Science topic

# Smell - Science topic

Smell is the ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
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Hi, I need to prepare 3M sodium acetate solution(pH 7.0) with anhydrous sodium acetate and glacial acetic acid(>99%).
I calculated the amount of sodium acetate, but I'm not sure how much acetic acid is needed.
Can I use acetic acid diluted? I think I have to use acetic acid in hood because of its danger and smell, but pH calibrator is not in hood, so I'm thinking to dilute acetic acid in DW at hood and then come back to pH calibrator and use it when adjusting pH of sodium acetate solution. If it's possible, do you know how much I should dilute it?
In case you want to consider an acetic acid / sodium acetate buffer solution:
The pKa of acetic acid is 4.75, from what we can only expect fair pH buffering effect between approx. 3.75 to 5.75. The pH of acetic acid / sodium acetate buffer solutions can be simply calculated based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, after the molar concentrations of acetic acid (Ca) and sodium acetate salt (Cs) at the buffer solution: pH = pKa + log10(Cs/Ca); what can be generally expected to hold for Ca > 100Ka. A possible derivation for this equation, along with a justification for the stated minimum concentration limit for its validity, can be found elsewhere at this forum: https://www.researchgate.net/post/pH_calculation_of_a_mixture_of_formic_acid_NaOH_and_water
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technical debts described as choices that done for fast initial gains but are counterproductive in long term. while code smell defined as signs of weak designs and coding.
i am just confused with the difference. is that the reason, time it took to solve or anything else? please help!!
Technical Debt refers all kinds of flaws that make the code brittle whenever you want to make changes to the system. Ignoring current problems in a code, for sure, will take more effort in the future hence the word "debt". Code Smells describe characteristics of poor quality of codes. Some examples of code smells are : duplicate code, dead code, long methods, long parameter list, etc.
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We inherited an old incubator and it showed mould growth in the water tray, so we used an internal service for formalin fumigation (and formalin deactivation with ammonia). They did everything to the book and fumigated the incubator. We proceeded to wipe the residue from the incubator and to run it, cleaning the water tray. There was a smell afterwards, that fainted and then disappeared, and I tested the incubator with cells in a flask that did not seem to be affected anymore. We proceeded to use the incubator, but later (about 1.5 months) realized that cells growing in plates showed increased cell death in that incubator compared to control cells in a control incubator - no contamination present, just cell death. We believe the filter caps protect cells in flasks from being affected. Does anyone have experience with this issue and know what to do to get rid of it? Our current approach is to wipe it again thoroughly.
Follow up: After a second thorough wipe, cell growing in plates survived in the incubator but grew more slowly than in the non-fumigated incubator. Before we could do the third rinse, the incubator grew mould again at the bottom, indicating that spores may have survived the formalin fumigation somewhere within the inaccessible areas of the incubator. We have now discarded the use of this old incubator for tissue culture.
Check the pH of the media used or make new media. Maintain humidity in the incubator using 0.2 gm copper sulphate in 100ml dist. Water and make 1L solution of it.
All the best
Happy Research
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a veterinary oral solution containing vitamins and amino acids including Cysteine , it started smelling like rotten eggs. So my question is what is the reaction that might cause H2S to be released ? and may the presence of a feed grade amino acid have an effect on cysteine and cause the release of the previously mentioned gas?
At low pH values.
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Is there a cheap way to measure the intensity of smells coming from a urban landfill?
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I just put my pyridine contaminated, water rinsed glassware in the cabinet and now whenever I open the cabinet a fume of pyridine welcomes me each time despite of removing every source. P.s. I have kept the cabinet open for days but all in vain.
According to Zubaida Apaa, sprinkling baking soda inside cabinet or kitchen can be helpful.
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Hi everyone, I would like to understand if there is a way to form heptyl acetate and heptyl heptanoate without the use of a reflux system (using only traditional glassware), and using a sulfuric acid catalyst. so far using the volume of 1.54ml heptanol, 7.44ml of heptanoic acid, and 3ml of acetic acid is not working. The heptanol smell is very much present.
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There are cases of complete absence of smell, hearing or vision at birth, but none of total bilateral absence of vestibular function. What about taste? It seems so rare it is doubtful if it genuinely exists.
In my 35 yes of practise in ENT I have not seen a single case of congenital ageusia
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Hello All,
I have been noticing that my cells haven't had the greatest viability. Typically when I passage my cells I see upper 90% in terms of viability and only see a drop in viability 3 days after I have reached terminal volume. However, recently I have seen lower viability when I passage around upper/mid 80% and then seemingly at random my cells viability drops into low 60% with very little cell density ~1e6. My first thought is contamination so I do the smell test and don't smell any sense of yeast. I check under the microscope at 4X, 10X, 20X and I don't see anything out of ordinary also checking with GFP lens and see that the cells that are clumped together are still showing green color. I check the images that are taken by the vi-cell and don't see anything out of ordinary. I have also been checking the culture visually and don't see anything that catches my eye. What else can I do to figure out what is happening with my cells?
Hi Bianaka
So
Viability is dependent on several factors
What is the cell under culture
- recommend not performing the smell test , that may cause contamination
- Do you see contamination in culture?
- Are you providing the essential requirements, in terms of medium with its required additives and change once in 2-3 days with appropriate volume .. 5 ml minimum for T25, 15 ml for T75 ?
