Science topic

Social Behavior - Science topic

Social Behavior is an any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
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What are the most influential ontologies or taxonomies in the behavioral/social sciences? How did they make a difference? What does it mean to be an influential ontology or taxonomy? Citations? Use? Saved lives?
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Oh now I see. Do you mean taxonomies of phenomena in psychology? Of course now I understand that my answer is for the philosophical part and not so much for categories that are used in research on general psychological processes.
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Due to the highly interactive nature of video games, the function of feedback in video games should be very important, but in papers based on the general learning model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002), the general aggression model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006), or the other models that discuss the influence of video games on social behavioral outcomes, it seems straightforward to equate "the game contains violent content" with "the game positively feeds back violent content" (similarly for prosocial content), e.g. measuring post-game cognitive and behavioral changes after playing a game containing violent behavior for a short period of time, e.g. asking subjects to what extent the game they often play contains violent behavior and examining its relationship with other variables through structural equations.
Searching for "video games" plus "feedback" in WoS, etc., there are not many studies from the psychological perspective, most of the focus has been on the function of feedback in video games cognitive training. There is one study (Carnagey & Anderson, 2005) mentioned the role of reward and punishment in post-game aggressive behavior, little research have discussed this issue. I'm very curious if I'm missing something in this, shouldn't the function of feedback in video games be critical?
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Dear Mr. Qiu!
May I state, feedback is always important to have in any educational program:
Alexiou, A., Schippers, M.C. Digital game elements, user experience and learning: A conceptual framework. Educ Inf Technol 23, 2545–2567 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9730-6 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Hello.
I'm currently studying the effect of optogenetic stimulation on social behaviors using the mouse model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In one of my experiments, I conducted the three-chamber test in two sessions, before and after the optogenetic stimulation. The social memory (or social novelty preference) test, which is the second phase of the three-chamber test, consisted of a novel mouse on one side and a familiar mouse that has been exposed to the subject earlier on the other side, as established by previous protocols.
In the first session (before the optogenetic stimulation), the subject mice couldn't distinguish between the familiar and novel mouse, which was demonstrated by similar time spent in interaction with each mouse. However, in the second session (after the optogenetic stimulation), the subject mice spent significantly more time interacting with the familiar mouse rather than the novel mouse (The target mice pair was replaced by a new pair in the second session). This result was quite unexpected and confusing since it is well known that mice generally seek novelty by natural instinct, which is exhibited by exploration time. But anyway, I still interpreted this finding as a positive improvement of the social memory, because after the stimulation, the subjects can now at least distinguish between familiar and novel targets.
Currently, I'm trying to search for some references that reported similar results of social attraction towards the familiar mouse, or any other alternative explanation based on the natural behaviors of mice, but haven't found any. Can anyone provide suggestions or recommend references with relevant findings? Is my interpretation correct?
Thanks in advance.
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Thank you for your answers.
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Sensitizations act as more of a publicity/ad for companies, government and other bodies. They make use of it through a hidden motivation; the companies name or the "welfare of the people" from the state. Sensitization involves targeting a group of a population and giving specific access to knowledge which is thought to perpetuate. But it doesn't!
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Kindly see also the following RG link:
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The memory policies constitute an interesting scope of analysis when we are investigating individual and collective memory. Different government regimes, authoritarian or not (sometimes even in democracies), have for decades been reinforcing or even building memories aligned with their ideological goals. However, due to the panoply of approaches in the scope of social memory, which authors are essential in an investigation about the relationship between memory policies and individual and collective memory?
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Dear Rooney,
As a Ph.D. social anthropologist who focuses on cultural survival and human rights/democratization, I can understand why you might find it difficult to find reliable scholarship in this area. In my field of anthropology, this idea of "politics of memory" is one of the many slogans that leads scholars down paths of cocktail party discussions without a firm basis in the practicality of either how memory works (which is cognitive psychology), how culture change and social change work (which are social science questions on change), how to measure sustainability and cultural survival (which can become legal questions as well as multi-disciplinary measures) and how to memorialize cultural and environmental artifacts as part of community education (memorialization and preservation are really tools of public education and awareness as well as behavioral change, which is part of "social marketing" and "behavior change"). So, the material you really want depends on whether you are part of just a philosophical discussion or whether you are part of practical action on teaching history and using the natural and human environment as a part of public education on values like tolerance, sustainability and cultural survival. Here are a couple of pieces of mine that are on my ResearchGate page in which you can see the approaches that I have taken in public education, discussion and protection directly on the natural and human landscape.
“Taking History Back to the People: An Approach to Making History Popular, Relevant and
Intellectual,” Democracy and Education, Volume 21, Issue 2, Article 1, Fall 2013.
and
“A New Approach to Heritage Tourism in Southeast Asia: Why it is so Difficult to Protect Cultures and Build Bridges in this Region,” Transcience, Volume 11, Issue 2, 2020.
Best,
David Lempert, Ph.D., J.D., M.B.A., E.D. (Hon.)
Founder and CEO, Unseen America Projects, Inc.
Founder and CEO, Southeast Asia Cultural and Environmental Heritage Protection Project
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When I see government responses to crises such as the corona virus, I see a non-systematic response that in the end is more painful for the economy and society.
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Other things being equal, If governments took proactive responsibility and had a policy of given every citizen a minimum income per months for three months to cover at least rent and basic needs so they stay home at the beginning of the outbreak when people are healthy, they would save money as the number of sick people and therefore, the healthcare cost would be minimal. Proactive responsibility brings social, economic and environmental stability increasing the sustainability of the system during the crisis.
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But governments seems to love reactive responsibility causing unnecessary economic and social pain as more people get sick trying to make a living during the crisis and the health care cost goes to the maximum. This is happening all over the world right now.
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Which leads to the theoretical question from the sustainability angle, Is Corona virus response a classic case of lack of proactive government responsibility? I think yes, what do you think?
