Science topics: Social ScienceSocial StratificationSocial Class
Social Class - Science topic
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Questions related to Social Class
Inflation in most countries has been controlled and kept under control, below 5% per year. However, the appearance of episodes of hyperinflation are periodic (Peru, Turkmenistan, Zimbabwe, Venezuela, Argentina, etc.), and their eradication demands concrete and strict measures. Because of the effects of hyperinflation fall on the weakest social classes, hhat measures would you apply to fight against hyperinflation, so that they affect the most vulnerable population as little as possible?
I request your collaboration to contribute ideas in three fields: exchange liberalization, reduction of the public deficit by means of the greater efficiency of the public sector and economy liberalization. Thank you very much in advance.
I am interested in relationships between photovoice or auto-photography as research methods and social-spatial difference, either as captured in the photographs, or as embodied or lived by the participants. I would particularly appreciate suggestions of literature from the past 10 years.
Recommendations of reading on participant-photography and social-spatial difference would also be relevant in this case.
I'd like to link the International Standard Classification (ISCO) 1988 codes or the 2008 codes to a measure of occupational complexity. Does anyone know a good datasource?
I know O*Net has such a measure but these are linked to SOC codes for the US. The data I'm using is from Europe, so I'm hoping there is an occupational complexity index based on european data.
The ESCO (european classification occupation skills) doesn't rate occupational complexity.
I have had to accommodate, be patient, and silent when having to address issues pertaining to gender, sexuality, social class, im/migration, dis/abilities etc. because my faculty has shown that it is safer to preserve the emotional and financial needs of the status quo. Recently Nikole Hannah-Jones was denied tenure because of her excellent opus on the American Black Slavery experiment and democracy. She recently stated that she wasn't sure if marginalized persons should be in mainstream academia due to the unsafe nature that persons like her and myself face.
Question: Can the current academic structure still support critical inquiry? Should we consider an alternative to scientific research outside the academy?
Gina Ratkovic, Athabasca University
is anybody aware of a questionnaire about the social cognitive tendencies that go along with higher and lower social classes as proposed by the social cognitive theory of social class from Kraus et al. (2012; doi:10.1037/a0028756)?
I want to study the impact of Social Class on Online Shopping Intention or Behavior but it seems inappropriate to ask the social class directly, is there any possibility to determine social class through income or property etc?
Fore instance, the hero is from a working class and another character, in the same novel, is a middle class. I want to study how each character can project his/her class membership.
The original french version (with the Author Pierre Bourdieu) is:
Champ du pouvoir, champ intellectuel et habitus de classe, in: Scolies. Cahiers de recherches de l'École normale supérieure (Paris), Nr. 1, S. 7-26
The concept of social inequality, in general, signifies people’s situation or experience of discrimination in between two or more contesting classes or groups. When all contesting classes or groups in a society are subjected to the similar modality/pattern of discrimination(s), then questions may be raised- how the social sciences like Sociology or Anthropology, are going to address such social reality/situation. Competing interests of different social classes/groups may widely differ in material form(s) based on the context of those classes/groups. Same time, it is also important to examine whether there is/are any similarity(s) in the nature of discrimination(s) in a particular the society. Typically, from Marxian view, the ‘working class’ or the ‘labor class’ is the prime target of discussion while talking about social inequalities. On the other hand, from feminist perspective, ‘gender’ and exclusively ‘female gender’ is the nucleus of all concerns. Inequalities are also discoursed based of race, ethnicity, religion and so on. Considering all patterns/aspects of discussions related to social inequalities around the globe, it is very clear that the area is highly diversified. This high diversity of inequality discussions all over the world lets sociologists and anthropologists open another window to project different angle of inequality understanding where we can locate the interconnectedness among different forms of inequalities and portray the similarity(s) in the nature of discriminations among different social class/groups. Thus we make the idea of ‘Equality in Discrimination’.
In trying to set out the perameters of "social class" in the introduction of a text I am editing upon "social class' and "literature" for Routledge, I fell into a Lewis Carroll rabbit hole of wondrous conflicted definitions and claims about the fabulous Snarkish creature--class!
A granfalloon, in the fictional religion of Bokononism (created by Kurt Vonnegut in his 1963 novel Cat's Cradle), is defined as a "false karass." That is, it is a group of people who affect a shared identity or purpose, but whose mutual association is meaningless.