- how do you estimate viability?
With countess?... Cross check that by manual method
- what is the passage number?
- using non expired reagents?
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hi,
I am trying to run the JDeodorant bad smell detection plug in in Eclipse , but there is alot of errors and I am not able to get the reports.
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Dear all,
i am searching for a list of inorganic substances with a smell but i haven't find one.
Currently, I found only four substances:
H2S
NH3
NO2
Na2SnO3.
best regards
Luca
Hello Luca,
many thanks for your kind response and explanation. I think the main reason why there are books dealing with the smell of organic compounds is that many of them are practically used as fragrances and perfumes. In contrast, not many inorganic compounds really smell good. Moreover, I don't know of any inorganic compound that is being used as fragrance or perfume.
With best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I ordered three scents for scent lures for bees: vanillin, eugenol, and methyl salicylate. Vanillin came as a powder, the other two as liquid. What should I dissolve the vanillin in? Literature only says "alcohol". Isopropyl doesn't seem right, it has too strong a smell of its own. Help??
what is smell less safe solvent for vanillin , to be used as perfume, which do not harm cloths.
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Subj. We have two cylinders connected to our incubators. If I disconnect the line from each cylinder and smell it, one is at least ten-fold more acidic than the other (essentially, it's impossible to smell one without turning away, while the other only has a hint of acid smell). I suspect one of the cylinders was somehow contaminated with water which then reacted with CO2 to form acid. However, the media stays red regardless. Does anyone have experience with this? Can acid contamination affect cells?
Yes it would affect the cellular metabolism
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Dear researchers,
I am currently using ethyl acetate as an extraction solvent during the workup of my lipase-catalyzed reaction. In this DSP: ethyl acetate is used first, for liquid-solid extraction then for a liquid-liquid one (in which the organic phase=EtAc is being washed from the unreacted water-soluble substrate). Thereafter the organic phase is chemically dried over MgSO4 and evaporated (rotary evaporator), the dry residue is my end product (sugar ester).
One of my goal is to continuously recover and re-use the ethyl acetate, however, I could not miss that over the cycles/batches, a strong smell of acetic acid emanates from my solvent canister and if I dry evaporate the pure, used, solvent a liquid residue remains with a smell that cannot be confused... acetic acid.
Is there a way to conserve the integrity of my ethyl acetate? Or find a way to adsorb/segregate the acetic acid at least?
My lipase is but shortly in contact with the ethyl acetate, it is an immobilized formulation that is filtered off at the end of the process.
I would be very thankful for any input ideas/recommendations.
André Delavault
To avoid the hydrolysis of EtOAc by lipase, the immobilized catalyst should be removed by filtration before solvent extraction. Otherwise, you may simply use other solvents for extraction, such as diethyl ether, CH2Cl2, toluene, etc.
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Plain carbon steel with less than 0.5 percent carbon, when cut with a ceramic cutting disc, not only emits small sparks of metallic particles that are oxidized to incandescent glow, but also leaves a peculiar smell. What is source of the smell? The smell is not entirely metallic, as far as I can sense.
The smell from metallic objects like copper pennies and steel rods that come in contact to our skin is often souced from inorganic or organo-phosphate compounds found on surface of the metals, or at least, result of accelerated catalytic breakdown of some skin carbonyl compounds. But what caused the smell from steel cutting that is not contact with skin?
My guesses are
1. Sourced from trace amount of P and S (<0.05%) present in steel particles that are oxidized.
2. Nanoparticular suspension of iron oxide in air that comes to nose as disrupt olfactory sensation
3. Formation of volatile iron compounds like iron pentacarbonyl during this cutting and oxidation process, while that still-incandescent sparks come in contact in organic compounds.
Dear Sumit, many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question which is certainly of broad general interest to many other RG members as well. In fact, this is not a trivial question. It is only 15 year ago that researchers discovered what the origin of the garlic-like smell is which is observed when steel is cut or dissolved in acid. The researchers identified small organophosphines like methylphosphine, CH3PH2, and dimethylphosphine, (CH3)2PH, as the sources for the metallic / garlic-like odor. For more information about this please have a look atvthe following useful link:
Mystery Behind Iron's Smells Is Revealed
Good luck wth your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Dear Researcher,
As part of our research, we monitor patients' various symptoms in order to detect new variants of the Coronavirus by analyzing the COVID-19 data.
We need to include a new symptoms dataset. Unfortunately, we do not have access to any decent data.
It would be great if you could provide us patients' datasets of your paper, including their gender, age, location, date, and more importantly, their symptoms like fever, fatigue, cough, and loss of smell and taste.
There are some researches such as (App-Based Tracking of Self-Reported COVID-19 Symptoms: Analysis of Questionnaire Data) in the literature. But I do not know of the availability of their dataset.
Do you have any suggestions?
Best,
Mahdi Fathi
Regardless of the availability of the symptoms' dataset, I question your methodology "...monitor patients' various symptoms in order to detect new variants of the Coronavirus by analyzing the COVID-19 data." Symptoms alone are not indicative factors for new variants of the covid. New variants can be detected only by molecular sequencing of the virus RNA.
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I know 2 women who have lost their senses of taste and smell after being diagnosed with COVID-19, but have not met a male with this symptom. Is there research on recovery and gender?
Yes, there are few studies. Moreover, zinc supplements are found effective in regaining smell and taste post covid.