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The lockdowns introduced to specific industries and sectors of the economy, mainly to enterprises and companies operating in the tourist services sector, were aimed at slowing down the development of the pandemic, i.e. social transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus, reducing the scale of the number of infections of citizens with Coronavirus and reducing the number of people seriously ill with Covid-19 disease. In this way, the risk of failure of health care institutions was reduced, i.e. the risk of a situation in which there would be a shortage of beds in hospitals, ventilators, oxygen, etc., was reduced. On the other hand, the lockdowns introduced significantly increased the scale of the recession in the economy, which occurred to the greatest extent in the 2nd quarter of 2020. In addition, as part of the nationwide quarantine and the implementation of various anti-pandemic measures and instruments, certain restrictions were imposed chaotically without thorough research and analysis of the impact of specific anti-pandemic security instruments on the scale of the pandemic development. For example, during the first wave of the pandemic, i.e. in April 2020, together with other anti-pandemic safety measures and instruments, as part of crisis management during the first national quarantine, a ban was also introduced to enter city parks and forests. Citizens very quickly criticized such a solution on social networks, pointing out that instead of improving the pandemic situation, such a solution may have the opposite effect, i.e. a decrease in the overall resistance of the body to various external factors in a situation of long-term stay at home without the possibility of active rest and / or physical activity outdoors, including in city parks and / or forests. Due to strong criticism of this type of government actions by citizens, such anti-pandemic restrictions were quickly lifted. Criticism from citizens appeared mainly on social networks. It was a substantive, sarcastic and mocking criticism, and consequently effective. However, on the other hand, the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic on the scale of 2020 appeared for the first time. At the beginning of the 1st wave of the pandemic, it was not known what the scale of the global economy recession would be. The first forecasts of a decline in the economic growth rate, which appeared at that time, forecasted a recession of a dozen or so percent in the economy for 2020. Therefore, in the framework of the first such large-scale instruments of anti-pandemic security and crisis management, errors could occur, which were usually not repeated during subsequent anti-pandemic restrictions introduced during subsequent national quarantines introduced during subsequent pandemic waves.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi!
I am doing a behavioral experiment with zebrafish where I only need to mark a focal individual for 20 minutes. I need Ethovision to detect the particular fish, and in my experience, it is not very accurate without a mark. I have been looking in the literature, but I have only found marks that last a couple of days. I can´t dye the focal fish because I am testing social behavior, and I don´t want to use an invasive method because of the question we are testing. I was thinking of painting a little spot with non-toxic nail polish in the back of the fish, but I am concerned about the chemical implications because I haven't found someone that has done it before. Thank you!
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Sounds as though VIE (visible implant elastomer) may do the trick. It has been uses successfully in zebrafish by a number of researchers.
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What is your opinion about the impact of new information technologies on people's social behavior?
Please reply
Best wishes
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yes sure it has impact on changing social behavior
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We need to analysis social network of multiple individuals. Such like record contacting time between multiple individuals(5-10 mice group) to find out the most popular one (social centrality or spending most time with) in a open field. Besides, we also need to differentiate aggression, random contact, and friendly contact. Some of my friend suggest me to use "DeepLabCut", but I am not sure if anyone has a better suggestion to achieve what I need. I am kind of software-challenged person. So if you guys have a easy user manual or toolkit, please share with me. Thank you!
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You might want to have a look at Doris (Detection of Object and Tracking) at http://www.boris.unito.it/pages/doris.html . It's a free and open-source software, should be a bit more friendly than DeepLabCut, but I haven't tried it yet.
Chiara
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What is your role as a researcher in this crisis Corona Corvide 19? Your role could be, educating the community around you, the family and surrounding areas, scientific research, scientific studies, vaccine tests, treatment testing, preparing therapeutic chemicals, psychological studies, and social behavior studies.
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In this valuable discussion initiated by Prof. Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz, we hear very interesting things, such as:
  • @Bamidele Johnson Alegbeleye: Unveiling the secrets of COVID-19 through research study dissemination...
  • Ayman S. Al-Hussaini: We have to learn to live with Covid-19 ...
  • Francisco Javier Gala: You have to learn to live with Covid and treat your patients better and better ..
  • Hermann Gruenwald: The governments looked for researchers for answers...and the researchers answer.....it depends.
  • Liviu Popa-Simil
    : A scientist in US can DO NOTHING to stop or prevent incidents of Covid-19, because of more than 40 years of failed but highly praised education,
Especially that I personally lost many of my friends and relatives, I am afraid that it will be a very long story.
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I am looking for a scale that measuring purpose of using social media among adolescents' and/or whether social media helps adolescents to participate on social behaviors that benefit other people.
Thank you.
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Thank you Mary!
I found them helpful not sure if debela is satisfied.
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We are proposing a projected titled ``Framework for the mitigation of the spread of rumors in Online social networks.'' the main objective of the project is the proposal of a frame work that is able to mitigate the propagation of rumors in online social networks.The project requires several discipline from different field in computer science, where different compounds of project are illustrated in the proposed figure and listed as follows:
Data collection: As in any problem that deals with data mining, machine learning, or artificial intelligent, the data is the primary resource the investigate any problem. Thus, this step is one the first and significant steps in framework. The main objective is to develop method and algorithm to extract data from online social networks. Then, it requires structuring these data in order the facilitate their storage and exploitation.
Rumor detection: This step has the objective to detect rumors that are spreading in OSNs. In order to accomplish this task four steps as distinguishable, which are: Rumor classification, Rumor tracking, Stance Classification, and Veracity classification.
Study and analysis of rumor propagation process main objective is to study the dynamic propagation process of rumors in online social networks. this component highlights the the influence or the impact of different factors on the propagation of the rumors. These factors could be related the human factors such as: human individuals and social behaviors, or factors inherent to the networks structure.
Rumor influence minimization compounds aims to stop the propagation of rumors in online social networks.
For more information or further collaboration please visit our website: https://hosniaie.wixsite.com/hosni-aie
Please contact us at :
Any collaboration is welcome in this project, we are looking forward to working with you.
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Hi.,
The rapidly popularized online social networks (OSNs) greatly enhance the speed and ... Therefore, mitigating the impact of bogus rumors is of primary importance.
For More info:
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i am searching for some research paper in favour of this topic and some against this topic to prove my point ethically.
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If this research exists, it would not be a proof, but a statistical association.
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I am working on a toolkit of social protection (SP) policies and programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean, and I am interested in knowing more about SP tools that have proved effective to protect individuals, families, and communities from the consequences of natural disasters (such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, etc.), especially in a developing country context. Thanks.
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it is a very broad topic. I would start with disaster risk reduction, which includes early warning, preparation and similar. Other issues are crops insurance for farmers and support for others in case of damages to properties. I also would check, if literature about the importance of social capital is available. This seems to be a very important field, which often is left out.
Maybe follow also the conference below, which will provide space to discuss case studies around this topic:
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Good evening.
Please take into consideration some thoughts about your interesting paper.
The bibliography and the references are not enough for a complex ecoomic case like the greek one.
Maybe you should take into mind the culture of the greeks and some unique phenomena related to social behaviour. For example after 8 years of austerity, greeks have one of the best ratios of owing an iPhone smartphone in Europe, no matter the economic poverty.
By the way, a study to our work about tax behaviour in the case of Greece, will be useful for your paper.
In addition, if European Union is wrong about the commands in economic greek policy, you should offer a new alternative proposal.
If you relate the economic problem in Greece with the ones of greek society, I think you will have a better view about Greek economy and the future prospects.
Finally, I'd like to congratulate you for your interest about the greek economic case that certainly will change the concept of economic handbooks in the near future.
Sincerely.
