Science topic

Social Alienation - Science topic

The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
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There is apparently a gap between the working class's inevitable role to unite to challenge capitalism and its own suffering/struggling, such as workplace alienation/fragmentation, decline of unions, and identity politics today.
Can someone shed some light on this matter? What does Marxist and other literature have to say about this issue? Thank you!
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Thank you all for the useful comments.
My book manuscript is completed and is in production now.
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Social integration vs alienation?
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Many thanks everyone. Really appreciate it, and definitely will go through all articles. Regards, Bob
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Urban Sociology deals  very much with the development of inner cities. The Chicago School of Urban Sociology is famous for its approach about the subject. Aspects such as social alienation, class formation, stratification, production and destruction of collectives, and individual indentitties are important factors of the field. But  I do miss the economic and business part of it.  Shopping streets for example are an important part of inner cities and play an important role. If you want to build a succesful shopping street, which are the components of that? Is there a theory? Are there important studies about this subject?
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Hallo Rudi, 
Recently I came across the web page of Main Street Center, USA, which subsidizes revitalization programs in the US related to main streets. Looking briefly trough it I  saw that some of them include the studies on commercial profile and try to form adequate strategies. Under the link I attach you can see a map with plenty locations and info about them. Maybe you find it helpful or at least interesting. 
Best, Magdalena.     
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Looking to investigate the value of this perspective.
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Alienation, according to Marx, involves a structural relationship in the mode of production defined by the alienation of the worked from nature, society, the products of labour and, ultimately, from the self.
Loose use and abuse of the term has allowed it to be "psychologized" and turned into a simple descriptor of anything from issues of personal identity, employee morale, moderate mental disease and disorder, depression, negative attitudes towards one's boss (ya think?) and vaguely related issues from Facebook "addiction" to rampant consumerism.
In short, the term has been captured by "bourgeois" sociology and organizational psychology and made into a symptom of individual "angst" when it is, in reality, an essential part of capitalism ("late" and/or "state").
Returning to the source would be a good first step toward reclaiming a meaningful academic understanding and forming the intellectual basis for something called "praxis."
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I want to measure how a feeling of inclusion, in a community where academics is viewed as important (or conversely not important), relates to High School grades - especially of interest is measuring student views towards Advanced Placement programs - I am currently lacking the tools to measure these concepts.
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There is another method to use that draws upon notions of alienation. Two general approaches to alienation are available. One proposed by Seeman and the other, from which Seeman perspective draws its inspiration, avered by Marx. Mann has used alienation theory to investigate alienation by university students. I have used the Marxist approach to look at alienation and ICT. I would advocate adopting a participatory action approach to your research for it would encourage the students themselves to be involved in your investigations. I did this for my Phd which looked at ICT professionals, academics and older end-users of ICT. Challenging but productive. I am waiting on the viva for my Phd but of course would be more than happy to let you have access to it.
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Is it a social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment. But can it refer to a personal psychological state and to a type of social relationship?
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Jacek's citations are definitely helpful. Simply put, alienation (in Marxian terms) is the psychological condition that arises when individuals, or classes of individuals, are detached from their "species-being." What is natural, in Marx's view, were three things: productivity, creativity, and sociality (all of this by the way can be found in the first part of the German Ideology, which is the clearest statement given by Marx). (1) By productivity, Marx meant humans, unlike animals, had to produce to survive. With the appropriation of the means of production (factories; farms; etc), most humans are detached from the productive process. A worker may make one part of the car, but he or she is separated from the total process, from which the value of the good is produced. An artisan, by contrast, begins making the commodity from start to finish and thus imbues it with her sweat, blood, and labor power - thus, value is truest and most overt.
(2) Creativity refers to humans need to innovate new means of production to obtain the most basic needs. In class-based societies, (a) there are no incentives for workers to innovate as employers claim ownership and profit from innovation and (b) bureaucracies stifle the act of creation. Hence, we are detached from this dimension of humanness.