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There is sweepage of the white fussy outcome of liquid with foul smell and destroying plant completely it is in the particular plant since few days, what is this and how it can be controlled?
Have a look at this useful link.
Thanks!
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As insects become more resistant to pesticides, the “smell of fear” some predators produce may someday be harnessed to repel and disrupt destructive insects naturally. In a recent study, a team of researchers found that the synthesized scent of a ladybug had measurable effects on their natural prey aphids in the lab, and the next step will be field tests. Plant-eating bugs pose threats to farmers and gardeners, prompting the use of pesticides. In the study led by Hermann, predator insects emit odors that their herbivorous prey can detect. This, in turn, changes pests’ behavior and even their physiology to avoid being eaten. The researchers have found a way to capture the “smell of fear” to obviate the need for harsh chemicals.
Farmers are known to use massive amounts of pesticides to get rid of the hordes of hungry insects that are destroying their crops because herbivores are a major threat to crop yields. These pesticides often cause massive environmental problems. They can reach our food, harm humans, threaten bees, kill birds, and destroy populations of predatory insects as well, making the crop pest problem worse in the long run. So one alternative that researchers and farmers have been testing is to use predatory insects to control plant-eaters. However, this approach - known as biological control - has its own challenges, as the release of many natural predators may not always target the intended species, in addition to the fact that some pests are invasive and have no native predators, and may even prey on each other in the end.
So, what is your scientific opinion on harnessing the natural smell of predators as a promising future direction of chemical ecology applied in sustainable pest control?
All comments and contributions are welcome.
The predators are also very reliant on environmental conditions – temperature and day length can alter their behavior so they may only be effective during certain seasons. This, along with the fact that some pests are invasive and have no native predators means some pesticides may still need to be used, which can then also impact the predators.
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I'm confused with the measurement of odor intensity introduced in VDI 3882 Part-1. Should dilution series be presented? Could the panellist just smell the undiluted sample and classify the odor impression with number 0~6? And what does "the series of measurements shall be repeated (at least twice; 3 runs)" mean?
In my understanding, it might be hard to specify the intensity level by sniffing the sample directly without comparing. Presenting panelists with a series of dynamic dilution steps may help them select a reasonable scale value for each dilution step. It is also possible to relate intensity values with odor concentrations for each panelist. The relationship curve can also be used to check if a panelist's intensity value selection is reasonable for a single dilution step in a series of dilution steps.
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Some Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infected persons develop mild to severe hematological, neurological, hepatic, respiratory, and psychological complications
these complications such as headache, photophobia, diplopia, episodes of epistaxis as well as elevated liver function tests and hyponatremia in addition to paresthesia, myalgias, tinnitus, ear fullness, impaired-hearing, about 70% reduction in smell and taste, dysosmia, dysgeusia, phantosmia, and phantoguesia as well.
my question is, why all symptoms caused by EBV have been correlated or linked to COVID-19 ?
Sources:
1. Alagha, A. K., & Hirsch, A. R. (2015, September). Epstein Barr Virus Induced Dysosmia, Hyposmia, Dysgeusia and Hypogeusia in the Absence of an Upper Respiratory Infection. In CHEMICAL SENSES (Vol. 40, No. 7, pp. 623-623). GREAT CLARENDON ST, OXFORD OX2 6DP, ENGLAND: OXFORD UNIV PRESS.
2. Tilden, W., & Valliani, S. (2015). Severe thrombocytopenia and recurrent epistaxis associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case Reports, 2015, bcr2014208018.
same type of RNA protein
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Kindly assist to identify these two pathogens isolated from avocado and African cherry leaves respectively and cultured on Malt Extract Agar. It is slimy and has a very strong smell.
To identify those fungus you need to do as Paul Reed Hepperly says. The 2nd picture expresses the opposite side of petriplate which is not way to identify a pathogen..
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There has been increasing literature on people losing their sense of taste and smell due to a COVID-19 infection. Do any of you neurologists have opinions on why people with COVID get these symptoms and how long it would take to recover post-COVID?
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When extracting RNA from animal tissues, because of its bad smell, what would be the alternative of β-Mercaptoethanol to inhibit endogenous rnases?
You can use DTT (dithiothreitol), it smells bad but not as bad as BME. I'm unsure if it's as effective; we use it in combination with protein-based RNase inhibitors (RNaseOUT).
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e.g. smell, touch feedback, temperature, audio, ..
For real realism you need to factor in effects too. I suggest VR needs to be incorporate teledildonics, coupled with remote-manipulation, alteration, and fine-tuning of local genetic materials to enable a kind of parthenogenesis that functionally duplicates the random chromosomal contributions a contiguous sender and receiver might make.
That is of course still science fiction. But very early work that could potentially go in that direction is underway:
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What's the criteria of comolete lysis of E.coli when breaking them using ultrasonic? What phenomena can help to determine if the cell are broken completely? From smell, transparence of the lysis or SDS-PAGE of the cell pellet and solution?
Xiang Zhang well yes, normally you have debris that are pelleted too, but if a lot of bacteria are unbroken, the pellet will be bigger.
What i did once, is that i sonicated several times, and i observed the lysate in microscope. It was nice and conclusive.
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My mom (55 y.o.) has been sick with covid-19 for 10 days.