Vonnegut’s definition of a “granfalloon,” seems to fit the problematic semiotic state of the term “class,” as well. Northwestern University Sociologist Gary Fine suggested to me that what Wikipedia offered about “class” was as comprehensive as any other overview of this highly contentious, voluminous, multifaceted concept. Published definitions of social class, reveal a plethora of conflicting and overlapping traits and attributes that may suggest to some that class” is, in fact, a granfalloon. Yet the same may be said of all sociology’s categories to some degree. Granfalloon or not, we feel and experience very real class struggles that create pain in macro-level, full-scale armed conflicts. Micro-level class struggles go on daily, more or less peacefully, if annoyingly."
Would anybody like to shed more light, darkness, and chaos theory on this highly confusing topic? I am all ears and really need some expert opinion.
Thanks and looking forward to comments.
Hi! I need a socioeconomic status or social class scale. is there a reliable scale where the participants are categorized in upper middle lower class? this research is based in the Philippines. Thank you
How would he describe:
a) The economy in relation to social class; who would be the Bourgeois and who the Proletariat?
b) The economy in relation to Ideology?
c) Ibo religion as a function of Ideology?
What evidence would Marx site from TFA to show that colonial Christianity functions as Ideology?
Conversely, how might a Marxist argue the colonial Christianity in Ibo culture represents the historical dialectic of revolution?
I am putting together a collection of essays on Literature and Class for the publisher Routledge.
Some of you may look at this question with different eyes than mine.
So please tell me about any experiences you have writing about literature through the lens of social class.
Have you done such analysis?
What theory did you find most helpful?
How do you define social class when it comes to writing about it in the arts?
Thanks for any and all ideas and comments.
I have seen many RG questions about getting a publisher for a text that you have written or that you propose to write.
My experience may not be typical and I have but one edited text to my credit but I am eager to help others. My edited interdisciplinary collection of essay is titled _Orbiting Ray Bradbury's Mars_ (2012) for McFarland Publishers. They are the major popular culture publishing firm in the US.
I am inviting people in at the start of an invited proposal to a multinational educational publisher. I was invited to propose a companion text on LITERATURE AND CLASS because of a review I did of another text. This convinced the publisher that I could create a research text for them.
STEP ONE: do reviews of other people's texts. If you do a review, say you are available to do more.
I invite you to watch this journey from start to conclusion of a project to publish a reference text with a major publisher. This should be a good discussion that takes us beyond the "what if I had a publisher" stage with no specifics involved.
One of my research variables is the social class of parents. And I could not find a questionnaire related to it. Does anyone have a questionnaire related to this variable?
I am looking for articles or any other resources on issues related to social class mobility and how issues of exclusion due to group membership- race, gender, caste, religion etc might impact this mobility.
Generally speaking, in certain social communities, it is not possible to move from on social class to another.
Is the Indian-born cultural theorist Gayatri Spivak's "subaltern" theory a valid approach to the US Rust Belt dominant narrative?
This question grows from the study of symbolic conversion theory and the work of Gayatri Spivak on inequality and voice. especially her landmark essay "Can the Subaltern speak?"
Ernest Bormann called words and phrases applied to people, events, and places not present "fantasy themes." These themes tend to cluster into positive groups around one's own region or group and negative clusters around "the other."
When a group of people or a region is named with what Bormann would describe as negative "fantasy themes" by outside media, are they colonized by economic and media to the extent that they have been effectively silenced? The very fact that the US Rust Belt region and its inhabitants have no voice in the US media then be cited as evidence that they are incapable of articulating a narrative for themselves and may be described with external narratives with no necessity of dialogue.
So is this rhetorical situation the beginning of a true caste system?
The dirty jobs are not only held in disdain by traditional elites but also progressive ecology-minded media. Thus, the dominant narrative follows that omission is acceptable and that there is no need to hear from this region, the rhetorical construct called The Rust Belt.
Spivak usually is cited for Western colonial issues but can this sort of silence be analyzed rhetorically by her methods?
Our decision making is based on various factors they many be classified
1) Personal : Education , Income, Life style
2) Family Factors : Social class
3) External Factors : Advertisement, Place
These factor have both a positive impact and an negative impact and the strength of the impact too differ from Individual to individual,
In the 21 century, a certain society still maintains strict social class system which is decided by birth. Social class exist in all societies. The society's social class system is unique because one’s social class is determined by their parents' social class, and they do not have much chance to move to an upper class. Additionally, the social class is quite official, and the people in the lower class in the society are socially discriminated and very poor.