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not my paper,
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Hi, I am a student whose project is about social behavior. I want to know if there is any test can be used to meausre social interactions with peers in adolescents. The test is good to be a game that can be used in computer. Thanks.
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Hi Rupayan. Thanks for your responding. I agree with your idea. My focus is on social behavior in reality, therefore I will pay more attention to face-to-face interactions. Rupayan Pal
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Words that generalized such as always or never, I think should be avoided for your friend even your classmate or others..Am I approximately right??
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The above question inspired me to the following considerations:
What can be interesting research in the field of behavioral economics regarding the issue of new online media?
I propose an analysis of changes in behavioral behavior of consumers, business entities and other participants of individual markets, which can be observed on the basis of the analysis of entries, comments, posts, etc. typed by users of social media portals.
These studies are carried out as part of the sentiment analysis on data downloaded from the Internet and collected in Big Data database systems.
What is more interesting is the Business Intelligence type of analysis carried out in business entities using specialized software. The development of analytical platforms operating in the Business Intelligence formula automates and objectivises economic, financial and technical-economic analyzes regarding the functioning of business entities.
The problems of the analysis of information contained on social media portals for marketing purposes are described in the publication:
The issues of the use of information contained in Big Data database systems for the purposes of conducting Business Intelligence analyzes are described in the publications:
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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I want to know about day to day behavioural changes in adolescents due to technological advancements.
any help is much appreciated.
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Thankyou Ma`am for taking the pain to reply and helping me out.
God bless you!
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During social behavior experiments, I need to measure the velocity of moving mice and their Reaction time between visual light cue (sensory stimulus) and movement of mice (subsequent behavior response). So, I ask about method to measure and analysis these values.
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If you're interested in commercial options too, I've heard great things about Any-maze from Stoelting...
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Suppose I allow a group of small animals (say ants, insects or fish) to explore a given area in a lab setting. I have recorded them and I can identify them individually in the group. Is there a way in which I can infer association patterns among group members (I am interested in social behaviors) and how much will that make sense? Or should I change my methods or something else (other than association patterns) can be inferred from such data.
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Great stuff, Raunak!
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the basic theory of this Model is theory of social behavior
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Have you seen this? It is also addressed to children with social barriers:
Greetings to Indonesia.
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I'm currently analyzing data from a study performed this last summer. Fish were assigned to one of 20 "shoals", and assessed for social behavior in an arena (both associative and directional aggressive). The shoals were size matched so that each member of each shoal (6 fish per shoal) were close in size. From that data, I extracted a few basic social network metrics, including weighted degree. The goal was to relate weighted degree to vulnerability to angling capture (we later stocked the fish into a pond and fished them), however I found that shoals consisting of larger individuals were "tighter" (higher density), such that the weighted degree of larger fish was also higher. This seems problematic, since the sociability of the fish can be influenced by the social behavior of the fish around them
If I wanted to normalize the data so that comparisons between individuals in different shoals could be made, how would I go about doing this? I thought about dividing the weighted degree of each fish by the average degree of the shoal, and also about simply dividing each fish's weighted degree by its length (size, not path length). Alternatively, I could do no normalization at all. What is the best approach here?
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Interesting...
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What is the impact of National Anthems (lyrics and music tonality, measure) upon population?
Does the violence invoked in lyrics have any impact upon population; a positive or negative impact?  
May the National Anthems be responsible for the increased aggressive behavior and violence among populations ?
Does the tonality of melody have any impact? What about the rhythm, does it have any influence?
In the paper “National Anthems and Suicide Rates” by David Lester of The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey and John. F. Gunn III of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, published in Psychological Reports, 2011,108,1,43-44. DOI 10.2466/12.PR0.108.1.43-44, ISSN 0033-2941 the summary mentions:
“In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer.”
Do you know of any countries that consider to change their National Anthem for any reasons, especially due to the invoked violence and/or the mood it creates?
As it is known in the neurolinguistics (Neurolinguistic Programing), the texts as well as certain sounds have a profound impact upon people's mind.
As an other example, I'll mention the anthems of France, United States of America (USA) and Romania , texts that contain blood, bombs, revenge, (perhaps discrimination as we find in the Romanian anthem).
Can anybody add to this study, reference, studies, and opinions please? All discussions will help a great deal.
Thank you,
Adrian Toader-Williams, PhD
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Please see the NEW article published in the BOOK ... here details
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What role magnanimity can play in our social upbringing?
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For leaders and politicians it is essential, and has served the best leaders such as Lincoln and Churchill.
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There are many definitions of model-based sciences, which have a different philosophical meaning. This is due to the fact that the signification of the term ‘model’ is ambiguous: some of these theories may be based only on one kind of models and are unable to integrate in their field the other ones. I will give here two examples of model-based theories, but you can find many other ones.
The semantic theory of models, more recently called a ‘model-based’ view of science attacked the empirical explanatory models, which dominated the philosophy of science before the 1960’s, and promoted formal explanatory models during the following decade. Even if various versions of this approach differ (Patrick Suppes, Frederick Suppe, Bas van Fraassen, etc.), it continues to be developed nowadays. In this approach models, as abstract representations of some portion of the world which are different from empirical laws, are the central element of scientific knowledge. For 21st century researcher, computer modelling will permit the statement, manipulation, and evaluation of more and more complex theoretical models, as Thomas Burch (2017) said. But how in this case identify the relations between the theoretical model and the empirical observations, and test the fit of a simulation model? There is a real danger to construct theoretical models without any relationship with observed data and no way to verify this relationship.
The mechanistic view, which had been mainly developed for biological sciences during the 1990’s, is also considered as a model-based science. Again various versions of this approach differ (William Bechtel, Carl Carver, Stuart Glennan, etc.), but its development nowadays is increasing not only for biological sciences but for social sciences. A more recent version of this view is given by Robert Franck (2002) as the functional-mechanistic approach. As the semantic view the mechanistic theory of models rejects the empirical explanatory approach, and may appear as similar. But, while for the semantic approach a theory is a formal system empty of any empirical content, the mechanistic one infers, from the sustained observation of some property of nature, its functional structure –in classical terms the axiom, form, principle or law- which rules the process generating this property, and without which this property could not come about as it does. By focusing on the mechanism, generating a social property, the functional structure is treated independently of the causal structure, and may be generalized. We used this approach, with other researchers, in a recent paper on model-based demography (2017).
Under this question, I would like to discuss here the different model-based theories, their main aims, and the use of the term model.
References
Burch T. (2017). Model-based demography. Springer.
Courgeau D., Bijak J., Franck T., Silverman E. (2017). Model-based demography: towards a research agenda. In Agent-based modelling in Population Studies, Grow A., van Bavel J. eds., Springer.