She had very mild fever(37.2degC) for the first 2 days. She took Nimesil just in case it keeps increasing. Then for the next 7 days she didn’t have any fever and she didn’t took any medicine, but she was having extreme fatigue. She has been feeling very unwell and we can’t figure out what exactly is wrong: she doesn’t have any pain, she has no difficulty breathing, her saturation is around 97%, she had no cough or anything, she didn’t loose her sense of smell/taste. But very often she would have her body temperature going down to 35.8-36.0.
And now, after 9-10 days, all of a sudden, she has fever with 38degC and she still has extreme fatigue, can someone explain what’s going on? Is it normal?
I think its normal for covid19 patients, I saw patients have fever up to 14 days with no other symptom only fatigue, u should check her CBC, LDH, CRP, Ferritin, and D Dimer just to make sure everything is fine
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Dear colleagues, I have troubles with three flasks of MDA MB 436. As you can see from the pictures, they look like contaminated, but apparently the medium isn't cloudy and the dots (which I supposed could have been bacteria) aren't floating, but stay still on the bottom of the flasks. Moreover, I cannot perceive the typical bad smell that contaminated flasks usually spread inside the incubator or when you open the cap.
Does anybody have experience of this type of contamination?
You have a fungal culture which has a bacterial contamination issue.
Reisolate your isolate in pure culture.
Might consider also adjusting the medium for prevention of the bacterial contaminant. Lower the temperature of isolation acidify the medium and look at the medium composition.
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I have been trying to express a protein using E. Coli strains (Rosetta and BL21) and am using LB and TB media. But both cultures have a very sharp acidic smell. I have tried for two weeks to express my protein but after centrifuge the cell pellet is very honey-like and no protein is expressed on SDS-PAGE!! I have tried plating and there are very nice single colonies.
Can anyone help me in finding the reason?
Hi,
According to your description, I think it may be fungi or phage contamination during cell culture. It is recommended to strictly sterilize the experimental materials. Or it could be that the target protein is toxic to cells.
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The five widely known basic organs and senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing and smell; They are in charge of making us see, hear, smell, taste and have tactile sensitivity. Each organ is associated with a sense:
The eyes are associated with the sense of sight (vision).
The ears are associated with the sense of hearing (hearing).
The nose is associated with the sense of smell.
The tongue is associated with the sense of taste.
The skin is associated with the sense of touch.
• One of the most fearsome diseases that often reduce our life expectancy is cancer, all the more so when it is detected in an advanced stage and when there is little to do in terms of cancer treatment, limitation of damage and survival.
• Cancer is a tissue that breaks the cellular biological rules of coexistence with normal and healthy cells of organs and tissues.
• When cells reproduce in a disorderly manner, they invade and crowd a space destined exclusively for a certain type and quantity of cells in a characteristic tissue.
• If normal cells detect said alteration, they could send biochemical and molecular signals that would alert in an early way of said change, by way of alarm.
• Cell replication and programmed apoptosis, in addition to cell mobility together with the intracellular organelles involved, could be the targets to be studied; stimulus type and cell deformation in spaces crowded by a multitude of invading foreign cells.
• Understanding this ability to detect deformation, measure it, and react accordingly can have important implications in understanding processes such as cancer growth and homeostasis.
I think that
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I am trying to make a 3 M potassium glycinate solution using equimolar amounts of KOH and glycine. However, my pH ends up too high (~13) and the solution smells of ammonia, indicating that the glycine is hydrolysing or degrading? A huge amount of citric acid is needed to even drop the pH slightly, and the ammonia smell does not seem to go away.
What could be the problem?
@ Tal Cohen, I do agree with Paul Milham.
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Let me begin by stating that statistics are unfortunately no strength of mine.
I have conducted a questionnaire assessing loss of smell/taste in healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic for my MSc thesis. I have surveyed 254 HCWs of which 44 reported loss of their smell and taste. The first question asked whether the participant had experienced a loss of smell or taste within the last 6 months (yes/no). The next question enquired whether the participant had experienced a burning or tingling sensation within the 6 months (yes/no).
I would subsequently like to compare the results of these two questions in order to establish if participants who reported a loss of smell and taste were statistically more likely to experience a burning and tingling sensation than those who did not report a loss of smell or taste.
I have already run a Chi-square test using spss however my assumptions have been violated so I want to ensure I am using the correct statistical test.
Any suggestions/guidance would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance.
Hello David,
I'm not sure why you conclude that a chi-square test of independence won't work for your analysis (was it a matter of one or more cells having too-low expected frequencies?). In addition to the chi-square, here are some other possible paths:
1. Fisher exact test.
2. Odds ratio (with CI), comparing odds of burning sensation reported for respondents with loss of smell/taste vs. those without loss of smell/taste.
3. Logistic regression, with IV of smell/taste status and DV of burning/tingling status (which should yield same result as #2).
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The river is classified as a category V contaminated river. Teacher claim that the bad smell often after and during raining.
Need to test water quality and air quality of that area and need to see the location of industry and school for relocation possible
Industry in industrial area not in residential area
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Hi everyone, You answers provide me a lots of help in my research work. Today I have a question, in which I need your help. Please provide me your valuable answer. My question is that, "what is a most effective wavelength for smelling sensor??" In my one research work, My UV-Vis result, found a constant absorbance between 300nm to 800nm wavelength, So It is good symbol or not?