Such a strict social class system reflects the society’s unique history, culture, and religion. Probably, the majority members of the society may support such a strict social class system or at least the social class system is supported by a dominating class in that society.
Given cultural relativism, it may not be appropriate to judge other culture from one’s cultural perspective. Some people, however, believe that world universal values such as human rights exist regardless of culture. Given this perspective, world citizens must work together to eradicate such a strict social class system that may violate human rights. What do you think of this issue?
Maybe all historical facts exist for us as already refracted through the consciousness and social interests of our social class, our nation and epoch?
Schizophrenia was unknown before the 19th C, then became common in the 19th and 20th C, but now seems on the decrease. The simplest explanation for this is that those with genes predisposing to schizophrenia used to die in infancy, then survived but with increased morbidity, but now survive with better psychological health. The main factor in high rates of IM in the general population was the care that infants received, especially for feeding, and the better the psychological health of the mother and the lower the genetic load, the better the survival. One would therefore predict that the social class of the survivors from long ago would have been of high social class, unlike the present situation where schizophrenia in concentrated in the lower social classes. The situation with infantile autism may well be similar, and indeed there was a striking tendency for cases before the second WW to come from the upper classes. So was the same upper class bias the case for schizophrenia?
I have survey data for which there are non-representative distributions of political ideology. I want to make some comparisons between ideological groups, and need more representative numbers. What is the best way to go about doing this? Can I, for instance, use stratified random sampling on the cases I already have for the over represented group?
The question deals with the interrelation of social structures and the shape of markets. Contemporary economic sociology and organizational analysis seem to acknowledge the influence of networks and connections in the social structures of markets and economic sectors. My impression is that it is not enough and that we need forms to consider how the structure of social groups (or social classes) also interrelate to the social structures of markets and industries. I got interested in the topic while studying the emergence of recycling markets in Brazil and by noticing industries composing them are embedded in the countries social structures, with lowest groups (waste collectors) working informally and cheaply to somehow maintain nascent industries owned by elites and middle class entrepreneurs. My assessment drawed in Boudieu's perspective to social classes.
The percentage of low income, middle, and upper classes in Shenzhen China in relation to population.
I was looking for some studies that investigate how the way people choose their academic field of study according to their childhood SES and social class. I have the feeling that some big changes are occurring: high class people are not choosing law or medicine as degree, but are starting to prefer subject like Computer Science, Maths and Software Engineering.
Thank you for your help!
A link between P.T.S.D. and social class/socioeconomic status
hello, please I need to begin a work on the perspective of Karl Marx on social class and health inequalities. however I need ideas and useful articles cos I am confused of how to link this theory to health practice and inequalities.
As very interested in critical theory, especially in education, but this question is rather general, I first supposed there would be a lot of research and theory on how a critical theory perspective on X opens up doors to new knowledge. That is of course the aim of most scientific methods, but what about critical theory? Does the perspective from the vantage point of a discriminated group open up something new, and how? How fruitful is the underdog perspective, and how? I don´t find very much general reflections on this in the literature - I am not searchinmg for how it works in special fields, as gender, social class, handicap etc, but in general. Gramsci on hegemony is the kind of things I am looking for. Recommendations? Or do you have own ideas? Thanks in advance.
I would like a summary of major studies of stratification, class and mobility conducted in Poland and/or Central and Eastern Europe since 1989. What has been written on this subject?
I have seen some questionnaires about social class but it always factors in household income, marital status, and other things that are not fit to ask young adults (college students). Does anyone know of a good questionnaire for determining social class among young adults? Also, if it helps, I'm conducting the study in a 3rd-world country, the Philippines.
I am doing a study on the correlation between social class and criminal activity and risk factors.
I am specifically looking for historical studies around the early 19th and 20th centuries in the US.
The middle class as a large group within any society is an important category of interest, not only because they are the main driver of economic activity and, thus, vital to the economic development of any country, but because they are an interest group which also influences political and social life. Traditionally and in comparison to other groups, members of the middle class constitute a very broad stratum of the population with various professional, political, economic and social profiles.