Franck R. ed. (2001). The explanatory power of models. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mäki U. (2001). Models: philosophical aspects. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Smelser N.J., Baltes P.B. eds., Elsevier Ltd.
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I think that model-based theories are ideas which substitute realities. This could have interest in theoretical exploratory research but less interest for real and objetive research.
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sometimes greed is considered a good thing as it promotes economy but on another hand it has negative effects on economy as well. if we call a person greedy, he/she feels bad. how can we justify its negative as well as positive effects on social behavior
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The negative effects of greed on society is that it allows the not stable inconsiderate part of the world to transfer it’s anger and thoughtlessness, legitimately onto others, therefore avoiding it’s own responsibility and deserved moral judgement. It affects the world negatively in that it undermines the stable parts of the world, which represents human progress.
A positive effect of greed on the world? It provides an objective and an aim that allows people to create the neuronal pathways of continuous struggle and tolerance in their brains that rewards them with good feelings and a feeling of being alive, as they apply their basic survival instincts.
Check here for more
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does anyone know where I could get this questionnaire ?
I found that several studies using this questionnaire to evaluate symptoms severity of children with autism.
But I can't find it.
Is there a free access or may I purchase it somewhere ?
Thanks in advancce for your help !
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Hello,
Thank you very much for your advice and the time you took to find these publications !
I will contact them and hope it will work :-)
Best wishes
Lea
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My question is raised in research in psychology but may apply to other subjects in social sciences. The study is about the influence of a social cognitive capacity (SocCog) on a social behavior (SocBeh). The SocCog is known to be present in children, but it influences the SocBeh only in some contexts, and I would like to present this graphically (or in whatever way understandable) with PPT.
Any advice would be appreciated. Thank you all.
Meng
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I think your suggestion is worth a try. Thanks.
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Reality mining is the collection and analysis of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior, with the goal of identifying predictable patterns of behavior.
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Hello Vinkatesh, I think it depends on the particular goals. 
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I want to do a circuit study on social behavior test. I will use inhibitory DREADD to investigate the role of specific brain regions in this particular behavior. I wish to inject the CNO intraperitoneal to inhibit this brain circuit before the experiment. Could you tell me when should I inject the CNO in mice? before which time should I inject the CNO? before 10 or 20 min?
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Usually between 10 and 20 minutes. Never before 10 minutes.
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Hello everyone, I am gathering information about social and behavioral traits in several species of mammals, and I am experiencing trouble to find a clear definition of Myotis lucifugus social group size. Of course, these small bats are quite social, and live in large groups, but unlike with other highly social species, I could not find any information at all about average numbers. I am not an expert in their ecology, so could anyone bring some light on this?
Thank you all!
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This thesis may be useful
POPULATlON ECOLOGY OF THE LITTLE BROWN BAT,
MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS, IN INDIANA AND
NORTH-CENTRAL KENTUCKY
"The 50 nurseries examined varied in size from about 20 to 3,000
adult females and young, but most populations ranged from 300 to 1,200
bats. "
Best regards
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I would like to keep my animals group-housed after they have been implanted with a microdrive array for electrophysiological recording. So far, we started singly-housing them right after the surgery to exclude the risk of other animals chewing on the implant. However, as we are investigating social behaviour, group-housing would be desirable. Does anyone have experience with group-housing them after implantation, for example in customized cages?
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You might also look at the following article:
Versatile 3D-printed headstage implant for group housing of rodents.
J Neurosci Methods. 2016 Jan 15;257:134-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.09.027. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
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I'm in the planning stage of a study looking at captive grey wolf social behaviour and was wondering about the best video equipment for continual recording would be. It's all occurrence sampling so 3 different cameras would be set up across the habitat to give the best view of the whole area. They need to be able to record continually for an hour at a time, which is where most trail cams fall short
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GoPro cameras (with portable USB battery pack), solar panel for video monitoring can be used, You can control the camera by using an android app.
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Videos have become a popular instrument of communication between members of several web communities. These videos have an associated usage statistics of number of shares, views, and likes.
Can we acquire this (share,view,likes) statistics to discover patterns in social behavior within that web community.
Finally, can we study the correlation between video features (genre, etc.) and previously learnt community behavior to predict the influence of a video within a given web social network?
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Dear friends,
From the perceptions here in Brazil, this questioning aims to know your opinion on the subject, in other countries.
Even in elementary school, we no longer have disciplines focused on ethical, moral and even civic values. Few schools, including the military, teach this or sing the national anthem before daily activities, which means that many young people do not even know the national symbols and the lyrics of the anthem!
Therefore, I appreciate the contributions, as much about this as in other countries, such as your understanding of the subject.
Thank you all!
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In my opinion, yes.
''A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.''
-Marcus Garvey
''Here is your country. Cherish these natural wonders, cherish the natural resources, cherish the history and romance as a sacred heritage, for your children and your children's children. Do not let selfish men or greedy interests skin your country of its beauty, its riches or its romance.''
-Theodore Roosevelt
Regards
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Dear friends: This obedience is not only in a small society like family, but also observed at the university level, as well. I'd like to request you all members of RG, especially, those experts in social behavior, to give some resolving ideas on this critical issue. THANKS.
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Thank you, Faramaz, except I'm no expert of social behavior! These are my thoughts only.
While extremes of this or any other behavior are worrisome, I would be much more concerned if a child never showed any inclination for, let's call it, self-direction. Disobedience usually is a sign that the child makes up his mind to do something, and ON OCCASION, what this child decided to do might be contrary to what the parents would wish.
And of course, there is that special age, the so-called "terrible twos," which may begin at about 1 1/2 years of age, where a child learns that he or she can assert themselves. Would we truly not want a child to learn this? I don't think so.
I'm no psychologist, but some of what we call "disobedience" in children is part of the natural order of things. And let's also not dismiss this: adults are frequently wrong too. Let's not pretend that whatever any parent wants the child to do is automatically correct and virtuous. Have we never noticed parents yelling at children for all the wrong reasons?
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I am working on measuring risk taking ability as a personality trait. Looking for scales to measure risk taking ability. Have zeroed on 30 item DOSPERT scale. Suggestions needed for shorter version of DOSPERT. Even unpublished ones would work for me.
Alternatively, any suggestions for reliable and valid scales to measure risk taking ability please.
Shall be glad if anyone could help me out. 
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Hello,
I believe the 30-item version is the short version (see https://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/decisionsciences/research/tools/dospert), although you could contact the authors of the instrument.
Some older measures/correlates of risk-taking were heavily researched by Zuckerman...
Zuckerman, M., & Kuhlman, D. M. (2000). Personality and risk‐taking: common bisocial factors. Journal of personality, 68(6), 999-1029.
Here's another measure...
Nicholson, N., Soane, E., Fenton‐O'Creevy, M., & Willman, P. (2005). Personality and domain‐specific risk taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8(2), 157-176.