Thank you everyone.
very very thank you Sikander Hans ji
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The anchovy is mostly intended for the production of fishmeal, because its taste and smell are not very pleasant before the taste of people, thus wasting the great nutritional value of the anchovy.
The answer to your question depends on the place where you are working and the persons you want to convince. The taste for a product is a subtle 'local' cultural construction. In Europe, some trademarks sell Engraulis ringens canned as "small pilchards" or prepared as European anchovy - filets in oil, marinated filets... But, are these products able to interest local [lower class] consumers?
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Are sudden absence of sense of smell and taste mean Covid-19 infections in the absence of other symptoms?
I think so
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We are currently using isopropanol to disinfect everything in cell culture and as the amount of cells has increased the amount of used is being too much - to the point where anyone going in will cough and eyes water.
Is there an effective alternative that doesn't smell as strongly?
This table shows different effective reagents for disinfection: surfaces
The most common 70 percent alcohol diluted with deionized water for me it wasn't that smelly...
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Well, I think that animals and us (animals too) are both intelligent and rational, we just evolved, back in time we were "dumb" as we think animals are but who thinks this way is wrong, you don't see animals throwing themselves from edges, when a dog goes to a precipice they don't jump to death, they have the ability to rationalize situations, dogs can cross streets, help blind humans to walk through cities and even find cancer presence only by smell, and many other things that we can't. In fact, what I think that differs us from them is the dexterity achieved by humankind, the know-how acquired by us is on another level, we were able to think, to question and to answer that questions, what really differs us is our philosophy and science, our mind and brain evolved too much and got the capacity of creation.
In short, I don’t think so because I don’t believe in Darwinian theory.
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Interesting discussion on giving care to children! Does GDP/economic growth mean everything to a country? When we blindly pursue this target what are the negative by-products we get? Until very recently, we were targetting cognitive skills development of our children. But now the focus has started to shift to whole-person/holistic/ whole-brain-child development. Similarly, it is not just the GDP figure that matters but developing sustainable societies. "However 39 per cent of the women who reported childcare as the main barrier to work also confessed that they actually preferred to look after their children. Shock, horror." "The child is hardwired to its mother's smell, and the sound of her voice. The mother becomes responsive to her infant's face, its vocalisations and its touch. Because a child needs to be attached to someone to survive, evolution has led it to be programmed from before birth to attach to a caregiver as soon as it hits the deck. But this evolutionary necessity does not suit the modern world. It does not suit the neo-liberal world view of economic growth as the key driver of all actions and public policy."
Normally mother's love has to be a barrier before work due to her basic commitment to her children.But it seems that mothers in modern time are divided between home ,family and work.Ultimately they sacrifice family to work.Hence devotion almost dies.This effects the raising of her children.They actually lose the basic sensitivity, emotional relationship and become more practical and self-centred.Eventually we have hard people!
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Steam distilling is great, but in this case it is leaving an off putting smell and taste in the desired end product. Are there any other methods to distill the volatile oils without direct solvent extraction of the plant? We do not want to use solvent directly on the plant because it will pick up other compounds that we cannot have in our end product.
Microwave extraction is the best without solvent nor water nor organic solvant !
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Does anyone have any idea about how the E.ludwigii L.B broth culture smell so badly?
Enterobacter ferments lactose with gas production during a 48-hour incubation at 35-37 °C in the presence of bile salts and detergents. therefore it might like fecal odor
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Psychopaths is said to have a weaker sense of smell, but I wonder what the biological reason for that is. I've read a few articles and researches, but can't seem to find an extensive research regarding the theory.
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Since the smell of cigarettes is annoying and harmful to many people, is there a catch or a way to remove or absorb the cigarettes smell?
Vinegar also might be helpful for removing cigarette smell.
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I'm working on the aesthetic value associated with smell and the representation of it in literature. So any recommendations for the books or articles to be looked upon?
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In relation with 3 aspects:-
1) unblocking of sewers
2) eliminating fool smell
3)degradation of plastic waste and other waster material.
question is unclear
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Hello, please, I would like to know if the meat freshly put in a freezer of the kitchen, is able to undergo a putrefaction (blue color and smell of relent) in just 2 to 3 days after? !!! because this is a case that I have just found personally and I really do not have any explanation for it and even veterinarians do not know why ..., is this putrefaction due to an action of bacteria or enzymes that work at low temperatures from -10 to -17 C?! The animal sacrificed (sheep), was it doped with hormones or other substances before its death to cause this putrefaction? Thank you
Thank you , Dr Alkass for your answer , but I don't know ,,, even if the meat was infected is it possible that decomposition happen even in freezer (around -15 C) and if we suppose that the microorganisms is psychrophilic, according to recent books in microbiology they can growth from -10 to 30 C , so , i cant explain this kind of fast growth on meat? !!
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We are making a recombinant protein in Pichia and want to know if there is any way to remove the smelly feet?
We've tried bicarbonate buffers and rinsing with 20% Ethanol.
Is there any chemical that will react with, what we assume is Butanoic Acid?
بستخدام مادة الشب@
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Thousands of people die every year in hospitals due to the infected hospital floors and textile- and plastic fabrics.
In the 1950s-1970s Lysol was used that was highly disinfectant. In spite of the newer brands, Lysol is still the best and cleans everything. The smell of Lysol is pugnant, but I think that its disinfection product is better to humanity in spite of that well-known smell.
Thanks, Alex, it answered my question.