Erik Olin Wright has been working on his class analysis for quite some time. I guess, I am somewhat damaged with my European background, but actually his approach reminds me a lot of Bourdieu and his habitus. Maybe you can help me to understand the theoretic background of Olin Wright.
Public spaces, such as parks, are created to discourage discrimination of social hierarchy, and to be shared by all races, genders and backgrounds.
What is the best way to mitigate arising issues in adjacent private spaces?
In surveys, sometimes we need to have respondent's social class. Is it possible to ask them which social-class they think, they belong on? high low middle OR very high, high, middle, low, and very low. How valuable and reliable is this approach?
During the Karolinger and Medieval periods, there was a system of Nobility, Clerics, Peasants and Builders, in short a system of “the Lords” and “the Others”.
The “Lords” consisting of clerics as well as laymen (kings, regents, knights) possessed the land and its revenues—while living in castles, convents and cloisters, whereas they dictated – after having set the laws to be obeyed on a military-based structure—who of “the others” would get work, have a home, would be paid in food rations, and who had to go to war and who was doomed to die.
The education was under the patronage of the Lords with the infamous motto: ”You (the clerics) shall keep them (the others) dumb, whereas we (the governors) will keep them poor”.
This feudal structure was not only practiced at Europe but also at China, the Indus Valley and Africa.
Clerics in almost every religion in order to preserve their supremacy, declared that their society would be a male one. They alone could perform the necessary rites to please (the) God(s). In order to make this attitude binding for the next generations, clerics allegedly divinely-inspired or just taking care of their own salary and that of their offspring, wrote elaborate scrolls and books to see to it that individuals of the female gender would have nothing to say in holy matters, thereby wiping 50% of humanity off the global board.
Basing themselves on religious laws, the kings, regents and knights adopted the female separation “laws” in the medieval social class pyramid. The latter was also followed in normal households where the male was the superior commander.
Currently, after the social revolutions and after 70 years of Communism and Socialism, counter matters are proclaimed by a conglomerate of Government, Supreme Court and Magnates (Tycoons and Moguls) in every field, in the form of new laws wherein selected office-clerks gets salaries that exceed 40-50 times that of “the others” who do the same job, not mentioning the female workers who also get by definition less than their male counterpart.
A new class of Lords is born without that we realized what has happened under our own noses. The new Lord Class is seeing to it that the so-called middle class will slowly disappear in order to obtain the desired gap between the “Lords” and the “Others” as in ancient times of the feudal era.
And so, I ask you: “Is the Feudal Era returning”? And in case your answer is positive, how can we—by thinking out of the well-rusted box—stop this new/old phenomenon? Our scientific research in every domain including the care for our cultural heritage is heavily depending on your/my answer. Let’s start.
Measures and boundaries of middle-class status are controversial. Usually, in assigning a person to the category of middle-class one might employ "objective" measures such as income, wealth, education, occupation, and so on. At the same time, middle-class status has also been studied from a subjective perspective (i.e., subjective definitions or self-identification). Leaving these issues aside, I am looking for commonly used measures of middle-class status using income (and median or mean income). All suggestions and sources are welcome.
Variables such as income, level of education, unemployment, and receiving social support are widely used for formulating objective socioeconomic status. We can go further and estimate the wealth of the study subjects by asking about the amount of money they have in the bank, the estimated worth of their house, car, stocks, etc. Regardless of the trouble of gathering this information, is it recommended to do so? Suggestion of a book or article is highly appreciated.
In 2013, Mike Savage and others proposed a new model of class that was no longer based exclusively upon socio-economic status (SES). They suggested seven classes, including a ‘precariat’, ‘emergent service workers’, ‘technical middle class’ and ‘elite’ class. The previous SES version showed a class gradient correlating with health outcomes, and this assocation was generally explained in terms of deprivation and access to health care and health knowledge. Can the new model be used to explain health inequalities, and if so, what is the mechanism?
I am interested in white-collar vs blue-collar class distinctions and the stereotypes and discrimination that go along with these. Is there any evidence of stereotype accuracy about these social classes? Do people discriminate based on social classes in a way that accords with accurate stereotypes (e.g. statistical discrimination) or is the evidence more in line with unwarranted "taste based" discrimination? How does interaction between social classes affect cooperation? Suggestions of any good research articles based on data would be appreciated.
What are the criteria to identify members of the "middle class" in a society?