The following specifies use of an investment game to assess one form of risk-taking...
Apicella, C. L., Dreber, A., Campbell, B., Gray, P. B., Hoffman, M., & Little, A. C. (2008). Testosterone and financial risk preferences. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(6), 384-390.
Depending upon your research topic, there are measures that address specific forms of risk-taking, such as health-related (HIV), work-accidents, etc. 
Kruger, D. J., Wang, X. T., & Wilke, A. (2007). Towards the development of an evolutionarily valid domain-specific risk-taking scale. Evolutionary Psychology, 5(3), 147470490700500306.
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What is the role of the artist in society?
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Juan, I agree with your first statement. Disagree (slightly?) with your second. I don't think society can confer a moral quality to a work of art. That particular quality is either there or not. What they can do is pass a moral judgement on it, which is anybody's right of interpretation and they might take action on that judgement if they have the power (an epidemic of strategically placed stone fig leaves comes to mind!).
Mores change. As Cole Porter wrote:
"...In olden days a glimpse of stocking
Was looked on as something shocking,
But now, God knows,
Anything Goes...."
The artist's role in society is to represent her ideas to the best of her abilities from her knowledge and skills.
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I'm wondering if food associated calls have been found to increase the rate of foraging or successful foraging behaviour of other individuals, particularly in primate species
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Hi Camille,
Not sure about primates, but we published a paper (attached) a few years ago showing that food-associated recruitment calls increase the foraging success of youngsters in a bird species, the pied babbler. So that might be a useful starting point for your search:
Radford, A.N. & Ridley, A.R. (2006) Recruitment calling: a novel form of extended parental care in an altricial species. Current Biology 16: 1700–1704.
Best wishes,
Andy
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Can anyone help me to suggest studies on the direct relation between self-disclosure and social adjustment?
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I would suggest also the inspiring keynote speech at the the SWSD2016 Conference in Seoul: The Benefits of Disclosure – One Step towards Ending HIV-Discrimination
Romy Mathys (Quartierverein Sentitreff Luzern & Aids Hilfe Bern, Switzerland) - The abstract is available here: http://swsd2016.org/swsd2016_final/papers/PLENARY/PL01-02.pdf
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development is a basic need for our society. when we notify the projects in certain areas, why certain sections of our society are against these. why? many development projects have been started but due to certain protests they have not been notified. 
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I believe that development cannot be stopped because the motive behind development is to enhance human wellbeing. However, I do agree that development can be slowed down due to the reason that not all parties involved share the same benefit. Once the expected outcome of the development is against the interest of some parties, the advantages brought by the development will be greatly resisted. Thus, I am more concerned on the next question, which is how trade-off can be made in order to achieve the win-win situation.
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  • Concerning how social eating projects in a community can help combat 
  • loneliness 
  • depression 
  • decline of community
  • poor eating habits
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The above are excellent pieces in the area.  for an overview try Mintz &Dubois' 2002 review article in Annual Review of Anthropology, "The anthropology of food and eating". It runs about 20 pages and will give you an important contextualized perspective.  There is a book by Humphrey and Humphrey from 1988 that also has several excellent chapters. It is "We gather together: Food and Festival in American Life". For something a bit different (that talks about how neurological insult affects social aspects of eating) try Farri, Accornero & Burdese's article on "the social importance of Dysphagia".  It is hard to find so I will attempt to attach it.
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I'm looking something simillar to this:http://shura.shu.ac.uk/30/1/fulltext.pdf
in case the link doesnt work. Thats Feona Attwood's(2005) piece-What do people do with porn? qualitative research into the
consumption, use and experience of pornography and
other sexually explicit media.-
I'm aware of the Porn studies journal but it doesnt seem to have anything simillar..
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You may find this of use:
Berkowitz, Eric
2015    The Boundaries of Desire: A Century of Bad Laws, Good Sex, and Changing Identities. Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint.
Also, doesn't Google (or similar) release an annual survey of online porn consumption?
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  1. am trying to conduct a primary research on the impact of social interaction/isolation on the increase rise in the development and advancement of dementia but I need supporting articles and suggestions on the best research methods and approach to utilize.
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Look at Yvonne Lu's work from Indiana University and also an intervention called Time Slips. I think these may be helpful
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I am looking into the benefits and effectiveness of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) for children with ASD for my 4th year Speech Pathology research review. I have started some preliminary review of literature and have found there to be some great gains on communication and social behaviour. I am wondering what other researchers on this topic or Speech Pathologists view points are to this approach? Has anyone seen this delivered in practice? 
Belinda 
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Belinda
I am sending alone a short version of an explanation on how we (my daughter Chana and I) view AAT.
I think this would be better than the chapter, for your purposes.
Stanley
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I need help finding a scale on attitude change, focusing on consumers or employees. Does anyone know of any? Please link me, thanks a many million trillionfold. =)
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Dear Reynan:
Attitude theorists have long distinguished between attitudes that are based predominantly on either affect versus cognition (e.g., Crites, Fabrigar, & Petty, 1994; Eagly, Mladnic, & Otto, 1994). You may find it useful not only to incorporate a measure of attitudes but also measures assessing the extent to which an attitude towards a particular target is based on affect (emotions) or cognition (beliefs).
Please see the following for well-validated scales assessing global attitudes as well as their basis; whether affective or cognitive:
Crites, S.L., Fabrigar, L.R., & Petty, R.E. (1994). Measuring the affective and cognitive properties of attitudes: Conceptual and methodological issues. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 619-634.
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I would be interested in instruments able to asses empathy and prosociality in an specific time and sensible to changes after a short activity or intervention.
Thank you very much.
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Hi Mikel,
You could consider using the Social Value Orientation Slider Measure as a state measure of prosociality. We've found it to be sensitive to experimental manipulations.
Murphy, R. O., Ackermann, K. A., & Handgraaf, M. J. J. (2011). Measuring social value orientation. Judgment and Decision Making, 6, 771-781.
Colin
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Can anyone please send me research papers on the topic "Financial Literacy and its impacts on social preferences"?
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thanks Mr.Daryn Dyer 
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I am working on research about trust in people. I am looking for some social variables that could predict trust beside personal factors that I've used (personality and perceived risk). Any suggestions will be very helpful!
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Hi, I don't know what kind of data you are collecting - in case you have sociometric data (e.g. a n x n matrice of social contacts), I would suggest in line with ideas from social psychology (such as George C. Homans) that a higher number of reciprocal contacts implies also a higher degree of trust.