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Like some syrups, can tablets and capsules be flavor coated? Especially for children and adults who can't take regular tablets or capsules. Are there any side effects for flavor-coating a tablet or capsule? Besides masking taste of the medicine, can the smell of medicine be masked?
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Hello, we have a dry oven and a electric furnace. While students were using those equipments, they put a Kimtech wiper in it. Since the temperature was over 150 degrees celsius, the wiper melted and burned. The problem is, the burned Kimtech sticked to the floor of equipments. We tried cleaning with ethanol and acetone but it didn't work. We left remaining burns, but as temperature goes up around 200 degrees celsius, bad harmful smell comes out.
Is there any advice to clean those burns up?
It is like sticky gum after burning process can be cleaned using petroleum solvent it nothing matter as far as cleaning is concern. Any how it is good one for touch screen cleaning
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An unfermented green layer of forage is seen at the middle parts after 6 months. It is cold, does not smell bad and pH is only silghtly higher than fermented parts. Toxin profile is safe, but intake potential severly lower.
Interesting! One possible explanation can be related to a greater speed of fermentibility for up and down layer of this part. Therefore, the fast fermentation in that two layer drop pH soon and did not let continuing fermentation in this layer. Then non-stable and fermentable fraction in this part converted to components that are not good for nutrition and drop the intake by the cows. Checking the history of filling of this silo may give some evidences for the origin of this layer and possible explanations.
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I am using a mortar and pestle to extract RNA. I usually grind the tissue in liquid nitrogen, add TRIzol to the mortar and then transfer it to a microtube. After the extraction, I let the mortars and pestles soaked in water with bleach and detergent. After some days I washed it with distilled water and put it in the oven to dry. Now the whole Lab is smelling TRIzol. I am afraid I let it soak for to long and the TRIzol got stuck to the mortar. What can I do?
The smell is seemingly due to phenol, which odour is very strong. This RG discussion may help:
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Odor can be measured with the help of field olfactometer in terms of OU/m3. But the toxicity level or the presence of pollutants has nothing to do with the odor in most of the cases, except the gaseous pollutants with an obnoxious smell and vice versa. Despite the real fact, as per human psychology, we presume if there is an odor there must be toxication of the ambient air which is completely illogical. Please share your views on it and what's the local believe in your area/ country. Also, inform others about it to avoid the myth.
Thank you Atun Roychoudhury for this valuable information
Best Regards
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I was running western blot. I had an issue. When I used 2x sample lamelli buffer which smells really strong, the protein dimerizes and shows multiple bands at 50, 75 and 100kDA.
On contrary, when I used 4x sample buffer sample buffer, I could see a clean band at 160kDA.
I have question whether the sample lamelli 2x or 4x buffer makes any difference to the bands?
All other protocol is same.
The protein of interest predicts at 25kDA as per company data sheet.
Can you plz let me know what could be issue. I prepared 4x sample buffer fresh and started the experiment all over, I get clean bands. The only ambiguity is 2x sample buffer which makes my protein dimerize and show multiple bands.
This has to do with the concentration of the BME in the buffer as per Christians explanation. More BME (2x) results in more of the inter-protein disulfides being reduced resulting in a more monodisperse protein solution = multiple bands on the gel. Whereas less BME (4x) causes less reduction of disulfides resulting in more inter-protein monomer formation ending up with inter-protein complexes. Without size exclusion of your protein sample to determine if it is indeed forming a complex - it appears your protein would form a dimer/trimer or even larger complex in solution based on your one gel experiment.
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I understand that external factors like smell and colour of a room can affect the mood or performance of a person. But to what level is the effect ? Is there any quantitative measure of its influence.
Has anyone did a real life testing ?
Thank you
Actually there are studies regarding the effect of conditioning place preference (CPP) via disparate environmental ques such as texture of a room, a redolent odor (natural pheromones for instance for certain animals or artificial fragrances such as a preferred food) or temperature, etc.
The underlying neurobiological and cognitive mechanisms of place conditioning or fear conditioning are plexiform and complicated. The perception of ques (visual or olfactory stimuli for example) becomes associated with the memory of an event (fear, reward,...) and becomes consolidated if repeated or if the intensity of the stimuli is significant. The model animals or rodents for example remembers (retrieval of the episodic or associative memory mostly in the hippocampal CA1 and DG) the good (rewarding) or bad (punishing) memory, and this would affect the decision-making via the strong connection and projection between hippocampus and cortical regions (e.g. PFC).
We have done a research in which we performed CPP by reward from drug-seeking and dependency:
Study on odor-conditioned rodent models:
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Reclaimed / re-refined used engine oil gives off a very bitter smell ! If the oil is treated with base the smell gets worse, treatment with acids produces a different bad odour albeit a little sweet !
What causes this ? Are there and solutions for this ?
You are quite welcome!
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I'm studying about recombinant protein production now. When producing recombinant protein in large scale using E. coli, there are several problems including endotoxin and bad smell etc. I want to know how to solve these problems. Thank you.
DEar Garshasb
what do you mean for SAFETY issue?
The safety issue associate to the scale up on the production site? eg. growth and handling of high bacterial volumes?
which are associate with the biosafety level of the organism (which for E.coli is 1 = safe) and which affect the desing of the plant and of the procedure for manipulation and disposal of biological waste in large volume.