(3) Sociality: social relationships, in Marx's world, are defined by how people produce - that is, the categories defined by the means of production. In capitalist societies, workers and owners objectify each other, as workers sell their labor on the market, and are sold products based on marketing techniques. This objectification process seeps into relationships between workers and, thus, we become alienated from each other. Everything moral, subjective, sensuous, and communally-oriented becomes hidden beneath the wage-based, commodity-oriented system.
(4) Because our identities are shaped by all of these things, we are naturally alienated from our selves. Marcuse called this malaise one-dimensionality. We objectify ourselves, and lose the subjective side. We are dehumanized by market, political, technological, media, and pop cultural forces that place us into a category, shred the emotional-moral dimension, and leave us with a flat, non-natural sense of being.
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For example is life imprisonment better and more effective than the death penalty?
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And to add some empirical results to the theoretical discussion of Gwendolyn here's a meta analysis of deterrence:
Among the results it might be interesting to note that death penalty doesnt seem to work at all, and deterrence in the form of more severe punishment can be questioned in general. The most positive results on deterrence of severity is in the experimental studies, which of course also should be valued the highest, but even if only those studies are considered the results are barely within the limit for significance according to the authors of the article.
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According to Bourdieu, a field is an analytic construct, not a description of society. Furthermore he suggests fields are configured relationships. Is it possible therefore for those individuals on the outskirts of society, alienated from mainstream institutions such as school, to be seen as NOT operating within the field despite the occasion interaction with other actors in the field.
For example, a student who has a high truancy rate, attends school very irregularly, when they do attend, the interactions between teachers and said student are characterized by constant anti-social behaviour until such time as they leave (willingly or sent away).
My understanding is that Bourdieu's conceptualization of field would allow a single class, or 'the structured relationships between teacher and a group of students' to be defined as a field; but what of the student from the above example? Would that relationship be too tenuous to be have a position within that field?
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I understand homolgy in the Bourdieusien usage to reflect the structural composition of the social system from which individual habitus is derived-- perhaps in this way mirrored by the individual? The idea of an "intersection of fields" as McEwan suggests, is intuitively interesting and relates to my research in role adoption across multiple fields. Resistors adopt the role of resistor within a defined filed. Why? We know that when one crosses fields there is a tendency to rebel against the former in favor of the latter... Is the resistor rebeling as a means to adopt a new role, i.e., role transformation, or is their a gratuity which results to the resistor by enacting the resistor role? An interesting question would be to ask what their commitment to the adopted role actually is. In other words, channeling Stryker (2007) on commitment, what is the cost involved if they abandon that role?
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I am working with my thesis and the area that I am very interested about is active tuberculosis courtesy stigma and its impact on the family members. I chose this topic because TB here in the Philippines is still a major health problem and one contributing factor that I observe restricts full TB control is that family, which suppose to be a good form of social support, is less studied and less regarded on anti-TB campaigns.
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There is , as you might know a strong TB-HIV co-infection issue around the world. You can find quite a bit of my stigma work on ResearchGate.
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Government policy has institutionalized many aspects of societal life, which has the effect of converting needs into commodities. Education can therefore be seen as a commodity and students as consumers. What happens with students whose place in society restricts them from being consumers?
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perhaps the problem is that we assume that the way that formal education is framed is acceptable. it could be suggested that formal education was developed from the needs of a developing industrialised nation(s) where complaint 'skilled workers' were required. What we sometimes need to do is 'stand back' and question the 'context' of education. In other words ‘What is Education for?’
I suggest Foucault (Surveillance), Freire (Pedagogy of the Oppressed and the Banking of Education), Gatto (characterizes as the Hegemonic nature of discourse on education and the education professions), Rosenberg (schools as life enriching) and John Holts (How children fail? And the home schooling movement) work as they challenge the central ‘design’ of modern westernised education.
Also consider democratic schools! They are really interesting and encourage participation from students in an empowering way.
School is often used as a way for society to replicate power and control through a nationally organised curriculum which has ensures that ‘everyone knows their place’ in society. Not much different than Aristotle and Socrates. In the UK we can judge a child’s earning power at 33 years of age when they are around 13 months old! School seems to ensure that this status quo.
It reminds me of the Roman Empire’s way of ensure that the population did not riot
“Give them bread and the circus” (in other words feed society physically and ensure that they are kept amused.
Caroline LH