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The M-Pesa model demonstrates the beneficial impacts to society (government, firms and households) through reduced costs for financial intermediation, improved efficiencies in service delivery to the bottom of the pyramid, the productivity implications, the security benefits of going cashless, efficiencies in tax collection and  the facilitation in spurring related innovations.
see video
Despite the overwhelming  success in Kenya, similar successes has not been translated in other overseas jurisdictions.  What are the barriers to successful diffusion in other jurisdictions ?  Is the lack of success due to the resistance of the incumbent banking sector, the conservatism of the regulators, the different local cultures, the density / ubiquity of the smart phone penetration ?
 
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Dear  Clarke,
M-Pesa dynamics are indeed complicated stuff. I did an academic paper on the role of M-Pesa in financial inclusion and the trend is that the use of M-Pesa is motivated by an unbanked population which wants access to financial services. We may say that the success of Mpesa was driven by need more than structure or zeal! That, perhaps, could explain why other countries have struggled to come up with equivalents. We must also point out that in cases, absence of resistant institutions, especially informal, helps the acquisition of mobile money services. Mobile money in the fashion of Kenya is difficult to emulate as long as people have equally good opinions, besides purely mobile money; such as the credit and debit cards, on;ine banking and such. Even in Kenya, these alternatives are being used by banks to leverage on the consumer shifts from banks that insist on physical banking hall presence.  
I'll try to gather something for you on this issue, subject to finding time...
Thanks and wish you well.
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One indicator to describe social relationships is the rate of association (distance of one elephant length between the dyad partners). I would like to define a kind of cut-off association rate below which the relationship is weak and above which the relationship is strong. I thought of using a log survivor plot, but I'm not sure if this is suitable in this case.
Thanks a lot!
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Another measure would be time spent in close association, time spent withing a certain close distance including direct physical contact, and eye contact during a designated length of time (over a period of hours....the longer the time observed would increase reliability of course). Let us know what your decide.
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Hi Everyone,
Recently, I engaged in a conversation with a professor who concluded that intrinsic rewards differ from internal rewards. Moreover, he suggested that extrinsic rewards differ from external rewards. What are the differences (if any)?
Please include references.
Thank you.
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Good point!  I Think (maybe) it is lazy word use. Ie conflating rewards with motivation. It shouldn't happen with academics but in emails (and in posts like this) one can become a bit sloppy. The word intrinsic means a 'fundamental or inseperable property of', whereas internal in this sense means 'emanating from within' ie generated by the emotions of the person. So an intrinsic reward is an inseparable property of the activity itself such as 'learning' or he product of that activity such as a lego model, whereas an internal reward is the feeling of satisfaction arising in the person who completes/engages in he activity. Extrinsic reward is therefore a reward appended to an activity such as a gold star or praise or money, and to be honest, I have difficulty separating extrinsic and external rewards. Ineresting conundrum for me!
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Can anyone provide me the methods of financial and economic quantitative methods (ratios) or (factors) to measure social responsibility or social behavior?
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May be it can be useful ... 
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It is an aspect I am looking at for my Honors project, but it seems nobody ever looked at the influence of loud music on social behavior. Plenty has been researched on how different aspects of music (tempo, loudness, genre etc) effects shoppers, increase/decrease sales, makes you drink more, but I cannot find anything related to influencing the social behavior in public spaces (bars and pubs).
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There is one paper. It's related to nightclubs though, rather than specifically pubs and bars. http://herd.typepad.com/files/hendrie_etal_2009.pdf There's not much there in relation to music, but it does make the point that because nightclubs are generally quite loud and dark, that it promotes lekking behaviour. (Pg. 1344). There's also a section on dancing displays (Pg 1336).
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We have recently seen a lot of down-votings in some threads. We also saw different kinds of reactions on this phenomenon. I would like to ask a question about these reactions.
First I assume that there are several possible reasons for downvotings: dissent – misunderstandings – misuse of buttons without knowing it– a social scientist who writes a paper about the reactions – a test carried out by RG – some technical problem, etc.
I would like to have a discussion about the reactions on the part of researchers. We have seen calls to ban down-voters or to cancel their anonymity. Elections in democracies are anonymous and there are good reasons for this. I think most of us agree about some basic traits of democracy, the right to stay anonymous is among them. What about these basics in social media?
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I don't know why so many downvotes without reasonable explanation? and How I can find a researcher that downvote my answer and question?
Please see this question and answer:
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I am studying in educational sciences so I would like to hear from the experts in the field of social sciences. I would like to study the relationship between Learning Styles and student's socialization: how the student react with his teachers/parents/fellows/friends in Higher Education.
Any help will be highly appreciated to find the instrument/inventory/questionnaire that has been proved to be valid and widely accepted in the field.
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Alaa, I understand that You want to measure the student's socialization. To this, I believe you should observe how a participant or non-participant the day by day and write your impressions in a notebook (field diary). The interations can be displayed. You can create a table with a socialization's level. Questionaires or interviews can to help you. They'd be auxiliar's tools.
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Do you have any research on cyberbullying in regard to adults? I am interested in exploring this issue. I am currently a MSMHC student and have a first hand experience with this issue.
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change the keyword to include trolling
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Social habits tests provide data on how speakers in a community describe and perceive the different resources and strategies of courtesy (Hernández Flores, 2002; Boretti, 2003; Murillo Medrano, 2006; Bravo, 2009).
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Dear Lucía see this website for help:
"What kind of world are we building for ourselves? That’s the question bestselling author Nicholas Carr tackles in his acclaimed new book on the consequences of our ever growing dependence on computers.
Digging behind the headlines about smart robots and self-driving cars, wearable computers and digitized medicine, Carr explores the hidden costs of granting software dominion over our work and our leisure. Drawing on studies that underscore how tightly our happiness and satisfaction are tied to performing meaningful work in the real world, he reveals something we already suspect: shifting our attention to computer screens can leave us disengaged and discontented. Our lives may be easier inside the glass cage, but something essential is missing.
From nineteenth-century textile mills to the cockpits of modern jets, from the frozen hunting grounds of Inuit tribes to the sterile landscapes of GPS maps, The Glass Cage explores the impact of automation from a deeply human perspective, mixing history and philosophy, poetry and science, The book culminates in a moving meditation on how we can use technology to expand the human experience."
N. Carr, The Glass Cage 2014
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Thank you for your help.
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Engle, R. L., Schlaegel, C., & Delanoe, S. (2011). The role of social influence, culture, and gender on entrepreneurial intent. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 24(4), 471-492.
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I want to know if dominance hierarchies are exclusive only to male mice. Aside from territoriality, what other factors that can trigger aggressive behavior of mice? Any other sources/journal articles that concerns with mouse behavior would be very helpful.
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See 'Sex-specific mechanism of social hierarchy in mice' by van den Berg, Lamballais & Kushner. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 May;40(6):1364-72.