Or Safety issue associate to the final product that need to be used in Human?
which are associate with Endotoxins, use of antibiotics in bacterial fermentation?
ciao
Manuele
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I've used hexane to extract the oil from fish silage. Currently, I'm having fish oil mixed with hexane. There is a strong smell of hexane in the oil.
What is the best method to recover the oil from the solvent mixture (n-hexane)?
Is it possible to recover the oil by using anhydrous sodium sulphate?
I'm glad if anyone could help me in this?
You can use evaporate the mixture under reduced pressure by a rotavapor
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I'm researching nitrogenous compounds in essential oils, like indole, and notice that serotonin is also an indole... wondering what the smell is like, if anyone has ever had any in a laboratory?
I think, their smells like parmesan cheese
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I'm writing a paper about olfactive trademark (smell trademark) in the world. Certain countries accepted to protect smell as trademark but it's too difficult to do that.
If you found great paper on this topic, please can you give me the references?
Caroline A
The best path is to establish the trademark by usage. Design and put it in the market with, "Patent Pending."
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We are looking to a good sniffin' test to evaluate smell discrimination and detection. It will be a sample of 40 participants.
Thank you so much for your answer. Yes, I meant "detection threshold".
Finally, we will use Sniffin' Sticks, it seems very complete (with the 3 different measures), and because we are in a really exploratory stage I think is best option.
But I really found interesting the SMT, so thank you again to let me know about it.
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We live in a touristic area with sustainable energy production, e.g. biogas. Terrible smells are rather annoying. So my question: Are there solutions by molecular biology or bionics?
I agree with the colleague about the way to solve the smell problem
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Whether you call it farting, flatulence, passing gas, passing wind, pooting or ____ (you may suggest some terms) there is a cultural norm in the U.S. that it should not be done in public. Well in middle school the norm is to 'let it rip' as loudly as you can, but most of the rest of people in the U.S. try to avoid passing them or release them quietly (hoping the smell is either not present or someone else gets the blame). So that leads to the question - how do people in your culture (region, country, ethnic group) view or accept the act of farting?
- Is it accepted as a normal body function, or a cause of embarrassment?
- Does this change if it is malodorous?
- Does the age of the the person releasing the gas alter the perception of social propriety?
- Are there social situations where passing wind is accepted but other situations where it is not socially correct?
- What about the terms? When I first used the term in South Carolina after moving from the Great Lakes area, my new wife told me farting was not a nice word and I should use pooting.
- Is it normal to apologize if you fart? Is ignoring it always done? Or do you comment on the type of food that may have caused it?
- Are there jokes in your culture about the people who fart or the farting itself?
Socially speaking, farting or passing wind is strongly refused in Iraq. If a person is known to fart frequently, that person is socially made fun of. Also, as a metaphorical expression the person who does wrong things or suggests illogical ideas is dubbed as ''keeping farting around."
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I'm studying about recombinant protein production now. When producing recombinant protein in large scale using E. coli, there are several problems including endotoxin and bad smell etc. I want to know how to solve these problems. Thank you.
Dear Sunil
endotoxin is an issue in case you need to use your ricombinant protein as drugs (eg vaccine ) fon humam or animal immunization because lps is reactogenic and cause seriuors adverse reactions if injected.
while in thw last years were developer some selective resin (eg endotrap) suitable for small scale removal this are still not applied in large scale prpbably due to the high cost and other approaches are used to reduce endotoxin extraction during the cell lysis or remove it ( eg using anoinic exchange) during purication.
recently lucigen release a e.coli strain (clean e.coli) that is reported to do not produce emdotoxin. i tested it in small scale and it work well but of course to use it for production you need to Pay royalties.
bad smell is something that you can solve be designing you fermentation process using filter' and directing the fermentation gas
respect to the protocol that you can use in lab scale there are other limitations that are principally associated to the fact the an industrial process has to be simple, higly reproducible and you need to limit the cost of goods and so r example you need to carefully evqluate if you have to Pay royalties ti use an patetend Technologies or if you can optimize a different process that skip it.
some examples:
- limited temperature controll.
in laboratory scale we often perform bacterial growth at 37c and afterwards we shift the temperature at 25 or 17 to increase protein solubility. this is very difficult to perform with high volumes in industrial scale up refrigeration is conplex and expensive.
- use if antibiotic for plamid manteinance have to be limited and certain antibiotic as ampicillin are not admitted
- some purification step generally used in lab scale as imac and sec are generally not performed in large scale because long, expensive (sec) or need to pay royalties or perform steps ( as tag removal with proteases) that are very difficult to perform in reproducible way in high volumes. and therefore you need to re- optimize e purification.
this are some example and not all thr company has the same strategies but it is something that you have to take in account.
ciao
Manuele
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We know that Cell phone industry is becoming another cigarette industry, which kept claiming that smoking is not harmful and now there are millions of people around the world who have suffered from smoking. In fact, cell phone/tower radiation is worse than smoking; as one cannot see it or smell it, and its effect on health is noted after a long period of exposure.
It is a really good question! Thank you for that. I heard about some radiation detectors to examine the safety of the area where we're living. By the way, in Poland some people travel around the high-risk area (villages with big tower radiation) and show the truth about radiation levels that people don't realize at all..
