, sponsored by the international brand of Yamaha musical instruments (http://es.yamaha.com/es/news_events/musical_instruments/r_calderon/) and higher grade student of Music, Rafael does not have to prove anything.
Today he is a living argument that challenges many of the usual school practices and urges us to rethink the commitment of educators in stimulating the participation of the entire school community, in promoting student autonomy and recognition of others in their human and social rights.
You can see some performances of Rafael at: https://vimeo.com/album/1778764
I have publish a documentary about the educational experience of my brother Rafael and our family. It is a video that uses resistance theories in the disability arena, but it is not translated into English already. You can find it in Spanish here: http://youtu.be/9QP6aTdkbK4
The book is an illustrative document because it is an exceptional case and it is analyzed and written from the perspective of the family. Without doubt, the case is revealing because it is a clear denunciation of the way that schools continue excluding people with cognitive disabilities, but not all. It shows that when the family context resist the onslaught of school, people can grow up and break down with the expectations of the environment. Rafael just get the World Down Syndrome Day Award nine years after the school said that he could not learn more. Illuminating...
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3+ major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks in the last 3 years, schools being amalgamated due to reducing numbers, businesses folding, empty suburbs and a knowledge that mental health issues start surfacing after year 3 of an upheaval. Anecdotal evidence from Cantabrians shows that we are more socially aware, more giving and are more accepting of the ever changing environment.
Is there any research from overseas that shows this is the case amongst human beings after social upheavals?
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Here's an article that might lend some insight on the question you raise:
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According to Bourdieu, a field is an analytic construct, not a description of society. Furthermore he suggests fields are configured relationships. Is it possible therefore for those individuals on the outskirts of society, alienated from mainstream institutions such as school, to be seen as NOT operating within the field despite the occasion interaction with other actors in the field.
For example, a student who has a high truancy rate, attends school very irregularly, when they do attend, the interactions between teachers and said student are characterized by constant anti-social behaviour until such time as they leave (willingly or sent away).
My understanding is that Bourdieu's conceptualization of field would allow a single class, or 'the structured relationships between teacher and a group of students' to be defined as a field; but what of the student from the above example? Would that relationship be too tenuous to be have a position within that field?
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I understand homolgy in the Bourdieusien usage to reflect the structural composition of the social system from which individual habitus is derived-- perhaps in this way mirrored by the individual? The idea of an "intersection of fields" as McEwan suggests, is intuitively interesting and relates to my research in role adoption across multiple fields. Resistors adopt the role of resistor within a defined filed. Why? We know that when one crosses fields there is a tendency to rebel against the former in favor of the latter... Is the resistor rebeling as a means to adopt a new role, i.e., role transformation, or is their a gratuity which results to the resistor by enacting the resistor role? An interesting question would be to ask what their commitment to the adopted role actually is. In other words, channeling Stryker (2007) on commitment, what is the cost involved if they abandon that role?
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In the majority of literature I have read, social capital is defined either as a public good or something important for individuals to possess. Furthermore, attempts to increase social capital among those without it is seen as a good thing. Surely though, members of subcultures, ie gang members, possess social capital (in their field) and yet the application of this does not seem for the public good, nor would increasing that type of social capital be useful to the greater society as it would create greater solidarity among group members to the determent of other perspectives.
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If you are trying to do a causal study using social capital, you are in for a world of hurt. As others have noted, there are are many definitions for this term as there are researchers looking at it. Instead of using an amorphous term like "social capital", why don't you figure out what factors you are actually interested in. Is it having a large network? Is it being well-connected? Is it belonging to a church? Is it having a certain social status? Is it being active in the community through volunteering? All of these are aspects of "social capital".