Abstract
The establishment of social hierarchies is a naturally occurring, evolutionarily conserved phenomenon with a well-established impact on fitness and health. Investigations of complex social group dynamics may offer novel opportunities for translational studies of autism spectrum disorder. Here we describe a robust behavioral paradigm using an automated version of the tube test. Isogenic groups of male and female mice establish linear social hierarchies that remain highly stable for at least 14 days, the longest interval tested. Remarkably, however, THEIR SOCIAL STRATEGY IS SEX-SPECIFIC: FEMALES PRIMARILY UTILIZE INTRINSIC ATTRIBUTES, WHEREAS MALES ARE STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY PRIOR SOCIAL EXPERIENCE. Using both genetic and pharmacological manipulations, we identify testosterone as a critical sex-specific factor for determining which social strategy is used. Males inheriting a null mutation of the sex-determining region Y (Sry) gene used a similar social cognitive strategy as females. In contrast, females with transgenic expression of Sry utilized a typically male social strategy. Analogously, castration of males and testosterone supplementation of females yielded similar outcomes, with a reversal of their social cognitive strategy.
Together, our results demonstrate a sex-specific mechanism underlying social hierarchy, in which both males and females retain the functional capacity to adapt their social strategy. More generally, we expect the automated tube test to provide an important complementary approach for both fundamental and translational studies of social behavior.
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The smartphone is quickly becoming an extension of the human brain. Technology is good but we risk having our brains become vestigial organs. Research on technological tools including smart phones, suggests that offloading our mental functions to these electronic devices could cause our brains to go soft and even induce dementia.
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We can prevent smartphone usage from taking over the function of our memory by moderation and by manipulating smartphones smartly as using visual memory to learn something or by stocking information in one place so you will return to it whenever you forget it , this way you won 't need to search in different websites or references to look it. By using GPS we can go whenever we want but we shouldn't use everytime we go to the same place we can use our memory .To go to work at time, we can set the alarm at a specific hour, our body will get used to it so we won't need the alarm later, to organize our schedule we can memorize few staffs to do for ex and write the others in our agenda. This way we won't be addicted to using technology to live but to help our brain when forgetting. 
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Is communication kind of social interaction from psychological / sociological view? I would like to know whether the level of social interaction can be considered based on the level of communication? Would you please provide references related with this issue?
Thank you
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<strong>The difference between communication and interaction is that of response,reply and reciprocity too. In communication,the receiver may or may not respond,whereas in interaction,there is requirement of a response for it to be an 'inter'-action.</strong>
<p>Please find an excerpt from some reference material I had and some attached.</p>
<p><em>Social Interaction is when two or more players have two-way communication between each other, i.e., the other players can respond to the individual player's communication.</em></p>
<p><em>Social interaction emerges from social processes</em></p>
<p><em>Social Interaction in Everyday Life </em></p>
<p><em>A. Social Structure: Guides human behavior rather than rigidly determining it </em></p>
<p><em>1. A collective reality that exists apart from individuals, constructing the </em></p>
<p><em>context in which people interact. </em></p>
<p><em>2. Social System: An arrangement of relationships existing apart from the specific people involved.</em></p>
<p><em> Social Interaction: the process by which people act and react in relation to </em></p>
<p><em>others </em></p>
<p><em>1. Acts people perform toward each other and the responses they give in </em></p>
<p><em>return. </em></p>
<p><em>2. Personal Agency: The Ability to have an effect on one's own environment </em></p>
<p><em>3. Interaction process: Ways in which partners agree on their goals, </em></p>
<p><em>negotiate behavior, and distribute resources </em></p>
<p><em>4. Social interaction includes a large number of behaviors, so many that in </em></p>
<p><em>sociology interaction is usually divided into five categories</em></p>
<p><em>5. Types of Social Interaction </em></p>
<p><em>a. Exchange: The process in which people transfer goods, services, and </em></p>
<p><em>other items with each other. </em></p>
<p><em>• Exchange is a social process whereby social behavior is exchanged </em></p>
<p><em>for some type of reward for equal or greater value. </em></p>
<p><em>b. Competition: Process by which two or more people/groups attempt to </em></p>
<p><em>obtain the same goal </em></p>
<p><em>• Scarce resources are unequally distributed. </em></p>
<p><em>• This concept is very familiar and important to Americans </em></p>
<p><em>considering the idea of competition is built in to our economy and </em></p>
<p><em>society </em></p>
<p><em>• Yet, the jury is still out whether this competition produces the </em></p>
<p><em>assumed results of the “best rising to the top” </em></p>
<p><em>c. Cooperation: The process in which people work together to achieved </em></p>
<p><em>shared goals </em></p>
<p><em>• Usually this involves the giving up of individual goals for group </em></p>
<p><em>goals </em></p>
<p><em>d. Conflict: The process by which people attempt to physically or </em></p>
<p><em>socially conquer each other. </em></p>
<p><em>• Although war is the most obvious example of this, this is done </em></p>
<p><em>most often in social situations (ex. politics, threats, etc.) </em></p>
<p><em>e. Coercion: Process by which people compel other people to do </em></p>
<p><em>something against their will – based ultimately on force. </em></p>
<p><em>• The state usually handles this through official means (police, army, </em></p>
<p><em>etc.) but individuals use it in social situations as well (parents, </em></p>
<p><em>friends, lovers – sex) </em></p>
<p><em>f. No one type of interaction describes social reality – it involves a mix </em></p>
<p><em>and match of different ones.</em></p>
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I am looking for journal articles that would help assist me in answering that particular research question.
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I think part of the answer is in anthropology and how humans embrace "folk taxonomies" with regard to race (which has no biological basis,) and part in history when we look at the American slave tradition. It's also important to remember that not all Native Americans were destroyed or sent to reservations. One has but to look at the Seminole in Florida  and their history to see how they triumphed over Jacksonian extermination policies. Seminole, is actually a Creek name; the Seminole were not a tribe unto themselves, but a band of renegade Creek who left and went into Spanish Florida where they were allowed to settle. The Creek name for them was "seminole" which meant runaways. I.E. they fled their tribe.  As whites pursued them hoping to open up the territory to white settlers,  the Seminole engaged in guerilla warfare and eventually migrated into the Everglades where the whites could not navigate at the time. They are one of the few indigenous people never uprooted nor who ever truly assimilated.  Their warfare with the U.S. military lasted until 1958 -- easily the longest running war within the U.S. between NAs and the U.S. military on U.S. soil. The U.S. eventually just gave up. 
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Please, I'm searching papers and recent studies about gregarious and social behaviour in actual reptiles. Doesn't matter the species!
Even if you have any suggestion of general references about this subject, it will be useful.
Thank you all!
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Thank you very much for your interest answering my question.
I have compiled all your recommendations and I am consulting them. Among these suggestions I have so far read very interesting things.
Regards,
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I am looking for specific working examples of new social/architectural experiments that encourage social interactions for either educational, cultural or mental health advancements. Examples could be intention or non-intentional.