Wi-fi is another question.. I recommend this few minutes video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkD5EYkNp7w
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For dispersal from one waterbody to another or perhaps even from one catchment to another, aquatic insects follow the stream and/or suppose to use the polarization visibility of the watersurface. But is it also possible that insects can smell water? I discussed this with a colleague just today during a lecture on dispersal of aquatic insects from one waterbody to another. Is it possible that adult insects move to another waterbody/stream over land using their smell to find water?
Hello Ton;
It might be helpful to reframe the question with a couple of anecdotal observations.
1. Many ants are highly sensitive to humidity gradients.
2. Sand-dwelling roaches in the sand dunes of southern California are also very sensitive to humidity gradients.
Demonstrating these sensitivities are straightforward in the lab. I'm not aware of any papers that describe a mechanism. There's a project!
Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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A biobased solution was prepared to be used as fertilizer. Agriculture and animal wastes are the source of the prepared solution. It has a promising behaviour in some plants growth. The main problem is the very bad smell of the solution. Could anyone help suggesting any additives could be added to get red of the bad smell without affecting the solution effectiveness?
It could be fungal infection or nutrient deficiency.
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During induction of general anaesthesia, is there any established sequence of onset of disabilities like vision, hearing, smell, taste, temperature, sensory, motor, and so on? Do they have any sequence of regaining as well during recovery?
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Hello,
there are some articles about the chemical nature of the characteristic "odor of rain" when rain begins to fall.
Always some chemicals in the soil or surface coming from plants are mentioned as the reason.
I was on a ship crossing the atlantic. 1000 km away from any coast it started raining. And I immediately smelled the typical odor of rain (it was a polymer covered floor).
Has anybody deeper knowledge??
Regards
Lothar
Excellent question! We hypothesized that Petrichor is an indicator of soil health. Rain displaces gases from soil pores. These gases can be a carrier of useful information of the types of biochemical processes in the soil. Also, rain (humidity) improves human nose sensitivity. Interesting experience of smelling a land from 1000 km - could this be a long range transport of gases/aerosols/fine particles carrying the signature smell associated with soil?
Jacek
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I'm producing value added products from sea cucumbers. The major problem I'm facing is the peculiar odor that can't be accepted sometimes. If anyone applied any methods to remove bad odor from any type of meat please try to help me. I can make trails for my case.
If you have no clue what it is I recommend head space analysis. After you have collected the volatiles you inject the concentrate into a GC (GC MS) to identify the chemical and based on that you can either remove or mask it.
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I think my proteins on the PVDF membrane are gone, because there is nothing to detect anymore.
But on the other hand the membranes smell after a lot of washing procedures still of 2-ME. Maybe my proteins are there and the antibodies cannot work because of 2-ME traces?
What do you think about that?
If there is no protein anymore I have to repeat the experiment but if they are there and it is only the antibody problem how can I get rid of the 2-ME?
The Ponceau staining shows no results except of proteins >150kDa, but Ponceau on PVDF is never good.
I am a bit desperate to be honest.
Would be great if anybody has faced such a mistake. I cannot find anything about it in the internet...
I am not sure, think that all the proteins are gone... There is nothing to see with Ponceau staining. Even if the staining is bad on PVDF - but almost nothing to see means that there is nothing left. I am afraid that I really washed out absolutely all my proteins.
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I am using 2-mercaptoethanol and it smells bad. Is there a way to decrease the smell of the solution after adding mercaptoethanol?
Jacek A Koziel
Yes sir, I am following all the precautions.
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Experiment which usually deals with mimicking human perception like taste and smell required precision in comparison of two sets of results - one set of result obtained from the instrument like e-tongue and e nose or other sensors; while another set of result from the expert people like tester.
The results are usually in two different space so how can we compare these two kind of result to bring some realistic model.
This problem is similar to predicate the precision of the result obtained by different clustering algorithms, due to different clustering algorithms use different labels [1,2].
Suppose A=(a1,a2...an) is obtained from the instrument like e-tongue and e nose or other sensors, where \forall ai \in {C1,C2,C3}
B=(b1, b2,...bn) is a set of result from the expert people like tester, where \forall bi \in {D1,D2,D3,D4}.
in order to compute the precision of A according to B, the following steps are avaiable:
1. maximum match A with B by Kuhn-Munkras[3], suppose there are 3 matched pairs found by Kuhn-Munkres algorithm: (‘C1’,‘D2’), (‘C2’, ‘D1’) and (‘C3’, ‘D4’)
2. compute the precision as following:
if a1 is ‘C1’ and b1 is 'D2' then a1 is correctly predicated; if a2 is ‘C2’ and b2 is 'D4' then a2 is wrong, similar to other cases. The following example shows the precision= (8-2)/89=75%
A: C1 C1 C1 C2 C2 C2 C3 C3
B: D2 D2 D4 D1 D1 D3 D4 D4
Correct or not: Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
[1]Y. Chen, S. Tang, L. Zhou, C. Wang, J. Du, T. Wang, and S. Pei, “Decentralized clustering by ﬁnding loose and distributed density cores,” Information Sciences, [doi:10.1016/j.ins.2016.08.009],2016.
[2] Y. Chen, S. Tang, S. Pei, C. Wang, J. Du, and N. Xiong, “Dheat: A density heat-based algorithm for clustering with effective radius,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 2017.
[3]H. W. Kuhn, “The hungarian method for the assignment problem,” Naval research logistics quarterly, vol. 2, no. 1-2, pp. 83–97, 1955.
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