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Hi Laura - Thanks very much for your extensive list of resources, much appreciated. I became aware of a couple of projects recently that had placed kindgeratens within or next aged care facilities and found this mixed program quite fascinating. The mental health results were very successful (of course). Elderly patients were reported to be so much brighter, responsive and engaged with the activities of the children around them, while the children had increased social, reading and writing skills, as well as a greater understanding of life after forming these adptovie grandparent relationships in a way. I found these projects very inspiring! So it is interesting that you came back to me with this information going forward - Thank you very much.
Hi Ian, Thank you for pointing out my vagueness I am in early research at the moment so was cautious not to be too specific in my question at the risk of missing learning opportunities. I seem to have had the other outcome of missing misunderstood. I am still developing my own position on the topic, however speaking from a design point of view, in a civic project, small or large, I would endeavour to facilitate/promote 1) social cohesion across a multi ethnic population, which would have a secondary effect of 2) - being an expression of civic involvement. Or vice versa come to think it, I would not actively use the word charity as an underlying term for a civic project as I feel that term implies only one sided benefit, I would prefer to promote exchanges or transactions, not necessarily monetary. These spaces would inform the design process. Your 4th suggestion would depend entirely on the brief of the project, however I would have hoped that yes a specific group could bond in a facility, without meaning to be wholly 'exclusive'. I would have hoped that there would be an opportunity in the program for majority groups to become involved at different times to participate and therefor be more socially/culturally educated or aware.
Your questions have made me consider my view point and highlighted my need to continue reading. Do you have any reference recommendations that could help me with the?
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I am trying to locate recent studies which have validated and used scales for measure behavioral intention. Some papers report one-item measures like, Are you planning to xxx, or I intend to xxx. I am also trying to find studies that have focused on BI to participate in research studies (medical or otherwise).
Does anyone have any suggestions?
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Dear Yulia,
this is the website of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviors. 
There, you will find all resources that you need - most notably a manuscript how to set up questionnaire items.
With regard to the number of item (of any construct): More is always better as you increase the reliability. The problem is that by slightly varying the content/question wording, you may measure different things. For instance, "I intent to do X" is not the same as "I plan to do X" - as planning is something that occurs after the individuals has decided to do X (i.e., the preparation). In the same manner "I will do X" is not intention but "self-prediction" and incorporates feasibility of conducting behavior beyond the mere intention (a reality check). Hence, with every measure, the devil is in the details. 
In my career I have conducted thousands of CFAs with so called established mult-indicators scales and almost NONE of them fitted adequately the factor model. Hence, I vote for a very SMALL number but FOCUSED / clear items.
Best,
Holger
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Dear all,
I have a question concerning the conflict model of decision making (Janis & Mann, 1976). The model suggests that stress is an important factor in understanding the decision making process. The level of stress depends e.g. on expected risks in the current and anticipated course of action as well as on time pressure. If there's an optimal stress level then vigilance as the decision making pattern will result. Vigilance is then assumed to be associated with e.g. a careful evaluation of risks and chances of different course of actions. Now, my question: According to the model, the evaluation of risks (and chances) determines first the stress level (see above) but is second also a result of the stress level. Why does the evaluation of risks appear twice in the model? I don't get it. Has anyone an idea? Am I wrong? I'm thankful for any advice.
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Hello Sonja,
Altough the work of Janis and Mann (1976) is quite seminal, modern neurobiological research on stress and decisionmaking rely more on unconscious processes rather than cognitive.
Peer
ref:
Payne, J. W., Samper, A., Bettman, J. R., & Luce, M. F., Boundary Conditions on Unconscious Thought in Complex Decision Making. Psychological Science, 2008. 19(11): p. 1118-1123
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I got hold of the questionnaires of the SPES but I do not have the psychometric properties and I cannot seem to find the study, formulation nor the author of the survey. Please help me find the link where I could find the source of the survey.
School and Personal Experience Survey (SPES) is a survey on bullying based on the primary socialization theory.
Your help will be greatly appreciated...
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Hello Reynan
When I first saw your question, I looked into it and found a scale bearing the same initials 'SPES' under a list of school surveys but realised that it was not the survey that you wanted. I have just looked again at the answers that you received and seen that there is still one only. You have probably followed Senthilvel's advice, but if you were still looking for the survey you asked about, there is an outside chance that the person whose scale bears the same initials might be aware of the 'SPES' that you need.
You will see that the contact name for the scale is Dr Paula Short - Paula.Short@tbr.edu   
She might have heard of the other 'SPES'?
I hope you find what you need
Best wishes
Mary
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In rolling out sustainable development projects, it becomes more and more important to perform Social Impact Assessment together with the traditional Environmental Impact Assessment. 
To what extent has the consent of Indigenous people been taken into consideration in sustainable and biodiversity projects, especially in the context of eco-tourism and eco-park developments.
Will appreciate if anyone can inform about case studies or express an opinion please.
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Most of us would agree that consent is really important, but I'm afraid 'consent' can too easily be fabricated, especially with illiterate people.  In our research for rural development with indigenous communities in East India we took the approach that members of the community were equal participants in the research, and their opinions carried equal weight to the researchers when forming the research questions, designing treatments and their implementation, and interpreting the findings. The community were co-researchers, rather than the subject of the research, and in this sense 'consent' was superfluous.  But to implement a truly participatory project likes this requires a high level of commitment to the principle of equality, and to communicating the likely implications of any actions taken so that 'informed consent' is genuinely embedded in every step. The paper attached outlines the participatory approach we took in the research and introduces the out-scaling of results to the wider community.
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I need to develop a quantitative/qualitative research project on these topics and I would like to receive some hints about good surveys and inquiries (overcoming the traditional pictures provided by the EWCS).
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Good day. If by "harassment" in the workplaces you mean “workplace bullying” or “workplace mobbing”, I suggest you three papers and one book by Dr. Heinz Leymann:
-Mobbbing and Psychological Terror in the Workplaces (1990)
-The content and development of mobbing at work (1996)
-Mobbing at work and the development of post-traumatic stress disorders (1996)
-Workplace Mobbing as Psychological Terrorism: How Groups Eliminate Unwanted Members (1992/2010)
Four papers by Dr. Kenneth Westhues:
-At the Mercy of the mob (in any workplace - 2002)
-The unkindly art of mobbing (in academic workplaces - 2006)
-Ten Choices in the Study of Workplace Mobbing or Bullying (2006)
-WAMI (The Waterloo Anti-Mobbing Instruments) (2004)
And some websites:
Hope this will be useful.
Kind regards,
Psych. Sergio Navarrete Vázquez
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I'm looking for a study that specifically examined people's behavior in close relationship in comparison to none-attachment like interactions (in organizational context, for example). I am only familiar with Pietromonaco's study. 
Thank you
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